Jennifer Lake's Blog

November 20, 2010

Ruminations on the Race

Filed under: 1,JLs opinion,Modern History — jenniferlake @ 7:52 pm
I apologize to regular readers for taking many days to put up the previous post (Atomic Power, No Contest). I’m challenging myself to sift through a lot of material, stick to the point and paste ‘cleanly’, but it’s about as much fun as swabbing out a cesspool. When I start halting with a piecemeal approach, it’s due to my own sense of personal mortification.
   The Bomb may have brought about the political means to force a world government but its biological effects have been explored since the arrival of x-rays in the 1890s. It seems these were the true ‘benefits’ to the world dominators and the case for intentionally creating nuclear weapons is largely a medical one. X-rays alone demonstrated the capacity to disable humans by stealth and initiate disease processes since the technology first appeared. In combination with chemicals, radiation produced specifically fatal effects on cells, tissues and organs that marked it as a ‘force multiplier’ by the dawn of the 20th century. The fathers of the Bomb knew very well that they were unleashing uncontrolled biological poison, and the global takeover strategy is not complete without an exposition of ‘testing’. A tested nuke is a used nuke, cumulatively worth the contamination of about 40,000 Hiroshimas in the atmospheric period. The people of North America have taken direct hits from two-thirds of all exploded nukes and artificial weather has aided in bringing down the fallout, and as we succumb to the political machinations of socialism, the seduction is rendered most potently by the promises of healthcare– the final trap that will transition us to the post-human age, or what Michio Kaku calls the “Post-Genome Era”.
   Jonas Salk called it metabiology and his institute housed the active and idealogical program of the Rockefeller Foundation, America’s counterpart to the Rothschilds. This isn’t complicated, is it? I see great simplicity underlying the events of modern history: scientific domination of the world population by extreme racist elites. While the people struggled with Top-down oppression the real changes were wrought from the bottom up. This is the actualized significance of nuclear weapons (and power plants!). If they’re still effective as political leverage it’s because of “cultural lag”, our collective inability to rapidly assimilate the meaning and use of technological change-agents. But nuclear sabre-rattling nowadays just looks to me like very grandiose showmanship. If they complete their socialization plans, then the nuclear age will be fulfilled and as Bertrand Russell said, “there will be no more war”. We should expect Full Automation to kick in complete with a Kill Switch for detectable aggressor genes. 
…as my constitution permits, I’ll be expanding and modifying “Atomic Power, No Contest”…
                                                                 
Gordon Duff presents a pointed and predicted example of nuclear terror that reads like a script from some pre-Cold War think tank on the nightmare of proliferation:
http://www.veteranstoday.com/2010/11/25/gordon-duff-iran-korea-nuclear-lies-orders-from-tel-aviv/

November 8, 2010

Atomic Power, No Contest

An undying historical controversy is being erected around the confabulous “Race for the Bomb” between the American and Nazi powers of World War II, proving that the weavers of civilization are not done with this story and may never be, in fact, for its life-altering import. It’s not enough that we were sufficiently hoaxed at the time. The continuing aim is to support the enduring sacred cows of racial hatred and human aggression; qualities that root deeply in the circumstances of September 11. We must become true believers in our own nihilistic blindness. The future depends on it, otherwise we would not submit to be changed and made fit for a Golden Age of peace and plenty. When the teachings of the future recall the lessons of the past, they will stand on the record.
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                                                                       For the record:
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James B.Conant, Harvard president and Manhattan Project executive, wrote: [from the biography, James B. Conant, by James Hershberg, pp163-164]
We must consider..what the time schedule of the enemy may be. It is quite possible that the Germans are a year ahead of us, or perhaps have even eighteen months head start… To my mind, it is this fear that the Germans may be near the goal which is the prime reason for an all out effort now on this gamble
[biographer Hershberg] “Conant’s apprehensions reflected his awareness of both the prewar prowess of German physics and a steady stream of ambiguous yet alarming intelligence –circumstantial evidence, snippets of conversations with scientists in Europe who maintained contacts in Germany, worst-case analysis and extrapolation– indicating that  German atomic project might be on the verge of success. Six months earlier, in May [of 1942], he had guessed that the Germans were at most a year ahead. But then, over the summer, for example, prodded by Leo Szilard and other physicists at Chicago, Arthur Compton in great distress had passed [Vannevar] Bush and Conant allegedly “reliable” information that German physicists had successfully achieved a self-sustaining chain reaction, and warned of an imminent threat of a German atomic weapon, either a method for spreading radioactive fission products “in lethal quantities” or a bomb ready for use on Allied targets “in 1943, a year before our bombs are planned to be ready”. Compton urged Bush to step up “sabotage, air, and commando raids” to disrupt the German project, and to step up the pace of U.S. efforts. Cables shot back and forth between Washington and London, with Conant and the British atomic leaders trading rumors about the extent of German progress and showing special concern about the activities of Werner Heisenberg, the renowned physicist said to be heading nuclear efforts at the Kaiser Wilhelm institutes in Berlin-Dahlem.
But in fact, the warnings of a German lead were false, often the product of garbled second- and third-hand conversations embellished by fear: German physicists had indeed been conducting research for the Nazi regime on atomic energy, reporting their results to Albert Speer and other top civilian and military officials, but by the spring of 1942 authorities concluded that the possible military uses were too distant to suit immediate war priorities, and relegated atomic research to a backwater behind other secret weapons projects. Although the motives behind the German physicists’ assessments and ultimate failure remain disputed…by December 1942 the Nazi government had already turned away from a crash program to develop nuclear weapons and the race that so obsessed Conant was essentilly uncontested. Much later, after the war, Conant claimed that he was “never convinced that the Germans were anywhere near getting a bomb”, and spoke rather scornfully of “ghosts that were being seen by some of my scientific friends.”
But that was after-the-fact wisdom: he too, resorted to the argument that the Germans might get the bomb first in order to pressure recalcitrant contractors or scientists, and as he summarized his estimate of the situation to [Leslie] Groves, and then to Bush for transmission to Roosevelt, he certainly seemed to take the fear seriously.”
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The Bomb story is usually told against the backdrop of WWII, portrayed as a flukish convergence of ripe scientific knowledge and the dire necessity of acting in a time of great moral danger ; an ingenious response to an accident of fate. But looking at its creators, the scientists who provided the “stream of ..intelligence” to the statesmen, proves a different sort of “inevitability”. We’re reminded today that “science is not the highest value in society”* but for a brief time in history it was, and spectacularly so.
    Niels Bohr, Leo Szilard, and Albert Einstein emerged from the center of this whirlwind as the proper ‘fathers’ of the Bomb who committed themselves to its production more than a decade before its ‘invention’ and use. Szilard even appears to have been willing to stage his own Manhattan Project failing the support of state-sponsorship, enlisting the fundraising acumen of Chaim Weizmann at the University of Manchester in 1936 for his “chain reaction committee”. State sponsorship, however, was a foregone conclusion. Bohr was to say that making the atom bomb would take turning a whole country into a factory. The United States was prepared, only the majority of its citizens and leaders were grossly unaware. The design of key elements of infrastructure essential to the project were tabled in the late 1920s and by 1933 the whole of the machinery began to turn for a nuclear future.
                                                          Niels Bohr
                               Fathers of the Bomb http://pathtoliberty.co/fatherbomb.html
Niels Bohr was a scion of international Jewish bankers who was recognized as the founder of modern physics. An institute was founded for him at the University of Copenhagen c. 1920 by the patronage of the Carlsberg (brewery) and Rockefeller Foundations which became a great crossroads for physical science and philosophy.  In 1922, Bohr won the Nobel Prize and began a life’s mission to forge an “open” world.
   Bohr was nearly the sole source for the infamous “race for the bomb” intelligence and  privy to special knowledge about Werner Heisenberg and most all the scientists in the field.  During the war, Bohr traveled as a self-directed diplomat for the sharing of nuclear technology with the USSR and used his stature and persuasion to plan the international regulation of atomic weapons and energy.
   Bohr traveled back to the US in 1943 to join the Manhattan Project: “The official Los Alamos history reads, ‘..He came at the right moment… the innumerable small problems which confronted the physicists had led them [away] from fundamental problems of the bomb. Study of the fission process had been neglected, obstructing reliable predictions of important phenomena… Bohr’s interest gave rise to new activities.. which cleared up many questions left unanswered before.’ ” [p237, The Deadly Element, by Lennard Bickel, 1979]
                                                             Leo Szilard
Szilard (a.k.a Spitz or Szoldos) was born into an upperclass family of Jewish freemasons living in Hungary. In 1919, he went to study in Berlin and met Albert Einstein for the first time. Szilard and Einstein met again in 1921 Prague, where the two began a long and often “unusual” working relationship. There are no specific public documents to clarify whether Szilard and Einstein achieved a nuclear chain reaction in the 1920s, but there is the appearance of careful omissions and strong probabilities.
   Szilard was drafted in 1933 to administer the international rescuers ‘placement’ of scientists through the auspices of the British Academic Assistance Committee, which enabled approx. 2,000 academics to relocate before the war. In 1938, he came to the U.S. and took an assignment with the ‘reactor’ group that began at Columbia University and moved to Chicago’s “Metallurgical Lab”. The Met Lab became a center of foment for scientific control of the Manhattan Project. Szilard was known to have authored the “Einstein letters” which urged FDR to make the Bomb.
In the post-war, Szilard turned to molecular biology and politics. During the 50s, he helped to shape the Salk Institute and joined its fellowship until his death in 1964.
                                             Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein is dubiously considered the 20th century’s greatest mind. A remarkable feature of his personality was his native instinct to slavishly endow Thought as the highest value in life. In this respect, Einstein was distinctively anti-social, lacking a personal value for ‘socialization’. This required him to deal with social issues as problems of necessity; subjects which seem to have held deep fascination for him.
Embraced within the academic community of Jews and Zionists as he matured, Einstein became an official emissary for the World Zionist Organization, adopting and refining the Jewish value system as his own social outlook. In the arena of worldly politics for which he became a reluctant but high-profile spokesman, Einstein’s fidelity to Zionism remaind steadfast. He accurately discerned the pitfalls of geopolitical statehood for the Jews and maintained his famous ‘internationalism’ as a designated pacifist.
   For the record, Einstein’s contradictory role in world events has been papered over with ambiguity. He identified himself as belonging to a special class within his Jewish ‘nation’ (Zionist) but publicly opposed Israeli statehood on the grounds of the degenerative proscriptions of maintaining a recognizable country which he intuited as anathema and counter-productive to Jewish spirituality, his highest social value. In this manner, Einstein was fundamentally distanced from the Zionist objective to provide and protect a Jewish homeland.
                                                    
It’s imperative for us to appreciate and define the methods of  “distancing” as evidence of pre-planning.
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In his 1991 book, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh relates a very understated event concerning a recommendation from Albert Einstein to Chaim Weizmann, made while Einstein was teaching at Princeton (A.E. was in residence at the Institute of Advanced Study as of October 1933). Weizmann was looking for a director to run the Daniel Sieff Institute near Tel Aviv which was formally founded in 1934. Einstein recommended Ernst David Bergmann, future father of the Israeli bomb. At that time, writes Hersh, “Bergmann..didn’t get the job for reasons not known.” [footnote, p25]. The text describing Bergmann, however, suggests the reasons pertained to Bergmann’s presence on the faculty at Manchester University,  doing secret defense work for the British while double-timing them making explosives for the Hagannah beginning in 1936. The Zionists, within the decade, launched an “underground war” against the British and Arabs [i.e. bombing the King David Hotel]. Bergmann could hardly have advertized his real loyalties to the Hagannah as a guest “refugee” in England, arranged by Chaim Weizmann. Hersh reports, “Bergmann left England shortly after Germany invaded Poland in the fall of 1939. Weizmann had intervened once again and found him a job with old friends who owned a chemistry laboratory in Philadelphia. It didn’t work out, and another old friend from Germany, Herman Mark, came to his rescue: “He had no space. So we invited him to come to Brooklyn.” Mark had been driven out of Europe in 1938 and ended up doing research for a Canadian paper company in Ontario. By 1940 he was running a laboratory at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; two years later he became dean of faculty and turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. “The whole gang came to America” said Mark, who, when interviewed for [the Samson Option] was the sole survivor of that period.
With the defeat of Hitler, there was one final migration for Bergmann: to Palestine… Bergmann was Weizmann’s first choice to become director of the institute… Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: “He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it [nuclear fission], and then explained it to other people” [said Mark, continuing]..”We were both of the same opinion –that eventually Israel has to be in full cognizance and knowledge of what happens in nuclear physics. Look, a new type of chemical reaction was discovered at Los Alamos. Whether it’s desalination, a power plant, or a bomb makes no difference –it’s still fission.”[pp23-26]
   Neither Seymour Hersh nor his source,  Herman Mark, unsettle the official version of the Bomb’s beginnings. Statements more directly to the point of early development have been uttered by the scientists themselves, such as Edward Teller’s remark from his “Memoirs” about his work with Enrico Fermi in 1932. Teller alludes to the fact that Fermi’s failure to produce chain reaction was due to Fermi’s equations: Fermi “suspected…that he had opened the door to the transuranic elements…He had the right theory but the wrong experimental information. Had he guessed the right result, the hunt for chain reactions would have started sooner.”  http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/FathersoftheBombPartIIIEnricoFermi.html
Teller edged closely to forbidden disclosures in his autobiography. In particular, he recounted his days as the director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he baldly claims to have authorized secret weapons work in contramand to a nuclear moratorium under the administration of John F. Kennedy. During this same time period, Herman Mark’s son, Hans Mark , was working with Teller at LLNL.
The Samson Option provides a footnote:
[p23] “Herman Mark was ninety-five years old when interviewed in 1990 at his son’s home in Austin, Texas. Hans Mark, then chancellor of the University of Texas, was himself no stranger to the world of intelligence and nuclear weapons. As Air Force secretary, he also wore what is known in the government as a “black hat”: he was the head of the executive committee, or Ex-com, of the National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), a most-secret unit that is responsible for the development, procurement, and targeting of America’s intelligence satellites. As a nuclear physicist, Hans Mark had worked for twelve years beginning in 1955 for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California, one of America’s main nuclear weapons facilities. For four of those years he served as a division leader in experimental physics.”
Herman Mark is the “father of polymer science”, and was a longtime employee of I.G.Farben.
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Before World War I, the I.G. Farben consortium was known to Americans as the “Big Six”, known for its chemical trade in coal-tar (aniline) derivatives. Howard Ambruster, author of “Treason’s Peace: German Dyes and American Dupes” insisted that Farben “is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which.. operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest– and a world super-state directed by Farben.”
   I.G. Farben and Rockefeller’s Standard Oil struck a major business deal in 1925 to share the proceeds of a new oil hydrogenation process, a deal that was formalized in 1927. Ambruster added, “The list of American corporations involved in the Farben pattern reads like a roster of big business, high finance, and bi-partisan politics in the United States.” He wrote, “..it was apparent that better methods must be devised to disguise the American fronts to which titles to new patents and processes might be safely transferred.”
   Farben was consolidated in 1926 by the Warburgs, and the German chemical business which had been fractured during WWI, regained its American affiliates as a multiplex of drug, dye, and chemical entities:
When World War II began, Farben was not in such complete control of the coal-tar dye industry in the U.S. as its predecessors had been in 1914, but in 1939 Farben’s American drug and dyetstuff affiliates were much more powerful than those ‘Big Six’ agents who had so effectively prevented the establishment of our munitions industry prior to the first World War”…”Farben had crept back through side doors and cellar windows and seized a good half”…”The Oil Industry came next on Farben’s agenda.. [where]new developments..promised to be among the most important munitions of the next war..”
The Standard-Farben/Rockefeller-Warburg conglomerate created by the 1927 alliance became the most powerful industrial cartel in world history. In keeping with Rockefeller policy to establish a concensus-forming “hegemonic bloc”, the uppermost strata of policymakers were energetically aligning the combined purposes of the greater organization, succinctly described in my previous post [Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science] as the global control of biological destiny.
   The most telling forecast of this epic merger echoes from the person of Colonel Edward Mandell House, who reputedly said to Woodrow Wilson in 1913:
Very soon, every American will be required to register [his] biological property in a national system designed to keep track of the people… By such methodology, we can compel people to submit to our agenda… Every American will be forced to register or suffer being able to work and earn a living. They will be our chattel and we will hold the security interest over them forever by operation of the law merchant… They will be stripped of their rights and given a commercial value… and they will be none the wiser, for not one man in a million could ever figure our plans.” [note here that for the next two decades Eugenics was at its zenith, openly advocated until public awareness and disfavor altered the practices]
   The Rockefeller-Warburg merger then in effect, in 1913, brought about the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank. The Rockefeller Foundation received its Congressional charter in the same year. The 1913 Rockefeller charter is perhaps the strongest signal from history that ‘private sector’ fascist forces were henceforth in charge of America’s civil affairs. Significant institutional partnerships evolved with the U.S. government in the fields of medicine, public health, education and finance and all of these bore enormous “military interest” prior to WWI, the Great War. These were the ‘legal’ channels of operation, however, there were wholly illicit operations underway that depended upon the RF’s international scope of cooperation and the ‘legal’ premises of other nations.
                                                   
Albert Einstein, in an interview to the Niewe Rotterdamsche Courant, July 1921 [sourced from pp3-6 of Einstein’s compilation “Ideas and Opinions”, Crown Publishers, NY]:
“My First Impressions of the USA –
..What first strikes the visitor with amazement is the superiority of this country in matters of technology and organization… Everything is designed to save human labor. Labor is expensive, because the country is sparsely populated in comparison with its natural resources. The high price of labor was the stimulus which evoked the marvelous development of technical devices and methods of work. The opposite extreme is illustrated by over-populated China or India, where the low price of labor has stood in the way of the development of machinery. Europe is halfway between the two. Once the machine is sufficiently highly developed it becomes cheaper in the end than the cheapest labor. Let the Fascists in Europe.. take heed of this. However, the anxious care with which the United States keep out foreign goods by means of prohibitive tariffs certainly contrasts oddly with the general picture… it is not absolutely certain that every question admits of  rational answer.
…The American lives even more for his goals, for the future, than the European. Life for him is always becoming, never being. In this respect he is even further removed from the Russian and the Asiatic than the European is… [albeit] he is less of an individualist than the European –that is, from the psychological, not the economic, point of view.
More emphasis is laid on the “we” than the “I”… there is much more uniformity both in outlook on life and in moral and esthetic ideas among Americans than among Europeans. This fact is chiefly responsible for America’s economic superiority over Europe. Cooperation and the division of labor develop more easily and with less friction..whether in the factory or the university or in private charity. This social sense may be partly due to the English tradition.
In apparent contradiction to this stands the fact that the activities of the State are relatively restricted as compared with those in Europe. The European is surprised to find the telegraph, the telephone, the railways, and the schools predominantly in private hands. The more social attitude of the individual, which I mentioned just now, makes this possible here. Another consequence of this attitude is that the extremely unequal distribution of property leads to no intolerable hardships. The social conscience of the well-to-do is much more highly developed… public opinion, that all-powerful force, imperiously demands it…[h]ence the most important cultural functions can be left to private enterprise and the part played by government in this country is, comparatively, a very restricted one.
The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the Prohibition law. For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced. It is an open secret that the dangerous increase in crime in this country is closely connected with this.
There is also another way in which Prohibition, in my opinion, undermines the authority of the government. The public house is a place which gives people the opportunity to exchange views and ideas on public affairs. As far as I can see, such an opportunity is lacking in this country, the result being that the Press, which is mostly controlled by vested interests, has an excessive influence on public opinion.”
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No period in U.S. history appears as socially subversive as Prohibition –in the west, massive fortunes were newly created, ‘old’ colonial trade routes reopened, alcoholism increased dramatically and a staggering criminal counterculture was legitimized. The story of the  immigrant Canadian Bronfman family is a case-in-point, shedding light on a multitude of  “English traditions” that were serviced in those years. On the face of it, the Rockefellers were staunchly allied to the Temperance unions. The U.S. Treasury Dept. became an overtly armed faction of the government while administering, at the same time, the U.S. Public Health Service. More about Prohibition will be linked here, but it suffices to note that Prohibition engendered unprecedented policing by the State,  militarizing civilian infrastructure under deeply polarized conditions which seeded practices of corruption and noncompliance throughout the country, even in small towns and farming regions where ‘alcohol’ was needed for truck and tractor fuel.
Across the Atlantic, WWI’s ruined European economies set a course to rebuild on the new scientific technologies enabled by chemistry and physics. Many of the same pipelines and methods developed by bootleggers for intercontinental transport were exploited for the transfer of technology, making strange bedfellows and enduring relationships among ‘legitimate’ public figures and the underworld.
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“The Infancy of Particle Accelerators” was a post-WWI phenomenon in Europe led by electrical engineers such as Norway’s Rolf Wideroe who left his testimony about a variety of high-energy experiments going on in the early 1920s. Wideroe remarked on “ray transformers” in Berlin and his encounters in Germany with Leo Szilard and other scientists who struggled in the climate of extreme monetary inflation; “while one U.S.-dollar had been equivalent of 192 marks in January 1922, by the end of 1923 it was about 4,200,000 marks!” http://www-library.desy.de/elbooks/wideroe/WiE-CONT.htm
Scientists and technical students in Germany hung out the ‘for sale’ sign, desperate for sponsorship by industry and eager to accept any form of back-channel funding. Professor Max Born and his friend Einstein, for example, became the out-of-pocket beneficiaries of the American banker Henry Goldman, though this arrangement and many others were quiet assurances that their projects were well protected. The atmosphere, however, forecast that it was up to the world’s monied interests to ‘save science’, as the British founders of the 1933 rescue organization, the AAC, would later say.
   Particle accelerators, which were x-ray machines in principle, allowed experimental physics to advance quickly in the realm of high-energy research. Ernest O. Lawrence, who based his “cyclotron” invention on the previous work of Wideroe, was set up at the University of California Berkeley in 1928 with grants from the Rockefeller-controlled American Chemical Society with the express task of making radiopharmaceuticals. By design, Americans were counted upon to innovate and industrialize the processes of nuclear development. The situation demanded that avenues of exchange be opened for training young scientists and bringing nuclear technology into the United States, all the while quashing homegrown advances. Ironically, Ernest Lawrence did not receive an elite physicist’s education but instead was indoctrinated through the Bohemian Club.
   The Rockefeller Foundation established its International Education Board in 1928 to provide scholarships for the particular purpose of nuclear-chemical training. Abraham Flexner, Rockefeller’s career director of education, frankly recounted in his paper legacy that the Foundation was buying its own science and that the IEB was “not an education board”. Flexner himself personally arranged funds for “Nazi” eugenicists (Emil Aberhalden and Heinrich Poll) and physicists, such as Max Born.
   Born was a teacher of teachers in Gottingen, Einstein’s close lifelong friend, and the supervisor of  ‘atomic spy’ Klaus Fuchs in Scotland. Flexner’s role in preparing the U.S. to become a bomb factory was in the founding of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study and the organization of medical facilities that contributed basic experimental research to the Manhattan Project. Medical reseach was Rockefeller’s strong suit, highly organized in the decade before WWI.
   The most critical preparation for the United States to build the Bomb was the cooperative effort with government to provide the electricity to power the huge facilities like DuPont’s Hanford plutonium plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee’s gaseous diffusion operation, and the desert laboratories and testing grounds. Once these plans were secure, the destiny of America unfolded on schedule.
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Canadian Niagra Power Company — principal owners Rothschild, Morgan, and Astor– supplier to Toronto Electric Light Co.was turned over for refurbishment and nationalization in 1927-28.
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Hoover Dam: proposed by Herbert Hoover, as the new Sec. of Commerce,  in 1921. “Hoover Dam legislation..occupied the attention of Congress from 1922-28″ [from the papers of William C. Mullendore]. The charter passed in 1928 and dam construction began in 1931.
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Grand Coulee Dam: Columbia River, Washington. Grand Coulee is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world. Operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, construction began in 1933.
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Tennessee Valley Authority: chartered in May of 1933, overseen by a board of governors. TVA governor David Lilienthal became the first chief of the Atomic Energy Commission.
“Less than three months after its creation in 1933, TVA began construction of its multipurpose dam system. High dams were built on tributary rivers… Low dams were built on the Tennessee and Clinch Rivers… In the early 1940’s a massive construction effort was undertaken to build 10 hydroelectric dams to provide electricity needed for the war effort. Electricity was needed to make aluminum for warplanes and by the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge.” http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/kw26ek/Kathryn%20Jackson%20Lecture%20Notes%20April%2011.pdf
“The largest Tennessee ‘eminant domain’ takeover..was the TVA Reclamation Project, which ended up acquiring more than a million acres [1.3 million]…50,000 folks were displaced…the entire TVA..Project totaled nearly 70 dams.” http://nashville.about.com/od/governmentpolitics/a/tntvaemindomain.htm
“..the first dam TVA built..is named for Senator George Norris of Nebraska, author of the legislation that created TVA.. The town of Norris..was sold to private owners in 1948 ” http://www.tva.gov/sites/norris.htm

TVA’s power director, Julius A. Krug, advanced during WWII to become the chairman of the War Production Board. http://www.etsu.edu/cass/Archives/Collections/afindaid/a233.html ; and TVA’s influential Governor, David Lilienthal, became the first chief of the Atomic Energy Commission.
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Herbert Hoover, London-based mining engineer and executive, represented the concerted interests of the Rothschilds and Rockefellers in politics. His famed mining career began in the goldfields of western Australia (‘Sons of Gwalia’ gold mine) in 1897 where he also co-founded the Zinc Corporation (Rio-Tinto-Zinc Ltd) in 1905: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/hoover-herbert-clark-6729
     Hoover’s career in government began during WWI with an appointment as chief of the Belgian Relief Commission, known as the “food regulator of the world”, Hoover’s role expanded to head the (later) U.S. Food Administration. His close associate on this project was the young Kuhn, Loeb & Co. banker Lewis L. Strauss who simultaneously directed a Rothschild hospital in New York (as of 1917 to 1925), later received an officer’s commission in Naval intelligence (rising to Rear Admiral by WWII, helped create the Office of Naval Research) and also became chief of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1953-58 after a stint as personal Rockefeller family financier. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
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Hoover was the first ‘scientist’ president of the U.S., serving 1929 to 1933.
Hoover’s official positions in the U.S. Government: http://www.hoover.archives.gov/info/awards.html
In 1931 Bertrand Russell published a statement that “civilization cannot afford to leave administrative control in the hands of those who have no firsthand knowledge of science… Scientific workers must accept responsibility for the control of the forces which have been released by their work. Without their help, efficient administration and a high degree of statesmanship are virtually impossible… In the international sphere [scientific] advisory committees of experts have since the war [WWI] exerted a remarkable influence even when devoid of all legislative authority… the scientific expert can already exert an effective influence when normal administrative effort has failed… [W]elcome signs..now recognized by scientific workers themselves.
…The society of experts which I am imagining will embrace all eminent men of science… It will possess the sole up-to-date armaments, and will be the repository of all new secrets in the art of war. There will therefore be no more war…” [The Scientific Outlook; chapter, The Society of Experts]
“The Hoover Myth, the picture of the great engineer…was built up by one of the most skillful propaganda machines in the history of American politics”…”[L]ittle of the man himself was known. Long periods of his life were utterly blank…His business career and operations were carefully guarded and elaborately obscured.” …”his course on government regulations of utilities has been..devious…concerning the need for control of public utilities..”
In the London business world “Hoover [had] the favorable attention of the Rothschilds who made him director of their firm Rio Tinto. Chairman was Lord Milner, who founded the Round Tables which later became the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) and its subsidiary, the Council on Foreign Relations.”
   “In 1916, the promoters of WWI were dismayed when Germany insisted she could not continue in the war because of shortages of food and money”… Warburgs arranged money transfers but “food presented a more difficult problem. It was finally decided to ship it directly to Belgium as ‘relief for the starving Belgians’. The supplies could then be shipped over Rothschild railway lines into Germany. As director for this ‘relief’ operation, the Rothschilds chose Herbert Hoover. His partner in the Belgian Relief Commission was Emile Francqui, chosen by Baron Lambert, head of the Belgian Rothschild family.”
                                                     
Writer Nicholas Faith, author of The Bronfmans [2006], includes a footnote on page 123:
The Bronfmans’ only encounter with a Nazi had been in the early 1930s when they met von Ribbentrop, later Hitler’s foreign minister but then selling champagne..on behalf of his father-in-law. According to Saidye [Samuel Bronfman’s wife] their host assured them that when Adolf Hitler came to power they would find that his attacks on the Jews were meant purely for show and would not be carried out in practice.”
Nicholas Faith apparently, included this significant footnote –the only mention of a Nazi anything in the relevant time period, from the 1930s-50s– based on his confidence that readers would supply an orthodox historical context. Huge by implication, however, the subject is avoided to an extent that seems phobic in light of this information. Other Jewish history sources add less overtly to a body of statements that indicate a decade or more of foreknowledge to an impending ‘genocide':  the Jewish American Hall of Fame, for example, notes that Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, “in 1933, at age 73,..embarked on a major new project rescuing Jewish children from the oncoming Holocaust.”[emphasis added]  www.amuseum.org/jah/virtour/page14.html
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There is no delicate way to say that without a Holocaust there would have been no race for the Bomb, both of which can now be seen as filled with fictions;  they were necessary counterweights to bring the Bomb into existence. The undoing of one threatens the undoing of the other. I consider it an exceptional intrigue that the  “discredited”  British historian David Irving has been poised as an authority on both subjects!
Irving’s confirmation of the race for an atomic bomb is evident on his website, praising the book “The Virus House” which was drawn primarily on personal interviews and secret papers supplied by atomic physicist Samuel Goudsmit who co-led the USA’s “ALSOS” mission to capture and quarantine Germany’s nuclear scientists at the end of WWII. Irving writes: “My publisher..was eager to publish what I had already assembled.. but I convinced him to let me follow my hunch, that the bulk of the 1943-1945 ALSOS investigation were in the archives of the Atomic Energy Commission at Oak Ridge Tennessee… [my] suppositions proved correct. I stayed for several days as Goudsmit’s guest at Brookhaven Physics Laboratory on Long Island..”. Goudsmit had supplied many of these official documents and he had changed his story a number of times over the years which goes unmentioned by Irving. Originally, Goudsmit held that the Germans were nowhere close to constructing a bomb –a claim that he later reported was made under “pressure”.
Once again, in a familiar pattern of promoting disinformation, Irving’s scholarship supporting the German atomic bomb project  appears like the preplacement of a “taint” on his work, and suggests he may be colluding to bring out “Holocaust denial” in a way that is ultimately desirable to the world’s controllers who wish to purvey the dangerous rising of Neo-nazism. Irving’s theses seem additionally like an advertisement of priorities; the Bomb Race stays intact, and the Jewish Holocaust (much too ingrained to ‘downgrade’ )  is demonstrated by Irving’s example as unlawful to “revise”. Looks like a win-win for guess who? Is David Irving a dupe or a collaborator?
 There is much more to say about the role of Samuel Goudsmit.
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…”The story of the bomb begins at the turn of the century. Up through the mid-1920s, physical chemists came to know that both nuclear fusion and a nuclear-fission chain-reaction were possible. It started with chemist Dmitri Mendeleyov’s development of his Periodic Law, continued with the related discoveries of the Curies and their student, the Russian scientific genius Vladimir Vernadsky, the discoveries of Chicago’s William Draper Harkins and of Britain’s Ernest Rutherford…
   “Harkins replicated crucial evidence of stellar thermonuclear fusion in a Wilson chamber in 1915. Rutherford also assembled data (which he was later pressured to suppress) which bore on the matter of fission. During the period 1925-27, Vernadsky established the radiology laboratory in Russia and proposed a mission of developing nuclear fission as a principal source of industrial power… the feasibility of a nuclear-fission chain-reaction was well-known in relevant circles prior to 1938.
   “Nonetheless, the participants in the Solvay Conferences maintained a curious, hysterical denial…”http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/larbomb.htm
The Solvay conferences were founded in 1911 Belgium to foster the collaboration of physical-chemists.  http://www.enotes.com/topic/Solvay_Conference
Max Planck, Walther Nernst, Frederick Lindemann (Lord Cherwell) and Ernest Solvay established the first meet at the Hotel Metropole in Brussels.
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In more contemporary terms, Seymour Hersh described the ‘denial’ phenomenon simply in his indictment of the US government for aiding and abetting the nuclear proliferation that gave Israel the Bomb: “It was as if the White House believed there really were two atoms, one of which was peaceful.” [p132, The Samson Option].
   This ultimate dichotomy of political expression in nuclear issues is the root of “crazymaking” which deprives us all of a sane world to live in, and we are forced to act out the neurotic schisms of those who reached ahead to claim ‘star power’ for themselves. But the desire is an ancient one, cultivated and perpetuated in the Mystery schools that accompany the destiny of Knowing. The Solvay conferences and special institutes replaced the Mysteries.
    In the western “duality” traditions, nurtured since medieval times, we can literally see the parallel of symbolism between “splitting the atom” and splitting humanity carved in full relief on the facade of Notre Dame de Paris. There in the center of the front face, in the Portal of the Last Judgement, are the two figures “Justice” and the “Devil” –blindfolded Justice holds out the scale from which the earth dangles and the Devil beside her lays his hand upon the scale, controlling the balance of the world. The two figures bisect a row of ‘humanity'; the Justice half bowed in the reading of books and the Devil’s half bound in chains held by demons. In this image, then, Justice appears to deliver her half to the control of the demon force, the force of the world. It’s as if they believed there really were two gods, one of which was peaceful. hmm…. Don’t the carvings in Notre Dame sound like the quote above by Wilson’s advisor, Col.E.M. House: “…They will be our chattel and we will hold the security interest over them forever by operation of the law merchant“. ??
As Einstein said, “it is not absolutely certain that every question admits of rational answer” but it was certain that the power unleashed by atomic weapons would force the creation of world government:
…”resistence by the unscientific will be doomed to obvious failure. The society of experts will control propaganda and education. It will teach loyalty to the world government and make nationalism high treason… It is possible that it may invent ingenious ways of concealing its own power, leaving the forms of democracy intact… whatever the outward forms may be. all real power will come to be concentrated in the hands of those who understand the art of scientific manipulation.” [B. Russell, The Scientific Outlook, 1931]
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Captain Archibald H.M. Ramsay wrote, in The Nameless War:
If the new-found knowledge of Hitler’s anxiety to preserve the British Empire has come as a surprise recently to many people in [Britain], it must surely have come as a real shock to them to learn that President Roosevelt, on the other hand, was its inveterate enemy; that he was not only a pro-communist of Jewish origin, but that before he brought America into the war he made it clear that he wished to break up the British Empire…
   Mr. Churchill, the self-styled ‘constant architect of the Jews’ future’ now found himself playing second fiddle to an even more trusted architect…  Karl Marx had denounced the Empire long ago, and in the year 1941, it was only foolish opponents of Judaism and Marxism, like Herr Hitler, who were anxious to stand by that Empire because they recognized it as a bulwark of Christian civilisation.
  …I was fully aware that among the agencies both here [in Britain] and abroad which had been actively engaged in promoting bad feeling between Great Britain and Germany, organised Jewry, for obvious reasons, had played a leading part. I knew the U.S.A. to be the headquarters of Jewry, and therefore the real, though not apparent, centre of their activities.
  …the question arises: whom, and which interests did President Roosevelt not betray. To this query I can only see one answer, namely, those people and their interests who planned from the start the use of United States arsenals and Forces to prosecute a war which would annihilate a Europe which had freed itself from Jewish gold and revolutionary control: people who planned to dissolve the British Empire to this end; and to enable the Soviets to ‘bestride Europe like a colossus’ in other words, International Jewry.”
British patriot and parliamentarian Ramsay, who documented the infiltration of Jewish hegemony into the English hierarchy from the time of Cromwell, was arrested and held at Brixton Prison from 1940 to 1944.
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Not by chance, the synchronized ascendancy of FDR and Hitler (1933-1945) brought us into the Nuclear Age following the “Miracle Year” of 1932 in physics.  Both leaders embarked on massive “recovery” campaigns of industry and socialization, and likewise  later appear sequestered from the essential progress in physics. In 1936, FDR was assured by Albert Einstein that atomic weapons were “probably impossible” or at least, many decades distant. In three years time (1939), the urgent “letter from Einstein”, penned by Leo Szilard and delivered by Alexander Sachs, insistently pressured for making the Bomb. To this end, the British dispatched a stream of facilitators, scientists and spokesmen who represented the MAUD committee that had proven the feasibility of the weapons. Inappropriate ‘aliens’ under the British flag worked on the project from Canada. It was another chance-less move in the “saving of science” orchestrated by the British.
    The most influential of the 1933 rescue organizations, the U.K.’s  Academic Assistance Council, was founded by the two physicists, Ernest Rutherford and Leo Szilard, and a London School of Economics governor, Lord Beveridge. Szilard, who obtained his AAC position shortly after the Reichstag fire, was brought into London by Frederick Lindemann (the later Lord Cherwell who established the Claredon physics lab at Oxford) and economist Ludwig von Mises. In conjunction with well-endowed relocation organizations and innumerable exigent rescue operations, competent bomb-makers were fanned out to the receiving industrial nations. In the U.S., not merely technical experts, but a “fully articulated” Jewish culture was imported by the exodus –chemists, biologists, engineers, social and political scientists, doctors, lawyers, artists and musicians– forewarned for the arrival of a “million Jews”. The relocation of tens of thousands of academics at this time appears irrefutable, yet no cohesive accounting has been documented. True to the words of Bertrand Russell, America now had its “society of experts”.
   Not by chance, Harvard’s most influential Zionist, Felix Frankfurter, spent the 1933-34 academic year at Oxford as a visiting professor –he was able to visit Palestine and Egypt several times as well. Frankfurter kept an active ‘friendship’ going with Niels Bohr, even during the Manhattan Project years when the chiefs of the project were aware that Frankfurter was getting inside information, yet they failed to either sequester Bohr or bring Frankfurter to account (for spying, many believe), who by then was a Supreme Court Justice (appt in January 1939) http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~law00106
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BOHR and HEISENBERG
What the wartime establishment knew about the race for the bomb came almost exclusively from the word of Niels Bohr as he joined the Manhattan Project along with his son Aage in 1943. Bohr had previously spread the news in January of 1939 that chain-reaction had been accomplished, embarking on a US lecture tour that included Harvard and Columbia Universities before returning to Copenhagen. Bohr’s “closest colleague”, Werner Heisenberg, was also in the US in June/July of 1939 visiting Samuel Goudsmit at the University of Michigan who reputedly tried to influence Heisenberg to stay.
[from “Popularization and People (1911-1962)” by Niels Bohr and Finn Aaserud]
Bohr’s relationship with Heisenberg was special, both personally and scientifically. This comes to expression in particular in Bohr’s New Years greeting to his younger colleague towards the end of 1928: ‘Rarely have I felt myself in more sincere harmony with any other human being, and I still rejoice when I think back on our walks and discussions“. [p116]
   As the memoir explains, Heisenberg was Bohr’s assistant in Copenhagen in the mid-1920s after the departure of Bohr’s longtime helper Hendrik Kramers: “Heisenberg took over his positions..”. Kramers later became the Chairman of the Science Committee for the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission.
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TELLER and HEISENBERG
[from Edward Teller’s Memoirs, 2001]
I do not believe –and there is no evidence that suggests it– that Heisenberg actively pursued research on an atomic bomb [p230] …It is inconceivable to me that Heisenberg would ever have pursued such a purpose. He loved his country, but he hated the Nazis… In 1936, Heisenberg was even attacked in an official Nazi publication as being ‘a white Jew’ and ‘Jewish in character…
   Yet, Heisenberg, still in disfavor and therefore at great personal risk, in 1942 tried to save the parents of Samuel Goudsmit (a Dutch colleague) from deportation to the concentration camps. In 1944, Heisenberg again bravely intervened when the Nazis were about to dismantle Niels Bohr’s Institute and ship the instruments to Germany. Carl Friedrich [von Weizacker], who was very close to Heisenberg, once told me that ‘Heisenberg died without regrets’. To me, that statement makes it clear that Heisenberg never worked for the Nazis in the real sense.
   This story is a different account from the one that Niels Bohr, Heisenberg’s mentor and closest colleague, carried to Los Alamos in 1943. Bohr claimed that Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen after Denmark had been occupied by the Nazis. Bohr said that Heisenberg had told him that he was working on the bomb for Hitler and considered that a good thing to do. Bohr never moderated or modified his statement.
   Most scientists at Los Alamos and elsewhere in the Western world accepted Bohr’s simple story without question. But I was deeply troubled by it…  I could not imagine that… why, when Heisenberg knew that he himself was under suspicion and that Bohr was in open opposition to the Nazis, did he go to confide in his old friend and mentor? [p232]
   Bohr’s influence in the postwar world did not stop with the damage to Heisenberg’s reputation. Bohr loved paradoxes… Before the end of the war, Bohr had succeeded in telling both Roosevelt and Churchill his ideas about the path the development of nuclear energy should take: ‘Nuclear energy has made war impossible. Work on nuclear energy must be conducted on an international basis and we should begin by sharing all of our knowledge with the Soviets.’ ” [p233]
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GOUDSMIT and HEISENBERG
A 1953 article in The New Yorker described Heisenberg as an “old friend” to Samuel Goudsmit. Linus Pauling was also a good friend, and all of these men were beneficiaries of Rockefeller funding. [see “Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science” for more about Pauling and Caltech]. www.newyorker.com/archive/1953/11/07/1953_11_07_047_TNY_CARDS_000240392
 Goudsmit’s turnabout regarding Heisenberg’s role in the German bomb race came after Heisenberg’s death. By that time, Goudsmit had attained the most prestigious positions that a physicist in the US could achieve: he was science chairman of the Brookhaven National Lab and editor-in-chief of the American Physical Society’s journal. The crux of Goudsmit’s revisions suggested that he harbored a personal resentment of Heisenberg for failing to “save” his parents from the Holocaust, but genealogical records indicate that his mother, at least, Marianne Gompers Goudsmit, died in 1939.
   Samuel Abraham Goudsmit received his doctorate in Holland at the University of Leiden in 1927 and within months took a professorship in the USA at the University of Michigan. According to one of his closest graduate students and colleagues, Robert F. Bacher, “Goudsmit had an extraordinary knowledge of what went on… he knew every physicist in the world… [P]eople who were there [at U Michigan] from 1927 to ’30 included Niels Bohr, Paul Ehrenfest, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer.. and many others.” www.oralhistories.library.caltech.edu/93/01/OH_Bacher_R.pdf Of these times in academe, Bacher said “everything was changing like mad in physics. In fact, physics in the United States, one could say, went from being sort of third [rate] through being second [rate] to being as good as anyplace over a period of about ten or fifteen years. By the mid-thirties, the physics in the United States was very good.”[oral history, page 10]
   Heisenberg “was a frequent visitor at the Ann Arbor, Michigan summer schools on theoretical physics. During the last of these [June-Aug, 1939] his colleagues in the United States [and Goudsmit in particular] attempted to convince Heisenberg to remain in the U.S. but he refused. Soon after Heisenberg returned to Germany, Hitler unleashed his forces into Poland, touching off World War II.” http://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/p10.htm
The physicists who gathered in Michigan all seemed to know what was in the offing. A note about their last days together before the outbreak of war is included in the well-aired ‘debate’ between Jeremy Bernstein and Thomas Powers who have a standing argument about how much Heisenberg and his cohorts knew about atomic weaponry:
An amusing story related by Powers:
… In a letter written to me a few years back the Italian physicist Ugo Fano described a party at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, home of Samuel Goudsmit, scientific director of the Alsos mission, in late August 1939. There two Nobel Prize–winning physicists, Werner Heisenberg, soon to return to Germany, and Enrico Fermi, a refugee from Mussolini’s Italy, were both honored guests. “At that party,” Fano writes, “[Edoardo] Amaldi drew me aside to point out its humor: ‘See Fermi, see Heisenberg, sitting in that corner. Everyone in this room expects a big war and the two of them to lead fission work on opposite sides, but nobody says!'” (Letter of September 18, 1993) Within a month Heisenberg had in effect been drafted to do theoretical work on bomb physics and he soon wrote two papers which were the basis of further German research during the war.” http://infoproc.blogspot.com/2009/08/heisenberg-uncertainty.html
   Physicist Edoardo Amaldi, on Fermi’s Italian team until they split up in 1938, said “Goudsmit used to come to Rome almost every year. Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck were both great friends of Fermi”. http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4485.html .
   NYU physicist Benjamin Bederson wrote that “at some point during the war [Goudsmit] was placed in charge of the [M.I.T.] Radiation Laboratory document room; that turned into a very important assignment… The “RLE reports” became a primary source for the huge amount of technical information acquired during the war that proved invaluable to American physics..after the war. Towards the end of the war, his career took an unusual and dramatic turn when he was made scientific chief of Alsos… The Alsos mission was to learn of Nazi scientific accomplishments..and, most importantly, of the Nazi progress towards developing nuclear weapons.
   “In fact, Werner Heisenberg actually stayed in Goudsmit’s house on occasion and they had become good personal friends. Thus the choice of Sam for [the Alsos] assignment was a wise one, although he himself claimed not to know how or why he had been selected.” www.prl.aps.org/edannounce/PhysRevLett.101.010002
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Moe Berg and Alsos
   “By the fall of 1944..intelligence [was]..reasonably confident that Heisenberg was in Hechingen. On December 8, there was word from Bern that Heisenberg was going to give a lecture in Zurich, one in a series arranged by Paul Scherrer. As a result, Morris Berg arrived at the ETH lecture hall on December 18 carrying a gun. His assignment was to listen carefully to Heisenberg..and if he became convinced that the Germans were close to an atomic bomb, Berg was to shoot him while he was still in the auditorium. [p50]. The idea of depriving Heisenberg of his life or liberty was not new. In 1942 refugee scientists Hans Bethe and VictorWeisskopf had proposed kidnapping him, but [Leslie] Groves and [Robert] Furman did not [look] for the right man for the job until 1944… Bringing a gun into a lecture hall and shooting someone was considerably easier. And so, Berg sat..and listened as Heisenberg lectured on..S-matrix theory… Berg’s gun stayed in his pocket.Soon Berg had a second chance… But Hesienberg’s comments [at a dinner party] that the war was lost gave Berg..less of a motive to kill him, even if he had the means and a golden opportunity.” [p51, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey T. Richelson]
polioforever>>> Richelson details the Alsos report from France, recieved a month prior, that Joliet-Curie told them the occupying German scientists who used his lab had no knowledge of making an atomic weapon.
   “Alsos had conclusive proof that the feared German program was actually, in Goudsmit’s words, ‘small-time stuff’. The program clearly had not moved beyond preliminary research, had not produced a chain eaction, and had not discovered an effective means of enriching uranium.” [p59]…[Ten] captured scientists were moved to an estate in the English countryside, Farm Hall, and…microphones would record the astonishment, even disbelief, of Heisenberg and others when they first learned in early August [1945] that the United States and Britain had succeeded in..build[ing] an atomic bomb.”[p61, Spying on the Bomb] http://polioforever.wordpress.com/nelson-a-rockefeller/
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“There is a little anecdote about Dr. Sam Goudsmit that I would like to tell. As the war was winding down in Europe, the scientists here decided that they would like to know what, if anything, was going on in Germany in th microwave area. They knew, if anything at all was going on, that Heisenberg would have to be involved. This mission, I believe, was under the aegis of the OSRD. They, plus the military, set out to find Heisenberg. They finally found him in a little laboratory tucked away somewhere out of the way. Dr. Goudsmit was to meet with him. Their friendship dated back to Sam’s early days in Germany. As Sam told the story, the military went in ahead of him. Sam thought the military was looking at him a little suspiciously, and he found out why when he got to Heisenberg. There on Heisenberg’s desk was a picture of Heisenberg and Sam with their arms linked.”
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Oral-History:Catherine_Scott#Transcriptions_and_Documents
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FLUORIDE
The pretentions of the scientists, however,  do not hide the activity of early preparations or camouflage the scope of their participation.  In the book “Spying On The Bomb”, author Jeffrey T. Richelson includes a footnote on page 34 taken from a memo concerning detection of the enemy’s atomic activity by monitoring industrial fluoride use. Met Lab physicist Philip Morrison wrote in his memo that “the fundamental special material in the whole process, besides the metal, is probably fluorine. Even metal production depends on fluorine at one step, and almost all separation methods known require the use of uranium hexafluoride”. Memo dated March 16, 1944.
   There is little print given to fluoride history prior to WWII. Even Christopher Bryson’s new classic on the subject,”The Fluoride Deception”, neglects the interwar years but fluorine chemistry registered national interest in the mid-1920s when fluoridation experiments began being widely carried out:
In 1895, Andrew W. Mellon founded ALCOA, and in 1913, created the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research at the University of Pittsburgh, to protect company interests from fluorine emission and other lawsuits. In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, with the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) under his control.”
[in 1902, the USPHS was created from the Marine Hospital Service]
…” Funded by Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont in 1930, the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati was organized under the direction of Dr. Robert Kehoe. Kehoe’s laboratory was set up for contract research on chemical hazards in the fluoride industry and for protection against litigation and government restrictions.  …As medical director of the Ethyl Corporation, consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Division of Occupational Medicine of the USPHS, Dr. Kehoe was committed to the suppression of industrial fluoride dangers. By 1931, most of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities were devoted to the study of fluorides.”
The U.S. Public Health Service, which operates only military hospitals, was greatly expanded in 1930 on a wave of new construction. Andrew Mellon fulfilled his oversight of the Treasury in 1932 (physics ‘miracle year’).  Much later, in the postwar , the Mellon-endowed University of Pittsburgh hosted another key operation in the atomic program– the production of Salk polio vaccine.
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Nuel Pharr Davis (Lawrence and Oppenheimer) wrote in 1968, “By 1949 bomb development at Los Alamos had reached a stage that is still classified and perhaps in some aspects still truly secret.” The Russians tested their first nuke in August of ’49, something not predicted to happen for many years more. Davis, describing the Congressmen who received the details of the USSR’s bomb in secret meetings, added “the news if true confirmed what they had known all along: Security should have been given tighter control over scientists.” [p294]

November 3, 2010

Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science

During the 1930s a new biology came into being that by the late 1950s was to endow scientists with unprecendented power over life. These three decades culminated in…the cognitive foundations for genetic engineering. Scientists could now[by the ’50s] manipulate genes on the most fundamental level and attempt to control the course of biological and social evolution; they laid claim to “the secret of life”. …As has been well documented, the Rockefeller Foundation served as the principal patron of molecular biology from the 1930s to the 1950s; Caltech [was] a primary site for implementing the Foundation’s project“…
 
>>These are the opening words in a book by Dr. Lily E. Kay called “The Molecular Vision of Life ; Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology“, published in 1993 by Oxford University Press. Lily Kay’s book, her first of only two, is scarce and expensive. A used hardcover will cost you $300. Kay passed away in 2000 at age 53 and I wonder if her book is now appreciating like a piece of art. One suspects she was a consummate insider participating in the abstraction of scientific history. She wrote that the Rockefeller-created field of molecular biology was the incarnation of redirected eugenics which was “animated by a potent conjunction of Protestant values and technocratic visions” [p10] making clear that its purpose was “to control biological destiny” [p17]. To prove her point naming giants in the field with Protestant bona fides, still with great subtlety, however, like a code running through the text, Lily Kay coaxes a truer sense of ‘values’ from her subject than she perhaps intended. Her Protestants are tainted, weak, ‘old school’ and “not religious” (a “not religious” Protestant is no Protestant at all) and these leading personalities were beholden to their advisors and collaborators. Much in the way that Kay wrote “Scientists could now manipulate genes…they laid claim to ‘the secret of life'”, it was the scientists who were Lily Kay’s heroes. They were the creators and they made it all possible by devotedly navigating their special ideas through the turbulence of rough political times. The Molecular Vision’s retrospective abruptly ends for its readers in 1955, the year that polio vaccine set a precedent in public medicine.  
You may guess that the social and biological destiny of mankind was at hand.
 
 
They intended to create a new science of life [p6]…The new biology not only reflected the particular bias of its principal architects –physicist Max Mason and mathematician Warren Weaver– but the more general bias of a technocratic elite who had dominated American culture during the 1920s…
Conceived during the late 1920s, the new agenda was articulated in terms of the contemporary technocratic discourse of human engineering… the new biology (originally named “psychobiology”) was erected on the bedrock of the physical sciences in order to rigorously explain and eventually control the fundamental mechanisms governing human behavior”[p8]
 
A concerted physicochemical attack on the gene was initiated at the moment in history when it became unacceptable to advocate social control based on crude eugenic principles…
Time was seldom a deterrent for the visionaries of the Rockefeller Foundation..[which] had been the main force behind the development of the social sciences in America..[p9]
Programmatic statements, reports, and memoranda from the various Rockefeller divisions attest that on social and ideological levels there was no fundamental separation of purpose between the heads of corporations and the leadership of the Foundation.” [p10]
>> The Rockefeller method of building a science establishment depended upon creating a “hegemonic bloc” in the period between 1913, when the RF received a Congressional charter, and 1933, when the program goals were “fully articulated”. Despite what Kay called “echoes of minor dissent” [p28], we are told that “these voices of dissent..did not represent the majority of academic scientists who kept knocking on the foundations’ gates… The efforts of this group came to fruition after World War I“.  I’ve posted a sketch of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) at www.polioforever.wordpress.com/rockefeller-institute/  . “Fruition” entailed the significant marriage of the RIMR to the U.S. military, accomplished during the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919 when the epidemiologic investigation centered in New York City. The RIMR, under the leadership of Simon Flexner,  earned its stripes as a flagship institution in the 1916 polio epidemic which spread widely across the states claiming 27,000 victims. One third of them, 9,000 cases, were reported in NYC. At that time, and for the next several decades, Simon Flexner and the RIMR were the principal researchers of polio. Polio is only superficially addressed in “The Molecular Vision”, appearing briefly as another pressing dilemna by mid-century, but in the wider context of Rockefeller science, it stands out like a red thread on a blue field. Its causes are acute radiation and chemical poisoning.
Look to the link for a list of RIMR staff presidents. See if you can find a Protestant. This was Rockefeller’s primary pool of “advisors and collaborators”. 
 
A cursory glance at Caltech during the 1930-1950s reveals that the Institute nutured some of the most important ‘founding fathers’ of American molecular biology [a]ll supported by the Rockefeller Foundation [p12]… Caltech, of course, was not the sole center for the new biology… A survey of the Foundation’s annual reports from 1930 to 1955 reveals that the Foundation supported molecular biology projects in scores of elite institutions but invested the largest sums in six… In accord with its long-standing policy of supporting the strong –“making the peaks higher”– the University of Chicago, Caltech, Stanford, Columbia, Harvard, and the University of Wisconsin most consistently received grants [p13]…
…the Foundation’s support of Chicago equaled that of Caltech [p14]… Chicago’s genetics [research] had a strong focus on populations..[with biology] under the leadership of Paul Weiss…[and] by the late 1920s, Caltech formed the hub of America’s scientific establishment” [p15]
 
“[T]he Rockefeller Foundation’s “Science of Man” agenda.. linked the particular forms of social control sought by that agenda with the specific kinds of control supplied by the new biology… Greatly influenced by Jacques Loeb’s project, which had adopted the engineering standpoint toward the control of life, the Rockefeller Foundation officers and their scientific advisors sought to develop a mechanistic biology as the central element of a new science of man whose goal was social engineering… The life sciences aimed to map the pathways in the molecular labyrinth of the human soma and psyche in order to control biological destiny.” [p17]
Not all branches of science were equally relevant to the pressing problem of social control, however. During the 1920s, under the leadership of Wickliffe Rose, the [RF] International Educational Board directed its resources to the physical sciences –grants for the rehabilitation of European research centers and travel fellowships for chemists, physicists, and mathematicians. Guided in part by Frederick Soddy’s fear of premature use of nuclear fission, [Raymond] Fosdick [future RF president] prophesied doom if the physical sciences proceeded unchecked and the savage was left unrestrained.
…Fosdick’s judgement that overinvestment in the physical sciences merely accelerated the pace of runaway technology and that underinvestment in the human sciences amplified the atavistic social response became the guiding principle in the Foundation’s singular commitment to support the human sciences durng the 1930s.” [p33]
 
>>Was the “fear of premature use of nuclear fission” a problem in the late1920s? Kay is suggestively framing around a hole in history. What else could be as imperative and demanding a driver for a “pressing problem of social control”? Is this a veiled way of discerning early and secretive achievements in nuclear power? It’s rarely brought to our attention that perceived boons to medicine like X-rays were also the first nuclear weapons, “biological” in application and essence.  The achievement of fission led to radiopharmaceuticals in the late 1920s, but did it also lead to controllable “chain reaction”? No new technology was required for this advance. Edward Teller wrote in his Memoirs that Enrico Fermi could have produced chain reaction in 1932, when Teller worked with him, if his theoretical equations had only been right.
 >>It was unequivocally in the name of medicine that nuclear proliferation erupted across the developing world.
 
Fosdick did not underestimate the opposing forces, however…He had no “illusions as to the speed or ease with which mankind can alter its way of life. There is no royal road to the millenium, no short cut to the Promised Land.” [p36]
>>Raymond Fosdick and his brother Harry Emerson Fosdick both represent what Lily Kay called the “Calvinist ethos”. These brothers were descriptive of “extreme evangelism”. Harry Fosdick was hired by John D. Rockefeller Jr. as the pastor of  the Riverside Church, founded by Rockefellers in Morningside Heights, NY, and opened in October 1930. Publicist Ivy Lee was hired to create a direct mailer promoting “The New Knowledge and the Christian Faith”. Ecumenism and Zionismwere central to the doctrine of the Rockefeller religion.
 
>>The conservative funding policies of the RF for New Biology were couched in terms of ‘stimulus'; money that kept programs afloat while their administrators sought ‘matching funds’ (an idea credited to Julius Rosenwald) and local business support. In the case of Caltech, Lily Kay recounts how the strategic witholding of RF funds prompted an energetic campaign among CIT leadership to creatively solicit support from a wide community of philanthropists and agribusiness. Caltech’s survival required the cooperative financial input of California agribusinesses seeking industry advantages but as Kay points out on page 214, “Caltech’s biology was never intended to play a service role to California’s agribusiness.” The PR spin was delivered in future terms as promises of medical advance for “the welfare of mankind throughout the world” [p219] and the solving of the “problems of medicine“. In the post-WWII era the problems were polio and cancer. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis became a generous benefactor to the immunochemistry project at Caltech.
 
“Gone was the rhetoric of biological improvements of the race… Gone also was Caltech’s connection to the old eugenics. With the death of E.S. Gosney in 1942, the trustees of the Human Betterment Foundation (including Millikan and a few Caltech trustees) agreed that the Foundation’s interests would be best served by transferring its activities to Caltech. In October 1943 an agreement was drawn up dissolving the Human Betterment Foundation as such and turning over its assets to the Institute. The Institute, in turn, agreed to use these resources “and the proceeds thereof to establish the Gosney Research Fund, the income from which will be devoted in perpetuity to the promotion of research into the biological bases of human qualities…”. Linguistically watered down from its eugenic potency, the Gosney Fund would support postdoctoral fellowships in “those branches of biological science basic to our understanding of human welfare.” The New York Times too refurbished its prose. The announcement emphasized the medical connection: “$700,000 to Trace Polio and Cancer –Rockefeller Grant is Made for California Institute Research in Molecular Biology”. [pp238-239]
 
In May 1946, physicist Lee DuBridge, protege of former RF president Max Mason, took the presidency of Caltech:
 “DuBridge had built up the ‘Rad Lab’ [at M.I.T.] into the largest single-purpose scientific research plan in history, larger even than the atomic bomb project.” [p235]
 “The Berkeley cyclotron project, financed by the Rockefeller Foundation, was diverted during the war years from its putative medical applications to the production of fissionable material… However, they [the RF] would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence who unwittingly boasted that “if it hadn’t been for the RF, there would have been no atomic bomb.” [p219]
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The Molecular Vision of Life is an insightful book for demonstrating the modus operandi of RF funding policies; conservative, witholding, nurturing, and rewardingly lavish when pleasing, what Lily Kay describes as “mixed”. Like a sociologist interpreting the mechanisms and benefits of Tough Love, Kay points to the collective negotiating endeavors of the scientists to earn their allowances from strict and demanding parents. There was, unspokenly, no reason to expect they would not be bankrolled in the end. Her exemplary choice of Linus Pauling (a flambuoyantly grandiose, nonreligious Protestant) who was harnessed and quartered at Caltech, is emblematic of not only the Rockefeller Foundation style of grooming, but is telling on herself as a visible process of concensus shaping in the creation of history, what I’d prefer to call “distory” for its characteristic distortion and negligence. Kay, no doubt, was keen to master a facility for presentation and reap lavish rewards herself. Interesting, isn’t it, that a daughter of Polish concentration camp survivors who migrated to Israel and then to the United States would posthumously attain the iconic status of the greatest science historian of her generation with so little to show for it? Somebody at the Wikipedia made this up: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lily_E._Kay 
Her statements are powerful, however; the methods sound genuine. Perhaps she was balancing on a razor’s edge. I know nothing about her or the cancer that caused her death, except that she seemed eager and pleased by the spotlight, so much like the Protestants in her book. 
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According to Charles E. Carlson who is exposing the roots of Christian Zionism, the Oxford University Press created a New York office expressly for selling bibles, in particular the Scofield Bible which was issued c. 1908.
“The North American branch was established in 1896 at 91 Fifth Avenue in New York City to facilitate the sale of Oxford Bibles in the United States. Subsequently, it took over marketing of all books of its parent from Macmillan. This office grew in sales between 1928 and 1936, eventually becoming one of the leading University Presses in the United States. It is focused on scholarly and reference books, Bibles, and college and medical textbooks. In the 1990s, this office moved from 200 Madison Avenue (a building it shared with Putnam Publishing) to 198 Madison Avenue, which was the former B. Altman Company headquarters.”
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Caltech, or C.I.T., was founded in 1891 as “Throop Polytechnic University”. Pasadena’s Mount Wilson Observatory, est. 1904, was enfolded by its founder George Ellery Hale (U. Chicago) who joined the Board of Trustees. In 1921, the school was renamed the California Institute of Technology. The biology department was organized under the direction of Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1928. That same year, an endowment by Daniel Guggenheim established the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory (or GALCIT) which contracted Hungarian Theodore von Karman as its director. Caltech and von Karman went on to create the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which came under co-management with NASA.
The focus of scientific research at the Institute under Millikan during the 1930s ranged from Drosophila genetics and the biochemistry of vitamins in biology, to the theory of turbulence and airplane wing design in aeronautics; from cancer therapy with radiation and the radioactivity of the light elements in nuclear physics, to soil erosion and the transmission of water from the Colorado River to Los Angeles in engineering; from the application of quantum mechanics to molecular structure in chemistry, to the introduction of the magnitude scale in seismology. An educational institution in name only during the war, Caltech had a war arsenal that included rockets, proximity fuses, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and $80 million in federal funds for war-related research and development.” http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/articles/goodstein/

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Creation of the Atom Bomb in the mid-20th century followed a forecast made in 1875 when  the Englishman Samuel Tolver Preston, scientist and theologian, published the equation that later became the foundation of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (1905). Many researchers speculate that Einstein was a fraud for laying (or accepting) a personal claim on the hard work and genius of his predecessors and peers which included his first wife. His complicity in military research has been veiled to support his public stance as a pacifist. Einstein’s zionism is downplayed by his mainstream biographers but there is no evidence that he was not idealogically complete and commited to the World Zionist cause. In 1921, Einstein made his first trip to the United States with Chaim Weizmann, president of the WZO, to promote the Jewish interests in Palestine and the building of Hebrew University. A legacy of that visit was the formation of a zionist “Physicians Committee” in New York.

   Einstein established a special relationship with Caltech between 1931 and 1933, prior to his permanent U.S. residency in Princeton, New Jersey, at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS). The IAS was founded by Abraham Flexner and funded by the Bambergers in 1930. Co-incident with IAS’s founding was the construction of Rockefeller Center in NYC. The small town of Princeton was also home to Rockefeller’s Department of Animal Pathology (DAP). DAP infamously developed a human-swine bacterial mutant in 1937, intentionally infecting a herd at one of its experimental (open air) farms that may be the first genuine occurrance of “swine flu” involving human genes.

   Abraham Flexner was the younger brother of Simon Flexner, longtime director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research(RIMR) in Manhattan and also Bernard Flexner who was well known as a leading American Zionist. Abraham Flexner presided over Rockefeller’s General Education Board and helped to co-found premier American medical colleges, such as the University of Rochester (essential to the Manhattan Project) and Vanderbilt medical schools.  He is widely known as the creator of the “Flexner Report” in 1910,  a medical school survey that was used to establish accreditation requirements thereafter. Abraham Flexner counted RF trustees Julius Rosenwald and son Lessing J. Rosenwald among his few lifelong associates, as is commonly found between the “associates”  in the Rockefeller/Carnegie foundation network. Julius Rosenwald specifically reserved a grant-making endowment in 1933 for “cultural” Jewish refugee academics who relocated to the U.S. when the 1933 headlines read “Jews Declare War on Germany”. The Rosenwald Fund was disseminated by the “Emergency Committee In Aid of Displaced Jewish Scholars”. Bernard Flexner was a top officer in this prominent organization, however, it was only one among hundreds of “rescue” operations, notable for its selectivity. A larger relocation effort was launched by the British Academic Assistance Council which was sponsored by governors of the London School of Economics, aided by physicist Leo Szilard (Einstein’s friend) and Churchill’s war counselor, Lord Cherwell, the physicist Frederick Lindemann (founder of Clarendon Lab, Oxford). For new readers, this is a taste of Rockefeller’s web-like infrastructure. The cooperation, hegemony, and concensus platform of the RF was in itself a compartment of a larger global network.

Albert Einstein, incidentally, makes a first appearance in Seymour Hersh’s The Samson Option in a footnote on page 25: “According to Shimon Peres, Weizmann approached Albert Einstein, then teaching at Princeton, and asked him to recommend one of his students to run the [Daniel Sieff] institute. Einstein instead suggested [Ernst] Bergmann, who didn’t get the job [at that time] for reasons not known.” On the following page Hersh writes, from an interview with Herman Mark, “Without Bergmann..there would have been no Israeli bomb:…He was the man who completely understood it [nuclear fission]”. Hersh further adds, on page 44, “Herman Mark explained years later why Ben-Gurion had picked the right man: ‘Bergman was one of the few scientists who saw the lamp and knew how to make a light bulb’…in 1979, Shimon Peres eulogized Bergmann..as one of the seven founders of the State of Israel.” It may have gone unnoticed by The Samson Option readers that Hersh introduced Bergmann’s connection to Einstein buried in a footnote. Einstein, who originally “picked the right man”, surely, knew well of Bergmann’s capacity to build a nuclear arsenal for Israel. Between 1934 and 1936, Einstein’s “patent” partner, Leo Szilard, submitted a nuclear reactor design to the British Admiralty, requiring controlled fission and an earlier-than-advertized apprehension of nuclear power. The significant hole in history that is being skirted by all sources cited here, is that “nuclear options” were secretly tabled many years before the public was allowed to know, obtaining the announcements in the heat of WWII and the “race for the bomb” in which Einstein played a tremendously influential role.

Warren Weaver, who is named above as an ‘architect’ of the RF molecular biology program, became the Chairman of the Salk Institute after his retirement from active service as an RF division president. Popular books that trace the history of Jonas Salk never fail to remark upon the “anti-Semitism” of the Rockefeller Institute (RIMR) where Salk aspired to work in research after his MD residency at Mount Sinai Hospital. Salk was rejected (we can say “distanced”) for better “grooming” but was nevertheless taken well in hand. Salk’s mentor, Thomas Francis Jr., was personally close to the Rockefeller family. Together, Francis and Salk developed flu vaccine for the military under the auspices of the Army Epidemiological Board (AEB or AFEB) during WWII. The war-time AEB was dominated by Rockefeller alumni.

 It was Rockefeller that came to Salk, by appearances, in the late 1950s, providing the bedrock of Salk Institute staff and oversight. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/salk-institute/   

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Rockefeller Foundation officers and trustees, 1913-1930 http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Timeline/Rockefeller_Trustees.html
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Lily Kay’s first printed words, under Acknowledgements read, “My interest in molecular biology, the science and its history, go back a decade and a half, to my days at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. This inspiring intellectual and physical space..initiated a search for answers beyond the scope of the laboratory. …A Smithsonian Fellowship contributed to this project… A grant from the National Science Foundation has aided the writing, and an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship provided an exposure to the wealth of manuscript sources..at the American Philosophical Society Library… I am indebted to the Rockefeller Archive Center for their research grants...”
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From 1991 through 2001, much of what was learned about the use of anthrax as a bioweapon was investigated by Salk Institute fellows. 

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One does not need to be a scientist to intuitively understand the potential of  “upward causation”; the molecular equivalent of the “butterfly effect” which posits that even the minutest ‘force’ of a change-agent can be magnified as it transmits a local effect “upward” into a greater sphere of complexity and force. Upward causation in biology is still not well understood according to Kay who wrote, “..the question of how much we can learn about life by examining its building blocks has not been resolved. Mechanisms of upward causation have been remarkably effective for a finite range of biological phenomena but have not effectively explained some of the primary characteristics of life.” [p17]. From the pen of a true-believer, Kay is telling us that Science must be allowed to progress. Kay’s patrons had narrowed their Vision in the past, choosing from the “multiplicity of biological realities..that could have been singled out and promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation during the 1930s.”  But this does not square with the multiplicity of Rockefeller realities. The primary characteristics of life were never to be found in petri dishes or between the sheets of one-inch-square glass. “Theoretical biology” was not to be indulged in on the Rockefeller dime.

On this, at least, the message is discernibly clear: “..a molecular vision of life…is embedded in the matrix that linked the particular forms of social control sought by that agenda with the specific kinds of control supplied by the new biology.”

For more on how the Rockefeller Foundation implemented its “fully articulated” program and staffed its institutions in 1933, and onward, read http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/30/the-displaced-scholars/

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