The proof of pre-selection of the Kennedys to politically ascend and act on behalf of Jewish world interests is not a daunting task from the perspective of nuclear proliferation. Arguments against a Limited Test Ban have always been clear –encouragement of the ‘inevitable’ technologies through secret development. Channels of nuclear traffick need few proofs in the post-Prohibition era and medical usages alone are adequate examples, but what escapes the history books are cohesive explanations of early atomic development and its sponsors. We are supposed to believe that atomic bomb projects sprang into existence following the Hahn and Strassman fission experiment in 1938. The claim in Lewis Strauss’s book, Men and Decisions, about an experimental bomb project in the Sahara under the collaboration of the French and Union Miniere is a carefully placed confession in his legacy paper of 1962. In his role of an international Jewish banker with Kuhn, Loeb & Co., Strauss gives his own account of personal proliferative actions in these excerpts:
“Following the deaths of both my parents (in 1935 and 1937), I became aware of the inadequate supply of radium for the treatment of cancer… the demand was so great that the stock was divided into milligrams. Dr. James Ewing, then director of Memorial Cancer Hospital in New York, told me that if he had enough radium he would construct a ‘bomb’ holding several grams, which he felt might be the answer to the treatment of deeply located cancers.” [p163] ..Toward the end of 1937…Dr. Arno Brasch and Dr. Leo Szilard, having learned of my interest, approached me through Francis Rosenbaum, a mutual friend. They asked me to finance them in the construction of a ‘surge generator’ [particle accelerator] with which they wished to explore nuclear phenomena in high-energy ranges… Brasch and Szilard believed that it would be possible to produce radioactive isotopes of many elements..by surges of current at very high voltages… Radioactive cobalt could be made, they calculated, at a cost of a few dollars per gram. Cobalt had certain advantages over radium..[it] is rapidly excreted. I foresaw the possibility of producing this isotope in quantity and of giving it to hospitals as a memorial to my parents.” [JL>> Edward Teller told the authors of ‘Energy and Conflict’ (1974) that he first met LLStrauss’s still lively mother in 1948 at Temple Emanu-El in NYC, information not repeated in Teller’s ‘Memoirs’ of 2001. Strauss and Teller had become good friends and allies according to both men. As noted in Part One, Brasch, Szilard and Strauss had established a relationship in an earlier deal for a particle accelerator, brokered through Cuba]
…”Brasch was a refugee from Germany. Before coming to the United States, he and a colleague Fritz Lange, had pioneered high-voltage work in Europe [i.e. atop Mount Generoso in the 1920s]..with the assistance of German industry, constructing a surge generator near Berlin… The high energy device built in Germany was the result of interest by the Allgemeine Electizitaets Gesellschaft, the large stockholder-owned electrical firm. Its board of directors had concluded that the ‘artificial transmutation of elements was a field that should be explored’. Brasch had invented discharge tubes which stood up..[to] as much as four million volts. At about that time, his partner Lange had been invited to Russia on the representation that the Soviet government would give him unlimited assistance… [and was] reported to be building a plant at Kharkov as early as 1937. Impressed… I decided to help them… First, I approached the Westinghouse Company with which I had business connections… I then approached my neighbor, John Lee Pratt of Fredericksburg Virginia, who was a director of the General Motors Corporation..[and] visited Detroit to see Charles F. Kettering..whom I was later to know well… My inadequate presentation failed to interest him in the production of radioisotopes. I then visited two friends, Drs. Irving Langmuir and W.D. Coolidge in Schenectady at the laboratory of the General Electric Company..but the top management..felt that nuclear energy was ‘for the science fiction fans’. One could not help contrasting the attitude at that time of American and German industrialists. Dr. Coolidge did me the inestimable favor of providing me an opportunity to meet Ernest Orlando Lawrence, whose friendship for the following twenty years was one of the finest experiences of my life.” [JL>> Lawrence had been producing radioisotopes for commercial medical use since 1931. His brother John Lawrence was participating in making them at the Berkeley Rad Lab and taking them for testing on patients at San Francisco General– the hospital soon became the ‘busiest’ polio hospital in the country]
…”[At the time, 1937] Lawrence’s project [was] for a hundred million-volt cyclotron. Lawrence came to see me..to express ‘gratitude’ for my assistance in finding some funds ‘for the project closest to my heart –crossing the frontier of one hundred million volts’. What I did for him..I have no recollection of… and by 1939 I was already deeply committed to Brasch and Szilard. Most of the cost of [Lawrence’s] cyclotron was financed by Mr. Rockefeller. At this point, I turned to Mr. [Herbert] Hoover..[to] arrange for me to talk with Robert A. Millikan [the chief of Caltech]..as they were co-trustees of the Huntington Library in Pasadena… Millikan..asked me to lay the matter before Dr. Goetz of his faculty..on his way back..from Europe. Millikan wrote me on January 29, 1938 to say that he had received Goetz’s report of our conversations… Millikan wrote me again on February 12..’If Dr. Brasch were to carry out his projects here, he would add effectively to the group and would undoubtedly be able to reach higher potentials by his method than could be obtained by any other. The so-called Van de Graaff method should be capable..of 10,000,000 volts and Dr. Brasch thinks he could go to..even 50 [million]…How matter would behave under bombardment of such voltages of electrons, we do not know’… He wrote,’The possibility of making radioactive substances artificially which would replace radium is only one objective, and from our point of view, not the most interesting..or promising.’ [p167] [JL–Radium had its own strategic military value besides glo-paint; it was also an important stand-in for scarce wartime bomb fuel in live animal and human experiments]
…”Millikan offered to put at my disposal the facilities of the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, ‘a building which was especially designed for very high potential work with unusually large clearances and with big power facilities needed for this project, all in place.’ ..In due course the work was begun. Dr. Richard C. Tolman, who was the dean of the graduate school, then acting for Dr. Millikan, regularly billed me for..expenses with the exception of salaries which I paid directly. The project continued even after the developments..in 1939 as the result of the ‘discovery in Germany’… Seventeen years later (in December of 1955) Dr. Hahn, then in his seventy-fourth year, was dining at my home and gave us an account of the historic discovery. [p169] …[Hahn said] ‘When we had the results of our experiment, we could not understand why we had barium in the stuff. We had not started with any barium. I wrote to Lise and she replied with a letter..[and] pointed out that what had happened was that we had fissioned the uranium atom.’ [JL>> Hahn and Strassman, maybe not the sharpest knives in the drawer, were Lise Meitner’s assistants who stayed in Germany to prove a “German discovery” for fission. This discovery laid the basis for a claim of an ‘atomic bomb race’ with the Nazis. H&S remained in Germany for the duration of the war and were well-rewarded afterwards]
…”Dr. Szilard, on January 25, 1939, wrote to me about it and his letter is historic in its first mention of ‘atomic bombs’… I asked Szilard to meet me in New York..for further discussion… [p171] …[Szilard wrote to say] ‘I found that the Radium Chemical Co. had in stock 200 milligrams of radium mixed with beryllium, which is a nice constant source of fast neutrons… As Fermi said that he would like to use such a neutron source for his experiment, I felt I ought to get it for him.. so I thought it might be best that I should advance expenses of this type and to see..whether you could sanction the expenditures…’ [p173] [JL>> the famous Einstein Letter sent to FDR and composed by Szilard, warning of the potential of ‘new’ weapons, was not written until August 1939, neither delivered until October]
[end excerpts pp163-173, Men and Decisions]
L L Strauss
Recalling the words of Boris Pregel (from part two) who helped ensure an abundance of ‘medically’ available radium, it’s worth a closer look at the radium-bearing uranium supply from the Canadians who brought in their mines from the distant Northwest Territories in 1931 thanks to “flying wheelbarrows” and bush pilots (North American polio cases spiked dramatically in ’31-’32, incidentally). Pregel said, “The monopoly of radium which Union Miniere had went on for many years till the Canadians came in with their own material [and] their refinery, Port Hope… they began to sell, to compete with the Belgians. They did it because they didn’t have the necessary distribution channels… practically nobody…”. But they did have the ore, discovered by flyover in 1929: “Initial confirmation of what LaBine had found –ore containing up to 53 percent uranium oxide– came by radio in August … There followed a blitz of blanket claim-staking.. called the world’s first big airplane mining rush. It was a rich man’s rush… [By] the summer of 1931 there were 13 planes servicing the area, many of them flying 24 hours a day..permitted by the absence of night. By 1936, air travel in this remote region..was carrying more freight than all the United States airlines combined.” http://db.world-nuclear.org/reference/grand.html I have yet to find a testimonial to the methods of Canadian radium distribution that would have given the Belgians a run for their money, but considering this was happening during Prohibition, the ponderables follow the logic of the day. The official oversight of Canada’s mineral wealth was as corrupt as its legendary liquor licensing proceedures.
The U.S., of course, was not without radium supplies –the Standard Chemical Co. of Pittsburgh started operations in 1911 and sold at the going rate of $150,000 per gram (multiply by 28 for the ounce price), ostensibly outmarketed by Union Miniere between 1922 and 1926. In those days it took 500 tons of ore to produce one gram of radium and 7 tons of chemicals to process one ton of ore. Presumably, the high-grade Canadian yellowcake cut costs all around. However, creative products like “radium fertilizer” which were probably depleted uranium, kept Americans in business for longer than the competition would suggest. For the record, I have no knowledge of any legal restrictions on the sale or transport of radium before WWII.
the Liquor Man, Mr. Samuel Bronfman
By the time the Great Bear Lake uranium was spotted, Sam Bronfman had already assured his fortune. Biographer Nicholas Faith wrote that Bronfman’s “partnership with the mighty and deeply repectable Scottish Distillers Company Limited [DCL] was his greatest single coup in the 1920s. It marked an enormously important step up the social, commercial, and financial ladder and was the key to the whole of his subsequent career …largely thanks to the association he forged with the Scots.. [Bronfman] emerged as the largest distiller in Canada” [p70, The Bronfmans, Rise and Fall of the House of Seagram, 2006] Bronfman’s “coup” with the Scots at DCLwas a distinctive competitive victory for this obsessive “control freak” who angled out his rival Joe Kennedy. Faith’s admiring treatment of Mr. Sam ranks the animosity felt for Kennedy Sr. early, on page four: “The contrast comes over most clearly in the way Bronfman and Kennedy were regarded by the mighty Distillers Company..which dominated the Scotch business… Ronald Weir [wrote] in the official history of the company that ‘Kennedy was difficult to deal with, signing contracts and immediately challenging their interpretation… And whereas Bronfman was totally faithful to his beloved wife, Kennedy was the most notorious of sexual athletes –and it would have been unthinkable for Sam to have allowed his daughter to be lobotomized as did Joe Kennedy.’ ” Faith picks it back up to write that “While Bronfman was tarred through his associations with bootleggers, Kennedy’s far closer relationships lasted long enough for them to be put to good use in ensuring that Illinois voted for his son John in 1960.” [p4] Mr. Faith may be adding to the Bronfman family myth in his choice and placement of events but emerging through his pages in any respect is an exceedingly ugly character portrait of a viciously natured man who resented his own driving need to claw his way to “respectability”. Mr. Sam’s grudges, it seems, are long outliving their origins. Faith gives his readers this thought: “In the words of Rabbi Arthur Herzberg, ‘The law had always been the enemy of the Jews; to circumvent it was often the only way to survive, and therefore to outfox authority was a praiseworthy act.’ ” [p56]
Joe Kennedy appears to have been no more than a rival distributor with a Scotch DCL concession at a time when “the Bronfmans naturally concentrated on the much bigger American market… a permanent move..that, from a business point of view, largely removed them from the Canadian scene…[but] By the late 1920s much of the Bronfmans business was being transacted not in the United States but at Seagram’s new head office in Montreal..[where] Sam could rely on a handful of middlemen. The most important were Joseph Reinfeld and Lew Rosenstiel..one of the more unappetizing characters in the whole story [who] was, in a way, the mirror image of Mr. Sam. [pp64-65] ..Before Repeal, Rosenstiel had acquired and built up the important firm of Schenley, with..capital raised..[by the] banking firm of Lehman Brothers… Mr. Sam..bought a 20 percent stake in Schenley.” [p66] ‘Rosie’, as he was often known, was accused during divorce proceedings from his fourth wife of being the “organizer of parties at which J. Edgar Hoover could frolic in his favorite frocks..[with] boy prostitutes for the enjoyment of other guests like Roy Cohn. According to the fourth Mrs. Rosenstiel.. it was the blackmail potential of the conversations recorded on the microphones Rosenstiel..had installed throughout the house that allegedly explained Hoover’s refusal to pursue the Mafia. For it was at Lew’s place that Hoover met some of Rosenstiel’s business associates..like Frank Costello, Sam Giancana of Chicago, Santo Trafficante of Florida, Angelo Bruno..and Meyer Lansky, a close friend…” [p66]
Arthur Schlesinger Jr. wrote that “In 1930 the Prohibition Bureau was transferred [from the Treasury Dept.] to Justice.” [p252]… “Mr. Hoover became the director [back] in 1924… Appointed by Attorney General Harlan Stone..to clean up a corrupt operation… The director proved himself adept..”[p246] And if Mrs. Rosenstiel was right about him, already controlled by the Mob before his expanded duties came by transfer. “The FBI [was] the largest single unit within Justice.” [p245, Robert Kennedy and His Times] Just after this, in 1931, the town of Las Vegas which was little more than a train-stop between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City, sold its first legal gaming license.
Making the Desert Bloom
Las Vegas is certainly one expression of what a lot of cheap electricity can do. Another Hoover legacy –Herbert Hoover– was to bring the ‘Six Companies’ in to build his dam before he left the Presidential office. During his eight years as the Secretary of Commerce he was noted for an inordinate amount of preoccupation with local and regional public utilities. H. Hoover’s prescience in the ’20s was to get the Interior Department moving on a hydroelectric program that would overprovide for the nation until the twenty-first century –a fortuitously indispensible commodity for the future Manhattan Project. The Treasury may have shifted off its supervision of the Prohibition Bureau in 1930 but it still had jurisdiction over the U.S. Public Health Service. 1930 brought the USPHS one its great expansions in the building of military hospitals under Secretary Andrew Mellon. The same year, Congress passed the legislation that created the National Institutes of Health. It would take a book to fill in enough details over time to show that long-term planning in the business of pre-selection was applied to the United States in the creation of the atomic bomb. Less space, however, a lot less, is needed to demonstrate that Japan was targeted by pre-selection too, before the war. And if “they” could do this, how hard was it staging for Kennedy?
winged guardian of the Hoover Dam
For his part, Lewis L. Strauss was to publicly speak for the anti-Communist right. His greatest role in government was to ultimately oversee the fullest use of nuclear arms and development, both behind the scenes as a Kuhn Loeb banker and a direct instrument of proliferation (in the guise of its most ardent watchdog). In the specific organization of necessary elements to steer the successful execution of JFK’s assassination, no one appears more essentially vested and qualified than he. Two more sections of autobiographical excerpts below describe some of Strauss’s accomplishments during WWII in the Navy. In March of 1941, with the Bomb well on its way, Strauss received orders for active duty, “ten months before Pearl Harbor”. He described his call to service:
[pp132-134, Men and Decisions] “The orders assigned me to duty with the Bureau of Ordnance… I had become acquainted with Admiral W.R. Furlong, chief of the bureau, just as these orders arrived he was transferred to a command in the Pacific. The new chief of bureau..by reason of..ability, had been promoted over officers senior to him, was Rear Admiral William Henry Purnell Blandy… By professional specialty, he was a gunner –a ‘battleship admiral’– and proud of that tag… Blandy’s first action was to reorganize completely the Bureau of Ordnance…[T]he staff of only eighty regular officers..spread experience very thin. In consequence, the reserve officers had great opportunities… Some of us (myself in particular) were assigned to responsibilities for which we were unprepared… I was placed in charge of ordnance inspection with the astonshing designation General Inspector of Ordnance… “As we had only a handful of qualified men, the first step was to train more immediately. I arranged for a school for inspectors..by dragooning civilian friends and acquaintances, [and] recruited some hundreds of men… [N]ine months later there was a trained staff of INOs (Inspectors of Naval Ordnance) at all the major centers of manufacturing… There were also many of these plant inspectors for the Bureau of Ships, the Bureau of Aeronautics, and other Navy Bureaus and offices…independent of one another, even in the same plant… This led to the obvious conclusion that there should be one naval inspection service…