The second installment of this piece is aimed to faithfully carry on the rough chronology of part I –all of it being supplemental to the JFK Conspiracy Con which posits nuclear trafficking, legal and not, on top of the list of motives for Kennedy’s assassination. It’s well-known that by the middle of his term, Kennedy was expressing persistent concern over the dangers of radioactive fallout. That fact alone made his “natural enemy” the former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Lewis Strauss, the No.1 nuclear dissembler, who dismissed the fallout hazard as no more dangerous than sunshine and less threatening than an X-ray. Strauss’s friend and ally physicist Edward Teller famously attempted to inform JFK in 1961 that radiation is healthful (and was rebuffed). It’s also possible that Kennedy sons, John Jr. and Patrick, were afflicted with radiation-induced disease and the parents became aware of it. In addition, it’s my personal operating belief that JFK was chosen as early as 1952 for the inevitable nuclear showdown-to-come, as long as the candidate didn’t self-destruct. He seemed always on the verge– Phil Graham of the Washington Post said during the 1960 campaign, when consulted on a choice of vice-president, that whomever Jack Kennedy took for a running mate would soon be President.
Eugene Meyer, owner Washington Post, P.G.’s father-in-law (d.1959)
Phil Graham killed himself with a shotgun on August 3, 1963. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKgrahamP.htm
* Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1895-1974)
The contributions to JFK assassination research about the participant groups, either with foreknowledge or working relationships, point to common threads in the nuclear industry; what we must think of as a gateway to more advanced technologies coming from the same contractor pool (General Dynamics under the ownership of Henry Crown is a good example) and their corporate heirs. By 1960, as Hans Bethe claimed, the weaponolgy of H-bombs had reached its peak. There wasn’t much more to be done developmentally to improve on bombs for military use. Even Teller left his statement that bombs over 10 megatons (10 million tons of TNT force) lost their excess energy to space. Tests of these behemoths, done through the 1950s and onward, amounted to mass terror and biological warfare in the hands of what Pierre Curie called “the great criminals” (Nobel Prize speech of 1903). Ernest Rutherford added a rejoinder in 1904: his wish to have nuclear experimentation postponed to some enlightened future time (in other words, probably never). Rutherford was an obstacle. Both men died prematurely from radiation-related disease.
Lewis Strauss remained a stalwart for testing to the very end. In 1964 he was back on Capitol Hill stumping for a reversal of the Limited Test Ban, working the dialectic, publishing articles and assembling pressure groups. He had been making public claims about fallout-free weapons since 1954, ironically when the levels of radioactivity began skyrocketing. As his biographer Richard Pfau noted, “more than any other individual, Lewis Strauss shaped the atomic energy policy of the United States…[p219]…It would not be exaggeration to call Strauss the father of the nuclear power industry… Strauss’s position on weapons tests had been consistent.”[p220, No Sacrifice Too Great] Consistency, fortunately, has been good currency in this case, rewarding the investigation with solid information, sense and plausibility when there was little to go on. Unfortunately, the ramifications are dire: radiological warfare on ourselves, and presently getting worse. Dr. Rosalie Bertell called it our “death crisis”. Lewis Strauss had something to say about death “four months before [dying]..Strauss wrote ..[that] good and evil struggled incessantly, and..everyone was ‘enjoined to choose between good and evil, between life and death’ ” [p252, No Sacrifice Too Great] For his part, Strauss was autocratically consistent in his righteousness. His wife told the biographer “in a rare written comment, Strauss had developed an emotional attachment to the power he wielded over policy.” [p216, ibid.] In effect, it was obvious from the time that his activities became a matter of public record during World War II. Strauss thought of his war duty as “public service” and called his Pentagon period under Forrestal “these days of grace.” He not only lobbied for the Office of Naval Research, he shaped its operations and recruited staff. “The ONR proceeded to work out a program by which contracts were made with universities for basic research… Men who had vowed..[to] never do any work after the war for either Armed Service found themselves doing so” [p148, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962]
Wartime extended Strauss’s influence further to leadership at Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study [IAS] and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research [SKI]. He became a lifetime trustee of the American Cancer Society under Lasker control. He was still an active leader of Kuhn Loeb &Co., a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and its subsidiary-like Business Advisory Committee, an executive of the American Jewish Committee and “the Jews’ War President”. The next step for Strauss on the Atomic Energy Commission forbade him by law to engage in “any other business” –he was required to resign his partnership in Kuhn Loeb– to which he readily acceded. The initial contentiousness that flourished on the original Commission chaired by David Lilienthal evaporated under the chairmanship of Lewis Strauss: “Strauss was to have unlimited power… there would be lavish funds and inordinate publicity… great gifts Strauss was able to channel to his friends after he remade the Atomic Energy Commission in 1953-54.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, by Nuel Pharr Davis, 1968]
On his comeback as AEC Chairman in 1953, Strauss also began to forge a relationship on-the-record with J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. The men planned to cultivate special secret agents paid by the FBI but answerable to the AEC chairman. Since 1947 occasional high-profile security breaches had threatened the civilian AEC with military intervention. Little had changed with respect to missing materials. The new approach with joint FBI/AEC agents to spy on operations as embedded employees was intended to preserve the AEC’s autonomy. The joint special agent program is made to look like a flop, even after two years of activity (1953-54), but is one of the most intriguing elements bearing on Lee Harvey Oswald’s profile. The FBI/AEC recruits were specifically of his type. Oswald was getting paid by the FBI. Was he working for Strauss? Whatever the answer might be, the joint special agent program fizzled or disappeared at an interesting time in 1954, the year that Strauss infamously went on a vindictive campaign to oust Robert Oppenheimer from the nuclear establishment. With full cooperation from J.E. Hoover and the FBI, Strauss erected an unlawful net of wiretaps and had the agents tailing Oppenheimer’s every move. Many of the people involved thought Strauss was exploiting McCarthy’s Red Scare but he appears to have planned it following the triumphant approval of the ‘Super’ (H-bomb) crash program by President Truman in January of 1950. Oppenheimer was deeply opposed to the Super. Strauss and Oppenheimer in the meantime still had to work together as administrative colleagues at Princeton’s IAS; Strauss, as IAS board president, had in fact hired Oppenheimer to direct the Institute in 1946. He laid in wait at least 4 years, if not longer, to bring the man to ruin.
Strauss’s one respite from pursuing Oppenheimer in early ’54 was a trip to the Marshall Islands to witness the thermonuclear ‘Bravo’ test (Castle series), the only test he ever attended. Castle-Bravo is possibly the most controversial of all U.S. nuke tests; Japanese fishermen died and local Marshallese were irradiated and displaced. It was not an accident. “During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin, 1988]…”“Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said] ‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’” [p61, Day of Two Suns] Strauss wrote, “It was the first time, so far as I am aware, that public attention had been called to the subject of fallout…” [p410, Men and Decisions] “people began to worry about the risks from radiation that followed such tests. So well did the resulting outcry fit Soviet objectives to eliminate nuclear weapons that Strauss suspected the Japanese fishermen might have been Soviet agents.” [p190, No Sacrifice Too Great] He enlisted the CIA to investigate.
As far as I know, the plight of the Marshalls or the responsibility of the AEC chairman was not included in the charges against Strauss during the 1959 Senate hearings for his confirmation as Secretary of Commerce. Fallout, however, was an issue. “According to [Clinton] Anderson, the administration actually was augmenting the fallout content of bombs in the existing stockpile.” [p217, No Sacrifice Too Great] The biographer wrote, “He probably should have turned down the president’s offer to join the cabinet…” [p242, ibid.] To the contrary, Strauss held out for the post and rejected a series of offers that included “permanent chairman” of the AEC and White House Chief of Staff. “When Strauss declined this offer, the president asked whether he might like to replace Secretary Dulles… Finally, Eisenhower suggested..secretary of commerce… Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it… Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War..” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
After the vote-down from Congress, “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued his parting statement…[p240, No Sacrifice Too Great] He soon followed up with his semi-autobiographical Men and Decisions –perhaps the real parting statement which closes with these words: “Now, we are told, we stand at the threshold of an era when it will be possible for man to abdicate both the right and responsibility of free decision and to delegate it to the machine… thereupon decisions will emerge which are to send us to war or lull us to sleep. They will be decisions for which no man will bear responsibility –decisions as coldly impersonal as..the device… For what machine can ever apply the considerations of compassion and justice..that affect his future in the world and in the universe?” [p430, Men and Decisions]
I wonder how Strauss’s readers in 1962 perceived his enigmatic closer. Taking liberties with the last paragraph, I edited out the specific references to hardware (“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”) because they are not definitions of a machine, although his allusion to electronics is very interesting and significant to his meaning. No pile of hardware, obviously, makes decisions or ever will. Our government is a machine. But Strauss was fighting “tomorrow’s war today”. His machine, the device of his devising that he spent all his life energy on, was “coldly impersonal” and he remained its decider, or so one assumes. There’s not much in the memoirs to suggest exactly how Strauss fit into the hierarchy of the greater machine in which he was part, but in the largest measure that’s the point here; to discern what part of “decisions for which no man will bear responsibilty” can be ascribed to him. Part II chronology picks the details back up with the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. who died from a mishap with electronic remote control.
Harry Byrd Sr.
Joe Kennedy Jr.
“Joe Jr. graduated from Choate in the spring of 1933..the exemplar of what a Choate graduate should be… [He] might have headed to Harvard in the fall, but his father had a different idea…[JPK Sr.] enrolled Joe at the London School of Economics, a fervidly intellectual atmosphere full of Socialists and others who fancied themselves on the cutting edge of economic and political theory.” [p81, The Kennedy Men, by Laurence Leamer, 2001] “[Harold] Laski saw that young Joe had character and an incomparable zest for life… ‘He had set his heart on a political career,’ Laski recalled. ‘He..often sat in my study and submitted..his determination to be nothing less than President of the United States.’ “[p82, ibid.] Joe Jr. stayed the year in London, finished his courses and set off in the summer of 1934 for a tour of Europe.
Back in Washington D.C., Joe Kennedy Sr. was assuming his duties as chairman of the new Securities and Exchange Commission, the circumstance which brought him under the scrutiny of Arthur Krock of the New York Times. “I had encountered Joseph P. Kennedy several times in the entourage that accompanied Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt..in 1932..But not until 1934, when President Roosevelt appointed Kennedy to the..[SEC]..did I become really acquainted with him.” [p330, Memoirs, Arthur Krock, 1968] Krock described meeting Joe Sr. “to take the measure of the man” on the recommendation of “two friends..Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.” [p331, ibid.] The Wall Streeters were worried about Kennedy. By 1935 Krock “began to be an intimate of the family under the sponsorship of the patriarch, Joseph Patrick himself… In their feudal family structure the eldest son..was designed by the patriarch to be the first Roman Catholic President of the United States, and it was only because of his fatal valor in the Second World War that the quest descended to the second son.” [p328-329, ibid.]
The ‘Anvil’ mission that killed Joe Jr. and his copilot on August 12, 1944 was the seventh in a series (of 15) operations under the Army Air Force called ‘Aphrodite’, but the first to be run by the Navy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Aphrodite
Kennedy’s bomber malfunction had a unique outcome; it was the only one to “prematurely detonate”. According to the oral history of Emanuel Piore who worked for the office of Chief of Naval Operations, “we were the group that killed Joe Kennedy.” Piore, who worked over a decade prior in the labs of CBS and RCA, never mentioned any other personal involvement.
Joe had the opportunity to leave England and go home the previous May. He wrote to his parents on May 8, “I have finished my missions…but volunteered to stay another month…” Biographer Leamer adds “Joe Jr..wanted to be there for D-Day…And so, on June 6, he flew as part of a massive grid protecting the invading forces from German submarines… not one ship..was lost to the German sub[s]… back home everyone expected his imminent arrival in time for his [30th] birthday on July 25… [but] Joe..knew that he would not be returning a hero…” [pp209-210, The Kennedy Men] It had been nearly a year since JFK stole the honors of War Hero in the PT-109 episode. In that ensuing year, the U.S. navy pilots at Dunkeswell grew accustomed to daily danger. “When he opened his letters from home, [Joe] discovered inevitably that Jack was the big news –Jack’s sickness, Jack’s appearances, Jack’s publicity, Jack’s future…” [p206]…”All that Joe Jr. wanted in family life was to be first…’In their long brotherly..rivalry, I expect this was the first time Jack had won such an ‘advantage’ by such a clear margin,’ Rose wrote in her autobiography.” [p196, ibid.] Sometime around the third week in July, “Joe..was..packing up his gear when he was called into the squadron office and told about an extraordinary secret mission code-named ‘Anvil’…[He] volunteered immediately… He figured that he had a fifty-fifty chance of surviving and those odds were good enough… Joe..transferred..to the base at Fersfield…” Things went wrong from the start. “Training flights had gone astray. The project was raked with silly bureaucratic ineptitude. Serious warnings about the faulty electrical system had been smothered by the command. The whole project reeked… On the evening before the mission, one of the men..tried to warn Joe..that the arming panel..might blow up the plane… Joe Jr. admitted to another officer that he was sorry he had volunteered, but he believed that it was too late to do anything but go on.” [p211-214, The Kennedy Men] Twenty planes escorted the bomber from the Fersfield runways; one of them carried FDR’s son Elliot Roosevelt, sent to capture the event on film. It was over in just a few minutes, as soon as the PB4Y reached travelling altitude. The flash shredded and blew the plane’s remains over the Suffolk countryside and “Then the light was gone.”
“[T]hose who saw Joe [Sr.] said they had never seen a man suffer more and feel more deeply… ‘Joe’s death has shocked me beyond belief,’ Joe wrote James Forrestal, the secretary of the navy..” [p220, The Kennedy Men] As of July 1944, with the Anvil program going forward, Lewis Strauss took up daily residence in Forrestal’s office. “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946. The secretary assigned him specific projects, one after another… Strauss..preferred this sort of work to the routine of managing subordinates.” [p76, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss was not only positioned to know the details of Anvil, but he was required to know –the Chief of Naval Operations was a deputy office under the Secretary of the Navy. If Anvil was one of the projects Strauss worked on, it was still classified Top Secret information when he published Men and Decisions in 1962. Were he delivering a threat to the Kennedys, any reference to Anvil would have to have been oblique yet specific enough to arouse their attention –”transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”; the machine that impersonally took the life of Joe Kennedy.
The Kennedys’ tragedy was retrospectively compounded by the failure of Operation Aphrodite/Anvil. Joe’s mission was to strike the V-3 supergun site under construction at Mimoyecques, already successfully hit by the RAF five weeks earlier in June. The site never became operational. The few completed V-3 sites that did fire their fixed-position guns in 1945 were strategically useless and quickly abandoned. Strauss left one suggestive statement in his memoir forecasting Anvil and hinting at his participation: “Early in 1943..British intelligence..had heard of a project called ‘Athodyd’ reported to be a..pilotless aircraft to bomb Britain… Admiral Blandy read the message at a staff meeting..and it was the concensus opinion that this was most likely more of the ‘secret weapon’ propaganda…Captain Sam Shumaker and I, however, felt that there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
The Athodyd program was real; these were the V-1 flying bombs against which the Navy’s VT proximity fuse-equipped missiles proved so indispensible –all about the same time period, just prior to Anvil. “The fuze was especially effective in destoying the V-1 bombs that Germany began to use against London on June 12, 1944…Approximately 500 heavy antiaircraft guns were moved to the Channel coast where they could engage the bombs before they reached..England
…” [p349 (Navy Bureau of Ordnance document) http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Admin-Hist/USN-Admin/USN-Admin-8.html
] Strauss was proud of his role in developing the VT fuse. “Next to the atom bomb, the proximity fuze represented in many respects the outstanding new weapon development of World War II… A tremendous amount of research and exploratory work was done
[beginning in 1940]… Early in the war a number of high level scientists, including Dr. Albert Einstein, were employed by the Bureau under personal service contracts
.[p326, Ordnance doc]…Information was furnished [to] the Bureau and the NDRC
[National Defense Research Council] by the British technical mission, headed by Sir Henry Tizard which visited the United States in 1940 as to the status of proximity fuzes in Great Britain.
” [p346, ibid.] Tizard also brought news of the MAUD committee, Britain’s prospectus on building a nuclear bomb. It’s generally believed that Tizard did not then know how far the American effort toward atomic weapons had already come but he was soon to learn about it while unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a supply of uranium oxide for the British project; ore from the Congo that was sitting on a dock by the Bayonne Bridge in New York. As far as the military was concerned, the attention of weapons development was mandated to war-winning munitions like the fuze and the all-important implementation of radar. The basic uncertainty of the ‘uranium problem’ was cause for marginal consideration. The massive VT-fuse program then became a bridge to next-generation armaments by establishing the fundamental nexus that eventually created guided-missile nuclear warheads.
By 1940 radiological warfare was a promising reality even if the explosive potential of nukes could never be achieved. “Neutron and gamma radiation, radioactive dust scattered into the air could be as deadly as blast and heat… The MAUD group had known about these factors from the first..” [p156-157, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel]
[article 3] It must be noted that men with bad instincts are more in number than the good and therefore the best results in governing them are attained by violence and terrorization…
[article 7] In our day the power which has replaced that of the rulers..is the power of Gold… The despotism of Capital..is entirely in our hands…
[article 24]…by the doctrine of severity..we shall triumph and bring all governments into subjection to our super-government. It is enough for them to know that we are too merciless…
[article 5]…we shall show our strength to one of them.. and to all, if we allow..a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America or China or Japan.
The Guns of Japan
Going back to the money trail of the 1904 Russo-Japanese war: “The primary mover was Jacob Schiff..whose firm was brought into the consortium of Parr’s Bank and the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank by Lord Revelstoke and the shadowy Ernest Cassel… [A]fter the war had ended..the Rothschilds finally enter[ed] center stage… Lord Rothschild insisted that he replace Cecil Parr as head of the consortium…
[Lord Rothschild wrote:] ‘The Japanese are a remarkable nation, they have proven themselves on land and sea… We have always had great faith in Japan, faith in their military and naval prowess… faith in the resources of their country and still greater faith in the..rulers’…” http://www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/articles/AR2006Japan.pdf
A big winner in the conflict was Bethlehem Steel, later to become a Kuhn Loeb client under Strauss. “In the..Russo-Japanese War, it was Bethlehem steel against Bethlehem steel with the company supplying guns and armor plate for warships to both Russia and Japan.
” The Japanese also “contracted with [Bethlehem's] Fore River shipyard to build five small submarines, a weapon..just coming into its own
By WWI, Bethlehem was positioned to become the world’s largest munitions maker
. “It made 65 percent of the..artillery..of the allied nations.
Incidently, Joe Kennedy Sr. was hired by the Fore River (Quincy, MA) shipyard as assistant general manager just as the new ships slid off the docks and onto the surplus ledger, sold for pennies on the dollar by Albert Lasker. Kennedy likely had his first meeting at Fore River with the Asst. Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
As an allied combatant in World War I, Japan’s navy roamed the Pacific and Indian oceans seizing territory from the Germans. “On August 7, 1914, the British government officially asked Japan for assistance …Japan..formally declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914
..[and] quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East…
[then]sought further to consolidate its position in China…
[In] July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty whereby each pledged not to make a separate peace with Germany, and agreed to..common action should the territory..be threatened by an outside third party. This treaty helped further secure Japan’s hegemony in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia
Among Japan’s new possessions, bestowed by the Paris Peace accords, were the South Sea Islands once known as the Spice Islands, including the Marshalls that were recaptured by the U.S. in 1944 and became the Pacific Proving Ground.
The isolationist period of Japan
ended in 1853 when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry
sailed four warships into Tokyo Bay and threatened to fire on the shore unless the Japanese agreed to a trade treaty. He returned in the winter of 1854 for his treaty with eight ships. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opening_of_Japan
Two prior attempts at opening Japan by Americans had failed; in 1846 and 1849, prompting a show of force.
The Meiji government then “gave significant priority to naval construction… The Imperial Japanese Navy was modeled after the British Royal Navy… British advisors were sent to Japan..while students were in turn sent to the United Kingdom
Japan’s first dozen gunships were made in Britain and France.
>>>Matthew Perry’s daughter Caroline married Rothschild banker August Belmont
(Schonberg); Belmont’s sons were Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont, Perry Belmont, and August Belmont Jr ; August Belmont Jr, as an older widower, married stage actress Eleanor Robson in 1910, the first serious love interest of Strauss’s friend ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan
(OSS). “Eleanor, also devoted much time to raising funds in aid of Belgian relief efforts and for the Red Cross, she made a number of trans-Atlantic trips as an inspector of United States Army camps
“..Kuhn Loeb..financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power, dominant over Korea and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great] As the heir to Jacob Schiff’s mission, Strauss wrote that “in 1926, I had retraced his steps, as told earlier. The then Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Baron Takahashi, and other gentlemen of Japan..had been very hospitable. I..continued a correspondence with most of these men…” [p122, Men and Decisions] “In consequence, my wife and I received a princely welcome… I had an audience with [the Prince Regent] at which the interpreter was a young naval officer, Commander Isoroku Yamamoto, who fifteen years later as admiral..ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor.” [p83, Men and Decisions]
“The highlight of the trip was Strauss’s audience with the prince regent, Hirohito… soon to become emperor of Japan… Hirohito was about the same age as Strauss..[who] found Hirohito extremely well informed about..international politics and even the special relationship between Japan and Kuhn Loeb.” [p37, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss listed his contacts with the Imperial government who were in power at the start of WWII: “Mr. Yamagata, Ministry of Foreign Affairs…Tadeo Wikawa [alternately spelled Ikawa] Japanese Financial High Commissioner in New York…Juichi Tsushima, Bank of Japan… Baron [Takaharu] Mitsui… Eigo Fukai, H. Kashiwagi“..[bankers] and T. Okubo “son-in-law- of my old friend Baron Takahashi who had been assassinated [by nationalists]..in 1936.” The names mean virtually nothing to American schoolchildren, but to the veterans alive in the 60s, some of them were synonymous with Japan’s worst war crimes.
(b.1900–d.1983), for example, owned “Japan’s oldest and largest trading company [that] transported and used the greatest number of Allied POWs as slave laborers. Their mines, factories, and docks were considered among the most hellish… former POWs identified many Mitsui employees as sadists, torturers and murderers
.” Mitsui had personally overseen much of the abuse and was never prosecuted. http://americanpowsofjapan.blogspot.com/2011/10/mitsuis-liberation-dinners.html
The “old friend” Takahashi
(assassinated in 1936) was the foremost modern economist, “Japan’s Keynes”, who put the nation’s currency on the gold standard and its war bonds on the market. Fukai and Okubo were his successive representatives. Yamamoto
, the main planner of Pearl Harbor who was shot down in combat in 1943, had gone to Harvard as a younger man to study the oil industry. Yamamoto was newly installed as a military diplomat in Washington D.C. at the time of Strauss’s trip, perhaps accompanying the Strausses as an escort as well as interpreter. He returned for a two-year duty in the U.S. (1926-1928). All of these men were directed to receive the Maryknoll priests, Father Drought and Bishop Walsh, on their peace mission.
Japan’s emergence as a modern economic and military nation, as yet, had no history in peacemaking. The invasion of Korea in 1895 marked the beginning of a campaign to overrun and control its Asian neighbors as a hedge against the Chinese. Throughout this period, 1895-1945, according to authors Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (The Yamoto Dynasty
and Gold Warriors
), the concerted power bases of the Imperial Japanese launched merciless attacks of systematic looting and genocide to steal the wealth of Asia and hide it on the home islands. As WWII encircled the operations called ‘Golden Lily’ and choked off the transfers, hordes of gold and gems were buried in place or sunk into the sea. Most of the known caches, say the Seagraves, were left in the Philippines by General Tomoyuki Yamashita who was battling for territory against time. “Yamashita’s Treasure”, as it were, had been revealed to Douglas MacArthur through army intelligence from his aide Willoughby and Col. Edward Lansdale, and MacArthur came ashore expecting to find it. Accordingly, the recovered loot was worth a contemporary billion and believed to be only a fraction of what remained. It was turned over as a private reparation that became the Black Eagle Trust
[Seagraves state that] architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to..Roosevelt’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson: John J. McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense) and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury)…
[in Sterling Seagraves' words:]“..a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington… This fund remains in existence today… [T]he vast treasures..were used..to acquire newspapers, magazines, radio and later television throughout the world… [O]nce the..war loot was in the pipeline, drugs and the laundering of drug money replaced gold
John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy (1895-1989) earned the “nickname of ‘Chairman of the Establishment’. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the “Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“…In 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.”
“Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… Two younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..”[p60, The Chairman, by Kai Bird, 1992]..At Cravath’s firm, “McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads.” [p62, ibid.]
“As a consequence of..business [in the mid-1920s] with Brown Brothers, McCloy met Robert Abercrombie Lovett..[whose] father [was] chairman of the Union Pacific [and] neighbor of..Cravath’s on Long Island… At Yale, one of [Lovett's] best friends was F. Trubee Davison, the son of Henry Davison, the J.P.Morgan & Co. partner… Another ruch young man in this charmed circle was W. Averell Harriman..[who] inherited Union Pacific from his father, the legendary robber baron Edward H. Harriman [financed by Kuhn Loeb]. ” [p68, The Chairman]
McCloy had an impressive list of job titles: Asst. Secretary of War (WWII), President of the World Bank (1947-49), High Commissioner of Germany (1949-52), Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1950-53), Chairman of the Ford Foundation (and Trustee, 1953-1965), Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-1970), Chairman of the Salk Institute (subrosa) and appointment to the Warren Commission (1964). Strauss and McCloy both formally resigned their business relationship with Kuhn Loeb at the same time, in 1946.
A version of the Black Eagle Trust story goes like this:
“Gold bullion confiscated from the Reich..was the original source of funding for this trust… [and] would be known by several names: Black Eagle Trust, the Marcos gold, Yamashita’s Gold, the Golden Lily Treasure, the Durham Trust or Project Hammer… The significance of the Nazi gold would pale in comparison to the confiscated Japanese treasure… Heidner presents..evidence to support his thesis that one of the main reasons for the [9-11] attacks was to cover up the laundering of
$240 billion dollars in covert and allegedly illegal bonds, which appear to have been replaced with Treasury notes backed by U.S. taxpayers in the aftermath of September 11…
“Lansdale’s operation in the Philippines gave birth to most of the common features of modern covert operations for U.S. Intelligence: bribery, theft, torture, and false flag operations. It would be Lansdale who would initiate a bond between the US intelligence organizations and Israeli intelligence. It would be Lansdale that would set precedents for the Intelligence community to retain the services of organized crime on U.S. soil. Lansdale would hire American Mafia family heads Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky, and Lucky Luciano in the U.S. war against Fidel Castro in 1961.”
[edited from: http://wanttoknow.info/911/black_eagle_trust_fund
] Um…this second paragraph smacks of misdirection but I do believe any number of somebodies got the mafia involved in moving weapons, cash and drugs. As far as retaining the Mob, the Office of Naval Intelligence enlisted the NY-NJ mobsters to guard the docks of New York Harbor after the USS Normandie incident in 1942. The Navy was abiding a common tradition in business already practiced for decades in America– hiring gang enforcer-protectors.
The “old money” societies of Asia, Mid-East, Mediterranean and Europe were masterfully adept at integrating and insulating their hierarchies of organized crime and the process became distinctively visible in America during Prohibition. The mafia turf wars of 1933-34 appear to have favored the well-connected collaborators.
“…what’s striking about the [Seagraves'] meticulous research..in Gold Warriors is the way the authors singlemindedly pursue the trail of Japan’s pillaged loot from those caves in the Philippines to financing of military endeavors in the Middle East.” http://www.bowstring.net/text/review_gw_rk.pdf
At War’s End
Bill Donovan, head of OSS, was in Kunming China north of Vietnam “when news came of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Donovan turned philosophical… there would be a ‘peaceful interlude’, but sooner or later America would have a showdown with the communist world… Two months later, Donovan phoned Jackson [Justice Robert Jackson, organizer of the Nuremberg trials] and told him U.S. Intelligence had ‘incontestable proof’ the Soviets were ‘in complete possession of the secret of the atomic bomb’... The OSS would be needed in Europe to spy on the Russians..and in Asia to police the Japanese...” [p332, Wild Bill Donovan, by Douglas Waller, 2011]
The ALSOS mission which had been sent into Europe to gather important scientists and documents in advance of occupation forces had a smaller counterpart organized for Japan. Unlike the multi-agency European Alsos made of intelligence delegations, led by Col. Boris Pash and physicist Samuel Goudsmit, Alsos Japan dispatched a geologist to MacArthur in Manila in July of 1945. Don Leet was was no ordinary geologist but a Manhattan Project veteran and explosives expert.
“There were 175 ‘imperial treasure sites hidden throughout the Philippines… According to Ray Cline [CIA] and others, between 1945 and 1947 the gold bullion..was moved discreetly to 172 accounts at banks in 42 countries… Washington had to insist, starting in 1945, that Japan never stole anything, and was flat broke and bankrupt when the war ended… [But] If American conservatives and Japanese conservatives were to ally effectively against communism, they had to begin by enlarging their financial resources for the Cold War.”
[the Seagraves] http://rense.com/general13/treasure.htm
Berkeley-trained physicist Philip Morrison was on Japan’s Alsos team sent to Tokyo after the surrender. Morrison had been part of the Chicago MED (Metallurgical Lab) working with particle accelerators and reactors: “..we were making plutonium, which is only a step to the bomb… I speak of it always as being a neutron engineer
… [We had] plutonium made in the piles
[reactors] by irradiating uranium with neutrons to turn U-238s into plutonium 239, which was a long-lived
[25,000 year half-life], charge-rich nucleus with a very low fission threshold, so that slow neutrons could make it divide
… [Anyway] I had acquired some intelligence interests.
.[and] when the time came for the project to break up..I was in Japan on the government’s business measuring..the site.
[the site:Hiroshima/Nagasaki, along with 'seismic prospector' L. Don Leet]. We from Los Alamos were already out in Tinian Island..so they took whoever was nearby and said, ‘You go into Japan.’ The best we could do, you know. I couldn’t speak any Japanese but they gave me..a language officer..named John Congleton… he was our entire communication medium..and an ensign called Barney O’Keefe..[who] was our watcher and bodyguard.
.. [A] week or two..I spent waiting in the hotels in Tokyo..before we were allowed to move out of the city by talking to the local scientists… A radiologist from the University of Tokyo..began to talk to me..that he knew of the radiation damage because he had worked in Pennsylvania hospitals five years..doing whole body irradiation
[on animals]…[He]said ‘I know about radiation but you Americans carried it further.. You have done the human experiment.’ ..I had to agree with him…you know, to the murder
..[of]making bombs against a whole city… [My] entire tour through Japan
[lasted] for a month after the war
“The Joint Chiefs..ordered on October 30..‘No research..on atomic energy shall be permitted in Japan.’
…[In] November..American military teams proceeded to hack Japan’s five [known] cyclotrons..to pieces. The remains were dumped into the sea.” www.fortfreedom.org/w08.htm
“In the immediate aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, an organizational unit to study atomic-bomb effects began taking shape, coalescing into the Committee on Atomic Casualties, led by Thomas Rivers.. bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute… A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years… ‘The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed
.’ ” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/thomas-m-rivers/
“Before the CIA, there was the Pond”
Unknown to the public after WWII was an officially sanctioned intelligence agency created by the War Department in 1942 called The Pond
. It “existed for 13 years and was shrouded in secrecy for more than 50 years..operated under the cover of multinational corporations, including American Express, Chase National Bank and Philips, the Dutch-based electronic giant… [T]ens of thousands of once-secret documents found in locked safes and filing cabinets in a barn near Culpeper Virginia in 2001..portray a sophisticated organization obsessed with secrecy that operated a network..in 32 countries… The organization counted among its exploits..an effort to enlist..’Lucky’ Luciano..to assassinate..Mussolini; identifying..heavy water plants doing atomic research in Norway; and providing advance information on Russia’s first atomic bomb… The head of the Pond was Col. John
[Jean, "Frenchy"]V. Grombach
..[whose] father was..in the French Consulate in New Orleans. The War Department had tapped Grombach to create the secret intelligence..as a foundation for a permanent spy service… Grombach wrote that the idea..was to use ‘observers’ who would build..relationships
..[rather] than spies who bought secrets… In 1955 The Pond went off the books…
[It had] laid the groundwork..to integrate its activities into the U.S. Rubber Co.’s business operations in 93 countries… The Pond also worked with..Remington Rand… [In time] Grombach began furnishing names to McCarthy on supposed security risks
…[and] It wasn’t long before the..organization largely ceased to exist
Files belonging to The Pond, when picked up in 2001, were in the possession of the Freedom Studies Center of the American Security Council Foundation
(ASCF, est.1958), a private non-profit lobby group for the private American Security Council founded by John Morris Fisher in 1955. Mr. Fisher, then a resident of the town of Culpeper, was the Director for National Security of Sears Roebuck & Co.,
vast holding, and just up the road from the town of Culpeper lay Brandy Rock Farm, Strauss’s 1600-acre estate bought in 1933. Fisher’s obituary reveals his proudest activity: president of the Culpeper Regional Hospital Foundation that also was organized in 1955 to build a medical center of which “Admiral Strauss
[was] one of the founders
Even without a personal connection, The Pond
and the ASCF,
beneficiary of its documents,
bear the imprint of Strauss and his Kuhn Loeb/American Jewish Committee associates. The 1958 founding members of the ASCF include: Ray Cline (CIA, quoted by the Seagraves above), Thomas J. Dodd, Averell Harriman, Henry ‘Scoop’ Jackson, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Sam Rayburn, Nelson Rockefeller, Eugene Rostow, and others. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/American_Security_Council
Origins of the Pond within Military Intelligence (Army G-2) began with the authorization given by General George Strong to Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner to establish “a perpetual, a far-seeing, a far-distant, continuing intelligence service…Kroner selected Grombach..’particularly because [he] could take such instructions..under the terms of the highest secrecy’… Kroner testified after the war that..’only those in the War Department and the State and the President’s office..[and] President himself..knew it existed… A few people at FBI headquarters were also in on the secret… the whole thing was well known to Mickey [D. Milton] Ladd, chief of the FBI’s Domestic Intelligence Division, an ally of Grom
The FBI’s Mickey Ladd, naturally, was later to be a prime conduit for the crosstalk in the Atomic Energy Double Agent Program.
“..Convinced the OSS was infiltrated by the British, French and Russians, Strong set up..his own small espionage unit..secret from Donovan…’the Pond’..began infiltrating spies overseas under State Department and commercial cover…[p117, Wild Bill Donovan]…No one in the OSS could determine exactly what the Pond’s band of spies was doing for the Army’s G-2, but Grombach..kept popping up on Donovan’s radar screen… As near as Donovan’s officers could tell, Grombach had operatives roaming Portugal, Sweden, Hungary and Romania..[and] was also trying to recruit former OSS officers with experience in Turkey and Greece… [He] also collected dossiers on hundreds of OSS officers. [p290, ibid.] Major General Clayton Bissell..replaced Strong..in early 1944..[and was just] as hostile to Donovan.” [p307, ibid.]
“Two and a half weeks after President Truman declared victory, Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to the RCMP [Canadians]… On November 7th, Elizabeth Bently visited the FBI’s New York office and began to recount her role as a courier for two espionage rings in Washington D.C…. She identified as Soviet agents persons in the White House, the State Department, the War Department, [and] the OSS…” http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/highlights-of-history/articles/venona
Elizabeth Bentley made her first approach to the FBI in August of 1945. Then on September 5, Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Embassy cipher clerk in Ottawa, Ontario, defected with documents concerning atomic weapons espionage
. What Bentley and Gouzenko had in common was later to be ‘proved’ by decrypted radio intelligence (sigint) that was collected in Finland
and brought to Stockholm in an operation known as Stella Polaris
(Pole Star). “Stella Polaris was an evacuation of all the Finnish Intelligence officers and their families..to Sweden..[in] September 1944…at least 750 people and 500 pack[ing] boxes of equipment..and documents [were] carried over..on four cargo vessels”
in the middle of the night. But “Stella Polaris is also known as a process about the burnt archives from 1946 until the 1950s… it was
[not until] the 90s in the U.S. when the NSA started publishing secret spy telegrams which had been part of the..system VENONA during the Cold War. Much of the material was..sold in 1944 and 1945 in Stockholm… The Americans became unpleasantly surprised when the Finns revealed that they could read [U.S.] communications all the time.
A reminder from the first part of this article is: ”war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this.” [Men and Decisions]
The British, who trained and virtually ran the neophyte OSS, “would oversee operations in India, the Balkans, the Middle East, and [until1943] Western Europe. Donovan got control of mostly table scraps, such as China and Finland. But he would also run..North Africa.” [p130, Wild Bill Donovan]
According to historian R. Harris Smith the “OSS had made its first Scandinavian inroads..in Finland. Since the Russian invasion..in November 1939, the Finns had considered their conflict..as a separate war. After the German attack on Russia in July 1941, Finland became a ‘co-belligerent’..[with] Berlin in battling the Red Army. In December ['41], under pressure from Moscow, Churchill reluctantly declared war on Finland… Early 1942 saw the Nazis using Finnish territory as a base of operations against Russia.” [p198, OSS, R. Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press]
Finland, as it turned out, became a great crossroads of mixed-purpose espionage and the OSS Stockholm duty evolved into an important listening post for Soviet activity. A number of discussion threads on JFK assassination deal with the relationships generated around the Stockholm base and Stella Polaris operation; even the reasoned expectation that “OSS station
[Stockholm] was in large part controlled by
[Military] Secret Intelligence and..by Grombach… Olsen was a member of OSS Stockholm
[and]identified as a member of Grombach’s Pond group… A suggestion could also be made that Richard Helms was a Grombach man
; this next link, for example, includes Lee H. Oswald http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=3981
American Security Council
Originally called the Midwest Research Library
of Chicago, the few 1954 founding ASC incorporators included General Robert E. Wood
of Sears Roebuck
who notified J. Edgar Hoover with this note: “As you know, the Mid-American Research Library was organized by patriotic businessmen to preserve and expand the Harry A. Jung files. The name..has now been changed to the American Security Council… Its primary mission is the gathering, correlation and dissemination of factual information on Communist strategy and tactics to its members… The Council has the largest and most complete private files on Communism in the country at its main office in Chicago..containing the names of over 1,ooo,ooo individuals and organizations provid[ing] information which the FBI cannot supply since its files are secret.
The Jung files were held at the Chicago Tribune Tower where they took up the entire 26th floor of Robert McCormick’s newspaper offices. Jung was a former editor of The American Gentile, published by The Gentile Front, and is known for being “one of the first” distributors of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and founder of the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation.
Hoover’s interest in the ASC was two-fold: as a rightwing organization under surveillance and as a pool for retired FBI agents, including D.Milton (Mickey) Ladd, Lee R. Pennington (associated to Watergate), W. Cleon Skousen, John Fisher, Kenneth Piper (VP of Motorola), etc.
The American Security Council adopted the motto “Peace Through Strength”
and organized a Coalition for Peace Through Strength (CPTS) and a National Strategy for Peace Through Strength (NSPTS) by which it lobbied officers of government and business. “The ASC has a complex structure with many subsidiaries… Its boards of advisors and directors have..generous representation from military contractor firms [e.g. Lockheed, Boeing, General Dynamics]..defense intellectuals and rightest retirees of the military and intelligence establishment..including James Angleton (CIA), John Singlaub (USA)..Lyman Lemnitzer (USA), Albert Wedemeyer..[etc] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, ASC gained some notoriety when it was revealed that one of its affiliates, the Institute for American Strategy (IAS) has been used by the National Security Council as the vehicle for training military personnel..with help from the right-wing Richardson Foundation… [A] veteran analyst of right-wing organizations has stated that ASC is ‘not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.’
>>>The Richardson Foundation (Smith Richardson), established 1935 by H. Smith Richardson, is a family-controlled trust endowed by the fortune from ‘Vick’s’ pharmaceuticals. Headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. the western point of the ‘Triad’ of central counties making up greater Raleigh-Durham.
Briefly to this point, World War II enabled Lewis Strauss and his associates to gain control of the largest known stocks of gold treasure, private ‘vigilante’ intelligence, and super-weapons expertise. For the next ten years (1945-1955) a slow motion coup d’etat rumbled beneath the American establishment, ending, arguably, in the last grab for resources –human resources– by way of a medical debacle in 1955 called Salk polio vaccine. The roots of the polio vaccine and its Cold War “success” is integral to the growth of nuclear weapons.
Atomic Energy Commission
Before the Manhattan Project was turned over to the incoming Atomic Energy Commission, the military staged the first nuclear combat-era tests in the Marshall Islands: Operation Crossroads
(July 1946). Strauss’s former boss from the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance, Admiral Blandy, led the proceedings as the head of the Joint Task Force. Strauss declined Blandy’s offer to join the staff and witness Crossroads up close, writing in his memoir, “I declined regretfully in order to..return to private business
” which included a Bohemian Grove
holiday with ex-Pres. Herbert Hoover “during the same week that the underwater, or ‘Baker’, test was scheduled at Bikini atoll..
” [p210, Men and Decisions] Interrupted at the Grove, Strauss was handily summoned to Washington and offered the first slot on the AEC. Truman said, “As to why I have selected you, I will tell you. I asked a number of people..to give me a slate of names of possible Commissioners and your name did not appear at the top of any list. But you were a common denominator– that is to say..on all of the lists
.” [p212, ibid.]
Only recently had Strauss acquired non-remunerative status as Lifetime Trustee of the American Cancer Society and an executive governorship over New York’s Sloan Kettering Institute along with a number of MED chiefs. He was well on his way to being a common denominator in the fully expressed military-medical complex. The AEC counted its earliest successes in the radioactive isotope program, the industrial-scale byproducts made in the reactor “piles” of the weapons labs.
“From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies and clinics… the AEC was, first and foremeost, a production agency itself… As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business’…In 1947..Congress earmarked $5million for AEC’s efforts in combatting cancer… the cancer program accounted for over 2,000 shipments [that year]… In addition, clinical cancer research hospitals were built at Argonne and Oak Ridge… By August 1949, three years after the first shipment..the AEC assembled a bibliography of 1,850 papers reporting scientific findings made with AEC isotopes –over 38% were in biology and medicine and were equally divided between human uses..and non-human… In 1950 alone, the AEC sent out more than 6,000 shipments of radioisotopes..[of which] three quarters..were used in biology and medicine… Thus..[radioisotope use] flourished..in no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding…particularly through the National Institutes of Health.” http://www.academia.edu/302719/The_Industrialization_of_Radioisotopes_by_the_US_Atomic_Energy_Commission
Over a decade of pre-war isotope research, thanks to Ernest O. Lawrence’s Berkeley cyclotrons, had enabled Americans to develop a small nuclear business that helped set a firmament for U.S. weapons and boost the physics curricula to run apace with Europeans. Isotopes and particle accelerators were clearly generators of nuclear weapons and Strauss capitalized on those facts in his stance as the sometimes “lone dissenter” on the AEC. Prohibitive radioisotope distribution was a forerunner to his later term at Commerce described by Richard Pfau “as a base from which to fight the Cold War.” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
“This program..was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from..outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate..between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism… [R]adioisotopes..became political instruments in struggles over the control of the atom.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
Atomic monopoly was a concept largely nurtured in the mind of Harry Truman who also thought the atomic bomb, prior to dropping, was “just a bigger bomb”. Advisors had been telling Truman that the United States had a minimum two-to-five year headstart on bombs of the fission type and perhaps a ten year advantage on the ‘Super’. Isotopes, on the other hand, were already outside the domain of US control, the surest means of proliferation, and the stickiest issue for hastening an international treaty and buttoning down the National Security State.
One week after the Crossroads-Baker test at Bikini, with Lewis Strauss on board as the first AEC Commissioner, Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946
on August 1. The bill (known as the McMahon Bill for its sponsor, CT Senator Brien McMahon) declared “Government ownership of all fissionable material… No person shall have any title in or to any fissionable material… It shall be unlawful..to possess or transfer..export or import to..or directly or indirectly engage in the production of any fissionable material outside of the United States. [p6]… The Commission is authorized to purchase or otherwise acquire any fissionable material or any interest therein outside the United States..in the interest of the common defense and security… except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source materials which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant… Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate..any provision..with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction..be punished by death or imprisonment for li
An example of radioisotope developments in the 1930s outside the United States was given by historian Simon Turchetti who noted that Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his business partner Gabriello Giannini had patented 60 isotopes by 1936 “in various countries
“, intended for research. Giannini was “responsible for trading the patents
“. Successful contracts were made with Philips Fabriken in Amsterdam, Sharp & Dohme, and the US corporations General Electric and Westinghouse. According to Turchetti, Giannini “partnered with the Dutch firm Philips..and..with L.V. Graner, a Philips engineer who lived and worked in New York.
” By that time Giannini himself lived in the U.S. –he set up a business office at 30 Rockefeller Center and later found contractual wartime employment with Lockheed. www.eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/4609/1/Slow.Neutrons.pdf
A potentially interesting aspect of the Giannini-Philips relationship is the primary sponsorship by Philips of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond
Whatever the case regarding the patents or any buy-back effort from the AEC, U.S. weapons programs benefitted from cooperation with Philips, Giannini and Fermi. In December of 1938, Enrico Fermi took permanent leave of Italy on the occasion of receiving a Nobel Prize in Stockholm. From there he emigrated to New York and signed on to the Manhattan Engineer District. His assignments took him to Chicago, where he co-assembled the first nuclear reactor, and then to Los Alamos. Sometime in 1943, while contemplating the technical difficulties of bomb-making with Robert Oppenheimer, “Fermi took Oppenheimer aside..and suggested another way to kill large numbers of Germans. Perhaps, he said, radioactive fission products could be used to poison Germany’s food supply.” [p221, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin]
Strauss wrote in his memoir, “In 1946 the Soviet delegate to the United Nations let it be known that in..Communist Russia the facts about atomic energy were ‘very well understood’. But atomic energy was being employed by his country for peaceful purposes only… Not everyone, however, accepted Soviet assurance… The first Atomic Energy Commissioners did not. The several Commissioners were confirmed by the Senate in April 1947. At a meeting shortly thereafter we discussed a memorandum I had [prepared]..as to whether the intelligence arrangements of the Manhattan Project had made provision..for continuous monitoring of radioactivity in the atmosphere… [p201, Men and Decisions]…[The memo read] ‘If there is no such monitoring system in effect, it is incumbent upon us..to initiate it ourselves at once.’ There was unanimous agreement. [p202, ibid.] …It was important that the tests which the Atomic Energy Commission was planning..[at] Eniwetok in the spring of 1948 should be monitored in order that..reliable detection might be perfected. [p204] …By the time of our test series..in 1948 [Operation Sandstone] the system was ready to demonstrate and by the summer of 1949, vigilance was rewarded… I was completely convinced that a [Soviet] weapon or an explosive device had been tested purposefully on or about August 29 [1949, and] that it might not have been the first such test by the Soviets.” [p216]
The USSR, it appeared, became the third nation after the U.S.(1945) and U.K.(1947) to attain the bomb. The detection event, as it turned out, took weeks to confirm and was not without lasting controversy over the reliability of data –fallout analysis collected by aerial filters on a US military plane. Strauss reported it as “One of our planes operating in the Long Range Detection System collected a sample that was decidedly radioactive…
“[p276, caption, Men and Decisions]. The Soviets, were it they, had a knack for timing. Secretary of Defense Forrestal, replaced earlier in March, fell to his death on May 22. Skirmishes over radioisotope shipments, lax security, missing plutonium and other AEC program flaws had reached a peak of rhetoric by summer. “..concerns about shipments of isotopes to Norway and Finland resulted in allegations that the Atomic Energy Commission’s distribution policy was undermining national security… Just a few months later, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb shattered any illusions
..[about] nuclear monopoly. In addition, the governments of Britain and Canada began selling radioisotopes to foreign purchasers, with fewer restrictions
Less than four months hence (Jan.1950), the government was informed that atomic-spy penetration during the war had fully compromised its most guarded secrets and a chorus of H-bomb boosters moved the administration to immediately authorize a crash program to build ‘Supers’. On January 31, 1950, Lewis Strauss, jubilantly celebrating a birthday-to-remember, submitted his resignation.
>>>Strauss’s first post as AEC Commissioner covered July 1946 to April 1950. He returned as Chairman in 1953, appointed by Eisenhower.
Timeline NOTES: In 1946
–January 22, President Truman issues a Directive forming the Central Intelligence Group (CIG, renamed CIA in July of 1947 at the signing of the National Security Act)
–April, John F. Kennedy launches his campaign for congress and handily wins the June primary
The NIH participated in Operation Crossroads providing experimental pharmaceuticals (‘sun’screen and vaccines) and personnel. –July 3, NIH lobbyists (Laskers, Mahoney, et.al.) succeeded in enacting the Mental Health Act
–August 1, signing of the Atomic Energy Act
— Austrian physicist Hans Thirring published a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb
(2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict
–G.M. Giannini and Philips Electronics filed lawsuits for the restoration of their patents and earnings; Giannini sued for $10 million and Philips for $20 million (suits were dropped in the ’50s)
–October 7, W. Averell Harriman appointed Truman’s Secretary of Commerce (Oct-7-46 to Apr-22-48)
, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics
program for the government was convened..[for] the Manhattan Project. The status of their mandate was stated: “No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter… the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined
–March, John J. McCloy becomes second president of the World Bank (until June 1949), after Eugene Meyer
–April, AEC Commissioners assume their offices.
–July, creation of the Division of Security and Intelligence of the Atomic Energy Commission
–Aug, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, former aide to Secretary Forrestal, is appointed Director of the Division of Security
Particle Accelerators, Isotopes and Plutonium
The isotope theory was first proposed by Englishman Frederick Soddy in 1912. An isotope is a variant of a particular element based on the mass of its nucleus. Before the concept of the neutron, the proton-containing nucleus of an atom was thought to have additional particles that altered its mass and produced isotopes, some of which are unstable and radioactive though chemically identical to each other. Isotope theory led to the discovery of the neutron, proposed by Ernest Rutherford and others as early as 1918. Existence of the neutron was experimentally confirmed by several physicists between 1928 and 1932, credited to another Englishman in 1932, James Chadwick, who worked at the Cavendish (Cambridge, UK) Lab with Rutherford and later joined the Manhattan Project.
Between 1938 and 1940, two scientists at the Cavendish, Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher, used particle accelerators made by Philips
to bombard uranium-238 with neutrons ["neutron capture" method] to cause fission and make plutonium-239. Feather left an oral history of his work: “..it had been obvious..at least 18 months before January 1939
[the announcement of fission] that there was something very odd happening in these interactions of neutrons with the heavy elements…and it was quite clear that one could now produce trans-uranic elements..so people were bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons and they were collecting radioactive species..in great abundance. That was beginning to be known in ’37-’38..before the whole thing fell into place by the realization that what was happening was fission… very shortly afterwards Bretscher and I..identified iodine and hellurium amongst the fission products… Incidently the experiment..was done on the 1 MeV Phillips set… [In] December 1940..[we] put in a report..that if uranium-235 had the characteristics..suitable for a bomb..we believed 239 plutonium would have it..[and] might be less difficult than separating..235 uranium.” http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4599_2.html
>>>uranium-235, a rare isotope in u-238, was made for the MED by the gaseous diffusion method at the enormous Oak Ridge Tennessee facility. Oak Ridge became the center for postwar isotope production using reactors. Making plutonium for bomb cores with accelerators, however, was one of Ernest O. Lawrence’s most driven projects. The first US-made plutonium came from his Rad Lab in Berkeley. The “plutonium breakthrough” by Cambridge-Cavendish meant that any skilled operator with a sufficiently high-voltage accelerator and enough naturally-occuring uranium-238 and a separating method could produce their own bomb cores. Potentially, select hospital labs in virtually all modern nations had the equipment for the job.
R. Gordon Arneson, secretary
to the Interim Committee on atomic energy, said during an oral history interview that he was present at the Pentagon “shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
..[when] a message to be transmitted immediately to General MacArthur
..[came with] the approval of General Groves. It called for the destruction of all the Japanese cyclotrons… They were destroyed in a matter of hours. We saved all the bits and pieces we could use and the rest was dumped in the ocean. Now..we’ve learned in recent years that the Japanese had a bit more of a program going than we thoug
ht… [Question: Was it true that you could hide the manufacture of a bomb behind the walls of another type of factory, that it was fairly easy to conceal the actual production of a bomb?] Maybe you could use smaller facilities..and eventually you might get enough
… [Question: When you said 'dangerous facilities' did you mean facilities producing atomic bombs?] Producing nuclear fuel.
[Question: Okay..which could be used for either weapons or peaceful applications?] Yes.
[Question: There was no agreement on nuclear limitations, armament limitations, until 1963, I guess...That was the first time..?] Yes. The only one that made any difference… Over the years, I was persona non grata to Admiral Strauss. He considered himself a ‘majority of one’ on the Commission.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/arneson.htm
“Of the five members of the AEC, only Strauss possessed experience in decisions on national security..on which the survival of the United States might depend. Strauss saw the Cold War with single-minded clarity… None of the other Commissioners shared his concern… He assigned his capable assisstant, William T. Golden..to follow up. When the Central Intelligence Group..estimated ‘that approximately two years will be required to locate, install, and operate the complete network of stations and facilities’ [needed for radiation monitoring] Strauss protested. ‘We cannot regard a two-year period as acceptable,’ he said…[p95, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss fought as hard to safeguard classified information as he did for long-range detection. He knew there was no ‘secret’ to the bomb. The American advantage lay in its lead..and its access to supplies of..uranium. Often he took his case outside the Commission…even to newspapers… The first issue was security…” [p97, ibid.]
Col. Boris Pash
No single individual in the United States had more experience in atomic intelligence than the Chief of Security of the Manhattan Project, Colonel Boris T. Pash
. “Pash..was director of security
..[and] also the lead officer in the Alsos Mission which scoured Europe searching for German nuclear scientists…charged with finding..atomic and bacteriological weapons
…” [Pash obit.] http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Colonel-Boris-T-Pash-3033038
Boris ‘Pash’ Pashkovsky was a White Russian born in San Francisco (1901) while his parents were on an extended assignment for the Russian Orthodox Church. They took him back to Moscow as a child and years later “When the Bolsheviks seized power, Pash joined the counterrevolutionary White Army and fought in the 1918-20 civil war. He returned to America after marrying a Russian aristocrat. During the 1920s and ’30s, while employed as a highschool football coach, Pash spent his summers as a reserve US Army Intelligence officer… [During WWII] he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast and then was assigned [to] the Manhattan Project… Pash had little patience for bureaucracy [and] considered himself a man of action. While his admirers described him as ‘cunning and shrewd’, others regarded him as a ‘crazy Russian’. Pash considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy…” [p.190, American Prometheus] …”On June 29, 1943..Col. Boris Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer [suspected of Communist sympathies] be denied a security clearance and fired… Groves’ new security aide, Lt.Col. John Lansdale, a smart thirty-one-year-old lawyer from Cleveland..did not recommend firing Oppenheimer…[p.233]…General Groves agreed with..Lansdale…[and] Pash..seethed at this decision.” [p.336, ibid.]…Pash had been..so antagonistic toward Oppenheimer as to finally lead Groves to conclude that Pash was wasting the Army’s time and resources… Groves decided that Pash’s talents could be put to better use elsewhere.” [p249, American Prometheus] He was assigned to Alsos.
The first part of Alsos’ mission was to accompany the advance troops into Italy. “Four outstanding scientists were picked by Dr.
[Vannevar] Bush at OSRD. Dr. James Fisk of Bell Telephone Company was in charge of the scientists. Only he and Pash would know about the atomic bomb part of their mission… They were flown to Algiers to report to Gen. Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Gen.
[Walter] Bedell Smith. Only these two men were to know the details
As a young man of 17, Jim Fisk (1910-1981) “enrolled in [M.I.T]..in the new pursuits of aeronautical engineering… [In] 1932, he went to Cambridge University where he worked with those who were probing the [atomic] nucleus [in the Cavendish lab]… After working on particle accelerators..he accepted a job on the faculty of physics at the University of North Carolina. In 1939..Fisk accept[ed] the invitation..to join Bell… He collaborated with William Shockley in the independent derivation of conditions for the critical mass and sustained chain reaction of an atomic pile… He was, in 1947, appointed the first director of research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission… He retired as chairman of Bell Laboratories in 1974, having served as executive vice-president from 1955 and president from 1959..thus directly responsible for all..programs pursued by Bell..for A.T.&T [which] included support of the national Apollo lunar exploration and close affiliation with the Sandia Laboratories in nuclear systems… [He] was uniquely prepared to work with President Eisenhower..in the formation of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House..[which he] served from 1957..to 1973
Fisk did not return to Alsos after the Italy assignment. The next mission was Alsos’ campaign into France and Germany on the heels of D-Day –their science director, picked by the OSRD, was Samuel Goudsmit. “Over..22 months they succeeded in seizing top German and Italian nuclear scientists and 70,000 tons of uranium and radium products that would be shipped to the U.S. for use in its own nuclear development… After the war..beginning in 1946
[Pash was posted] as the Chief of the Foreign Liason for MacArthur in Tokyo. In March 1949 he was detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination
…” [the OPC] http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
FBI, CIA, ONI, G2…
The Atomic Energy Act charter tasked the FBI with the AEC’s security needs and consequently the official memoranda traffic was routed through the FBI, notwithstanding the significant stakeholding already in process by other agencies. Strauss wrote, “if any security whatever is to exist, there must be a recognized authority and a rule to which all must adhere.” [p248, Men and Decisions]
“In August 1947, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich was appointed Director of the newly created Division of Security and Intelligence. Declassified FBI files on Gringrich show that at the time of his [AEC] appointment he was working closely with the Central Intelligence Group.” www.majecticdocuments.com/personnel/gingrich.php
The memoranda reveal Gingrich’s troubled tenure.
July 1947, D.M. Ladd: Gingrich’s “principal job will be to cooperate with the FBI… The decision by the Commission to establish a combined security and intelligence division was based on security studies made over..five months..by Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers.. former Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence and..first head of the Central Intelligence Group… the AEC program will head up in the unified office of Admiral Gingrich…”
To D.M. Ladd from Victor P. Keay, Sep.9,1947:”[One] of our best [FBI] confidential contacts stated that Admiral Gingrich is very unpopular with the employees of the Security Division and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction and grumbling among them. He stated that Gingrich uses very high-handed methods…[and] that the Admiral has been giving [security] clearance for employment to persons who were recommended against by the Review Board..the General Manager and others… The Admiral in conversations with Special Agent [blank] has indicated that he doesn’t put much faith in the ability of his personnel, particularly [blank] of the Security Division… The Admiral also indicated..that he intended to rely heavily upon the Bureau rather than his own Security Division.”
April 19, 1949, Gingrich handed in his resignation, effective May 1, and “pointed out that there was no centralized control and when he issued instructions..had no assurance that they would be carried out… He has had numerous problems and his division has been beset by many difficulties
Atomic Energy Dual (FBI) Agent
The FBI stepped into the fray “To further discharge our responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act
” and initiated discussion of “placing Bureau Agents in vital installations in undercover capacities.”
According to Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the
[Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant
.” The Communist informant program appears to have endured while the dual-agent program fizzled: three Special Agent candidates were selected: “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis
… Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners
.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950
.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to reconsider initiating the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.
“During the Commission’s first three years there were occasions upon which I found myself at odds with a majority of my colleagues… in the main..I was inclined to go along..if I could not bring them to see justice in my point of view.” –Lewis Strauss, p215, Men and Decisions.
“One of his fellow AEC commissioners said of him, “If you disagree with Lewis about anything, he assumes you’re just a fool at first. But if you go on disagreeing with him, he concludes you must be a traitor.” [p362, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin]
– “That spring, reports surfaced in the press that ‘secret files’ had been lost or stolen from the AEC’s laboratories. Critics of the AEC called for a military takeover of the agency on account of its ineptitude in managing security…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
–uranium goes missing from the Argonne National Lab
– [Albuquerque Journal] “The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’
which have been sighted in increasing numbers… A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the result of government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’…Officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments..[and] one of them added,’All we know is what we read in the papers.’…” http://www.abqjournal.com/roswell/rjpage1.htm
– In Socorro Dr. Irving Langmuir was initiating the first large-scale weather modification experiments; Edward Teller wrote, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
–May 14, Israel is founded, Palestine partitioned
–May 17, security breach reported, plutonium missing from Argonne. Bourke Hickenlooper calls for David Lilienthal’s resignation.
— Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine
– American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
– Sloan-Kettering opens for business
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes”
– April 4, signing of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–May, Communist spy trials begin
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from 16th floor of Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets detonate first A-bomb; determined to already have the H-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–”November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium
–Jan, Klaus Fuchs
“confessed on 23rd January 1950″ that he passed atomic secrets to the Soviets; Fuchs’ courier Harry Gold
led the investigators to David Greenglass and his sister Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAfuchs.htm
– Jan 31, authorization of the ‘Super’ thermonuclear fusion H-bomb
– Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss resigned the AEC, effective April 15
The H Bomb
Excerpt from the book Fallout, published in 1960:
…”The complications of the fusion [hydrogen] bomb arise from the fact that it takes a vast amount of energy to start the fusion reaction. To make deuterium nuclei fuse..they must be heated to about 100 million degrees Fahrenheit. Such energy can be provided by the explosion of a fission bomb, which can therefore serve as a trigger for a fusion bomb. But then comes the problem of how to pack enough hydrogen fuel into the bomb and how to hold it together long enough to allow it to fuse.
“In the first attempt..the hydrogen was condensed to its liquid form. This meant that it had to be reduced to a very low-temperature –not far from absolute zero– and so our first hydrogen ‘bomb’ was a gigantic refrigerator, weighing some 65 tons. Its fuel was tritium (the hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons), which fuses more readily than deuterium. This was the device detonated on the island of Elugelab in the Marshalls on November 1, 1952. It yielded the equivalent of about three million tons of TNT –150 times the Hiroshima bomb– and obliterated the little island… Having proved that a fission-fusion device would work, the AEC scientists attacked the problem of reducing it to something portable enough to be used as a bomb. Several scientists..suggested that the need for liquefying the hydrogen might be avoided by combining it with the light metal litium in solid form; e.g. in the compound lithium deuteride, composed of one atom of lithium and one of deuterium.” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
Congressman John F. Kennedy
“Truman talked of ‘free peoples who are resiting attempted subjugation’… In this darkening world, an enemy of the Soviet Union was a friend of the United States… The public mood was shifting..and Jack was entering a Congress in which politicians of both parties had begun to flay away at Communists… of all the newly elected members..[Kennedy] was the first to berate publicly a putative Communist..[Russell Nixon of United Electrical Workers]before the House Labor Committee.
…Joe remained as isolationist as he had ever been..[and] opposed the Marshall Plan as a massive giveaway of American wealth. He was all for letting the tired peoples of Europe have their desperate fling with Communism if they chose… Jack was making a different sound. Congressman Kennedy was a lowly freshman..But that spring [of 1947]..he stated that he was in favor of aid to Europe… Jack supported whatever measures were necessary to contain a Soviet Union that he believed pushed relentlessly outward, driven..and fortified by Communist ideology… [Kennedy] envisioned..a possible nuclear Armageddon..’some twenty-five or thirty-five years from now.‘ [pp244-246, The Kennedy Men] …Jack thought the veterans should lead the nation with concern for policies that would maintain the peace and build a strong and prosperous nation… [He] was pleading for America’s veterans not to retreat into private life, leaving the public arena to the predators, the self-interested, and the narrow parochial interests…[p235]…Jack carried with him the bitter memories of a wartime capital full of what he considered the self-serving and the self-seeking… [W]hen he returned to Washington..[he] saw only the endless compromise… As the months went by, Jack became less and less a forceful advocate and more of an ironic, disinterested bystander. He brought the same emotional distance that he kept from everyone in his life to the world of politics. [p248] …[Kennedy] did not like confrontation. He found the endless battles between Democrats and Republicans not a real war but a wearisome and tedious routine. He had one of the worst attendence records in the House of Representatives… Only some [of the absences] could be attributed to his many illnesses. [p280, ibid.]
“Jack needed these [cortisone] injections to live..[p253]…”Jack was crippled and he couldn’t walk well,’ [George]Smathers remembered…‘[and it]was a long walk [to the House floor] for a guy who had a bad hip and a bad back…So he would lean on me..[to] get over..[and] vote. So that’s really how we became very close friends…‘ [The] two bachelors had been relegated to the distant reaches of the House Office Building… Smathers’ office was just down the hall from Jack’s. [p249-250] ‘He had leukemia at one point,’ Rose told Robert Coughlin in an unpublished..autobiography. ‘I remember..there was one doctor who could cure it…[People] don’t get over that..very often.’ Jack’s..leukemia..was yet another secret that had to be carefully contained. No record of this adult illness exists… [p282] His great creation, then, was..a man of apparently endless vigor and health. He let no one stand close enough to his pain to betray his illusion. [p253] Joe..had taught his children that time was the rarest commodity in life…’Time is man’s dominant foe,’ he said. ‘All man has on earth is the present moment…‘ [p260]
“Jack’s anticommunism was tempered by the terrible realities of war..as well as his own..ever-growing awareness of the complexities of the modern world…[p283] He and his colleagues had helped create an image of a Soviet monolith ready to strike, but now  he had grasped the truths of nuclear detente. ‘Why should they [the Russians] take the risk of starting a war when the best they could get would be a stalemate during which they would be subjected to atomic bombing?’ he asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in February 1951. ‘Why should they throw everything into the game..[and] take risks they don’t have to –especially when things are going well in the Far East?’…’Stalin is an old man, and old men are traditionally cautious.’ ...[JFK] wanted to touch the world with his own mind…[p284]…Jack was attempting to understand the complex.. uncertain world of 1951. This was not easy in an America that adored simplicity. A dangerous new world was opening up... [p285, The Kennedy Men]
Private Citizen Strauss did not leave the AEC program: The Chairman of Congress’ Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), Senator [James O']Brien McMahon of Connenticut, appointed Strauss Chairman of the Atomic Plant Expansion Advisory Panel. [ref. p378, Men and Decisions]. Strauss assistant, William T. Golden concurrently promoted the creation of a Presidential scientific advisory to Truman ( the later-named PSAC in 1957).
“William T. Golden, who died Oct. 7, 2007, a few weeks short of his 98th birthday, was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science…In 1946, he became an assistant to Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss and helped organize that federal agency… His first recommendation..to Truman on December 18, 1950, under the title, “Mobilizing Science for War,” was the establishment of the position of scientific advisor to the president…Golden searched among the first NSF director candidates for someone..[and] found the right candidate in Alan T. Waterman, a physicist who was then chief scientist for the Office of Naval Research … After ending his service to President Truman, Golden embarked on a life of stewardship and philanthropy. He was a trustee, board member or officer of nearly 100 scientific, educational and non-profit organizations.
Waterman was also the brother-in-law of H. Neil Mallon
(1895-d.1983) of Dresser Industries (acquired by Halliburton in 1998) and a close friend of Prescott Sheldon Bush
The Sea Change
By 1950, the Sandia base at Kirtland field in New Mexico, operated by Bell Laboratories of A.T.&T, advertized its ability to turn out two nuclear weapons per day. Pressing a fear that escalating hostility in Asia would cause the military to temporarily lose its Pacific Proving Ground in the Marshalls, it was decided run tests in Nevada. The Nevada Proving Ground had been authorized in 1943 with atomic munitions in mind. Operation Ranger, scheduled for Jan-Feb., became the first series at the NTS. Up in Michigan, where the Public Health Service maintained one of its signal laboratories, radioactive snow was collected and measured that February.
“In the twentieth century, the soldier and citizen have become interchangeable…[p9] …The atom bomb completes the evolution. It consecrates the use of any means against the entire population… By a logic that is paradoxical only in appearance, the country least warlike in its tastes and philosophy has thus played a decisive part in the advent of unlimited war… The United States will one day, according to certain experts, be more vulnerable to atomic attack than that of any other country.” [p155, The Century of Total War, by Raymond Aron, 1955] The Korean War, declared in June of 1950 was the first conflagration expected to go nuclear. On those grounds, an unprecedented series of three atomic operations were planned for 1951; Operation Ranger in Nevada (Jan-Feb), Operation Greenhouse in the Pacific (Apr-May), and Operation Buster-Jangle back at the NTS (Oct-Nov). The planners were preparing for “nuclear battlefield” simulations.
Top Secret — Soviet H-bomb
“[T]he evidence is convincing that the Russians achieved not only the first experimental nuclear fusion on earth, but also produced the first deliverable hydrogen bomb.” –p263, Energy and Conflict, 1976, Blumberg and Owens, who wrote “our first solid evidence came from Major Theodore F. Walkowicz…[who told us] there was something chilly and strange in the debris samples… [More] evidence comes from Robert LeBaron who, in 1951, was chairman of the [AEC] Military Liason Committee, the link between the Pentagon and the AEC. LeBaron..confirmed Walkowicz’s statement that there was a hydrogen component in a Russian test in late 1950… He was asked, ‘Was the AEC, the GAC, Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller aware of this intelligence?’ LeBaron’s reply was rather astounding: ‘No, they were not notified. It was top secret..’ ” [pp269-270, Energy and Conflict]
1951 – Operation GREENHOUSE – Apr08-May25 – Marshall Islands, Pacific : 4 shots
Polio Vaccine and Fallout
The gamma globulin “polio” vaccine trial run by William McDowell Hammon out of Provo Utah during Buster-Jangle was the first major response to fallout involving the Public Health Service and the March of Dimes. As both an acute and latent byproduct of radiation injury, polio (brain infection) has gone unappreciated
as a fallout hazard –part of our hidden nuclear history. It is a significant factor, however, in the transformation of soldier-citizens
. Hammon’s field work in Utah, and later in Texas and Iowa, was an opportunity to harvest gamma globulin (immune-cell rich blood serum) from the radiation-exposed public. Interestingly, enough children were registered in these vaccine trials to provide serum for the Nevada test participants through 1953, when the gamma globulin trial ended and the Salk vaccine began. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/provo-utah/
Lewis Strauss, as noted in part I, began his career in medicine as the president of the Rothschilds’ polio hospital –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases. Polio, the ‘disease’ entity, was being managed by the Rockefeller establishment for whom Strauss went to work between his posts with the Atomic Energy Commission. Hired by Laurance Rockefeller to be financier to the Rockeller Brothers Fund, Strauss became a founding incorporator in some of its many projects –among them, the Population Council.
Birth control was a special interest of Albert and Mary Lasker. “[A]lmost from the moment they met, he and Mary addressed themselves to medical problems, and their long..struggle..still goes on productively today … The laskers worked..on at least four different fronts: (1) birth control; (2) medical research..;(3) the American Cancer Society; and (4) the Lasker Foundation. Mary, who admired Margaret Sanger greatly, had been active in the birth control movement… Overpopulation was, she thought, a major world problem… ‘Birth control,’ [Albert] said, was too negative a phrase; it connoted self-denial. He chose ‘Planned Parenthood’..[and] gave it $75,000…” [p315, Taken At The Flood, by John Gunther]
Florence Mahoney, Mary Lasker’s lobbying companion-in-arms after the death of Albert (1952), remembered “‘The first time that I got interested in birth control was when I volunteered to work in the Crippled and Disabled Hospital in New York’…[S]he was asked to test the muscles of children who had polio… Mahoney did not actively participate in Sanger’s organization..but became an avid fan..using her political contacts to spread the Planned Parenthood word. [p29, Noble Conspirator]…Mental health reforms too, occupied her attention. [p31] ‘I was willing to suggest anything at anytime that I thought was going to help anybody,’ she said.” [p32, Noble Conspirator, by Judith Robinson, 2001]
Albert Lasker also “never ceased doing things for people…[p300] One of his major preoccupations for a time was a proposal for converting the Federal Security Agency into full-scale Department of Welfare with cabinet status… He was almost as..interested in health matters as Mary, [writing] ‘I am certain..Congress..will pass a very big bill for aid to hospital building.’ Meantime, he kept his eye on events…” [p299, Taken At The Flood] Lasker was right. Congress turned the FSA into HEW (Health, Education and Welfare) and Nelson Rockefeller became its Asst. Secretary, credited to him as acting Secretary.
Lasker, a longtime friend, colleague, and ‘elder’ to Strauss, pitched in when things needed changing at the Atomic Energy Commission. David Lilienthal, who had been Chairman from the AEC’s beginning, did not support the Super. “One of Lasker’s last friendships was with David Lilienthal, for many years chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and then of the [AEC]. They met toward the end of the decade, at Mary’s suggestion, when Lilienthal was on the point of leaving government. Lasker was impressed..by his devotion to the public good..and the constructive brilliance of his mind. Albert knew, too, that he..wanted to go into some private business. So Lasker approached Andre Meyer [of Lazard Freres] pointing out that Lilienthal..was..a good man to have around. Meyer..proceeded to create a position for Lilienthal and a company was formed to work out projects..[in] long-range regional planning –irrigation, reclamation, et cetera– all over the world. So Lilienthal set out on a new career in Colombia, the Punjab, and particularly Iran.” [p291, Taken At The Flood]
Timeline NOTEs: 1951-1953
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells
taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/
; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–”Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill” http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983970,00.html
(‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS; Operation Buster-Jangle
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
–Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations with atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
–the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS) http://eubios.info/EJ54/EJ54H.htm
; later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal
results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (the marginalized HEW Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed becomes a republic
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mosaddegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax); installation of the Shah Pahlavi
Between 1950 and 1953 a Uranium Boom was taking place in the American Southwest.
…to be continued in Part III: Israel gets the bomb; more on Pash, Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower, nuclear testing, Oppenheimer case, relations with Israel, etc.