Jennifer Lake's Blog

June 25, 2011

Shiga-boom Shiga-boom

Shiga toxin-producing (Stx) O104:H4 killer E.coli strain:
Blame Japan
“A private biotechnology company used their DNA scanning algorithms to determine that E.coli O104 has genomic signatures specific [to]..previously found..strains of the 1996 outbreak in Sakai City, Japan… 103 pieces among the nearly one million genome fragments of the E.coli O104 are also present in phages of enterohemorrhagic E.coli isolated in 1996 in Japan… Orion Integrated Biosciences Inc. has developed this capability to scan unknown DNA fragments and point to their most likely source. The company is funded by the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security and the National Institutes of Health to apply this technology for biodefense purposes.” http://www.orionbiosciences.com/news/ORION-PR-June-05-11.pdf
…back in 1996…
“The Japanese..learned the hard way, 15 years ago, when that health-conscious society was gripped by what may be history’s worst outbreak of E.coli O157:H7. The epidemic sickened thousands, most of them children, and killed at least 12. It also showed critical weaknesses in Japan’s public health system –problems that the government spent years trying to correct. Up to that time, E.coli O157:H7 was virtually unknown in Japan… That all changed in mid-July when health officials in Sakai City, a major port city with a population near a million, received reports… Within a week, thousands were ill, hundreds hospitalized, some with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), requiring kidney dialysis. And some were dying… Meanwhile, the epidemic seemed to be expanding… It was terrible timing. A few years earlier, Japan’s booming economy collapsed. Then, in 1995, an earthquake flattened the city of Kobe, not far from Sakai City. A few months later, terrorists [Aum Shinrikyo ‘yoga’ cult] released deadly sarin gas… Eventually the outbreak sickened at least 9,441 people…” http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/01/sprouts-and-historys-worst-outbreak/ A study paper published in 2002 reports the number of infection cases as 17,877: http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/3478
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But there’s always more to the story. Food Safety News missed reporting on the more unique features of Japan’s 1996 outbreak, which was documented as 22 separate outbreaks between May and October (there were a total of 7 E.coli outbreaks in the previous five years): “In July..a large outbreak of exclusively Stx-1 producingE.coli 0118:H2 occurred in a junior highschool in Komatsu city. This appears to be the first report in the world of clinical infection caused by this organism… 241 [students and staff] were symptomatic… Although Stx-producing E.coli was not isolated from the samples of food and water, it was isolated from a dipper… No subjects developed infection at 11 other schools that had served the same..foods… the source of the primary infection was not identified..” One month after that another type of E.coli, O26:H11, that also anomalously produced only the Stx-1 variant of shiga-toxin (again a world’s first), caused a small outbreak. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/1/e2.full
Evidently, something very unusual was going on.
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Stx1 is now a promising treatment for breast cancer: [2009] “The high specificity and apoptosis-inducing properties of verotoxin-1 indicates that the toxin potentially may be used for treatment of  Gb3-expressing breast cancer….Gb3 expression was detected in the vascular endothelial cells of..tumor specimens…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650710/ >>>Gb3 is the glycolipid cell-surface receptor for Stx.
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    What does not seem to have been recorded in the huge wave of Japan’s pathogenic E.coli that year was the presence of O104 E.coli.  The earliest mention of an outbreak of an O104 strain anywhere that turns up in the literature happened in Montana:  “During February-March 1994…Eleven confirmed and seven suspected case-patients were identified..” with a “rare serotype E.coli O104:H21 that produced Shiga-like toxin II” (Stx2-like, or SLTII) http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm4427.pdf
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News from June 23 put the E.coli toll in Germany at 3,533; 39 deaths, 810 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and 2, 684 less acute cases. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/23/news/la-heb-ecoli-strain-pathogen-20110623; a same day report notes 5 confirmed cases in the U.S. of a “matching strain” and one suspected case resulting in death. The five were recent visitors to Germany: http://www.ecoliblog.com/e-coli-outbreaks/german-e-coli-outbreak-linked-to-massachusetts-michigan-wisconsin-north-carolina-and-arizona/ [updated June 30 to over 4,200 cases, 50 deaths, 898 HUS]
Something in the air?
“There seems to be little or no published work on the inhalation toxicity of Shiga toxin. However, there are often indirect effects on the lungs when the toxin is taken in as a food contaminant.” http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Verotox.html; “E.coli can grow in the air, using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor..” http://www.ecoliblog.com/e-coli-watch/what-is-e-coli-1/
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 “Ricin and Shiga toxin share a unique mode of action, causing irreversible damage to host ribosomal RNA. Our understanding of how these bioterror agents cause tissue damage is incomplete… the mechanism(s) by which these signal transduction pathways are stimulated will be assessed using Shiga toxin mutants and isolated Shiga toxin subunits.” [grant award to Tufts Medical Center by U.S. Dept of HHS] http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_description.cfm?projectnumber=5R01AI059509-04
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   Food and water are always the assumed vectors for E.coli contamination but if lung ‘effects’ from ingestion of the more toxic (HUS-causing) particle, Stx2, are indistinguishable from inhaled Shiga toxin then the Lords of the Air could whip up another perfect storm and blame it on ‘behavior’. The data on Stx (shiga-toxin) inhalation is currently similar to, and perhaps less than, the knowledge-ceiling of anthrax before the post 9-11 attack, given that no aerosol attack of Stx2 has ever happened before. At least no registered terror groups have ever launched a shiga toxin attack, but in case they do…well, the establishment looks almost prepared. Real time experience with countermeasures afforded by this new opportunity should be a good lesson, after all, the outbreak is erupting under the watchful eye of major defense contractors.
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The new O104 strain is “not new” according to the CDC and “There is no reason to think that this strain was modified intentionally… The combination of Shiga toxin and enteroaggregative features has been seen before; 1) in E.coli O104 identified in Europe and Asia in the last decade, and 2) in a different strain of E.coli that caused a small outbreak in Europe in the 1990s. While this combination is uncommon, it is not new.” http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/ecoli_o157h7/index.html#difference
   How new does new have to be? Toxic E.coli is new and became a reportable pathogen in 1982. Speculation about its emergence suggests it may have appeared in the 1950s. Looking at the volume of studies and papers on toxic E.coli generated at Harvard, for example, proves just how new the science is. There is nothing before 1997 and presumably no public funding either. Students and staff just don’t work on ‘unimportant’ diseases. http://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/profiles/profile/concept/Escherichia+coli+O157
To wit : [2001] “Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) such as E.coli O157:H7 are important emerging pathogens in the United States… The genes encoding these potent toxins are present on viral particles known as bacteriophages… treating them with certain antibiotics leads to an increase in toxin expression. The antibiotics also lead to increased movement of the viruses…” http://www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/192539.html; that’s called a bacterial “SOS” response, and a warning not to self-medicate with antibiotics –read the Colloidal Silver post too;  natural garlic ‘allicin’ has shown to be effective against shiga toxin bacteria.
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Current CDC estimates for Stx-producing E.coli infections in the U.S. stand at 186,000 cases annually http://www.marlerblog.com/lawyer-oped/non-o157-e-coli-in-beef—how-does-fsis-justify-it/; up from approx. 110,000 annually a decade ago.
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Where did  Shiga toxin come from?
   It was first isolated from an E.coli-like bacterium in 1896 Japan, and named Shigella for its discoverer, Kiyoshi Shiga. Four types of Shigella bacteria, all causes of dysentery (Shigellosis), have been characterized: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, the most complex of which is Shigella flexneri, isolated by Simon Flexner c.1900 in the Philippines. Among the four types, S.flexneri toxin induced neurological damage and most often led to kidney failure and death. Flexner soon became the founding director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) in New York. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/
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The shiga toxin that is spreading in E.coli nowadays is carried by the lambda** phage, a viral particle and the most particularly interesting-to-science component of E.coli bacteria that has opened the secrets of genetic transference. Lambda phage was discovered by Esther Zimmer Lederberg, the wife of Joshua Lederberg, in 1950. http://www.estherlederberg.com/LambdaP.html
**”Lambda..is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet…related to..the Cyrillic letter ‘El’..  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambda
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 …”If the devil were to work overtime in a plot to confound scientists in their quest for a causative agent to a serious disease of unknown origin, it is doubtful whether he could have come up with anything better than the phage…”
 Head I        Head II
Joshua Lederberg, a Rockefeller University president and National Science administrator, is cited in this blog as the editor of a collected genetics publication about mutation: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/08/11/mutation/ ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Lederberg  In 1946, Joshua Lederberg codiscovered bacterial conjugation, the process credited to transferring Shiga toxins to E.coli.  He was also the principal coordinator of the first “artificial intelligence” project applied to chemobiology – the mid-60s DENDRAL super-computer at Stanford which set the groundwork for current Nano-Cogno-Bio-Information systems that plot “beyond conception” formulas for artificial life creation. Lederberg styled himself as an exobiologist. http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/Views/Exhibit/narrative/ai.html
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“From 1979 to the present, Lederberg has been a Trustee of the Sackler Medical School at Tel-Aviv University, and, since 1990, has been a Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University. In 1994, he headed the Defense Department Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, “which concludes that there is insufficient epidemiological evidence for a coherent Gulf War
Syndrome.” http://www.smokershistory.com/Lederber.htm
“..as chairman of the..Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects.. Lederberg was also on the board of directors of the American Type Culture Collection, or ATCC…[that] made 70 government-approved shipments of anthrax..to Iraqi scientists..” http://chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/pol/lederber.html
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Bacteriophage lambda has been used as a host vector for [the] generation of genomic..libraries for quite some time; ..generated primarily because of the phage particles’ ability to efficiency infect bacteria in vitro [lab dish]. Some research workers prefer to use the original lambda as a vector while others..like to propagate the gene fragments in a cosmid vector.” http://www.biocompare.com/Articles/ProductReview/867/Packagene-Lambda-DNA-Packaging-System-From-Promega.html
   The link below is a patent that promises a lambda vector system that can deliver recombinant DNA into the mitochondria of mammalian cells http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7741112.html; the lambda “taxi” can be virtually stripped of its own genetic material and used to import any select package of genes to almost any cell of choice, including genes that code for specific “receptors” to a range of viruses. These techniques offer the treatment paradigm of “virotherapy”, where viruses deliver genetic ‘correction’ to targeted cells.
    For a long time, antibiotics served as “tracers” in recombination studies by inducing resistance in the objects of study which could thrive and be isolated from cultures that were otherwise poisoned by an antibiotic– thus, not only do cellular entities accumulate antibiotic resistance as a type of mutation, but so do their interchangeable parts,  compounding their antibiotic-resistance profiles. For example, a citation from a Finnish study covering infections reported 1990 to 2000 notes E.coli “sensitivity to 12 antimicrobial agents.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC88246 .  State-of-the-art recombination genetics is readily taking up “marker” protein genes like the green fluorescent protein (gfp) from jellyfish, ostensibly as a safer alternative and infinitely fascinating as another paradigm in transgenetics. Still, antibiotics are very useful genetic expression ‘promoters’ and continue to be used in bioengineering.
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The toxin-making parts of lambda-bearing genomes have all been isolated and described but scientists have yet to realize the fullness of biochemical conditions that cause the toxin genes to turn on and ‘express’. They do know that “the bacteriophage life cycle is the dominant, if not the only, important factor involved in stx2 expression.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC95105   Why would (some) scientists want to turn on the deadly shiga toxin-producing mechanism of the genes? There are reasons far beyond the call of medicine. Genetic engineers have very sophisticated needs in their search for knowledge and limited technologies and resources with which to explore them. I imagine there’s nothing quite as effective as handing a major public health threat over to a technically advanced society in order to get some help. The shiga toxin components of genes have enormously useful properties in the genetics industry.
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   Here’s a thought about weaponeering: “The [Stx] protein is robust, stable, relatively easy to manufacture and has been the subject of intense research over many years…This [body of] information..may also be used to develop novel variants of greater effectiveness. The protein does not act through the skin, and effective protection can probably be obtained with a gas mask with activated charcoal filters.” http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Verotox.html
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                                                                     CHANGE AGENTS
E.coli research has been a long-standing field of study. ..”The bacterium Escherichia coli is truly the workhorse of biology. Originally isolated in 1922 from a diphtheria patient, the strain of E.coli [completely and recently] sequenced  was used in 1945 in the discovery of spontaneous gene transfer. The strain, known as K-12, was universally adopted for fundamental work in biochemistry, genetics and physiology…E.coli is not the first bacterial genome to be sequenced, but with more than 4.6 million bases, it is the largest and possibly most important… The K-12 strain of E.coli is not pathogenic but closely related strains are toxic.” http://accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA11/ecoli997.php .  Mentioned earlier in “Transgenic Round-up”, recombinant DNA techniques were perfected by the 1970s with E.coli. See the work of Paul Berg and Maxine Singer.
   In the last decade E.coli research has opened a biotechnology platform for wholly new ‘life’ creations with artificial amino acids:
[2001] “Expanding the Genetic Code of Escherichia coli” [from the Scripps Research Institute laboratory of Peter Schultz and Salk Institute fellow Lei Wang] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/292/5516/498.abstract
“..We have evolved [a bioactive agent]..that makes possible the in vivo incorporation of [an artificial synthetic amino acid] into proteins in Escherichia coli… This unnatural amino acid was incorporated with high translational efficiency and fidelity.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pmc/articles/PMC123203/
“Augmenting proteins with unnatural amino acids could make existing proteins more potent in their actions, or even endow them with entirely new properties that might be useful for industry or medicine. Dr. Schultz’s [E.coli] bacteria, for example, look and act entirely like normal creatures until they are placed in contact with a certain sort of poison. Then, because they are producing an unnatural protein, they survive while all the others die.” http://www.economist.com/node/987697?story_id=987697
“..multiple unnatural amino acids can be added to the genetic code of a single modified organism.”  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/05/040512040149.htm
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   Raising the ‘possibilities of meaning’ in E.coli outbreaks occurring after 2004, when the ‘new amino’ insertion techniques became a commodious reality, deserve special attention. Two considerations come to mind; that the E.coli are stealthily vectoring artificial genes and the shiga toxin subunits are installing genetic controls: one vector with multi-use potential. It will take months and years for published study material on the current outbreak strain to make it into the public sphere, even then, the likelihood that new amino acids are factored into standard tests is slim-to-none. For the time being, only the upper echelon labs will have the capacity to identify the rogue material. General researchers fully understand that mutant strains present unknowns which can remain unknown or evade definition for years. If such a probability exists at present, it’s a secret experiment that will bear fruit for its instigators who have in their labs a description of ideal-sounding binary bioweapons. The close structural relationship and gene-swapping properties of E.coli and related “homologous” phage is a biological SureThing, spreading naturally wherever it is
introduced (albeit slowly unless unnaturally assisted).  Stx-producing enterohemorrhagic E.coli (STEC) is also a sure thing– sure to drive victims to seek emergency medical care. There’s going to be lots of samples, lots of DNA, and probable new toxic mutants.
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“Physicians know not to prescribe antibiotics for O157 infections because the sudden killing of the bacteria can release HUS[hemolytic uremic syndrome]-inducing and potentially deadly amounts of Shiga toxin… that fact could have created one major problem in the early development of the [May 2011] outbreak: It is likely that German hospitals were only screening the first enterohemorrhagic E.coli symptoms for O157 and not O104, which no one would have suspected… ‘In this case, [said Jorge Giron], because it wasn’t O157, the physicians might have thought it was okay to give antibiotics, not knowing that O104 would produce the Shiga toxin… This potential misunderstanding over antibiotics might at least partially explain the high rate of HUS among the ill’ ” http://www.lavidalocavore.org/diary/4763/o104h4-may-change-how-we-deal-with-e-coli >>It might because somehow the unprecedented rate of HUS needs explaining. Previous toxic E.coli outbreaks have produced a rate of HUS around 3-6%, now trending upwards to 10%.  But just as likely to happen only moreso among skilled physicians who know they don’t have O157 on their hands is to give no antibiotics and allow the normally self-limiting infection to run its course– this is especially plausible with adult patients who subsequently made up the majority cases of HUS.  The 1996 Komatsu Japan Stx1 school outbreak (non-O157), linked above, is an example of infected patients receiving no antibiotics (approx. half) and resolving their infections equally well and sometimes better. Mr. Giron’s suggestion just doesn’t fly. The more I look at the German “Egyptian sprout” outbreak, the stranger it gets in comparison to other documented outbreaks. I’m considering the cofactor with radioactive fallout based on past anthrax episodes as an opportune moment-in-time, so I’ve set up a link with microbe-hunting results and I’m adding in the accumulating news.
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Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a severe, life-threatening complication of an E.coli..infection that was first described in 1955… The Shiga toxin triggers a complex cascade of changes in the blood..and there is disruption of the inherent clot-breaking mechanisms… About ten percent of individuals with [toxic] E.coli..infections (mostly young children) goes on to develop Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.” http://www.marlerblog.com/legal-cases/three-suffering-kidney-failure-hus-from-alabama-e-coli-poisoning/; “The principle organ affected in STEC-mediated HUS is the kidney… The severity of renal injury varies in degree from urinary abnormalities such as hematuria and proteinuria to acute renal failure… The second most important organ affected in the disease is the brain… more serious cerebral complications, including seizures, cortical blindness, and thrombotic strokes, occur in 5 to 10% of patients… A similar percentage of patients may develop life-threatening cardiopulmonary sequelae, including adult [acute] respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS], congestive heart failure and myocarditis. The occurrance of neurological and cardiovascular complications is associated with more severe STEC-induced HUS and a higher risk of mortality during the acute illness. Other organs that are frequently involved in STEC-induced HUS are the endocrine and exocrine pancreas, liver, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It is evident that STEC-induced HUS is a systemic illness potentially affecting every organ throughout the body.http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/17/4/926
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“…the outbreak originating in Germany shows 87% of those hit by the disease were women over the age of 20… the German outbreak..displayed ‘several intriguing microbiological characteristics’ and ‘several novel epidemiological and clinical features’..[that] ‘differed remarkably’ from previously described STEC/VTEC infections… Among the ‘completely unexpected’ features was the development of severe neurological symptoms in half of patients within 3 to 10 days of being admitted to hospital..” http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/kfojidqlsney/rss2/
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                                                No treatment for humans — vaccines for cows
More information about Shiga toxin E. coli, Alexion* Pharmaceuticals Inc. (et.al.) and the bioweapon potential of Stx is here  http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/e-coli/ (page in progress) and keep this in mind:
“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution. In the case of fighting infectious diseases, GE animal-made antibodies can be produced from animals that have had the human antibody genes transferred to them. These animals can then be vaccinated against human diseases and antibodies can be collected from their blood and used for treating diseases in humans. For example, antibodies can treat infections that are resistant to antibiotics.” http://www.bio.org/foodag/animals/GE_An_Pharm_0908.pdf
“On March 13, 2009, the USDA granted a conditional license for a new tool in the battle against foodborne illness –a vaccine for cows to prevent infection with E.coli bacteria… Cattle themselves do not experience illness from the bacteria. ” http://www.dmaonline.org/CE/food_protection/2009_05.shtml
>>>cattle immunity to STEC  no longer seems to be true –another significant round of ‘firsts’ in 1996 involves cattle infections.
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   Alexion Antibody Technologies was invited to give Congress a very exclusive pitch for Project BioShield funds in 2003, before approval of the program, and now the German health authorities have approved of Alexion running clinical drug trials on the latest E.coli victims. Alexion is giving away an ultra-expensive drug in exchange for access to patients.
*The nuclear power company UniStar bought Alexion Pharmaceuticals’ property in 2007; http://maryland.realestaterama.com/2007/12/19/unistar-properties-defies-slow-real-estate-market-with-purchase-of-311-million-bioscience-facility-ID041.html; does the relationship get cozier? “Arch Chemicals” also shares the site. There must be some advantage in having “the world’s largest owner and operator of nuclear energy facilities” as a landlord. http://unistarnuclear.com/; UniStar was taken over in 2010 by Electricite de France (EdF). “Both EdF and Areva are backed by the French state.” http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/C_EdF_takes_control_of_Unistar_2710101.html
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[Feb 2011] Alexion Chairman Max Link sold 47,367 shares, valued at $95 per share… “he retains 92,898 shares… Dr. Link has been the company chairman since December 2002..[and was] formerly CEO of Corange, the parent company of Boehringer Mannheim Therapeutics..[also] formerly the Chairman and CEO of Sandoz Pharma, Ltd.”…”Ann M. Veneman was appointed to Alexion’s Board..previously she served as Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)”..[from 2005-2010, after resigning her GWBush appointment as Secretary of Agriculture]
http://newyork.citybizlist.com/18/2011/2/25/Chairman-Max-Link-Sells-4.5M-in-Alexion-Shares–cbl.aspx;
Dr. Max Link also became Chairman of Protein Design Labs Inc.[Fremont,CA] in 2004, when the developer of antibody drugs accrued major revenues from products like Avastin (licensed to Roche subsidiary Genentech): “Avastin is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody..of mouse origin..produced in a Chinese hamster ovary..” approved in 2004 for colorectal cancer treatment. http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Benjamin-Yang/2009/06/17/drug-profile-avastin
 “Ms. Veneman’s training and experience as a corporate lawyer for agribusiness do not qualify her for the substantial task of leading the agency most responsible for the rights of children worldwide. There is no evidence in her tenure as U.S. secretary of agriculture, secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, or deputy undersecretary for international affairs of the USDA of her interest in the world’s children or their health and well-being.” http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Ann_Veneman
   In addition to Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Veneman joined the Board of Nestle, the world’s largest food and beverage producer: “Veneman took the post despite pleas from nutrition advocates who urged her not to lend her imprimatur to the company’s marketing of breast milk substitutes” http://www.newsok.com/ex-unicef-head-joins-nestle-board-despite-protests/article/feed/250068?custom_click=pod_headline_europe; the best preventive to Stx-producing E.coli in children is, naturally, breast milk. In Europe and the U.S., 1971 marked an all-time-low in breast-feeding when only 1% of new mothers chose to persist in natural feeding past their ‘hospital stay’. The successful War on Milk rages on…
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                                                                Deadlier Threshold for Stx
Researchers recently learned that Stx genes multiply exponentially faster than their E.coli hosts:
 [2007] “Demonstration of the ability of [ Stx phage] to form multiple lysogens has two potentially serious impacts. First, multiple integrated prophages will drive the evolution of bacterial pathogens as novel Stx-phages emerge following intracellular mutation/recombination events. Second, multiple copies of the Stx gene may lead to an increase in toxin production and consequently increased virulence…. there is considerable scope for Stx integration directed by as yet uncharacterized factors… Clearly, the occurence of multiple lysogens in a single host [cell] is likely to enhance the evolution and dissemination of bacteriophage-encoded genes throughout bacterial populations, with particular applied relevance for Stx-phages responsible for increasing the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli hosts.”  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/content/153/12/4098.full
SHIGA-BOOM!
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May 11, 2011

The Minimal Genome Project

“Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’..”
“The search for the ‘smallest autonomous self-replicating entity,’ which subsequently became the search for the smallest cell genome, was begun in the late 1950s by Harold Morowitz… This led to studies of the mycoplasmas, showing that these microorganisms have the smallest reported cell and genome sizes [as of 1996]. The DNA sequence of the smallest known mycoplasma genome, that of Mycoplasma genitalium, recently was determined… The nature of selective pressure for repeated genome reductions..is not known..[but] have been suggested to be due to selection for faster (hence, smaller) replicating genomes to produce greater progeny..yields, selection for smaller genomes to reduce the energy burden..in limiting nutrient environments, and loss..[due to] deleterious mutations… Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’… subtracting the minimal gene set from an organism’s total gene inventory should reveal genes for the phenotype characters that make each organism unique.” http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/psaxena/bio226r/articles/minimum_cell_genome.pdf
Harold J. Morowitz:
Oral History Interview, March 16, 2005 — “This interview chronicles Morowitz’s scientific career in detail, beginning with his education in physics, his transition to biophysics, to his ongoing attempt to apply..information theory to..biological problems. His description..gives a valuable insight of how and why physicists after WWII came to be interested in..biological problems…[and] illustrates the reciprocal interaction between scientific projects..in Yales’s biophysics program..and the Atomic Energy Commission’s promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy (e.g. nuclear fallout debate)..”
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Remember SARS in 2003? Looking back on SARS led me to something dubbed the Minimal Genome Project which I found a lot of experimental documentation for between 1998 and 2000, including the creation of completely new amino acids –until this, every biological entity that has ever existed used the same available 20 amino acids. SARS patients were found to be infected with a novel corona virus and, coincidently, a novel corona virus was created in a lab with a new amino acid in 2001. Since the original outbreak, the SARS creature seems to have disappeared. Was it part of an experiment to create a new “minimal genome organism” ?  Indirect evidence is tantalizingly suggestive that it could be the case.  First, consider this research news in the right time window, and I’ll add more to this post supporting a proof-of-concept. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/12/01/sweating-the-small-stuff/ This link, http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/74/22/10600 within Sweating the Small Stuff states that coronavirus is the largest known genome in nature –ripe for a take-away project, I suppose. Since the 2003 outbreak new information about coronavirus is being published, such as this statement from August 2004: “The coronavirus replicase-transcriptase was recently predicted to contain RNA-processing enzymes that are extremely rare or absent in other RNA viruses” –in other words, the researchers have made a novel discovery about their specimen. In this case, the studied coronavirus is generating a unique protein that has an ability to preferentially cleave double stranded RNA (dsRNA):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514660/ . This feature of the SARS virus is creating a handy new enzyme tool for genetic engineers.

Minimal genomes are a boon to living DNA computers:“Human cells and computers process and store information in much the same way… ‘If you look inside the cell, you find a bunch of amazing little tools,’ said Adelman, who made the first DNA-based computation in 1994. ‘The cell is a treasure chest.’ ” http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/18/tech/main568893.shtml; Leonard Adelman is employed by George Mason University and the MITRE Corporation, producer of the JASON reports for the DoE, DoD, etc.; Leonard Adelman says “Late one evening, while lying in bed reading Watson’s text, I came to a description of DNA polymerase. This is the king of enzymes – the maker of life. Under appropriate conditions, given a strand of DNA, DNA polymerase produces a second “Watson-Crick” complementary strand, in which every C is replaced by a G, every G by a C, every A by a T and every T by an A. For example, given a molecule with the sequence CATGTC, DNA polymerase will produce a new molecule with the sequence GTACAG. The polymerase enables DNA to reproduce, which in turn allows cells to reproduce and ultimately allows you to reproduce. For a strict reductionist, the replication of DNA by DNA polymerase is what life is all about… DNA polymerase is an amazing little nanomachine, a single molecule that “hops” onto a strand of DNA and slides along it, “reading” each base it passes and “writing” its complement onto a new, growing DNA strand.  http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Adleman.html; http://www.genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=62298 ; simpler genomes are helping this process along. Adelman’s counterpart in Israel, Ehud Shapiro, works on a project at the Weizmann Institute called “The Human Cell Lineage Tree** Flagship Initiative” http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~udi/ An accomplishment of Shapiro and colleagues in 2004 illustrates a DNA computer at work: “Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated..allowing both input and output…. Such computers, using biological molecues as input data and bilogically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for ‘logical’ control of biological processes… As proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of..cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule after an anticancer drug.” http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v429/n6990/abs/nature02551.html

There it is: cell surveillance and cancer ‘self’ control.

With DNA polymerase to “process”, restriction enzymes to “cut” and ribozymes to “paste”, the working parts of DNA computers look to be on hand with the exception maybe of genetically stable, high-fidelity replicators. http://www.jci.org/articles/view/19386
I speculate that cancer cells are very useful for this purpose with their immortal qualities, and in so many cases, engineered recombinant microbes (i.e. viruses) in current therapy use end up causing cancers, that the cancer cells, and controlling the cells, in the first place is the most useful approach. Minimal genomes, real and artificial, look like other lines of pursuit running apace for the ultimate creation of DNA computer life. This general field of study is called bioinformatics http://www.med.nyu.edu/rcr/Fordham/ and another of its Holy Grails is finding perfect cell-based delivery systems. The DNA computer ‘proof of principle’ by the Israelis (above) used a “stochastic molecular automaton” to provide the computer input, meaning a precise-targeting agent –I’m perusing the literature to find the exact agents– but this fundamentally defines the action of viruses. And the genetically small ones, like SV40 monkey virus and polioviruses are already human-adapted and under intense ‘quantitative’ experimentation to see how well they deliver genetic information.
*
**Human Cell Lineage Tree Project collaborators in the U.S. are Shimon Weiss of UCLA http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/sweiss/  and Stephen Quake at *Stanford http://www.hhmi.org/news/quake.html; for more ‘flagship’ programs see this http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/programme/fet/flagship/doc/pilot-papers-01_en.pdf
*

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Chalk this up to spooky things scientists say.
November 22, 2002 — “Craig Venter’s ‘minimal genome’ project announced Wednesday is not about creating a new life form…[that comes later with Synthia]. The high profile project was just funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) with $3 million going to the Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives (IBEA), one of the nonprofit research institutes Venter founded after leaving..Celera Genomics early this year.
   “The question of the minimal genome for an organism [–the base gene set required for life–] is always ‘minimal in which environment,’ said Francisco J. Silva of the University of Valencia in Spain. Silva and colleagues..are studying the genome of the insect endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which appears to have an even smaller genome than that of the parasite Mycoplasma genitalium, Venter’s organism of choice.
   “..pathogenic bacteria usually have more genes than their harmless relatives do..but the disease-related genes are not essential to life, so they could be the first catagory of genes a scientist would jettison from a minimal genome organism… ‘A minimal genome organism’ [Silva] said, ‘will be a prisoner of the laboratory dish where it lives, and will be unable to compete with the outer world.’
   “The minimal genome organism now being planned..will be further crippled so that it cannot survive wihout laboratory coddling. The strategy is to synthesize an artificial chromosome containing the presumptive minimal gene set, remove all existing genetic material.. and then insert the synthetic chromosome into the vacant cell… The long-term goal..will be to help the world solve some of its environmental problems. That’s why the funding is coming from DoE, where recent genetics projects have focused on bioremediation…” http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/20885/
>>>In June 2010, Venter announced “Synthia” –“a synthetic cell from scratch” and “a hitherto unseen lifeform…To do this, he read the DNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, a bug that infects goats, and recreated it piece by piece. The fragments were then ‘stitched together’ and inserted into a bacterium of a different species… he claimed the breakthrough had changed his views on the definition of life. ‘We have..the first synthetic cell powered and controlled by a synthetic chromosome and made from four bottles of chemicals,’ he said..” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1279988/Artificial-life-created-Craig-Venter–wipe-humanity.html
*
“The constraints of the genetic code are history”
Feb. 14, 2002 – ” ‘The constraints of the genetic code are history,’ proclaims Peter Schultz of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California…’At least in bacteria, the genetic constraints..are gone.’ Dr. Schultz’s statement is no idle boast…[His] laboratory, along with another team of chemists based in Japan, are introducing completely new strands [of DNA]…If successful, they will fabricate..a new sort of living thing… [C]olleagues..in..Japan..have developed unnatural versions of all the ingredients in this process: the bases, the DNA, the RNAs and the amino acids. The result is a protein that could never have existed in nature… By exposing..unnatural bacteria to the sort of conditions believed to have prevailed on the early earth..it might be possible to observe whether bacteria with 21, 22, or even more amino acids might win out over those with the standard complement… Back in the present, the next order of business is to apply the research to mammals. Dr. Wang says that a certain strain of monkey cells has shown a promising tendency to incorporate unnatural amino acids. Within a year, he thinks, the group should have made mammalian cells equipped with 21 amino acids.” http://www.economist.com/node/987697?story_id=987697
>>>Dr. Lei Wang is on the faculty of the Salk Institute http://www.salk.edu/faculty/wang.html; it certainly seems like the Schultz team was eager to know if their creations would ‘compete’ outside the lab.
   In July 2002, Eckard Wimmer of SUNY, in conjunction with the Pentagon, announced the result of his DARPA-funded project to create viruses from scratch:
“This is the first time that a working biological entity has been made using chemicals alone…But poliovirus is easier to build than many others. It has a short and simple genome and assembles itself directly from a DNA template… More complex viruses could be synthesized, Wimmer believes, by additional chemical steps or by putting synthetic genes into living cells..” http://www.nature.com/news/1998/020708/full/news020708-17.html
Commenting on Wimmer’s achievement: ” ‘This work should never have been done, funded, or published,’ said J.Craig Venter…’Somehow the whole system broke down here.’ ..The work, [Wimmer] said, was intended to serve as a warning of what is now possible.”
2004– “Several attempts have been made to identify the minimal set of genes that is required for life using computational approaches… These experiments resemble those already performed by nature; a few hundred million years ago an ancestor of E. coli was domesticated by aphids which resulted in the elimination of 70-75% of the original bacterial genome. Amazingly, the small genomes of the imprisoned bacteria are more stable than those of their free-living relatives.
   ..”Obligate host-associated bacteria have among the smallest genomes known in nature… Two different scenarios have been proposed to explain the process of genome shrinkage in B. aphidicola… that the minimization..was continuous, with genes being lost individually through a large number of small deletion events..[or] that many genes were lost simultaneously at an early stage of the internalization process..through the elimination of large blocks of DNA spanning multiple genes…
 …”as computational analysis becomes more refined and the data sets grow larger, fewer genes remain that are conserved among all taxa…[and] the few remaining genes are organized in a surprisingly similar manner… The lack of..sequences..reduces rearrangement possibilities…
   “The next few years will tell whether..the..endosymbiont genomes are self-sustainable… An interesting question for the future is to determine whether the dependent partner will be ‘allowed’ to stay as a ‘silent parasite’ if the need for its functions is lost during evolution, or if such a loss will cause it to deteriorate and collapse.”
Error Catastrophe
Too many mutations, too rapid a pace and/or too few genes leads to a potential species collapse in a  nose-diving degenerative process that microbe researchers in the lab call “error catastrophe”; virus experimenters document the fundamental principle, noting, “There is an intrinsic limit to the maximum variability of viral genetic information before it loses meaning and if an RNA virus quasispecies goes beyond that mutation limit, the population will no longer be viable. The phenomenon that occurs when the loss of genetic fidelity results in a lethal accumulation of errors has been termed ‘error catastrophe’. Most cellular organisms have evolved a number of sophisticated processes to maintain their genetic information with high fidelity and stay far away from the threshold of error catastrophe. In contrast, it has been predicted that RNA viruses with high mutation frequencies exist close to the edge of error catastrophe and can be forced into error catastrophe by a moderate increase in mutation rate… We also describe direct evidence that the error catastrophe theory applies to poliovirus.” http://www.pnas.org/content/98/12/6895.full
“One very important fact to remember is that radiation increases the spontaneous mutation rate” — Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) power plant training manual on the effects of ionizing radiation
   Another important fact is that viruses are not organisms or cells and have no strategies for survival! The authors of the ‘error catastrophe’ paper are really telling us that the “edge of viability” on which polioviruses (and others) exist needs maintenance to prevent their extinction. Circulating polioviruses were determined in 2000 to be all vaccine-derived, and the buzz around the conference tables of the WHO and other agencies brought up the issue of stopping the inoculation programs. Very soon thereafter
a complete scratch poliovirus made from mail-order chemicals blitzed the science headlines invoking a new threat from terrorists. As a mode of comparison, organisms do have an array of survival strategies.

April 28, 2011

Transgenic Round-up

    

NATURE is literally forced at the point-of-a-gun to permanently accept mutant biological shrapnel or die. Only the survivors, be they microbes or caged lab rats are allowed to multiply and pass on their new genes while a potentially unlimited variety of species are being cross-linked for use. An alarmingly escalated pattern of ‘blight’ and disease which threatens world food supplies and human survival appears to closely precede the mass introduction of transgenics wherever they take root. I’ll write more about this pattern in future posts — for now, here’s a sample roll call of transgenic progress.
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The Helios Gene Gun..”uses..DNA- or RNA-coated gold particles..loaded into the gun and you pull the trigger.” http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Bio111/genegun.html

“..Monsanto researchers encountered enormous diffculties in introducing [a mutant gene] into soybean cells… In the face of this resistance from nature, [they] decided to bring out..a “gene gun” invented by two Cornell University scientists…When John Sanford and his colleague Ted Klein came up with the idea for this last-ditch weapon, they were considered crazy, even though laboratories at the time were prepared to do anything to force the desired DNA to penetrate the target cells… But nothing was working. The gene gun is now the insertion tool most frequently used by the ‘artillerymen’ of genetic engineering. It works by attaching genetic constructs to microscopic gold or tungsten* bullets and shooting them into a culture of embryonic cells… As Arnold Apotheker points out..,’In their determination to subjugate nature, humans use the technologies of war to force cells to accept genes of other species’.” [pp140-141] >>>Monsanto found its pesticide-resistant mutant gene near its most highly glyphosate-contaminated production plant. So what about us? Is the purpose of forced healthcare to search for mutant DNA?

..”The New York Times was able to get its hands on a draft of a secret document, dated October 13, 1986, in which the company’s directors established a veritable battle plan to impose GMOs in the United States. Among the primary objectives were ‘creating support for biotechnology at the highest U.S. policy levels’, and ‘working to gain endorsements..in the presidential platforms..in the 1988 election’… On June 2, 1987..Monsanto researchers conducted their first field test of transgenic crops in Jerseyville, Illinois… George H.W. Bush assumed the presidency in January 1989… Dan Quayle..presented American policy on GMOs…’We are taking this step as part of the President’s regulatory relief initiative..’ [and published by the FDA as] its regulatory policy on ‘foods derived from new plant varieties..developed by methods of genetic modifications are regulated within the existing framework..utilizing an approach identical to that applied to foods developed by traditional plant breeding.’ ” [p143-145]  “..the techniques of genetic manipulation have absolutely nothing to do with the genealogical selection that has been practiced by breeders since the..mid-nineteenth century… genealogical selection is based on natural laws”.. [p136, The World According to Monsanto, 2008, Marie-Monique Robin]

Spying on our cells – “Gold, DNA Mix Could Result in Biological Nano Spieshttp://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-07/gold-dna-mix-could-result-biological-nano-spies; A current use of nanogold is “laser-guided” treatment: NanoPulse Biosciences: “We at NanoPulse Biosciences harness the power of optically excited nanomaterials  by pulsed lasers to develop some of the most precise targeted-therapeutic  technologies available…  NPB’s diverse product portfolio and intellectual capital is based on two  scientific technologies: noble-metal nanoparticles and short-pulsed lasers.  Currently, NPB is working with The University of Texas at Austin to obtain  exclusive licensor of the ‘Plasmonic Laser Nanoablation Methods’ patent… Disease-specific targeting of functionalized gold nanoparticles enables highly  selective and precise treatment.” http://nanopulsebio.com; NanoPulse cofounder Daniel Eversole wrote: “Gold nanoparticles have shown great potential as in-vivo, optically-active, biospecific probes with highly controllable and tunable optical properties for simultaneous molecular imaging and phototherapy. The strong plasmon resonance has led to the development of a variety of nanoparticle-based cancer therapies we term Plasmonic Laser Phototherapy (PLP). “ http://www.linkedin.com/in/dseversole

Transformation of Filamentous Fungi, “over the last few years, microprojectile bombardment has become a powerful tool for transformation on intact cells, particularly for the transformation of fungal strains…such as obligate plant pathogens” http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Transformation-of-Filamentous-Fungi-by-Microprojectile-Bombardment-1203-1/
*
“Stable transformation of..mitochondria was achieved by particle bombardment..using plasmid DNA coated onto to gold or tungsten microparticles. Results demonstrate that the kind and size of microparticles are important factors in determining efficiency of transformation…approximately five-fold [to ten-fold] more efficient with 0.6 gold particles…” http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Sub-Micron-Gold-Particles-Are-Superior-to-Larger-Particles-for-Efficient-Biolistic-Transformation-of-Organelles-and-Some-Cells-1201-1/

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“Just as some people live by the sword, we shall live by science” –Chaim Weizmann
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                                                           The Transgenic Human?
Maxine Singer and Paul Berg
In 1972, one of [Maxine] Singer’s colleagues and personal friends Paul Berg of Stanford University was the first to create recombinant DNA molecules… In the early 1990s.. Singer issued an article encouraging the public to try the first genetically engineered food to reach American supermarket shelves.” http://www.answers.com/topic/maxine-singer
*
Berg wrote in his Nobel Prize autobiography:..”After 6 years in St. Louis, I moved to Stanford University’s Medical Center (1959) to help Kornberg set up the new department of biochemistry. In time, my interests shifted from..microorganisms to mammalian cells and I spent a year experimenting with Polyoma and SV40..with Renato Dulbecco at the Salk Institute. Soon after, I returned to Stanford [and] conceived of using SV40 as a means for introducing new genes into mammalian cells… My colleagues and I succeeded in developing a general way to join two DNAs together in vitro; in this case, a set of three genes responsible for metabolizing galactose in the bacterium E. coli was inserted into the SV40 DNA genome. That work led to the emergence of the recombinant DNA technology ”  http://polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/ >>>SV40 monkey virus was a vaccine contaminant in the 1950s & 60s, now thought to be possibly contagious as well as heritable.

“So it was at Stanford, not in St. Louis, that the first genetic manipulations took place. In 1972, as Monsanto was preparing to launch Roundup, Paul Berg succeeded in ‘recombining’ DNA– that is, putting together two fragments of DNA from different species into a hybrid molecule. A little later, his colleague Stanley Cohen announced that he had succeeded in transferring a frog gene into the DNA of a bacterium… These discoveries, which broke a law that had been considered inviolable, the impossibility of crossing what was known as the ‘species barrier’, created great excitement, along with deep concern, in the international scientific community. The worries turned into an uproar when Paul Berg announced his intention to insert a carcinogenic virus, SV40, from a monkey into an E.coli cell*, a bacterium that colonizes the human digestive tract. Some scientific authorities, such as Robert Pollack, a cancer virus specialist, worried: “What will happen if the manipulated organism inadvertantly escapes from the laboratory?” The general outcry led to a temporary moratorium on genetic manipulation and, on February 25, 1975, the first international conference on recombinant DNA… But, at no point did they broach ethical questions, which were excluded from the outset. It was as though the biologists had already decided to ‘limit the involvement of the public and the government in their affairs to the minimum’. The message was soon received loud and clear by the future world leader in biotechnology.” [pp133-134, The World According to Monsanto]

*Berg’s “success” was a done deal long before 1972. SV40 was the “cancer-causing” virus transferred to polioviruses used in the Salk and Sabin vaccines –viruses known to have been cultured on human HeLa cells (immortalized cancer cells).  Berg’s original work with SV40 seems to parallel its discovery in 1960 and its public outing as a vaccine contaminant in 1963.  While Berg supposedly perfected his recombinant techniques using SV40 as a carrier ‘mule’, Maxine Singer was on a year’s sabbatical at the Weizmann Institute (1971-72) while Albert Sabin was its president (1970-72), working on SV40 research which proved that the host cell transferred its genes into the SV40 virus (creating a defective virus that was still able to replicate and pass on its genes ). The polio vaccines of the 1950s and 60s were not just a radiation experiment, or an anti-cancer vaccine as the government insiders may have believed, but in fact an unacknowledged transgenic alteration of the human population, presented as an after-the-fact occurrance in scattered, stepwise scientific studies.

“Molecular biologists knew very well that plant organisms possess defense mechanisms designed to protect them from the intrusion of foreign bodies, including, of course, genes coming from other living species. From the very beginning, those biologists understood that genetic manipulation could not be carried out without using an intermediary, or a ‘mule’, able to transport the selected gene and make it enter by force into the target cell. For this purpose, they turned to [bacteria with] the capacity to insert some of its genes into.. cells to cause tumors… In 1974, a Belgian* research team succeeded in identifying the plasmid (a ring of DNA) constituting the vector by which the gene that induces the tumor is transferred from the bacterium to the [host]. In St. Louis, as in laboratories around the world at the time, they then attempted to isolate in the plasmid the gene responsible for the tumors and replace it with the gene of interest by adding a gene ‘promoter’, a sequence of DNA that triggers the expression of the gene to be triggered.” [p137, The World According to Monsanto]
“Vectors [plasmids] based on recombinant SV40 viruses (rSV40) are highly effective in delivering transgene expression”..http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/v8/n13/full/3301481a.html
*”From 1960-1965, [Charles] Thomas was Chairman of the Board and during his tenure Monsanto established a permanent overseas headquarters in Brussels .  http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev25-34/chapter2.shtml “Monsanto was also a key player in nuclear reactor development…”

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Definitions:

“Transgenic: Having genetic material (DNA) from another species. This term can be applied to an organism that has genes from another organism. It is understood that the foreign genes are in the transgenic animal’s germ-cell DNA and so can be transmitted from one generation to the next.” http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11295 “

“Transfection: The introduction of DNA into a recipient eukaryote cell, and its subsequent integration into the recipient cells chromosomal DNA..” http://www.lexic.us/definition-of-/transfection

Recombinant DNA technology: A series of proceedures used to join together (recombine) DNA segments..from 2 or more different DNA molecules..”  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5247

Example of an applicaton:
“Recombinant virus-like particles as drug delivery system; The drug delivery system described here is based on a virus-like particle consisting of the recombinant protein of Polyomavirus VP1… The VP1 protein acts as a major ligand for certain membrane receptors during virus infection… VP1 proteins provide a targeting a well as a drug binding site when used as a..drug carrier for gene therapy.” http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:14111749
Horizontal gene transfer “is any process in which an organism [or virus] transfers genetic material (i.e.DNA) to another cell that is not its offspring… common among bacteria..[and] thought to be a significant cause of drug resistance… Also, [intestinal] bacteria appear to exchange genetic material with each other within the gut in which they live..” http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Horizontal_gene_transfer;
**gut bacteria can cause pneumonia and flu: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/30/enter-o-viruses/

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“[T]his direction was followed by the Democratic administration of Bill Clinton, whose campaign director was Mickey Kantor, later U.S. trade representative and commerce secretary..[who] became famous for the harsh comments and the threats he made against his European counterparts when they announced their intention to label GMO products. In this area, his greatest ally was Dan Glickman…Appointed secretary of Agriculture just after Monsnto’s transgenic soybeans had gone on the market, Dan Glickman was the one who authorized all subsequent GMO crops …in September 2004 he had been apponited CEO of the Motion Picture Association of America, which brings together the six majors in Hollywood. [p165-166]
“[In 1992]..the FDA..felt that the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which ensures the safety of all foods except meat, poultry and egg products, which are regulated by the [U.S.] Department of Agriculture (USDA), had enough authority..to deal with new technologies..[using] the ‘principle of substantial equivalence’… Roundup Ready soybeans as an example..is a plant which has a modified [mutated] enzyme that is essentially the same enzyme that’s already in the plant: it has a very small mutation..[pp146-147]  …[A]s Maryanski acknowledged, the document published by the FDA in 1992 was in no way a regulation, since its purpose was primarily to provide justifications for not regulating GMOs… drafted so the biotechnology industry could propagate the myth that GMOs are regulated, which is completely false. [p156] …Decided on at the highest levels..this huge enterprise of disinformation was carried on by an unshakable team: James Maryanski and Michael Taylor. [p159].
…Mickey Kantor, U.S. trade representative from 1992-1997 and commerce secretary from 1996-1997, immediately thereafter joined [Monsanto’s] board of directors.. [p163, The World According to Monsanto]
*
1991 — “We have established a regeneration protocol for melon…to produce transgenic melon plants..” http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v9/n9/abs/nbt0991-858.html
“On January 31, 1992, Samuel Shibiko of the Toxicology Section of the FDA wrote: ‘We cannot assume that all gene products, particularly those encoded by genes from non-food sources, will be digestible. For example, there is evidence that certain types of proteins..are resistant to digestion and can be absorbed in biologically active form.’ ” [p154, The World According to Monsanto]
*
1992 — “Bioengineers at one company learned that the Arctic flounder produces an antifreeze to protect itself in freezing waters. They plan to find the gene that regulates production of the antifreeze and introduce it into strawberry plants.” http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/biotech_info_series/bio8.html
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1994– FDA approved Flavr Savr tomato on May 17, 1994: “The tomato was fed in laboratory trials to mice who, normally relishing tomatoes, refused to eat..and had to be force-fed by tubes… seven of forty mice died within two weeks.” http://www.raw-wisdom.com/50harmful ; “a significant number  of them..developed stomach lesions…The cultivation of the transgenic tomato..turned out to be a catastrophe: yields in California were so low that the inventors decided to move production to Florida…Flavr Savr was then shifted to Mexico… [and]’Since 1996, Flavr Savr tomatoes have been taken off the fresh produce market in the United States. The manipulation..had unintended consequences such as soft skin, strange taste and compositional changes…In the interim, Calgene* had fallen into the pocket of Monsanto, which had definitely buried the doomed tomato.” [p149, World According to Monsanto]*”.. produced by the Californian company Calgene and submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992″ http://www.answers.com/topic/flavr-savr ; the Fish Tomato “was created when a tomato plant..was infected with bacteria containing recombinant DNA” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_tomato

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1995– Generation of Transgenic Banana; “An Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation system was developed..which demonstrated chromosomal integration of foreign DNA..with no indication of chimeric tissues..” http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v13/n5/abs/nbt0595-486.html ;
[2005] Banana vaccine: “..The group succeeded in transferring a Hepatitis B antigen to bananas..”http://www.monsanto.co.uk/news/ukshowlib.phtml?uid=9668
Uganda prepares to plant transgenic bananas [2010] http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101001/full/news.2010.509.html
 *
Transgenic tobacco — “protein involved in nicotine synthesis..corresponding to affect nicotine content in transgenic tobacco” http://www.patents.com/us-5668295.html [1998] “Recent..studies have indicated that smoking or nicotine or both may have protective effects against certain diseases… nicotine may prove useful as a tool..” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1188908/
In 2006, transgenic tobacco was used to create an experimental vaccine against Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1459021/
*
Transgenic cotton..carries its own insecticide within the plant tissues .. http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt1996/t_cotton.html  “The toxin kills caterpillars by paralyzing their guts… In 1995 the EPA granted final clearance for..Bt-carrying cotton..released by the Delta and Pine Land Company.” http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt1996/t_cotton.html#bt_cotton
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1996 — Transgenic Crops http://filebox.vt.edu/cals/cses/chagedor/crops.html
Over 20 engineered crops are now being commercialized and quickly brought to market… While transgenic seed introductions in the major field crops (corn, soybeans, cotton and potatoes) have taken the early lead, specialty crops in fruits, vegetables, and forages are not far behind. Major agribusinesses such as Novartis, Monsanto, Dekalb, and Pioneer Hi-Bred International, are putting the full efforts of their research..into engineered crops.” http://filebox.vt.edu/cals/cses/chagedor/soy97.html
Novartis http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/novartis/
Monsanto http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/monsanto/
*
Seeds of Doubt – “In June 1996, the University of California, Davis, began an unprecedented effort to help the West African nation of Mali, using the promising and controversial new tool of agricultural biotechnology…disease-resistant rice to help feed the impoverished country…So far – like UC Davis’ effort to aid Mali – biotechnology has not delivered.” http://www.sacbee.com/static/live/news/projects/biotech/text.html
 *
“[E]xamples of unpredicted immunogenicity or toxicity are two food products. In the 1990s, in feeding trials with rats (and mice), genetically engineered (GE) tomatoes in the US (Calgene) as well as GE potatoes in the UK [6,7] were found to cause damage to the gut and its mucosal cell lining. In both cases, the transgenes used were coding for proteins regarded as harmless when ingested by mammals. Another major risk in the IMR project is horizontal gene transferhttp://current.com/news/92662233_gmos-that-drink-your-blood.htm
*
”In 1996, Genzyme Transgenics Corp., working with Bristol-Myers, announced the birth of a genetically altered goat, which carried the gene for an anticancer drug. Beginning in 1996, Bristol-Myers scientists collaborated with BioServe Technologies, a NASA-funded non-profit, to explore the use of space for developing commercial products.” [Bristol-Myers-Squibb http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/2009/11/16/big-pharm/ ]
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1998 — “Transgenic potatoes engineered to generate an immune response to E.coli infection have passed their first test in human beings… [The potatoes were] developed at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research [BTI]*..[and the human trials] were conducted at the University of Maryland Center for Vaccine Development.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/04/980428080000.htm ; *the BTI was founded in 1920 by William Boyce Thompson (1869-1930), the first Director of the New York Federal Reserve Bank (1914-1919) and owner of Newmont Mining, 3rd largest mining operation in the world (for some time) behind DeBeers and Anglo-American. Thompson financed Tobacco Products Co. and Cuban Cane Sugar Co. http://www.yonkershistory.org/8_2_2.html ; http://bti.cornell.edu/
[2000] Jellyfish potato, tagging potato leafroll virus…aphids fed on extracts ..transmitted [the gene]..to test plants” http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/81/3/617
*
[2005] Potato vaccine for HepB http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4263729.stm
*
“The fact remains that the transgenic potatoes had unexpected effects on the [test] rats’ organisms… First, the rats in the experimental groups had brains, livers, and testes less developed..as well as atrophied tissue, particularly in the pancreas and the intestine. We also found a proliferation of cells in the stomach, and that is troubling because it can facilitate the development of tumors caused by chemical products. Finally, the immune system of the stomach was overactive which suggests that the rats’ organisms were treating the potatoes as foreign bodies… Apparently, contrary to what the FDA claimed, the insertion technique was not a neutral technology because by itself it produced unexplained effects.” –Arpad Pusztai, [pp180-181, The World According to Monsanto]
*
“In the late 1980s, the group of Gonsalves at Cornell..and Hawaii started a research project to develop transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV [Papaya Ring Spot Virus] by biolistic transformation method…By May, 1998, PRSV-CP gene transgenic papaya Rainbow and SunUp were deregulated..and granted approval..” http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/566/
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1999 — “In its lab the Cornell team..fed monarch butterfly larvae with milkweed leaves, their favorite diet, dusted with Bt corn pollen. ‘Four days later, 44 percent of the larvae had died, and the survivors had lost their appetite… none of the larvae exposed to leaves..with natural pollen had died.’ …Cornell team’s results were confirmed by a University of Iowa study published on August 19, 2000..with milkweed leaves gathered in proximity to transgenic crops…’We found that after five days exposure to Bt pollen, 70 percent of monarch butterfly larvae died ” [pp230-231, The World According to Monsanto]
*
Genetically modified forests: “ArborGen is the world’s biggest GM tree company. Formed in April 1999 as a joint venture between Monsanto, International Paper, Westvaco and Fletcher Challenge… [Also] Formed in 1999, GenFor is a joint venture between Chilean technology think tank Fundación Chile and Cellfor (Canada).” http://chrislang.org/2004/12/20/genetically-modified-trees-chapter-3/#ArborGen
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2001Jellyfish gene in a monkey: Gerald Schatten, “The biologist who took a gene from a jellyfish and inserted it into a rhesus monkey egg, creating the world’s first transgenic primate.. will join the..faculty of the University of Pittsburgh..[and] continue to focus on how to transfer foreign genes into monkeys… These genetically engineered monkeys promise to be particularly effective animal models of disease..[for human] health problems..” http://www.post-gazette.com/healthscience/20010510schatten2.asp;
Green glowing monkeys have green glowing babies http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/28/us-monkeys-green-idUSTRE54Q4A520090528
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Transgenic Rice and Potato Plants Expressing Human Cytochrome [enzyme] — “The transgenic plants metabolized exogenous chemicals, including herbicides, which they were able to tolerate..” http://www.agnet.org/library/tb/159/tb159.pdf
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“Epicyte [biotech]..in 2001 announced..genetically engineered corn which contained a [human] spermicide which made the semen of men who ate it sterile…” http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2010/06/11/18650455.php
GM canola, has, in fact, spread much more rapidly than we thought it would. It’s absolutely impossible to control.” –Martin Entz, U Manitoba [p216, The World According to Monsanto]
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2002Spider gene “switches on” in the mammary glands of dairy goats to make “milk silk” for the materials industry, marketed as ‘Biosteel’ super-strong fiber. “The mammary gland is a perfect natural factory for the synthesizing and production of proteins….’In the future, animals will be our factories,’ Turner says..’Very cheap factories.’ http://www.organicconsumers.org/patent/spidersilk061702.cfm
*
 “[T]his project [will] evaluate transgene expression and milk properties for a number of transgenic dairy goat lines harboring three separate transgenes..” http://www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/192846.html
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“Bactofection, a novel technology for introducing genes into cells using live, attenuated invasive bacterial vectors, has been licensed to Microscience Ltd. by the University System of Maryland (USM)…Microscience, based in Berkshire, United Kingdom, will use its proprietary attenuated Salmonella serovar Typhi and serovar Typhimurium derivatives to deliver a range of DNA antigens … The inventors of DNA Bactofection are with UMBI’s Institute of Human Virology….Robert Gallo, director, UMBI’s Institute of Human Virology, comments, “Bactofection has the potential to get vaccines to people in developing areas of the world where they may have been unaffordable and unavailable”… http://www.umbi.umd.edu/news/2002/2002-09-06_microscience-ltd-license-vaccine-delivery-technology.php
October, 2002 — “Japanese organic foods test positive for GMOs… 33% of products tested…” http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/millenium/organicfoods.php
Pharma-crops ‘jump the fence’ –USDA “orders ProdiGene to destroy 155 acres of corn..developed to produce trypsin for diabetes as well as another chemical to treat diarrhea..” http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=prodigene_1
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2003 — Yorktown Technologies of Austin Texas introduces ‘GloFish’ to the pet market http://www.isb.vt.edu/articles/jun0405.htm
Genetic Engineering and Animal Rights http://www.animallaw.info/articles/ddusgeneticengin.htm
“In 2003, countries that grew 99% of the global transgenic crops are the United States (63%), Argentina (21%), Canada (6%), Brazil (4%), China (4%) and South Africa (1%) and today the Grocery Manufacturers of America estimate that 75% of all processed foods in the U.S. contain a GM ingredient.” http://openseeds.net/?page=Genetically+Modified+Food+-+GM+Foods+List+and+Information&action=diff&f1=20090924-0839.bak&f2=..
  “Greenhouse and field testing of transgenic wheat…” http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/384/1101.full
[In Egypt]..”Dr. Bahieldin used microprojectile bombardment to transform immature embryos of Egyptian and American bread wheats with genes for salt and drought tolerance..” http://www.ageri.sci.eg/topic6/wheat.htm
[2008] “Seven transgenic lines [of wheat] were identified that expressed the..transgene..” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2423652/
“..all our foreign customers, led by Japan and Europe, have clearly stated they did not want transgenic wheat… Canada could have gone out of business..” [p226, The World According to Monsanto]
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[Aug2003] “U.S. company AviGenics has successfully produced biologically active human interferon and human monoclonal antibodies in transgenic chickens.” http://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/Materials-Formulation/Trasgenic-production-for-the-birds
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[Oct2003] “France’s BioProtein Technologies..as developed..therapeutic [vaccine] proteins in the milk of transgenic rabbitshttp://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/Materials-Formulation/Vaccines-from-rabbits-milk
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2004 — “We have developed transgenic cucumber plants..by the expression of rice chitinase..” http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Paper/13192921
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 Xenotransplantation: “Embryonic pig liver, pancreas, and lung as a source for transplantaion.. represent an atractive option for organ transplantation..” Weizmann Institute of Science http://www.pnas.org/content/102/8/2928.full
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2005 — GMO alfalfa released: http://www.worc.org/GM-Alfalfa/
[2005] “Recent advances in molecular biology and plant biotechnology have shifted the concept of growing crops as a food source to serving as a bioreactor for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. Plants are potential biopharming factories because they are capable of producing unlimited numbers and amounts of recombinant proteins safely and inexpensively” http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-19444372752&origin=inward&txGid=AtV5RnEf3CyfFoVSaDvvlpd%3a14 ; “The vegetative type [gene] expression system uses plants such as tobacco, lemna, and alfalfa while grain-based systems use corn, rice, and others.” http://pharmalicensing.com/public/articles/view/1086100502_40bc9416bc4ca/technology-update-plant-based-pharmaceuticals-is-this-the-manufacturing-technology-solution-to-address-the-imminent-biologics-demand-and-supply-gap
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2006 — European Union approved “ATryn..a recombinant form of human antithrombin..isolated from the milk of goats that have been engineered to produce the protein.” http://www.gxpandjvt.com/ivtnews/templates/IVTNews.aspx?articleid=1760&zoneid=27
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2007Chicken eggs make human drugs: “engineered chickens may become a more economical and effective method of drug production than current industrial techniques… The genes for the desired proteins were injected into the embryos of newly-laid eggs…The eggs hatched, giving the researchers a transgenic cockerel..who was mated with normal hens to produce more transgenic hicks that also carried the genes. The protein is only found in the whites of a chicken egg… ‘There is also some evidence that proteins [from] chickens may have characteristics closer to those..in human protein than if they are produced in bioreactors,’ said [Roslin Institute team leader, Helen] Sang.” http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/966/chicken-eggs-make-human-drugs
“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution… Other applications include making animal organs compatible with humans, a technology known as xenotransplantation. Research is being conducted to produce transplant organs in pigs that may be a source of organs for humans.” http://www.bio.org/foodag/animals/GE_An_Pharm_0908.pdf
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2009 — “Only a few countries have the technology to clone farm animals and Iran is one of them, having proven its capabilities..[with its] first cloned sheep in 2006..at the Royan Institute. The success rate of cloning proceedures at Royan Institute is comparable with pioneer countries in this field such as New Zealand, Denmark and the USA… Producing the first transgenic goat cells that contain a genome for producing t-PA is another achievement of Royan Institute, which gives the hope of producing transgenic goats that can secrete drugs..in their milk. The Institute is also ready to revive animal species which are exposed to extinction by using cloning technology.” http://www.thecattlesite.com/news/27787/first-cloned-calf-born-in-iran
*
GE trees: genetically modified eucalyptus from ArborGen approved by the USDA for planting in 7 states http://www.triplepundit.com/2009/07/plan-to-plant-gmo-eucalyptus-trees-stirs-up-hornets-nest-of-protest/
*
GM mosquitoes:

[fall 2009] “British company Oxitec announced that it carried out the world’s first..outdoor trial in the Caribbean island of Grand Caymanhttp://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2010/11/gm-mosquito-trial-strains-ties.html; flightless female mosquitoes developed in a collaboration between U.California Irvine  (UCI) and Oxitec Ltd.
Oxitec is introducing sterile males into India: “The sterile insect technique (SIT), as it is called, may work in the lab but not in the field… it will be disastrous if the released sterile males get back their fertility as a result of random gene mutations. “Probability of such an accident cannot be dismissed when millions of GM mosquitoes are released day after day or week after week,” [Pushpa Bhargava, renowned biologist] says. He says fertility can also be restored with terrible consequences, by the antibiotic tetracycline that may be found in soil or water bodies because, according to Oxitec, its GM mosquitoes are designed to stay sterile only as long as its diet does not contain tetracycline.”
*
Is this an ‘unexpected consequence’ of transgenic grain: mutant food susceptible to mutant microbes? “Flour..emerged as a ‘new’ potential carrier of pathogens like E.coli and Salmonella..when Nestle’s raw cookie dough was blamed for infecting 72 people in 30 states with 0157:H7..[but] the research did not lead to a ‘root cause’ for the 2009 outbreak… [T]he flour was the only ingredient not cleared at the supplier level.” http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/08/test-hold-for-e-coli-might-not-work-for-flour/; deadly 0157:H7 E.coli http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1855633/
*
Toxic E.coli learning page www.citizen2009.wordpress.com/e-coli/ (includes worst outbreaks, genetic engineering and bioweapon potential from the Stx toxin)
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[2009]Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation purchased 500,000 shares of Monsanto http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_21606.cfm
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2010 — “The first attempts at GE in animals resulted in some physiological problems in the transgenic animals… studies focusing on the health and welfare of the GE livestock are lacking in the literature… The hLZ [human lysozyme] line was generated by pronuclear microinjection with a transgene consisting of the hLZcDNA linked to a bovine..promoter..[and] transmitted in a Mendelian fashion..currently in the fifth generation” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2970820/
Engineered microbial Bioremediation in the Gulf of Mexico http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/07/20/the-big-spill/
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2011 — [Jan] GM mosquito..”has been released..in southeast Asia..” http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/gm-mosquitoes-deployed-to-control-asias-dengue-fever-2195552.html
*
Food Safety Modernization Act “allows the FDA to administratively detain food the agency believes has been produced under..unsafe conditions. Previously, the FDA’s ability to detain food products applied only when the agency had credible evidence…” http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm253983.htm
*
“..the genetic engineering of these foods can take a safe food and make it toxic… not only that..but there can be novel allergens.. new allergens never seen before… This food is not safe.” –Andrew Kimbrall [minute 12] http://wideeyecinema.com/?p=4984
*
*
May 2011 — Stink bug spread worries growers across nation…”If I was a mad scientist doing gene splicing and putting together a bug that would really be nasty and I was turning it loose on my enemy, I probably couldn’t do a better job,” Bartlett said. “One might define this thing as the bug from hell.” http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110520/ap_on_bi_ge/us_food_and_farm_stink_bugs
July 2011 –GMO Kentucky Bluegrass : “This is perhaps the most serious change in US regs for (genetically modified) crops…” http://motherjones.com/environment/2011/07/usda-deregulate-roundup-gmo-tom-philpott ; “Going Rogue: USDA may have just opened the GMO floodgates” http://www.grist.org/industrial-agriculture/2011-07-11-going-rogue-usda-may-have-just-opened-the-gmo-floodgates
Aug 11, 2011“Researchers say they have created the first ever animal with artificial information in its genetic code.. [which] could give biologists ‘atom-by-atom control’ over the molecules in living organisms… Sebastian Greiss and Jason Chin have re-engineered the nematode worm’s gene-reading machinery to include a 21st amino acid, not found in nature. Dr. Chin..describes the technique as ‘potentially transformational’..[built] on techniques first developed at the Scripps Research Institute, in La Jolla [San Diego, CA]..where Dr. Chin worked 10 years ago… But that was in the bacterium E.coli; until now, no one had succeeded in doing the same in a whole animal… Dr. [Mario] de Bono suggests the approach could now be used to introduce..designer proteins that could be controlled by light …tiny laser flashes.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14492948
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Feb, 2012 — AquaBounty awaits FDA approval for its GE Salmon http://geneticallyengineeredfoodnews.com/category/ge-salmon
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VIDEO — Monsanto and recombinant E.coli– the timeline is faulty (the technologies have been around much longer than stated) but worth watching: http://www.resistance2010.com/video/monsanto-poisoning-the-world-through-e-coli-genetic-modifications
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GMO FOOD Warnings
“It turns out the soy in Kashi cereals come from genetically modified Roundup-ready soybeans… The ‘natural’ label is unregulated and companies can define it as they please…’One Kashi product in particular, GoLean Shakes, is composed almost entirely of synthetic and unnaturally processed ingredients…” http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/05/19/kellogs-kashi-brand-with-ge-soy.aspx?e_cid=20120519_DNL_art_1; made by Kellogg’s
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“There are almost 300 non-organic and synthetic compounds approved for use in organics, including a genetically mutated algae that’s linked to cancer..” http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/05/20/kastel-organic-foods.aspx?e_cid=20120520_SNL_Art_1

December 22, 2010

AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire

Dr. Nancy T. Banks has exploded the myth of the HIV virus in her first book  AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire: The Deadly Virus of International Greed. Not only does she walk her readers through the medical fraud and science behind AIDS but she lays out the modus operandi of “just business” in unequivocal terms of official government policy and programming. The beauty of Dr. Banks’ work is that we have a tool to help deconstruct the other “public health” practices of the 20th century and look at the historical objectives hiding behind the so-called epidemics of the past.
 
Dr. Banks writes, “There is no scientific data validating the contention that what is currently referred to as HIV is, in fact, a virus! …The goal was perception management… [and] the proteins claimed to be specific for HIV are universally present in everyone.” [pp306-308]
   “The fallacy that a hypothetical retrovirus caused AIDS was used as an excuse to use carcinogenic drugs in human subjects to determine whether the loss of function of  T-helper immune cells could cause the development of tumor cells. …AZT was too toxic for most people to tolerate, had no lasting effect on HIV blood levels and left patients with fewer CD4+ cells than they started with..[p254] …AZT has been shown to be maximally toxic to the energy producing intracellular organelles called mitochondria. [p256]
   “AIDS is a free radical and oxidative [plus nitrosative] stress induced condition that appears more easily in people with malnutrition… AIDS is really not an immune deficiency but an energy deficiency..[p257] …The mitochondrian is also the major organelle that helps to control the redox potential of the cell environment measured in millivolts. In living cells, the effective proportion of reduced* substances to oxidized substances is called the redox balance.  …[O]xidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and to energy production enzymes inhibits the production of ATP… With less energy available the cell has three options: cell death, cell degeneration as occurs in disease states, or cell transformation as occurs in cancer..[p219]
   “With the prodigious help of the FDA, Burroughs Wellcome was about to make enormous profits by planned human experimentation of a drug known to cause AIDS and cancer. [p255]”
   “The mitochondrial stress effects of this drug [AZT] are analogous to the effects of nitric oxide (NO) radicals..[p262] …Microbes and humans possess the same type of eukaryotic cells. If a drug attacks the metabolism of the microbe, it also has the possibility to attack the metabolism of the human, and a range of antibiotics have been shown to do just that. However, the microbes have a distinct advantage. Because of evolutionary biology and their short life cycles, they have the ability to adapt to hostile environments faster than humans. Many of the drugs humans create to kill microbes end up killing themselves. [p263]”
   “Cells communicate by means of viral-like particles, electric currents, chemical emission, photons, and magnetic fields. There are about 100,000 reactions per second in all of our cells… Cells also make particles that travel through extra-cellular space to other cells, not to attack them, but to pass on information. The little particles have become known as retroviruses [p53]. …retroviruses do not kill the cells in which they reside as HIV/AIDS proponents claim that HIV does to T cells [p55].
“…when independent researchers were finally able to get access to [Robert] Gallo’s original research, they discovered that no virus was found in any of Gallo’s patients– only antibodies against something he was calling HIV. Antibodies are traditionally a sign that the immune system has rejected the virus. Gallo turned the function of the immune system upside down, and the medical community let him get away with that nonsense for three years before they began to speak out. He made the world believe that having immunity to a virus would lead to a disease [p56].”
*
“…there has been a huge increase in the number of genetic defects found in patients with mitochondrial disorders and..the true impact of mitochondrial disease is only just becoming apparent… mitochondrial diseases are far more common than was anticipated. [p265].
   “…chronic deficits in the more efficient mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are factors in the development of many chronic diseases [p57] …Otto Warburg’s work suggests that malignant growth might be caused by a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism paralleled by an increased glycolytic flux. The new research suggests that it is not so much the increase in glycolysis that may be the primary cause of malignant growth but the reduced efficiency of mitochondrial energy conversion as the result of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Numerous cancer specimens exhibit mitochondrial DNA deletions, reduced mitochondrial content, altered mitochondrial morphology and impaired oxidative capacity as well as an increase in glycolytic rate and lactate production. What is becoming imminently more difficult to suppress is the evidence that impaired mitochondrial metabolism, and specifically the Krebs cycle activity, may promote malignant growth… No virus need apply. [p58]”
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I chose the quotes above for my own purposes in augmenting medical science articles on this blog, but as the book title anticipates, Dr. Banks has written a connect-the-dots model of the geopolitical usefulness of disease and the perception of disease. I could as well quote statements about history, finance, and power relationships from this book. Adding one more quote from the opening paragraph of Chapter 1:
“It is a great mistake to think that wars only concern armies, regulars or guerillas involved in active engagement… The real forces of evil wage another kind of warfare…[that is] principally financial. The dark princes of debt finance have gained practically unopposed leverage over every important social, economic and political institution, including and especially the healthcare delivery system.”
…point taken. Elaborating on how the medical system is “especially” integral in the military-complex is an objective here. It’s rare to find a medical expert who is able and willing to articulate such a broad context on the record and treat of so many aspects in detail. 
Thankyou Dr. Banks!
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Background on GlaxoSmithKline (formerly BurroughsWellcome) is here: www.citizen2009.wordpress.com/glaxosmithkline/
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A “reduced” substance has gained a stabilizing electron http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redox
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December 13, 2009

DNA Ownership

“A man inherently owns his body information because it is the only object with which he is naturally endowed and serves as the basis for his future ownership of any other properties. The definition of body information is the sequence of biological codes that determines individual heredity characteristics…
DNA…becomes unique and is consequently acquired by a unique man through a process of his own creation.
…no person is entitled to the set of body information except the man who bears it.
…whether such ownership can be lost…The answer to this question is yes, yet only with one’s explicit and voluntary consent to a well-defined purpose.
…the purpose is binding.”
http://hussle.harvard.edu/~zhang/lab_reports/docs/MR22%20Ownership%20of%20body%20information.pdf
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The DNA Control Grid http://www.corbettreport.com/articles/20090227_dna_control.htm ; this article states a 40 year (plus) international endeavor of DNA collection has been going on, with the material residing in the hands of private companies who claim ownership. Individuals who voluntary send in samples for “analysis” to programs purportedly determining ancestry or human migration history, such as the National Geographic Society effort, are giving their DNA to IBM and other integrated databases. Physical samples will enhance new and future genetic projects such as “minimal genome” research. 
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In April 2008, a legislative move in Minnesota denied genetic privacy to newborns who’ve been having state mandated blood and tissue collection since 1997. The bill made it harder and more complicated for parents to prevent
the proprietary use of their children’s DNA.
   Twila Brase said that “researchers..are looking for genes related to violence, crime, and different behaviors…so this is not just about cancer and asthma”
   In this youtube video, she adds that almost all states collect blood and DNA which they hold in perpetuity. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgrmtMBJjcg

December 1, 2009

Sweating The Small Stuff

In the course of reading up on RNA and genetic engineering, I happened across an article that proves SARS was potentially the result of an engineered virus. This abstract from the Journal of Virology, entitled “Strategy for Systematic Assembly of Large RNA and DNA Genomes: Transmissable Gastroenteritis Virus Model” or the TGEV (a common intestinal swine virus) shows how the researchers made a synthetic infectious and transmissable virus and published their success in the spring of 2000. “Full-length infectious constructs of TGEV will permit the precise genetic modification of the coronavirus genome” –the virus identified in SARS and the ‘common cold’. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/74/22/10600  More on the subject of SARS as the forerunning event for pandemic management is in an article here called “Quarantine”. I found this abstract on a tangent, searching for material to pad out a review of a Nature magazine article that struck me as a classic bit of scientific spin. Here’s a link to that piece, called “A New Code For Life”,   and I’ll be back to share some thoughts about it and see if I can update the state of the research… Btw, Nature’s piece treats bioengineering as if it’s breakthrough technology in this decade and mentions only two ‘lifeforms’ developed by its (then 2004) publication. If you read the piece, know that “minimal genome” experiments were very successful in the 1970s….. http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v5/n4/full/7400131.html    

The Spin

Big Science is a Big Game like Poker and the propagandists always play from the same deck no matter how dog-earred the cards. They’ve been at it for over a century since the chemical giants took their seats at the table, all vying for the public purse. The public never got dealt a hand but betting was encouraged and as the Game progressed with new players coming and going, demand for fairness in the public-eye saw to it that ‘neutral dealers’ were installed to shuffle and manage the rules –welcome the Ethicists, those professional dealers who ‘call the game’ and distribute the deck. Like casino dealers, the ethicists are experts at how to play. They know about the odds as initiates of the casino that hired them. They know the House always wins, and no matter the outcome of one game or another, they get paid and their job is to make the players feel good and keep them interested. For the sake of the Ruse they get to hold all the cards at the start of every play. This is the Ethical approach and every player today needs to know how to also deal and be versatile. At any time, the roles may shift and players/dealers have to be ready to take on a multitude of jobs –most especially for the ‘educating’ of the public to keep them interested –otherwise the chips might dry up.
 
Amazing, isn’t it, that we can play so many games with the same deck. The main difference between now and then, as I see it, is that players want to win with All Four Aces all of the time and eliminate any equivocation . This is how you know its rigged. Not clever –not like it used to be when one could easily win a hand with a pair of face cards. The Aces didn’t actually exist until WWII and our entree into the Atomic Age. Before that, science wasn’t playing with a full deck.
 
The Aces of Big Science game propaganda, complete with ‘suit’ assignments:
(Diamonds) –“solve environmental problems”, or the Ace of Sustainability
(Hearts) –“treat human diseases”, or the Ace of Humanism
(Clubs) — “create useful products”, or the Ace of Prosperity
(Spades) –“cooperate with international agencies”, or the Ace of the Great Society
The rest of the deck is face cards (governments, banks, churches, agencies, and institutions that serve up big ideas) and numbered cards (officials and experts by rank, including our families and the ‘pre-set’ buttons we filter reality with).
 
Nature magazine plays All Four Aces in the article “A New Code For Life”, which makes it such a good example of the rigged game and comparable to current propaganda from Big Science’s other game: Climate Change –in fact Climate Change is in there, so its all really the same game.
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The Article
 
The salient points of  “A New Code For Life” are that biologists have learned to use artificial amino acids to create new lifeforms and while they were perfecting their techniques, a team of bioethicists was hired (by the biologists themselves) to concurrently construct an approval platform. The ethicists spent more than a year drawing up a report on this “Godlike activity” and “concluded that manipulating organisms has long been a part of human tradition” and therefore “not violat[ing] any fundamental moral precepts or boundaries”. They gave the project a “green flashing light” and it’s up to the readers to decide if the long tradition of manipulating organisms equates to the practice of breeding, or if this is the research community giving itself permission to carry on in the manner to which it’s grown accustomed. As for the non-violations of fundamental morals, we’ll have to suspend the present doctrine that altering nature is causing climate change and species die-off rooted in the immoral activities of humans. As the opening lines indicate, nature is only known to use 20 amino acids in the synthesis of the entire spectrum of genomes and the scientists admit that “the origin of the genetic code..remains an enigma”.
 
The article never raises the moral questions –no need, by gosh, the ethicists settled it– nor does it address the question it poses, “What is life?”, but it does touch on the subject of “misuse”, principally in the words of Eckard Wimmer, the team leader at Univ. of NY at Stony Brook, who used these methods to make infectious poliovirus, accomplished in 2002. Wimmer said,”The reason we did it was to prove it can be done…Now people have to take it seriously”. Wimmer didn’t stop there; he played a major face card for the establishment, “Any threat from bioterrorism will arise only if mass vaccination stops…The potential of virus synthesis is an important factor for consideration in..the poliovirus eradication campaign”. In other words, if we stop vaccinating, someone will whip up the pathogen anew and release it. Wimmer made a point with other interviewers during his moments in the spotlight to name off a list of scourges he thought were easy to make, influenza among them. Nature magazine adds that others have said the chances were “remote, as few people in the world would have the skills to achieve this”. That was also true of the A-bomb in 1943 and yet those ‘few people’, 40 or 50 of them, were ensconced within the heart of their various governments’ programs with virtually unlimited funding to experiment. Logistically, this doesn’t even compare, though today there are thousands of people who could devise working nuclear weapons. Nature magazine is thumbing it’s nose at us –this article, though not the first word on artificial biology by a longshot, was published years after the fact, and it doesn’t take long for international scientists to all catch on with active technology transfer programs in education and business –the “thorny” contractual issues of intellectual property rights that the ethicists spent their time on. That’s their game, as long as the House wins. A “few” competent people would comprise merely one team on one project, and as the coronavirus construct mentioned above illustrates, there are and were teams working on this science that the public never heard about.
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The Bioethicists
These are the people who gave the green light to J. Craig Venter’s team, hired in advance to give the researchers a stamp of approval, which appears to have green-lighted their careers as well:
 
On the ethics of creating artificial genomes, called their report “Ethical Considerations in Synthesizing a Minimal Genome”. (Dec.1999) http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/286/5447/2087  
Mildred K. Cho – Stanford, (1999) http://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/events/pastmgt/2005/twin/docs/Cho-bio.pdf,  Assoc. Director of Center for Biomedical Ehtics; currently (NIH) National Advisory Board for the Human Genome Research Institute (the org. that employed her for the study in 1999)
David Magnus – U Penn (1999) http://kepplerspeakers.com/speakers.aspx?name=David+Magnus ; current Director of Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics; assoc. editor of the American Journal of Bioethics; Advisor California Human Stem Cell Research; Advisor to US Sec. of Agriculture’s Committee on Biotechnology in the 21st Century
Arthur L. Caplan – U Penn, Director http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Caplan, author of 25 books, chair of the UN Committee on Human Cloning and co-director on UN Study group on organ trafficking; chair of bioethics for Glaxo pharmaceuticals 2005-2008; Advisory member Nat’l Institute of Mental Health on human experimentation, President’s Committee on Gulf War Syndrome, Dept. of HHS on Blood Safety and Availability
Daniel B. McGee – Baylor (Waco, TX), affliliated with the School of Religion
 
-team members from the Ethics of Genomics Group-
Charles L. Bosk -author
Mary Lynn Dell – http://www.vitals.com/doctors/Dr_Mary_Dell.html , psychiatrist for Syngenta
Glenn McGee – http://www.practicalbioethics.org/cpd.aspx?pgID=1105 founder of the American Journal of Bioethics
Jon F. Merz – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_F._Merz  sci-fi novelist, US govt security and USAF
Michael Orsi – http://www.opusbono.org/advisors/fr_michael_orsi.asp Catholic priest 
Gerald I. Wolpe – rabbi, deceased http://www.jewishexponent.com/article/18887
Paul R. Wolpe – rabbi’s son
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The Research
 
Nature magazine points out that Richard Chamberlin (UC Irvine) and Peter Schultz (Scripps) paved the way for synthesizing new amino acids. Both men are University of California indoctrinaires working for the US Dept. of Energy. The Human Genome Project is the DoE –mid-wife of Big Science– that started as the Manhattan Project.
Richard Chamberlin http://www.faculty.uci.edu/profile.cfm?faculty_id=4902 , a noted “Eli Lilly” grantee
Peter Schultz http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_G._Schultz , directs The Schultz Lab at Scripps and has founded not less than 8 pharmacology laboratories. Lei Wang is Schultz’s student. Schulz directs the Genome Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation in San Diego.
 
This article has instructive information on the science http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20011029/schultz1.html indicating the researchers initial interest in creating “fluorescent probes” to tag DNA/RNA which allows them to track the chemical interactions in protein synthesis and allow them to master the processes of artificial life.
…”Every organism in nature has been using the same 20 amino acids since the primordial soup. Organisms have to maintain fidelity in replication, and so life has evolved myriad mechanical ways of making sure only those 20 amino acids get incorporated into proteins”…”When a protein is expressed, an enzyme reads the DNA bases of a gene (A,G,C,and T) and transcribes them into RNA (A,G,C,and U). This so-called “messenger RNA” [mRNA] is translated by another protein-RNA complex, called the ribozome, into a protein. The ribozome requires the help of transferRNA molecules (tRNA) that have been “loaded” with an amino acid. Protein specificity comes from the fact that the tRNA recognizes only one codon and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon”…
*
RNA is the key to fabricating life –and the function of the infectious viruses that concern us. The eugenicists can not only infect us with new pathogens, but they can break down the whole existing order of nature (and it WILL) in time from the bottom up, and perhaps not very much time at that, busy as they are.
If the authors of Forbidden Archeology are right, “nature” has preserved our RNA transcription mechanism for many millions of years –check them out!– we humans have existed in our modern form for AEONS, subject only to the variability of a shifting environment and regional differentiation.  Something should tell us that the ‘evolutionary advantage’ has always favored us on this planet and that this is a Sacred heritage encoded in our genes –our original covenant. Nature magazine has raised a Grand Spector to frighten us –yes, it frightens me!– to announce the impunity of Science and scientists to break our sacred bonds and there is nothing more immoral than that!! No one in this world can predict the consequences of the new primordial soup, only that “you” won’t be “you” and neither will I.
 
more on RNA:
The word “moral” from my Webster’s dictionary, preferred meaning: conforming to a standard of right behavior  (as in ethical, virtuous, noble, etc.) –for this purpose applied to cellular automata in the same way that the word ‘noble’ is applied to metals
*
more on SARS:
“Albert Osterhaus is no small fish. He stands at the global nexus of every major virus panic of the past two decades from the mysterious SARS deaths in HongKong, where current WHO Director Margaret Chan got her start in her career as a local health official. According to his official bio at the European Commission, Osterhaus was engaged in April 2003, at the height of the panic over SARS (Severe Acquired Respiratory Syndrome) in Hong Kong. The EU report states, “he again showed his skill at moving fast to tackle a serious problem. Within three weeks he had proved that the disease was caused by a newly discovered coronavirus that resides in civet cats, other carnivorous animals or bats.” 5
The official U.S. response to SARS in May 2003:
…”Thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee. I am Jerome M. Hauer, Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness. I appreciate this opportunity to share our Department’s response to the SARS virus within the context of public health emergency preparedness… we have reason to be encouraged by the response to SARS for several reasons. First, the identification of the agent that causes the disease was completed in record time. CDC identified the coronavirus within a few short weeks of receiving the first specimens… We are partnering with industry to organize a full-court press on vaccine development… The Command Center maps the distribution of SARS cases across the globe with geographic information system software for use during our planning discussions. The Command Center did not exist a year ago – it became operational last November… I recently co-chaired a meeting of the Council of Governments with Mike Byrne of the Department of Homeland Security to bring together health professionals from across the national capital region to aggressively prepare for an outbreak of the SARS virus here… the Department is implementing an aggressive research and development program to develop and acquire biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological countermeasures… The most exciting news in the R&D arena is, of course, Project BioShield, announced by the President on February 3, 2003.” http://republicans.energycommerce.house.gov/108/Hearings/05072003hearing917/Hauer1433.htm
 
 
 

October 18, 2009

Cheeseburger In Paradise


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“In vitro meat” is coming! Not an imitation ‘mock meat’, but real meat grown in the lab that will hopefully appeal to vegans and vegetarians as well as die-hard carnivores. The purveyors of in-vitro-meat are working hard to overcome the obstacles of scale-production, cost and the biological requirements of animal-like texture and taste. wow…The idea of Dutchman Willem van Eelen, who thought it up languishing in a WWII Japanese POW camp, is now a “dream coming true” with the help of the In Vitro Meat Consortium and the U.S. non-profit ‘New Harvest’ organization. All they need are stem cells and support for the research, and by the looks of it, a lot of research help is going to be needed. It’s not only expensive to re-invent nature, it’s tricky.

Jimmy Buffett surely won’t mind me borrowing the title of one of his most famous songs since he is a dedicated fundraiser for ecological causes. And when Utopia comes, well, we’re all hoping for a luscious menu, aren’t we? Nobody I know is very turned on by the the thought of Soylent Green, but eerily, the problems of in-vitro-meat are more Soylent Green-like than we’re being led to expect. According to this article in Scientific American, critics and skeptics within the science community note that “in the past three decades, scientists have only succeeded in deriving embryonic stem cell lines from two animal species: the mouse in 1981 and the human in 1998.”  Controllable stem cells, because of their rapid growth, are essential to making an industry out of this vision. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=test-tube-pork

Making an industry with in-vitro-meat, however, is a primary and compatible goal of One-Worldism. They know you can’t live on fruit so they’re busily working to solve the problems. “In 2005 the Dutch government granted three universities and a Dutch meat processor owned by Smithfield Foods two million euros over four years to develop Eelen’s idea”, but the leading researcher, Bernard Roelen, has “so far..only produced fat and cartilage” and the only workable nutrient culture-medium is “derived from cow blood” although “alternatives exist but they are far too costly for food production”. So, if the world crises get too pressing and the in-vitro-meat technical problems are solved, but the damned pork/bovine stem cell thing just isn’t happening, what are the chances they’ll choose either ‘mouse’ or ‘human’ and go with a winner?…um, I’d call that an executive business expedient on a need-to-know basis.

In case we forget from day-to-day just how much trouble we’re in, the Scientific American reiterates the U.N.’s position on global warming, “The methane burps of 56 billion farm animals..are a significant contributor to climate change..”

Meet the Consortium, http://www.invitromeat.org
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In-vitro_meat

In the mid-1960s, a popular science writer named Gordon Rattray Taylor published a book called “The Biological Time Bomb” aimed at posing the social questions on behalf of the public that advances in science and technology were inevitably to present. If one was suspended in time, the issues appear  contemporary. In other words, the public comprehension is at least forty years behind the technology. This time-gap seems nearly about right in other areas of concern besides biology, like weather control and high-energy physics. Things like in-vitro-meat sound like solution-oriented applications of benevolently motivated activists, but this is last-stage accomplishment in the creation of genuine cyborg and synthetic lifeforms and the public discussion has completely missed the proper communication of micobial intelligence.

Mr. Taylor saw Transhumanism coming, and so did the biologists even decades before him. Knowledge about our general intelligence and the mechanisms of memory and learning have a structure encoded in the genetic matrix. Taylor highlighted the ‘chemical’ nature of memory and the promising researches done up to his publication indicating that RNA is the repository of memory, or its facilitator. Memory, in these terms, is described as a characteristic quality dependent on protein synthesis. RNA injection and interference experiments bore out significant impacts on memory and learning. How this relates to human diet is not directly addressed but he does not skip the issues of cannibalism that were part of this experimental milieu, stating that in a lower species “sensational” results of enhanced learning were displayed by cannibalistic feeding. Ohhh….ecologically responsible Smart Burgers. I can see it now, after the culling of course.

News http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2008347/Test-tube-burger-coming-soon-Lab-grown-meat-needed-feed-world.html

October 7, 2009

What’s Your BQ?


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“BQ” is your Biological Quotient. It’s closely related to your IQ and EQ. I don’t know if anyone else has coined the term yet, but I happily know that the concept is well illustrated in the body-mind-spirit gestalt (IQ,EQ,BQ) where a tangible proof of wholeness has real life values. A body temple would simply be a flimsy facade without a generous BQ. How do you know if your BQ is low? You would probably feel chronically depressed and run-down, irritable, unsociable, or worse; fearful and unloved.

The concept of BQ emerged from a personal experience of making simple but significant changes to my diet –I went raw; meat, milk, eggs, everything– and the impact was immediate. Previously, my diet was about 50% raw (mainly fruits and vegetables) and for a time I struggled with the challenge of undoing preconditioned aversions to foods like raw meat. The “power of food” took on such a profound meaning that I started a quest for information seeking support and comfort for these ‘new’ ideas –not new at all! In fact, the scientific literature is loaded with studies and experiments that few people have dared to publicize against the prevailing food conventions of our time.

A high BQ is a true measure of health, and no one can tell you how to measure it –you will just know. The word ‘health’ means ‘whole’ and it also means ‘holy’. Your BQ is the natural intelligence that integrates the living substance of the earth with the body-mind of your animal creature. It is 90% of your physical material and mediates the quality of your existence. It’s your ‘in-forming principle’. Raising my own BQ has resulted in a deep sense of groundedness and satisfaction that has stabilized and empowered my ‘other’ intelligences. All I can say is TRY IT!

Getting started:
…is a willingness to improve and eliminate the refined, processed and toxic additives from your diet, choosing instead to eat foods the way nature provides and do your own ‘processing’.
This wonderful essay from the Weston A. Price foundation highlights the gifts of health from the lessons of ‘traditional primitives’. http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/ancient_dietary_wisdom.html

excerpts:
“Price took photograph after photograph of beautiful smiles and noted that the natives were invariably cheerful and optimistic. Such people were characterized by ‘splendid physical development’ and an almost complete absence of disease, even those living in physical environments that were extremely harsh”.

..”groups that had come into contact with traders or missionaries and had abandoned their traditional diet for foodstuffs [like]..sugar, refined grains, canned foods, pasteurized milk and devitalized fats and oils…[had] rampant tooth decay, infectious illness and degenerative conditions. Children born to parents who had adopted the so-called civilized diet had crowded and crooked teeth, narrowed faces, deformities of bone structure and reduced immunity to disease. Price concluded that race had nothing to do with these changes..”

“In the Swiss village where Price began his investigations, the inhabitants lived on rich dairy products –unpasteurized milk, butter, cream and cheese– dense rye bread, meat occasionally, bone broth soups and the few vegetables they could cultivate during the short summer months…The children went barefoot in frigid streams during weather that forced Dr. Price and his wife to wear heavy wool coats; nevertheless childhood illnesses were virtually nonexistent and there had never been a single case of TB in the village.”

“African cattle-keeping tribes like the Masai consumed no plant foods at all; just meat, blood and milk….Southsea islanders..ate seafood of every sort..along with pork meat and fat and a variety of plant foods including coconut, manioc and fruit. Insects were another common food in all regions except the Arctic…”

“Price discovered ‘The diets of healthy native groups contained at least 10 times more vitamin A and vitamin D than the American diet of his day. These vitamins are found only in animal fats –butter, lard, egg yolks, fish oils and foods with fat-rich cellular membranes like liver and other organ meats, fish eggs and shell fish. Price referred to the fat soluble vitamins as ‘catalysts’ or ‘activators’ upon which the assimilation of all the other nutrients depended..”

“..researchers used such foods very successfully for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as TB, asthma, allergies and emphysema. One of these was Francis Pottenger whose sanirorium in Monrovia California served liberal amounts of liver, butter, cream and eggs to convalescing patients….Dr. Price consistently found that healthy ‘primitives’ whose diets contained adequate nutrients from animal protein and fat had a cheerful, positive attitude to life.”

…more to come

August 19, 2009

Fabricating DNA Evidence

Filed under: DNA - RNA,police state,Zionism — jenniferlake @ 1:25 am
Tags: , , , ,

from the New York Times:

DNA Evidence Can Be Fabricated, Scientists Show

Article Tools Sponsored By
By ANDREW POLLACK
Published: August 17, 2009

Scientists in Israel have demonstrated that it is possible to fabricate DNA evidence, undermining the credibility of what has been considered the gold standard of proof in criminal cases.

The scientists fabricated blood and saliva samples containing DNA from a person other than the donor of the blood and saliva. They also showed that if they had access to a DNA profile in a database, they could construct a sample of DNA to match that profile without obtaining any tissue from that person.

“You can just engineer a crime scene,” said Dan Frumkin, lead author of the paper, which has been published online by the journal Forensic Science International: Genetics. “Any biology undergraduate could perform this.”

Dr. Frumkin is a founder of Nucleix, a company based in Tel Aviv that has developed a test to distinguish real DNA samples from fake ones that it hopes to sell to forensics laboratories.

(read the rest of the story) http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/18/science/18dna.html?_r=2

August 14, 2009

Understanding Virus and the Flu III

All three parts to this article are now collated in the side margin Pages as “Influenza, special”, and if the page will allow, updates and additions will be posted there.
 
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