Jennifer Lake's Blog

Timeline 1830–1900

 
1830
–decade of the first Railroads and the birth of the Industrial Revolution
–Cholera comes into the world, presumed spread by British shipping as the China Opium  wars begin (1829-1860)
–founding of the Mormon Church (Latter Day Saints)
–the Belgian Revolution occurs leading to separation from Holland; Leopold I (Saxe-Coburg) is invited to take the throne as the first King of the Belgians; in the future, Leopold’s niece and nephew, married first cousins Victoria and Albert, will rule the British Empire   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I_of_Belgium
–Gran Colombia collapses creating three nations; Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador
1831
–massive removal of native Americans to designated ‘Indian territory’ begins the “Trail of Tears”
–Charles Darwin sets out on a five-year voyage aboard the HMS Beagle
–the British Association for the Advancement of Science is founded
1832
member of the revolutionary Carbonari, a freemasonic society that emerged in Naples after the Napoleonic Wars, Giuseppe Mazzini, publishes Giovane Italia (Young Italy) http://www.answers.com/topic/carbonari
Britian, passage of the Anatomy Act of 1832 to prevent grave-robbing and serial killing for medical uses (see the case of Burke and Hare)
the Treaty of London creates an ‘independent’ monarchy in the Kingdom of Greece, 17-yr old Otto of Bavaria is installed as King
1833
–Founding of the Russell Trust (the branch of Skull and Bones formed in 1856)
–First US reports of Classic Swine Fever and “hog cholera” (swine flu) in Ohio
–Frenchman, Anselme Payen, discovers the first enzyme ‘diastase’. Payen also invents a method to refine and bleach sugar and isolate cellulose.
1834
–Cyrus McCormick patents his horse-drawn reaper
–Phelps Dodge Corporation founded; copper mining; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_E._Dodge;  acquired by Freeport McMoRan in 2007 (FCX, http://www.fcx.com/); W.E. Dodge (1805-1883) cofounded the Protestant Syrian College in Beirut (1871)
–Aug, enforcement of the Slavery Abolition Act emancipates slaves in the British Empire
–Thomas Davenport, inventor of the DC motor, makes the first electric car
1835
–Karl Marx organizes the “League of the Just” in Paris
–Rothschild’s acquire the Almaden (Spain) Quicksilver mines, gaining the world monopoly on mercury
–Moshe Sachs gets funding from S.M. Rothschild for Palestine agricultural reserve
1836
–unification of Mexico, including Texas and California, announced under Presidente Santa Ana
1837
–August (Schonberg) Belmont, Rothschild banker, comes to New York
1838
–Tennessee passes the first Prohibition laws in the US
1840
–Founding of B’nai B’rith, called the “Freemasonry within Freemasonry” http://wideeyecinema.com/?p=258
–Rothschilds become bullion brokers to the Bank of England and create agencies in California and Australia
–Justus von Liebig publishes “Organic Chemistry and its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology”
–polio is clinically described by Jakob Heine
1841
–a small outbreak of 8-10 cases ‘teething paralysis’ (polio) occurs in West Feliciana, Louisiana
1842
–Britain annexes Hong Kong, ending the first Opium War
–Scroll and Key is founded at Yale
1843
–first U.S. telegraph lines constructed from Baltimore to Wash.D.C.
1844
–Salomon Mayer Rothschild (of Vienna) purchases United Coal Mines of Vitkovice
1845
–The Great Irish Potato Famine is underway
1846
–outbreak of the Mexican-American War
1847
–the AMA, American Medical Assoc., is founded by Nathan Smith Davis
–the Vegetarian Society is founded in Ramsgate England (home of Montefiore)
–Brigham Young leads his Mormon followers to the Great Salt Lake
–nitroglycerin is invented
–July26, Liberia on the “Pepper Coast”, created by western powers as a colony for freed slaves, declares national independence http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Liberia
1848
–the Communist Manifesto is published in Germany, waves of revolutionary emigres leave for the US called the ’48ers’
–revolutions sweep the central European continent
–the American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science is founded
–Congress passes the Drug Importation Act of 1848
1849
–California Gold Rush
–Henry David Thoreau publishes “Civil Disobedience”
1851
–Ezra Cornell establishes the Western Union Telegraph company
1852
–The Great Trigonomical Survey of India, begun in 1806 by the British, is completed; its most noted contributor, Sir George Everest, becomes namesake to Nepal’s highest peak at 29,028 ft (8,848m), once called “Mother of the World”
1853
–the British pass the Compulsory Vaccination Act
–first use of the subcutaneous hypodermic syringe, Dr. Alexander Wood (Scot) and Charles Pravaz (France): “The first recorded fatality from a hypodermic-syringe induced overdose was Dr Wood’s wife.” http://www.general-anaesthesia.com/images/alexander-wood.html
1854
–Dr. John Snow, studying England’s cholera, develops the science of Epidemiology
–Crimean War breaks out over control of the Balkans, Britain defeats Russia
1856
–Skull and Bones is incorporated by Daniel Coit Gilman and Alphonso Taft
–German biologist Pringsheim observes ‘fertilization’, confirms existence of spermatozoa
1857
–Gregor Mendel performs the heredity experiments with peas
–British Crown secures its control over India, formerly under the East India Company
1858
–second of China/Britain Opium Wars (1858-1860)
1859
–Charles Darwin publishes the “Origin of Species”
–the Sicilian Carbonari are said to issue the Alta Vendita, promoting the infiltration and reform of the Catholic Church; leads to a papal ban on their existence  http://www.answers.com/topic/alta-vendita
–Pennsylvania gives birth to the U.S. Oil Industry; within two decades America’s Standard Oil under John D. Rockefeller becomes the world’s largest producer of kerosene  http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html
1860
–Louis Pasteur discovers microorganisms
–Italian mafia founded by Guiseppe Mazzini; believed to be the freemasonic Carbonari (‘coal traders’)
–Moshe Sachs makes a 2cd mission to build the Yishuv in Jerusalem, funded by M. Montefiore
–May, Alliance Israelite Universelle founded in Paris
–Dr. Abraham Jacobi opens the first US Childrens Clinic in NYC; Jacobi, a Marxist “48er” marries Dr. Mary Putnam, daughter of publisher Charles Putnam
–U.S. has 34 states with a population of 32 million, 3.5 million are slaves
–first successful workers’ strike in Lynn Massachusetts, earns a wage increase
1861
–US introduces the (not required) Passport system –U.S. passports are not required for travel until after WWI
–April 12, outbreak of US Civil War, officially at Ft. Sumter N. Carolina
–Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is founded
1862
–Homeopaths in the northeastern US control 110 hospitals, 145 dispensaries, 30 nursing homes and 62 orphanages
–May 1, the US Navy launches its first submarine, the USS Alligator, built by Neafie, Levy &Co
–first use of water desalination to support troops at Fort Zacchary Taylor
–John D. Rockefeller buys his first oil refinery
1863
–US, National Banking Act of 1863
–the Red Cross is founded in Geneva Switzerland, establishing the ‘Geneva conventions’
–‘lead arsenate’ in use as a pesticide
–the Great Plains of the US are being consolidated
–automobile powered by an internal combustion engine burning ‘coal gas’ makes historic 50 mile ride, invented by Belgian, Etienne Lenoir http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsgasa.htm
1864
–Aug.22, first Geneva Convention http://www.answers.com/topic/geneva-conventions
Jules Verne, recognized as the “father of science fiction”, and his publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel, issue the first of Verne’s extraordinary voyages, “Journey To The Center Of The Earth”; Hetzel persuades Verne not to publish his 1863 futuristic “Paris in the 20th Century..about a young man who lives in a world of glass skyscrapers, high-speed trains, gas-powered automobiles, calculators, and a worldwide communications network, yet cannot find happiness and comes to a tragic end.” Verne’s space adventures profoundly influenced the first rocketeers, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), Robert Goddard (1882-1945), and Hermann Oberth (1894-1989)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Verne; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstantin_Tsiolkovsky
1865
–the stockmarket opens in Vienna on the Ringstrasse
–James Clerk Maxwell publishes his theory of electromagnetism
–Jules Verne publishes “From The Earth To The Moon”; similarities to the 1960s Apollo moon missions are noted here: www.astronautix.com/lvs/julongun.htm
1866
–Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898) establishes the first state-sponsored institute for plant physiology in Breslau (Poland) and becomes the ‘father of bacteriology’
–the western nations of Plains Indians are driven off the land, killed or corraled under policies of the “scandalously corrupt” Bureau of Indian Affairs
1867
–Alfred Nobel patents “dynamite”, a paste of nitroglycerin and diatomaceous earth
–Kuhn, Loeb and Co. opens as a Reconstruction pawn and promissary note broker in Indiana
–Singapore (Malaysia) becomes a Royal Crown Colony of the British Empire
–beginning heyday of the American Cowboy, to last about 20 years
1868
–first polio outbreak recorded in Norway (polio timeline www.polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/
1869
–Opening of the Suez Canal http://www.answers.com/topic/suez-canal
–work on the Panama Canal underway
–The railway air brake is invented by George Westinghouse http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westinghouse_Air_Brake_Company
–May 10, the U.S. transcontinental railroad is completed at Promontory Point, Utah
–first labor union formed in the U.S. called the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
–“Black Friday” sees the price of gold plummet, intentionally ‘released’ onto the market as a measure of control
–Dmitri I. Mendeleev publishes his periodic table of the elements
–Thomas Henry Huxley founds the science journal ‘Nature’
1870
–US Congress creates the Department of Justice
–Standard Oil is incorporated by John D. Rockefeller
–war breaks out between Prussia and France
–Italian unification achieved
1871
–Albert Pike outlines a plan for 3 World Wars in a letter to Guiseppe Mazzini (a later forgery?)
–Robert Pearce makes the first commercial shipment of Colorado uranium to London
1872
– “Baron Julius du Reuter  was granted his 50-year [oil] concession in Iran. In 1914 the British government took  control of his Anglo-Persian Company and renamed it Anglo-Iranian, then British  Petroleum, then BP.” http://silverbearcafe.com/private/05.11/horsemen.html
1873
–crop-duster invented
–barbed wire is patented by Joseph Glidden
–term ‘Eugenics’ is coined by Francis Galton (term used since 1863)
–Rothschilds purchase Rio Tinto copper mine in Spain; the Rio Tinto companies are founded http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_Tinto_Group
–Union of American Hebrew Congregations is est., chief organization of Reform Judaism
–Vienna Ringstrasse stockmarket crashes
–financial Panic of 1873, blamed on railroad overcapitalization
–heroin is invented as a cure for morphine addiction
1874
–invention of DDT as warfare ‘nerve agent’ (pesticide use discovered in 1939)
–Disraeli becomes Prime Minister of Britain (resigns 1880)
–Britain and the Rothschilds gain control of the Suez Canal (via Benjamin Disraeli), the vital route to India
1875
–J.C. Jacobsen (brewer) founds the Carlsberg Laboratory for biomedical research in Copenhagen
–Samuel Tolver Preston publishes ‘Physics of the Ether’, equation equivalent E=mc2, printed five years before Albert Einstein’s birth
–Theosophical Society is founded by Helena Blavatsky in New York
1876
–Feb, Alexander Graham Bell beats out Elisha Gray patenting the telephone
–American Chemical Society is founded, first pres. John W. Draper
–Johns Hopkins University is formally founded; bequest of $7million left in 1867 for a hospital and school, largest endowment ever for its time
–June 25, Battle of the Little Big Horn, or “Custer’s Last Stand”
1877
–microphone, phonograph and electric welding are invented
–Russo-Turkish war; allies Russia and Serbia liberate Bulgaria from the Ottomans http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/romeo/russoturk1876.htm ; harsh Turkish reparations defined by the Treaty of San Stefano are later revised; Turks surrender of the Black Sea Port of Batum which opens export of Russian oil from Baku; “The treaty was opposed by Austria-Hungary, which disliked encouragement of Slav nationalism, and by the British, who feared the new Bulgarian state would become a Russian satellite and a threat to Istanbul. The treaty was modified by the terms of the Treaty of Berlin..”
1878
–the Cosmos Club is founded in Washington D.C.
–passage of the National Quarantine Act, giving federal authority to the US Marine Hospital Service (became U.S. Public Health Service in 1902)
–100,000 Americans along the Mississippi Valley contract yellow fever
–July 13, signing of the Treaty of Berlin
1879
–first use of chlorinated lime as a sewage disinfectant
–Walther Fleming (1843-1905) discovers ‘mitosis’ and ‘chromosomes’
–Church of Christ Scientist is founded in Boston, MA by Mary Baker Eddy
1880
–commercial canned foods begin appearing
–the era of public water chlorination begins
–Pasteur develops techniques of ‘attenuation’, a gene transfer in viruses passed through living hosts
–the ‘Germ Theory’ of disease ascends in history
–Julio Roca becomes president of Argentina; newly opened lands taken from natives are sold for the resettlement of immigrants [i.e. Russian Jews fleeing pogroms--later sponsored by the Baron Hirsch agency, purchaser of over 700,000 acres]
1881
–assassination of Czar Alexander II, known as a ‘reformer’
–Charles Brush of Brush Electric Light Co. illuminates Niagra Falls, Jacob Schoellkopf builds the powerhouse and owns land, canal and water rights
–Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society (to become Jehovahs Witnesses) founded in Pittsburgh, PA
–cholera outbreak in India begins a fifteen-year world pandemic
–Jay Gould takes over Western Union Telegraph –the business shifts from telegrams to money transfers
–British invade Egypt as occupiers controlling the Suez
1882
–March, Dr. Robert Koch announces that tuberculosis (‘consumption’) is caused by an infectious bacterium, giving rise to the sanatorium movement
1883
–eruption of Krakatoa volcano
–first gathering of the Lake Mohonk “liberals” in New York state
–American Society of Naturalists founded
–the Treaty of Ancon ends war between Chile, Peru, and Bolivia over the nitrogen-rich Atacama Desert
–Karl Marx dies in London, Mar.14
1884
–Jan.4, Britain grants a charter to the socialist Fabian Society
–Californian John Bean invents the pressure sprayer, goes into food and chemical processing business
–Paul Gottlieb Nipkow patents an electro-mechanical television
–Nov., Alexander G. Bell and associates at the Volta Lab record sound on glass discs using a beam of light http://newsdesk.si.edu/releases/playback-130-year-old-sounds-revealed
1885
–Nathaniel Rothschild, son of Lionel de Rothschild, becomes the first Lord Rothschild
–von Welsbach patents the thorium oxide gaslight mantle; first practical use of thorium which burns brilliant white http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_mantle; thorium, as a fuel component, later powers “fast breeder” nuclear reactors.
1886
–Theobald Smith and Daniel Salmon create first swine vaccine for ‘hog cholera’
–French Rothschilds (sons of James Meyer de Rothschild) establish the Caspian and Black Sea Petroleum Company http://www.batumioilterminal.com ; sold in 1909 to Royal Dutch and Shell
–Heinrich Hertz successfully demonstrates radio wave transmission
1887
–First bacteriology lab in the US opens in Brooklyn, NY
–passage of the Hatch Act, provides land grants for US agriculture schools
–Nikola Tesla makes his own cathode tubes
–Rothschild financing amalgamates the Kimberly diamond (DeBeers) mines in South Africa under Cecil Rhodes, eventually coming under the control of Ernst Oppenheimer
1888
–the National Geographic Society is founded by members of the Cosmos Club
–first ever recorded influenza in China, Guangdong Province (scene of 2003 SARS origin)
1889
–the Great Oklahoma Land Rush
–US establishes the Laboratory of Hygiene (or US Hygenic Lab.)
Influenza epidemic in US and Europe, lasts through 1892 (1893 and ’94 as well) Is this the beginning of the Disease Continuum? http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/12/07/the-disease-continuum/
1890
–Paul Erhlich credited with founding the science of Immunology
–US, passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
–US, passage of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, guarantees purchase by the US govt
–US, Food and Drug Importation Act is passed
–first Lobotomy performed, called “leukotomy” by Swiss, Gottlieb Burchardt
1891
–Stock Exchange collapses in Britain
–US federal govt. takes over immigrant processing from the states; inspection of immigrants includes medical exams, quarantines and deportations
–Carnegie Hall opens in New York City
–Thomas Edison patents a motion picture camera
–the White House installs its first electric lighting (admin. of Benjamin Harrison)
1892
–discovery of the first virus, Tobacco Mosaic Virus, credit to Dimitri Ivanovsky in St. Petersburg, Russia
–cholera is ‘imported’ to New York from the German ship “Moravia”, flu epidemic still underway; Port of NY institutes 20-day quarantine on all ships, now required to pay $5,000 per day port fee
–first Tuberculosis test for cattle is designed
–US, union-busting strikebreakers are protected by 7,000 militia called in at Carnegie’s Homestead, Pennsylvania plant
–Ellis Island, NYC, opened for immigrant processing and inspection (closed in 1954)
–the University of Chicago opens
1893
–first US polio outbreaks in Rutland County, (southwest)Vermont
–Nathan Straus opens the first of many “Milk Depots” in NYC, claiming a cause for pasteurization to which he dedicates his fortune (owns R.H. Macy’s and Abraham&Straus department stores)
–World Meeting of Chemistry takes place in Chicago. Chicago’s mayor assassinated.
–financial Panic of 1893
1894
–Russia, under the rule of Nicholas II
–Sir William Crookes and Sir Oliver Lodge are first to demonstrate wireless telegraphy
1895
–Wilhelm Roentgen makes the first medically useful X-ray (x-ray timeline www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/
1896
–Bernard Baruch merges 6 major tobacco companies into Consolidated Tobacco Co.
–McKinley elected US President
–diphtheria anti-toxin is discovered
–Klondike Gold Rush, Alaska
1897
–World Zionist Organization is founded in Basel Switzerland
–the Zionist Organization of America is founded
–the AMA incorporates, under president George Simmons
–the Jet Stream is discovered
–Nikola Telsa begins his wireless power transmission experiments
1898
–February, the ship “Maine” explodes in Havana harbor, Cuba, igniting the Spanish-American War
–May 1, US launches a surprise attack on the Philippines, subsequently bombards Puerto Rico and invades Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
–Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin constructs the first mighty airship, LZ-1, 420 ft long filled with hydrogen  http://www.airships.net/zeppelins
–Aug., Spanish-American War ends by conciliation of Spain; U.S. gains Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island
–U.S. annexes Hawaii, completing the ‘stepping-stones’ of a Pacific empire
–Radium is ‘discovered’ (precipitated with salts) by Pierre and Marya (Skoldovska) Curie
–A. Henri Becquerel discovers Radioactivity (1896-1898); term ‘radioactive’ is coined by Marya Curie
–Thermite is invented for high temperature welding
–New York City consolidates its complete 5 burroughs
–Tesla invents a radio-controlled boat (wireless torpedo)
–H.G. Wells publishes War of the Worlds
–the idea of ‘cloning’ originated by German embryologist Hans Spemman
–Rothschild Freres create Mazut Transportation Society –fleet of oil tankers on the Caspian
1899
–aspirin is patented following Felix Hoffman’s discovery
–the ‘second’ Boer War begins in South Africa
–first Peace Conference at The Hague http://www.answers.com/topic/hague-conferences
–Tesla announces the receipt of radio signals from Mars (not); Tesla succeeds in wireless power by lighting two hundred incandescent lamps in Colorado Springs from 26 miles distant
–ASARCO, American Smelting and Refining Co.(Tuscon AZ) founded, in the hands of the Guggenheims by 1902
1900
–discovery of ‘gamma’ rays, highest frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum (measured in angstroms), oscillations in millions of trillions per second
–American Roentgen Ray Society founded (x-ray)
–9 people die of bubonic plague in San Francisco, US Congress passes first (enforcible)federal legislation governing quarantine imposition superceding states’ rights
–J.P. Morgan owns half of all railroad track in the U.S.
–Max Planck describes ‘quantum’ theory
*

2 Comments »

  1. I need to do a piece on 1848.

    Comment by John Kaminski — August 28, 2010 @ 4:26 pm | Reply

    • Please –I’ll quote you!

      Comment by jenniferlake — September 8, 2010 @ 1:18 pm | Reply


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