Jennifer Lake's Blog

Timeline 1941–1960

1941
–Glen Seaborg, Emilio Segre, and team discover plutonium (this likely occurred earlier in 1939 on repetition of the experiments of Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher at Cambridge UK)
–Pfizer perfects ‘deep tank’ fermentation of penicillin
–Ford makes the first plastic car, made from soybeans
–field trials of influenza vaccine in Australia
–typical radar operations at the beginning of WWII use ten watts of power from pulsed magnetrons;
–Sep., the Army Air Force opens a premier base in Roswell, New Mexico; “largest base of the Strategic Air Command” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walker_Air_Force_Base
–Oct., the Smith-Putnam Wind Turbine, world’s largest (175ft. diameter) in Vermont, delivers economic wind power to the grid; design flaws closed it down permanently in 1945 http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pes/public/2009/nov/peshistory.html
–Dec,WWII, US enters the WAR following Pearl Harbor attack  (read the  ‘jfk’comment section about Lewis Strauss. Father Drought tried to negotiate peace before Pearl Harbor: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/12/22/jfk-conspiracy-con-ii/ )
1942
–construction of the Pentagon, under Leslie R. Groves
–the Manhattan Project (M.E.D.) is formalized; Groves accepts leadership Sept.17
–US military creates Fort Detrick and the Dugway Proving Grounds for chemical, biological and radiological testing
–a flying television-controlled ‘assault drone’ is successfully guided into a target ship from another aircraft 50km (30) miles away http://www.earlytelevision.org/military_tv.html
–the Anthrax Bomb is ‘tested’ by the UK on Gruinard Island Scotland, rendered uninhabitable
–Japanese wage Germ Warfare against the Chinese
–‘nitrogen mustard’ (chemical warfare agent) is injected into a human patient as cancer chemotherapy, ‘classified’ until 1946
–Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc, reorganized from the Birth Control League
–Dec.2, physicist Enrico Fermi and team at U Chicago achieve chain reaction fission in a graphite moderated nuclear reactor
1943
–March, scientists are converged to produce an atom bomb in both US and Germany in a “neck and neck” race for the Bomb http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/
–field trials on Influenza A vaccines in the US, conducted by Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis
–US Army records more cases of influenza worldwide than ever previously recorded
–polio study on 111 patients in New Haven, Ct. reveals only 1 person with poliovirus
–‘Wild Bill’ Donovan commissions H.A. Murray to complete “Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler”; Murray’s techniques become “offender profiling”
1944
–(actual) discovery of DNA structure
–discovery of streptomycin by Albert Schatz, first effective antibiotic for TB
–Dumbarton Oaks Conference convenes to assemble the U.N.
–US, Public Health Service Act is passed (agency was created in 1902, jurisdiction of US Treasury until creation of the FSA in 1939 and HEW in 1953)
–the British Vegan Society is founded by Donald Watson
–the American Committee for the Weizmann Institute of Science (ACWIS) is founded
–ZEEP reactor approved at Chalk River, Ontario
–ARAMCO (Arab-American Oil Co.) is founded
–major fluoride contamination occurs in Deepwater, New Jersey by E.I. duPont Nemours
–Oct., Guatemala revolution, overthrow of dictator Ubico; 10 years hence (1954) the CIA orchestrates an ‘anti-communist’ coup d’etat   http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Guatemalan+Revolution+of+1944-54
–General Bill Donovan (OSS) submits secret proposal to FDR for a permanent U.S. intelligence agency writing,”When our enemies are defeated, the demand will be..information that will aid us in solving the problems of peace.” [ref p.363, OSS, R. Harris Smith]
1945
–American Cancer Society is re-formed under control of the Laskers (Albert D. and Mary)
–Dengue Fever surges worldwide
–July 16, the first Atom bomb is tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, test “Trinity”
–Aug06-09, The Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
–Aug 10, Robert Goddard, developer of modern rockets, dies; Goddard’s friend Charles Lindbergh joins the team to apprehend German rocket technology and observes that Goddard rockets were ahead of Von Braun’s V-2
–WWII is officially ended; ‘Victory in Europe’ Day, May 8; ‘Victory in Japan’ Day, Aug 14
–“Program F” national fluoride experiment initiated in Newburgh, New York (1945-1955) residents unaware
–Dec, the Nag Hammadi ‘library’ of ancient gnostic texts is found in Egypt http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/manuscripts/nag_hammadi.htm
1946
–Jan.22, (Truman) President’s Directive creates the Central Intelligence Group (CIG); renamed CIA on July 25, 1947
–cumulative dose of 2000 rad considered normal and safe treatment for ulcers; 150 rad will become the ‘death threshold’ defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission after Chernobyl
–microwave oven invented by Raytheon
–first commercial ‘mobile’ phone availble from Bell/AT&T
–July 1 and 25, Operation Crossroads nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands; 42,000 participants 90% US Navy; the world media is invited
–Aug.1, passage of the Atomic Energy Act creates the AEC, David Lilienthal first Chairman
–Robert Huebner discovers bioweapon ‘Q Fever’ in California dairy milk
–weather modification experiments begin under Irving Langmuir (General Electric scientist), later dubbed ‘Project Cirrus’ by the USAirForce; official ‘Cirrus’ records vanish after 1957, supposedly following the dismantling of the program between 1953 and 1957.  http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/17/weather-control/
–the “DDT is Good for Me” PR campaign launched, DDT solution is sprayed directly on dairy cows, feed and fodder (previously sprayed on humans detained in wartime camps!)
–the CDC is founded by the Nat’l Center for Infectious Disease in Atlanta Georgia to combat malaria
–reproduction of E. coli bacteria is discovered to be sexual by Joshua Lederberg and E.L. Tatum
–Nov.13, the ‘Rain Men’ of General Electric “dropped 1.4 kg of dry ice pellets from an airplane into a supercooled stratus cloud near Schenectady..And snow fell… In February 1947, the US Army Signal Corps became involved..and it earned the name Project Cirrus.” http://cecom.army.mil/historian/pubArtifacts/Articles/2009-03-16_1120-FILE-Signal_Corps_Rain_Dance.pdf
–Dec., the Franco-Vietnam war begins, lasting until Aug.1954
1947
–NRX, world’s most powerful nuclear reactor start-up at Chalk River Ontario
–first ‘confirmed’ cancer death caused by radiation
–April, new Atomic Energy Commission members approved by US Senate
–the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947 (FIFRA) imposes first-time requirements to label and register pesticides before sale
–‘Project Chatter’ underway with new ‘truth drugs’
–Irving Langmuir begins staging major weather modification experiments (theory of fallout control in addition to weaponization) http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
–June 24, “the first American UFO ‘wave’ began” according to ufologist author Michael Mannion (and others) when USAF pilot Kevin Arnold reported 9 flying craft near Mt. Rainier Washington http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Sign
–July 2, UFO crashes near Roswell New Mexico during a thunderstorm
–July 11, the ship Exodus carrying over 4500 Jewish passengers, leaves France for Palestine http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Exodus_(ship)
–“Dewey Stone smuggled arms to the Haganah” using “the Weston Trading Company as a front”; Stone cofounded the ACWIS in 1944 and arranged for the ship Exodus http://www.cjp.org/page.aspx?id=175275; Stone’s acumen as a fundraiser for Israel is memorialized at the Weizmann Institute http://www.weizmann.ac.il/philanthropy/1960.html
–July 26, passage of the US National Security Act of 1947, designed by Clark M. Clifford (replacement of Samuel I. Rosenman); charters the CIA
– the Indian Independence Act of 1947 creates the independent dominions of India and Pakistan
–Dec., Bell Labs team successfully tests the ‘point-contact’ electronic transistor, or amplifying semiconductor, soon to develop the junction transistor; led by William Shockley http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shockley
1948
–Jan.30, Gandhi is assassinated
–Apr., scholars learn of the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/dead_sea_scrolls/discovery.shtml
–May, ISRAEL is founded, Palestine partitioned
–American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
–Brandeis University is founded
–Sloan-Kettering opens for business; original 1945 trustees are chiefs of Manhattan Project and atomic energy
Operation Sandstone nuclear test
–Dr. Henry K. (‘Andrija’) Puharich establishes the Round Table Foundation for Electrobiology in Camden Maine (Glen Cove). Puharich engages in psychical research with electromagntism and hallucinogens
–poliovirus is discovered to propagate with antibiotics, Benjamin P. Sandler publishes “Diet Prevents Polio”
–Super Typhoon Karen dissipates over open water
–Dec, Jewish intellectuals write a letter of warning to the NYTimes against the Israeli political faction led by Menachem Begin  http://www.globalwebpost.com/farooqm/study_res/einstein/nyt_letter.html
1949
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes” www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/
–bacterial “SOS” (viral release) response discovered by John F. Enders
–epidemic ‘insulin resistent’ diabetes reported, reclassified as multiple-symptom syndromes
–CIA initiates Project Bluebird, drug and psychology-based mind control http://www.examiner.com/us-intelligence-in-national/cia-behavior-modification-project-bluebird
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets determined to already have the H-bomb; detonate first A-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Carl Djerassi, “father of the Pill”, experiments with hormones at his Syntex lab in Mexico http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Djerassi
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–creation of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–“November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium was sponsored by SRI [Stanford Research Institute] in Pasadena, California” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SRI_International
1950
–Jan, new constitution of the Republic of India finalizes independence from the British Crown
–US approves of building a ‘Super’ bomb, thermonuclear implosion device (H-bomb)
–western Shoshone claim an experimental H-bomb explodes over the ocean west of British Columbia (maybe first thermonuclear ground test by the Soviets, according to Robert LeBaron)
–US military sprays ‘bacillus globigii’ and ‘serratia marcesens’ over San Francisco in a cocktail of known carcinogens; 5 other major cities in US and Canada also tested with biowar agents
–Esther Lederberg (wife of Joshua) publishes discovery of ‘lambda’ bacteriophage in E.coli
–On May 10, 1950, President Harry S. Truman signed into law an Act to establish a National Science Foundation http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/pne/pubs/golden/1-05.htm
–May, L.Ron Hubbard publishes “Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health”
–psychological warfare experimentation begins
–unprecedented 8 major hurricanes form in the Atlantic
–AT&T builds and activates a coast-to-coast microwave television transmission system
–Americans buy 4 million television sets
–postwar homebuilding is modeled after “Levittown” Long Island
–surgeons begin the transplantation of human kidneys
–Dec.11, medical chemists synthesize chlorpromazine, a compound developed for surgery that becomes the first widely used antipsychotic known as Thorazine (in the U.S.) and Largactil; otherwise called “chemical lobotomy”
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
1951
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–the International Federation of Medical Student Associations is founded in Copenhagen
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–“Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill”
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983970,00.html (‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS
1952
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations, atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Nov, Kamchatka Earthquake and tsunami, magnitude 9.0 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1952_11_04.php
–most cases of US polio ever on record, approx. 60,000 http://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/ (diagnosis criteria begin changing, polio cases drop)
1953
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the ‘Project Sunshine’ PR campaign begins (1953-1957, to alleviate fear of fallout) for the Atomic Energy Commission under Chairman Lewis L. Strauss http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar05, Joseph Stalin is murdered; watch Juri Lina’s film In The Shadow of Hermes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuW-vNQsQI&feature=related
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
–the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS) http://eubios.info/EJ54/EJ54H.htm; later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW, Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mossadegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax)
1954
–U.S., passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, approving private-industry nuclear power plants
Operation Castle nuke tests, Marshall Islands; the March 1 “Bravo” shot creates massive fallout
–U.S. Army takes Fort Huachuca (AZ) for its Electronic Proving Ground (EPG) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Huachuca
–Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow invent the maser, forerunner of the optical laser [maser is an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation]; the maser was used to boost radio signals http://inventors.about.com/od/lstartinventions/a/laser.htm
–May, creation of the Bilderberg Group; first conference in the Netherlands
–US/CIA topple the “Communist-leaning” Guatemalan govt on behalf of United Fruit Company
–Joseph McCarthy’s effort at routing communists out of the U.S. military with help of lawyer Ray Cohn, leads to his downfall
–U.K. establishes the Atomic Energy Authority http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_Atomic_Energy_Authority
–France withdraws from the Vietnam war ending in North/South partition; French military colony of Algeria erupts in nationalistic violence in a war for independence that lasts to 1962
–DDT, proven cause of polio,  is mandated away from farm use ending the “DDT is good for me” campaign
–Sep, USS Nautilus, first nuclear submarine, receives its naval service commission  http://web.bgu.ac.il/Eng/engn/nuclear/research/NucEnergy/RTF.htm
–Hurricanes Carol and Hazel hit the eastern US
–CIA backed coup in Iran installs Shah Pahlavi (until 1979)
–first successful limb graft of a dog’s leg performed in Moscow, animal lives six more years with functional use
1955
Operation Teapot, nuke tests, NTS, February through May
–April 12, the SALK vaccine goes public, incidence of polio climbs to a peak of 700% in some areas (w/ radioactive fallout from Op. Teapot), 57 million children are immunized within the year; Eli Lilly is largest vaccine supplier; Parke-Davis makes a $10 million profit www.polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/
–Salk’s mentor, Dr. Thomas Francis, reorganizes the “A-bomb Lifespan Study” with data from Hiroshima survivors beginning in 1950; no earlier records are said to exist
–Nelson Rockefeller and his “Quantico cohorts” engineer failed arms negotiations with the Russians in Geneva; disarmament fails but Atoms for Peace is a great success; Nelson Rockefeller suggests any country that wants nuclear reactors can have them
–Israel’s Soreq nuclear reactor goes critical (start up)
–May 14,Operation Wigwam, underwater 30kt nuke test, takes place off the coast of San Diego
–Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat creates ‘test-tube’ virus from amino acids, the tobacco mosaic virus
–Ian Donald invents diagnostic ultrasound
–Herbal doctor Harry Hoxsey goes to prison
–Jack Kerouac publishes “On The Road” for the new generation of ‘Beat’
–Aug.1, the U-2 spyplane makes its first test flight at Groom Lake (Area 51) Nevada
–Hurricane Diane hits the US
–Sep., a symposium of military, civilian and industry specialists meets at the Mayo Clinic to present evidence of electromagnetic radiation effects; on the recommendation of Dr. Herman P. Schwan, a tentative “safe level” of exposure to microwave power density is set at 10 milliwatts per square centimeter [10mW/c2]; in the previous year, Bell Labs had set their safe limit at one milliwatt per square centimeter (even ‘one’ is thought to be 1,000x too high) http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/09/19/the-moscow-signal/
1956
–crisis over the Suez Canal
–Interstate Highway System is initiated in the US
–Operation Red Wing nuke tests, Marshall Islands
–Punta Gorda Florida experiences a massive invasion of mosquitos; biowar experiment?
–19 US states ban the polio vaccine, March of Dimes collects $47 million
–Marion King Hubbert, geologist for Shell Oil, delivers a report to the American Petroleum Institute predicting “Peak Oil” based on information from the Atomic Energy Commission
–Oct., physicist T.Townsend Brown founds NICAP, the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (UFOs) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NICAP
1957
–atmospheric fallout begins to peak worldwide (peak from above-ground tests, 1957-1964); approx. half the youth of U.S. are vaccinated with Salk polio vaccine
–“Admiral Hyman Rickover started trying to publicize the fact [of Peak Oil]… On May 14, 1957..Rickover gave a speech to the Minnesota State Medical Association called ‘Energy Resources and Our Future’.” http://beta.energybulletin.net/node/46198
–signing of the Treaties of Rome, creating an European Economic Community (EEC) and a European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC, or Euratom)
–Britain tests H-bombs
–Dr. Thomas Francis organizes the “Tecumseh” Mich. health studies, (for fallout effects)
–Israel begins construction on the Dimona nuclear reactor, aided by the French and funded privately by American and British Jews.
–outbreak of West Nile virus in Israel; same virus shows up in Central Park NYC in 1999
–Ural Mtns (Chelyabinsk) nuclear waste explosion and fire
–plutonium fire at ‘Windscale’, Sellafield facility, England, UK administers polio vaccines
–Hilary Koprowski vaccinates for polio in the Congo (where they mine uranium), amid rising African nationalism
–Operation Plumbob nuke tests in the autumn, NTS, the “dirtiest” series of detonations ever recorded; during the fallout US has worst anthrax outbreak in humans prior to Sep11-01(anthrax vaccine test underway in New Hampshire)
–Oct. 4, USSR launches Sputnik 1, in November Sputnik 2 carries a dog
1958
–Jan 31, US launches its first satellite, Explorer I, with a Jupiter-C rocket; James Van Allen discovers the earth’s radiation belt http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/expinfo.html
–Feb 1, the United Arab Republic is founded
–Feb 5, the USAir Force loses an H-bomb off coast of Savannah, GA, never recovered
–NRU reactor, Chalk River, accident and fire
–microchip invented
–implantable Pace-maker invented
–July 9, world’s highest wave (over 500 meters) causes tsunami in Lituya Bay, Alaska http://geology.com/records/largest-earthquake/largest-earthquake-tsunami-map.jpg
–Dr. J.F. Montague connects fluorine to human cancer
Operation Hardtack nuke tests, misslie series
Operation Argus, high-altitude and top secret nuke tests
–X-rays are used to ‘knock-out’ the immune defenses of surgical transplant patients
1959
–Jan, the FBI/DoJ initiates a full anti-trust investigation of Hollywood’s MCA talent agency run by Jules Stein and Lew Wasserman
–Seaman from Manchester England first recorded death from AIDS (is this a hoax as some suggest?)
–May 1, NASA opens the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland
–the CIA-operated Corona satellite program begins photographic surveillance; 144 satellites are launched between 1959 and 1972
–strontium-90 measured in the teeth and bones of US children leads to the founding of Physicians for Social Responsibility, led by Dr. Helen Caldicott
–July, meltdown at California’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory’s Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE), operated by Atomics International (subsid. of North American Aviation); considered worst US nuclear accident
–explicit radiation dangers edified to the world’s govts by Dr. Russell Morgan of Johns Hopkins
–Aug.14, US Executive Order creates the Federal Radiation Council (under HEW)
–introduction of the 4-in-1 ‘Quadrigen’ vaccine, recalled in 1968, pending lawsuits against Parke-Davis
–Dalai Lama flees Tibet
–Oct, The Twilight Zone, created by Rod Serling, premiers on TV
1960
–US population stands at 179, 323,000
–WORLD POPULATION at 3,030,000,000
–Enovid, first birth control pill, is approved by the FDA, made by G.D. Searle
–France joins the ‘nuclear’ nations, first atmospheric tests in February, Algeria
–Mar 21, the Sharpeville Massacre in South Africa becomes a violent turning point in anti-arpartheid resistance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharpeville_Massacre
–May 22, Chile Earthquake and tsunami, Magnitude 9.5, largest on record http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1960_05_22.php; tsunami wave time map http://geology.com/records/largest-earthquake/largest-earthquake-tsunami-map.jpg
–June13, Congo Independence Day, elected leader Lumumba later murdered in CIA-backed coup
–the first particle (electron-positron) collider, called AdA, is developed by Bruno Touschek http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.2727
–Theodor Maiman patents the ruby laser
–Sweden launches the first automated mobile phone system
–Charles Keeling publishes his CO2 “Keeling Curve” as proof of rising greenhouse gas; funded and directed under the auspices of Scripps, La Jolla and Roger Revelle http://www.aip.org/history/climate/xKeeling60.htm
(under construction)
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