Jennifer Lake's Blog

April 21, 2021

Grab Your NADs!

*

*

Grab your NADs…and take a deep breath…

NAD+, the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide mentioned in the previous post as lacking in Covid patients, is a key molecule in cell respiration, known as ‘redox’ reactions in the electron transport chain. It works by grabbing electrons (becoming ‘reduced’) and transferring them to other molecules (becoming ‘oxidized’ again) in a cycle that activates and nourishes the all-important cell signal pathways.

*

The NAD ‘group’ of molecules are classed as B vitamins – the ‘energy’ vitamins (B3, nicotinic acid, niacin, etc.)—but the more specific NAD+ could very well be in a class by itself. Regenerative medicine is homing in on NAD+ as an exciting field of study in anti-aging, immune health and cell defense.

NAD+ might make you smarter and may also put the ‘smart’ in nanodevices like biosensors and DNA computers which I don’t yet know as to whether these devices can parasitically rob you of your NAD+. Whatever the case, NAD+ deficiency has serious detrimental downstream effects that I’ve learned are associated with the ‘typical’ (and long) list of radiation exposure diseases.

For the moment, I’ll quote some bioresearch documents on NAD+ and say that this post is going to be accumulative.

Research:

“Numerous studies have indicated that four interacting factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, calcium dyshomeostasis and inflammation, play crucial pathological roles in multiple major neurological diseases, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing evidence has also indicated that NAD(+) plays important roles in not only mitochondrial functions and energy metabolism, but also calcium homeostasis and inflammation.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22204321/

*

“Increasing evidence has indicated critical roles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form (NAD+) in various biological functions. NAD+ deficiency has been found in models of a number of diseases such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia, and diabetes, and in models of aging. Applications of NAD+ or other approaches that can restore NAD+ levels are highly protective in these models of diseases and aging. NAD+ produces its beneficial effects by targeting at multiple pathological pathways, including attenuating mitochondrial alterations, DNA damage, and oxidative stress, by modulating such enzymes as sirtuins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and AP endonuclease. These findings have suggested great therapeutic and nutritional potential of NAD+ for diseases and senescence.” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29295624/

*

Are nanodevices parasitizng your ‘redox’ energy? Read this–  “Confessions of an Engineered Nanoparticle”

https://pieceofmindful.com/2021/04/23/confessions-of-an-engineered-nanoparticle/

*

Video of nanodevice in Pfizer vaccine from TimTruth.com https://odysee.com/@TimTruth:b/Pfizer-vaccine-zoomed:e

*

*

According to David A. Sinclair, PhD, in his 2019 book “Lifespan”,  humans and other lifeforms have two modes of generating the necessary information that sustains life; one being the DNA/RNA ‘digital’ encoding of genomes (genetic) and the other being the heritable ‘analog’ activity of metabolism (epigenetic). He writes that “Unlike digital, analog information degrades over time—falling victim to the conspiring forces of magnetic fields, gravity, cosmic rays, and oxygen. Worse still, information is lost as it’s copied…  [But]…As cloning beautifully proves, our cells retain their youthful digital information even when we are old.”  As Sinclair describes it, “The Information Theory of Aging starts with the primordial survival circuit we inherited from our distant ancestors. Over time, as you might expect, the circuit has evolved… Scientists have found more than two dozen [survival circuits] within our genome. Most of my colleagues call these ‘longevity genes’… But these genes don’t just make life longer, they make it healthier, which is why they can also be thought of as ‘vitality genes.’ Together, these genes form a surveillance network within our bodies, communicating with one another between cells and between organs by releasing proteins and chemicals into the bloodstream, monitoring and responding to what we eat, how much we exercise, and what time of day it is… And now that we know [about] these genes…, scientific discovery has given us an opportunity to explore and exploit them… [u]sing molecules both natural and novel, using technology both simple and complex… we can read them, turn them up and down, and even change them altogether.

   “The longevity genes I work on are called ‘sirtuins,’ named after the yeast SIR2 gene, the first one to be discovered. There are seven sirtuins in mammals, SIRT1 to SIRT7, and they are made by almost every cell in the body…  [S]irtuins are enzymes that remove acetyl tags from histones and other proteins and, by doing so, change the packaging of the DNA, turning genes off and on when needed. These critical epigenetic regulators sit at the very top of cellular control systems, controlling our reproduction and our DNA repair. After a few billion years of advancement since the days of yeast, they have evolved to control our health, our fitness, and our very survival. They have also evolved to require a molecule called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD…  [The] loss of NAD as we age, and the resulting decline in sirtuin activity, is thought to be  a primary reason our bodies develop diseases when we are old but not when we are young.

   “Trading reproduction for repair, the sirtuins order our bodies to ‘buckle down’ in times of stress and protect us against the major diseases of aging: diabetes and heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and osteoporosis, even cancer. They mute the chronic, overactive inflammation that drives diseases such as atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders, ulcerative colitis, arthritis and asthma. They prevent cell death and boost mitochondria, the power packs of the cell. They go to battle with muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and macular degeneration. In studies on mice, activating the sirtuins can improve DNA repair, boost memory, increase exercise endurance, and help the mice stay thin, regardless of what they eat. These are not wild guesses as to their power; scientists have established all this… And in no small measure, because [NAD+dependent] sirtuins do all of this based on a rather simple program—the wondrous gene B in the survival circuit—they’re turning out to be more amenable to manipulation than many other longevity genes. They are, it would appear…the key to understanding how our genetic material protects itself during times of adversity, allowing life to persist and thrive for billions of years.”  —pp22-25, Lifespan, by David A. Sinclair, 2019

*

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Deregulation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Metabolism and CD38 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

[April 2019]…”In the current study…  proteomic differences between intestinal tissue from health controls, patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were compared…  When proteins with fold change >1.2 or <0.84 and P value < 0.05 between groups were considered differentially expressed, the expression of 10 proteins, including CD38, involved in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism and signaling pathway showed significant changes in IBD. Using the NCBI GEO database, we confirmed increased CD38 mRNA expression in patients with UC and in mouse colitis models. Protein CD38 expression was higher in CD and UC than in normal controls. CD38 expression was higher in inflamed tissues than in noninflamed tissues, and CD38 was located in F4/80-positive cells. Our study may provide novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of IBD. Further studies are required on the role of NAD metabolism and CD38 in intestinal inflammation.”  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31179321/

*

NAD Metabolites Analysis Service – Creative Proteomics

http://www.creative-proteomics.com › services › nad

“…The pyridine dinucleotide, NAD+, is a substrate of sirtuins and coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and other NAD+-dependent ADP ribose transfer enzymes. It is a unique cellular molecule produced from the pyridine mononucleotides nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)”

*

Assays for NAD +-Dependent Reactions and NAD + Metabolites

pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › 30097862

“Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD<sup>+</sup>) is an essential redox cofactor and signaling molecule that controls the activity of enzymes involved in metabolism, DNA repair, and cellular survival, such as the PARPs, CD38, and the sirtuins. Here, we describe three methods for measuring the activity of these enzymes: the etheno-NAD+ assay measures NAD+ hydrolase activity using an NAD+ analog to produce a fluorescent product that is measured in real time; the PNC1 assay converts a native product of NAD+ hydrolysis, nicotinamide, into a quantitative fluorescent readout; and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to characterize the entire NAD+ metabolome in a sample. These methods will enable new insights into the roles that NAD+ and the enzymes that utilize it play in health and disease.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30097862/

*

*

NAD deficiency and Cytokine Storms

Researchers have learned that NAD deficiency corresponds to increased ‘CD38’:

“CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38), also known as cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many immune cells (white blood cells), including CD4+, CD8+, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. CD38 also functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling…  CD38 is most frequently found on plasma B cells, followed by natural killer cells, followed by B cells and T cells, and then followed by a variety of cell types…  [It was] discovered to be not simply a marker of cell types, but an activator of B cells and T cells…[and] can function either as a receptor or as an enzyme. As a receptor, CD38 can attach to CD31 on the surface of T cells, thereby activating those cells to produce a variety of cytokines…  The CD38 protein is a marker of cell activation. It has been connected to HIV infection, leukemias, myelomas,[28] solid tumors, type II diabetes mellitus and bone metabolism, as well as some genetically determined conditions. CD38 increases airway contractility hyperresponsiveness, is increased in the lungs of asthmatic patients, and amplifies the inflammatory response of airway smooth muscle of those patients. ”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD38

**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

“Without any NAD we’d be dead in thirty seconds”

David Sinclair explains:

“In 2002, antioxidants were all the rage. They might not have been the antiaging and health panaceas some believed them to be, but that wasn’t yet known. One of [those] antioxidants…was resveratrol, a natural molecule that is found in red wine and that many pants produce in times of stress… [Konrad] Howitz and I were fascinated by the fact that resveratrol is produced in greater quantities by grapes…experiencing stress. We aso knew that many other health-promoting molecules, and chemical derivatives of them, are produced in abundance by stressed plants; we get resveratrol from grapes, aspirin from willow bark, metformin form [‘French’] lilacs, epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, quercetin from fruits, and allicin from garlic. This, we believe, is evidence of xenohormesis –the idea that stressed plants produce chemicals for themselves that tell their cells to hunker down and survive… What this means, if it’s true, is that when we search for new drugs from the natural world we should be searching the stressed-out ones; in stressed plants, in stressed fungi, and even in the stressed microbiome populations in our guts. The theory is also relevant to the foods we eat; plants that are stressed have higher concentrations of xenohormetic molecules that may help us… Look for the most highly colored ones because xenohormetic molecules are often yellow, red, orange, or blue. One added benefit: they tend to taste better… –pp130-131, Lifespan

   “As it turned out, resveratrol wasn’t very potent and wasn’t very soluble in the human gut… [But] By studying resveratrol, we also learned that it is possible to activate sirtuins with a chemical. This prompted a flood of research into other sirtuin-activating compounds called STACs that are many times more potent than resveratrol… There are today hundreds of chemicals that have been demonstrated to have an effect on sirtuins…  NAD, sometimes written as NAD+…has an advantage over other STACs because it boosts the activity of all seven [human] sirtuins… And because NAD is used by over five hundred different enzymes, without any NAD, we’d be dead in thirty seconds.” –pp133-134, Lifespan

*

*

*

The Deep COVID Agenda Emerging….

At this point, the NAD subject is going to diverge. I’ll make a sequel about Boosting Your NADs, but for now, I’m going to pursue the questions already arisen from the ‘nanodevice’ proposition above and the extension of work from prior posts; Making and Faking Viruses and the series-in-progress Planting Viruses From Plants! – all linked here  https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/02/03/making-and-faking-viruses/

Zombie Apocalypse

Dr. Sinclair advances his explanation of NAD-dependent sirtuins and anti-aging as a measure of how well our bodies eliminate “senescent cells”—old cells that live on past their ‘Hayflick Limit’ or are simply turned off and do not reproduce by division. He writes,

 “Small numbers of senescent cells can cause widespread havoc. Even though they stop dividing, they continue to release tiny proteins called cytokines that cause inflammation and attract immune cells called macrophages that then attack the tissue. Being chronically inflamed is unhealthy: just ask someone with multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or psoriasis. All these diseases are associated with excess cytokine proteins. Inflammation is also a driving force in heart disease, diabetes and dememtia. It is so central to the development of age-related diseases that scientists often refer to the process as ‘inflammaging.’ And cytokines don’t just cause inflammation: they cause other cells to become zombies, like a biological apocalypse. When this happens, they can even stimulate surrounding cells to become a tumor and spread. We already know that destroying senescent cells in mice can give them substantially healthier and significantly longer lives. (–p150) Cellular senescence is a consequence of our inherited primordial survival circuits which evolved to stop cell division and reproduction when DNA breaks were detected…  [and] if DNA breaks happen too frequently or they overwhelm the circuit, human cells will stop dividing, then sit there in a panic trying to repair the damage, messing up their epigenome and secreting cytokines…  Senescent cells, after all, don’t divide which means that cells with mutations aren’t able to spread and form tumors…

“This is where ‘antagonistic pleiotropy’ comes into play: the idea that a survival mechanism that is good for us when we are young is kept…[in spite of] any problems it might cause when we get older…  So we live longer [now] –and evolution hasn’t had a chance to catch up. We’re plagued by senescent cells, which might as well be radioactive waste. If you put a tiny dab of these cells under a young mouse’s skin, it won’t be long before inflammation spreads and the entire mouse is filled with zombie cells that can cause premature signs [and diseases] of aging.” –pp152-153.

*

*

‘Virus drugs’ and ‘stress chemicals’

Sinclair’s ‘Lifespan’ moves on from zombie cells to ‘telomeres,’ the DNA repeats on the ends of chromosomes that shorten and become exposed and ‘frayed’ over damaging time.

He writes,”The selfish genes…called LINE-1 retrotransposons, and their fossil remnants, make up about half of the human genome, what is often referred to as ‘junk DNA.’ It’s a lot of genetic baggage… In young cells, these ancient ‘mobile DNA elements’ also known as retrotransposons are prevented by chromatin from jumping out of the genome, then breaking DNA to reinsert themselves elsewhere. We and others have shown that LINE-1 genes are bundled up and rendered silent by sirtuins. But as mice age, and possibly as we do as well, these sirtuins become scattered all over the genome, having been recruited away to repair DNA breaks elsewhere, and many of them never find their way home. This loss is exacerbated by a drop in NAD levels… Without sirtuin to spool the chromatin and silence the transposon DNA, cells start to transcribe these endogenous viruses. This is bad. And it only gets worse.”—pp154-155

Endogenous viruses? From your own traveling DNA? Indeed. Finally, a flat and straightforward statement from the ‘lab’.  The ‘viruses’ inside you come from your own disintegrating DNA, the “retrotransposons” we call retroviruses, and were called “jumping genes” by their discoverer Barbara McClintock in the 1920s after examining X-irradiated corn plants. In a continuous flow from the paragraph above, David Sinclair writes:

 “Over time, as the mice age, the once silent LINE-1 prisoners [held by telomeres] are turned into RNA and the RNA is turned [transcribed] into DNA which is reinserted into the genome at a different place. Besides creating genome instability and epigenomic noise that causes inflammation, LINE-1 DNA leaks from the nucleus into the cytoplasm where it is recognized as a foreign invader. In response, the cells reease even more immunostimulatory cytokines that cause inflammation throughout the body…  Convincing evidence has come from experiments showing that antiretrovirals, the same kinds used to fight HIV, extend the lifespan of SIRT6 [knockout] mice about twofold. It may turn out that, as NAD levels decline… sirtuins are rendered unable to silence retrotransposon DNA. Perhaps one day, safe antiretroviral drugs or NAD boosters will be used to keep these jumping genes silent… [before] total anarchy ensues…  In 2018, scientists at Stanford University reported that they had developed an inoculation… with stem cells…” –p155

“What if we could reset the aging clock and prevent cells from ever losing their identity and becoming senescent in the first place?… Yes, the solution to aging could be cellular reprogramming, a resetting of the landscape… The DNA blueprint to be young, after all, is always there even when we are old… (–p158). The implications of these experiments are profound. What they show is that aging can be reset.” (–p161) …I  predict, and my students are now showing in the lab, that we can use [genetic]…switches not just to reset our cells in petri dishes but to reset an entire body’s epigenetic landscape…sending sirtuins back to where they came from, for instance. Cells that have lost their identity during aging can be led back to their true selves… We are making progress every week…by delivering reprogramming factors. The pace of discovery is mind spinning.” –164

*

Payload- carrying virus –like your ‘virus’—has long been the treatment of choice and also constitutes the ‘future treatment’ of David Sinclair’s anti-aging cure. During the 1990s, the poliovirus was rigorously experimented with as a delivery vehicle, but often resulted in cancer, cells with lost identity – Oops. It turned out that poliovirus existed on the margin of “error catastrophe,” able and likely to mutate out of existence because of its very small genome: That is, unless the poliovirus is continuously injected. One fork-in-the-road for poliovirus research has been to recreate it from lab chemicals and override its potential genomic instability, accomplished by Eckard Wimmer and published in 2003—at just the time of the appearance of a much larger genome virus, SARS, now taking its own forks. And here’s some ‘news’: The poliovirus is identical to several small plant viruses that might typically pass through your gut and was originally obtained for vaccines from human feces. More news: “plant viruses don’t exist as such” –so, are they better termed as “stress chemicals”?

But really it’s all in the packaging and labels:

“Chromatin is a complex of DNA, protein and RNA found in eukaryotic cells.[1] Its primary function is packaging long DNA molecules into more compact, denser structures. This prevents the strands from becoming tangled and also plays important roles in reinforcing the DNA during cell division, preventing DNA damage, and regulating gene expression and DNA replication. During mitosis and meiosis, chromatin facilitates proper segregation of the chromosomes” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatin

And, yup, it’s NAD+ dependent.

I was taught in nursing school that a ‘pathogen’ was simply a microbe out of place. What’s a ‘microbe’?– just a bunch of molecules that stick together. Don’t be fooled by jargon.

*

….post in progress…..

*

*

April 17, 2021

Plant Control and Smokin’ Genius

*

*

*

This post is really a ‘side note’ extension of the Planting Viruses series, which I alternatively call “TMV to CoV” (Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Coronavirus), with the intent of emphasizing effects on human spirituality and intelligence—central, and not ‘side’, issues OF COURSE. Plants by all measure have vastly accelerated our human success on this planet. Knowledge of plant use and knowledge from plants define much of our sacred heritage. The hologenomes mediated through plants possibly represent the greatest bounty of living intelligence in the galaxy –and therefore, significantly representing human control and oppression. Plants are at once animal, mineral and vegetable; extraordinary, powerful and dangerous.

*

To wit, here’s a 1999 documentary about the Pacific Islanders of Bougainville maximizing their use of coconuts to fight for self-rule against the incursions of Rio Tinto Zinc, the Australian and Papua New Guinea governments: The Coconut Revolution https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/the-coconut-revolution/

Here are two videos demonstrating our ancient, religious, and sophisticated relationships with plants:

Graham Hancock’s courageous 19 minute TEDx (The War on Consciousness) talk on “Mother Ayahuasca’s” instruction to give up his cannabis habit.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0c5nIvJH7w

The Pharmacratic Inquisition, from 2007 (2hrs) https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?fr=yfp-t-s&ei=UTF-8&p=pharmacratic+inquisition#id=1&vid=3afd05ee9a4028861c3ee2e71dbb27c0&action=click

*

The hologenome concept applied to ‘sacred’ tobacco is relevant to previous and future Planting Viruses posts –perhaps necessary to an exposition of the current uptake and applications of tobacco viruses in nano-bio-engineering. The DREADD technology mentioned by Charles Morgan in ‘Project POSSESSION’  is advancing with the use of tobacco viruses and yeast fungi –plant ‘bionts’. Morgan says DREADD and its innovation from J. Craig Venter is equivalent in military and technical impact to Nuclear Bombs. I’m taking him seriously. These techniques apply to COVID vaccines!

*

Holobiont Theory (Lynn Margulis et al) from Wikipedia:

“A holobiont is an assemblage of a host and the many other species living in or around it, which together form a discrete ecological unit,[1] though there is controversy over this discreteness. The components of a holobiont are individual species or bionts, while the combined genome of all bionts is the hologenome. The concept of the holobiont was initially defined by Dr. Lynn Margulis in her 1991 book Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation,[1] though the concept has subsequently evolved since the original definition.[2] Holobionts include the host, virome, microbiome, and other members, all of which contribute in some way to the function of the whole.[3][4] Well-studied holobionts include reef-building corals and humans.[5][6]

Overview

A holobiont is a collection of species that are closely associated and have complex interactions, such as a plant species and the members of its microbiome.[1][7] Each species present in a holobiont is a biont, and the genomes of all bionts taken together are the hologenome, or the “comprehensive gene system” of the holobiont.[8] A holobiont typically includes a eukaryote host and all of the symbiotic viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. that live on or inside it.[7]

Holobionts are distinct from superorganisms; superorganisms consist of many individuals, sometimes of the same species, and the term is commonly applied to eusocial insects.[9][10] An ant colony can be described as a superorganism, whereas an individual ant and its associated bacteria, fungi, etc. are a holobiont.[8] There is no doubt that symbiotic microorganisms are pivotal for the biology and ecology of the host by providing vitamins, energy and inorganic or organic nutrients, participating in defense mechanisms, or by driving the evolution of the host.[11][12] There is still some controversy surrounding these terms, and they have been used interchangeably in some publications.[6]

Holobiont components

Host: The host member of a holobiont is typically a multicellular eukaryote, such as a plant or human.[8] Notable hosts that are well-studied include humans,[13] corals,[5] and pine trees.[14]

Microbiome: The microbiome includes bacteria,[3] archaea,[15] microscopic fungi,[7] and microscopic protists.[3] 

Virome: All of the viruses included in a holobiont are collectively referred to as the virome[16]

Fungi: Multicellular fungi can be included in holobionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of plants.[7][4]

Plants

Although most work on host-microbe interactions has been focused on animal systems such as corals, sponges, or humans, there is a substantial body of literature on plant holobionts.[19] Plant-associated microbial communities impact both key components of the fitness of plants, growth and survival,[4] and are shaped by nutrient availability and plant defense mechanisms.[7] Several habitats have been described to harbor plant-associated microbes, including the rhizoplane (surface of root tissue), the rhizosphere (periphery of the roots), the endosphere (inside plant tissue), and the phyllosphere (total above-ground surface area).[12] The holobiont concept originally suggested that A significant fraction of the microbiome genome together with the host genome is transmitted from one generation to the next and thus can propagate unique properties of the holobiont”.[20] In this regard, studies have shown that seeds can play such a role. Evidence of this process have been recently proven showing that the majority, up to 95%, of the seed microbiome is mistranslated across generations.[21]

 The plant holobiont is relatively well-studied, with particular focus on agricultural species such as legumes and grains. Bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists, and viruses are all members of the plant holobiont…”

Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holobiont

*

*

‘Smokin’ Genius’

*There’s no doubt to these famous smokers that the Nicotinia species made a contribution. According to a ‘parkdale brass’ article: “Pipes allow people to transcend and connect with realms beyond our own to acquire knowledge and valuable insight… Jean-Paul Sartre seemed to think that smoking was a way of possessing the world and that the universe existed purely as something to be experienced while smoking… Bertrand Russell even said that pipe smoking saved his life…” https://parkdalebrass.com/blogs/news/powerful-people-and-smoking-pipes

Tobacco’s contribution of interest, whether by smoking or not, is this molecule: NAD+, essential to oxygen metabolism (redox), LIFE as we know it and civilization as we built it.  I’m learning the lack of NAD+ is the common denominator among people medically diagnosed with COVID and its oxygen deficient sequelae, called Long Covid. My particular concern is on the bio-nanotech devices that appear to co-opt  NAD+ and interfere with our all-important redox and Kreb’s cycle processes. To my knowledge at this point, tobacco and its derivatives (which may include ‘tobo’ viruses)are the only source of NAD+.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nicotinamide-adenine-dinuceotide

*

Oldest Known Evidence of Tobacco Use in North America Found in Ice Age Hunting Camp

…. “the most interesting part of the discovery is that there is no direct evidence that people used tobacco past 3,000 years ago, but this research proved its use more than 12,000 years ago.”

https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/oldest-known-evidence-tobacco-use-north-america-found-ice-age-hunting-camp-020922

*

Egyptian Life after Life

Tobacco leaves and beetle found in the mummy of Rameses II:  “The high levels of nicotine in Egyptian mummies, compared with other sources (Balabanova et al. 1997), have been interpreted as the result of the use of Nicotiana in the embalming process, something which could be supported by the Rameses evidence. Whilst the possibility of sources in plants other than tobacco, or the previous existence of Old World species of Nicotiana is considered (Balabanova et d. 1995), early importation from the New World is the explanation most favoured…” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273292800_Rameses_II_and_the_tobacco_beetle

Can we suppose the tobacco “oxygen battery” (NAD+) was known and thought of  by the Egyptians as a regenerating medicament and escort to the realm of the eternal?

*

Planting Viruses –From Plants! starts here https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/15/planting-viruses-from-plants/

*

*

*

April 14, 2021

Project POSSESSION

*

*

*

Originally published by Modern War Institute June 2018 https://mwi.usma.edu/mwi-video-dr-charles-morgan-neurobiology-war/

*

“What’s going on is you’ve co-opted the hand[s] of another human… The really fun part is that you’re taking over somebody else’s physical body with the mind of another human.” [min15]

*

“What we’re looking at is human [to] human thought transference… the brain-to-brain thought transference between two humans [and] they’ve achieved a success rate of 85% of the time. So you can attach…one human brain to another human brain; you can direct motor activity or you can send communication and information… There’s a whole world out there of biohacking… [min20]

“I think right now…the most direct application [of thought transference] is going to be either covert communication or running [biological and mechanical] drones. The set of experiments I didn’t have videos to show you [are] a series where you can connect a human brain to a rat and control its motor movement and its tail, so you can have nonhuman anima drones. You can have a human brain run a regular drone [already] at this point, but running a nonhuman drone…would be awesome… [min26] The software is now readily available where you could have hordes of creatures that can gain access to facilities or move around in different places all run by a person sitting in a booth. It’s no more logistically technical than learning how to send your signal anywhere in the world and protect that signal. That’s Now –it’s not in the future. As they refine transcranial magnetic stimulation…you can get ‘point’ specificity on the neurons you want to activate… [and] you should be able to do this with just visual stimulation to the retina.”

“Related to [medicine and individualized drugs] is DREADDs; Designer Receptors that can be remotely controlled – You can design a [cell] receptor, create a cell, put it somewhere in the body and you can remotely activate it when the brain is exposed to the right signal. Using this technology, people have been able to transfer memories from one fruit fly to another by signaling through a light stimulus into the retina. Right now [2018],  in most animals it’s done by putting a substance into the body that will actually activate the neurons in the way that you want it. So [with DREADDs] you have the capacity to create any [biologically synthesized] product as long as you know the DNA sequence and insert it into a living system and you can remotely control it.”

“When you create a cell and put it in somebody’s body, you have to figure out where you want it [to go]—what if you want it in their brain, right? And..you don’t want to do surgery to plant it in their brain to affect the way [they] think and act [then the] route to that is through stem cells… They call them God cells –they can turn into anything…unlike other cells in your body to become anything you want them to become and they can go find their home in the body and park there and do the work that you’d ike them to do. [ Power point shown “Mesenchymal stem cells: Infused peripherally can access brain tissue” Linan Liu et. al. 2013] So once you know the technology is [here] to edit, splice and program the cell and the technology currently exists to administer it… you can have things activated in other peoples’ brains. You can have the timed release of information on demand.

“DNA encryption –and it’s quite important– …I’ll just say the short story on this [is] people have figured out how to hide imagery in the DNA of bacteria and when you phosphoresce the bacteria you can discover the information or you can have the information reproduced in string form, the form of a protein. Dr. [George] Church up at Harvard has shown quite well that you can store a lot of information in one gram of DNA… at room temperature…for a very long time. So between CRISPR [developed by Church], storage capacity and programming cells, the new way to hide information is going to be in DNA… Why would you have a digital system when you can have a DNA system to store all the information you’ll ever need –photos, records, everything… You can hide information in bacteria and when the bacteria multiply they can go into spore form and last for a very long time. No one can scan you and find a bacteria. We don’t have anything that can detect that, so if you want to encode information… [in] DNA, and you don’t want it in your own body…[you get it back if] you scrape it [off], put it in a dish and unpack the information. This is all available now. This isn’t science fiction. [min33-37]

“So, what to do with memory. In medicine we think of memory as a potentially harmful thing when people present with post-traumatic stress disorder….   It’s a very active [area of] development in the field if we can erase memory; can we modify memory, can we change memory. The short answer is YES. [The PKMzeta method at Duke Univ.] was the first time anyone ever demonstrated that if you wash an area of the brain that’s crucial for forming memories –spatial memories and facilitating the transfer of short-term memory…to something..more permanent and stable over time—[you] can flood the hippocampus… and the memory will be completely gone…[and] there’s no trace of the memory left…  [min40] The hippocampus sounds impossible to get to [but] not if you program a cell to go there…[and] selectively release PKMzeta… [The] technical challenge right now is how do we get a cell in there to do that in a human. I can assure you they’re working on humans and not primates right now… [to] get it in there close enough to the hippocampus…[to] make enough of [itself] to wipe out a memory.

“Related to this are chemicals that not only wipe out memory but chemicals that enhance it… So, if you want a better human camera…, an individual who can…see and remember everything, that’s the direction…from a security and intelligence point [of view that] is a really unique opportunity… but it seems to be a harder nut to crack on enhancing memory than erasing memory [which] is far easier…

[But] I’ll remind you… [we] can train a fruitfly with an aversive memory and transfer that memory [to one that] never had that experience…and [it] reacts to the [averse memory] stimulus in the same way as the animal that did have the aversive learning experience. It’s been done in mice…[min44]

“In 2009, using light [they] transferred memory. You can turn things ON and OFF using light in animals to activate the hippocampus –turn memory ON and OFF [with a light ‘switch’]… the chemical implanting of memories has now occurred in monkeys. So, in the next two years we should actually see… a memory implanted [chemically] into a human brain…[min51]

…”There’s gonna be a HIVE brain, it’s already been done in rats…link[ing] multiple brains, and as a HIVE they solve…problems much faster than an individual rat. That technology’s here. I’m assuming [DARPA] will link people [so they can] live in virtual reality, move things and problem solve, so in the next few years that’s what I think we’ll see… It’s really no longer science fiction.”

*

*

*

For more (from the past) see ‘Threat Tech –Neuroweapons https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2016/06/05/threat-tech-neuroweapons/

*

March 2, 2021

DNA computers

*

What a Technocracy needs: infinite data storage

“…DNA storage has been estimated to have a longevity of 2,000 years.” [2016 article about Microsoft and Twist Bioscience, linked below]

 

2017, Dina Zielinski TED talk : “All the World’s Data in DNA”   https://www.ted.com/talks/dina_zielinski_how_we_can_store_digital_data_in_dna

*

 

***********************************************************************************************

“As humanity creates more and more digital data, archiving the information on hard drives presents economic and ecological challenges. Today an ever-expanding network of large data-storage centers already accounts for more than 2 percent of all electricity consumption in the United States.

“In an effort to develop cheaper and more sustainable storage methods, some scientists have begun experimenting with putting data onto nature’s original hard drive: DNA. In the past five years, a number of research groups have shown that synthetic forms of DNA can be encoded with words, images, or music just as easily as with biological information.

“Now [2017] Yaniv Erlich, an assistant professor of computer science at Columbia Engineering, and Dina Zielinski, a bioinformatics researcher at the New York Genome Center, have achieved a major breakthrough in this area, developing a technique that has enabled them to fit 60 percent more digital data onto a given strand of DNA than was previously possible. In a recent issue of the journal Science, the researchers describe how they managed to squeeze a trove of digital content — including a copy of the 1895 Lumière brothers film Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat, a full computer operating system, a $50 Amazon gift card, a computer virus, and a 1948 study by information theorist Claude Shannon — onto a speck of DNA so small that if it existed in a living organism, it would likely carry the blueprints for just a handful of proteins [like a virus]. They say that their technique could theoretically enable scientists to cram millions of megabytes of information onto a single gram of DNA.

“To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest-density storage device ever created,” says Erlich.

Erlich and Zielinski’s storage technique is also very reliable. The researchers say that even after they induced the DNA to make copies of itself, and then forced those copies to make copies, and so on, the resulting double helices were found to contain flawless replicas of the original data.

“ ‘We really tortured the content to see if there was anything we could do to make errors appear,’ Erlich says. ‘But each time we read the files back onto our computers, they worked perfectly.’

“Downloading data onto DNA is still too expensive for commercial use; it cost Erlich and Zielinski about $9,000 to store and retrieve theirs. But the researchers suspect that if they and other scientists can continue to improve the efficiency with which they translate computer code, with its long strings of 0s and 1s, into the chemical language of DNA, made up of various combinations of the four nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T), the strategy could eventually provide a cost-efficient option for archiving everything from Facebook posts to historical documents.”

https://magazine.columbia.edu/article/future-data-storage-our-dna

*

“How We’re Building the World’s Largest Family Tree” –Yaniv Erlich, 2018– https://www.ted.com/talks/yaniv_erlich_how_we_re_building_the_world_s_largest_family_tree/transcript

*

“Team Erlich” report [2017] on their DNA storage retrieval:

…”Recent studies have made large strides in developing DNA storage schemes by exploiting the advent of massive parallel synthesis of DNA oligos and the high throughput of sequencing platforms. However, most of these experiments reported small gaps and errors in the retrieved information. Here, we report a strategy to store and retrieve DNA information that is robust and approaches the theoretical maximum of information that can be stored per nucleotide. The success of our strategy lies in careful adaption of recent developments in coding theory to the domain specific constrains of DNA storage. To test our strategy, we stored an entire computer operating system, a movie, a gift card, and other computer files with a total of 2.14×106 bytes in DNA oligos. We were able to fully retrieve the information without a single error even with a sequencing throughput on the scale of a single tile of an Illumina sequencing flow cell. To further stress our strategy, we created a deep copy of the data by PCR amplifying the oligo pool in a total of nine successive reactions, reflecting one complete path of an exponential process to copy the file 218×1012 times. We perfectly retrieved the original data with only five million reads. Taken together, our approach opens the possibility of highly reliable DNA-based storage that approaches the information capacity of DNA molecules and enables virtually unlimited data retrieval.” https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/074237v2

*

“They [Team Erlich] say DNA Fountain, so named because it uses fountain codes, which are used for video streaming to mobile devices ‘approaches the Shannon capacity while providing robustness against data corruption’.  According to Science Daily, they used DNA Fountain to generate 72,000 DNA strands or oligos that were sent to Twist Bioscience, the DNA synthesis firm that supplied Microsoft’s synthetic DNA…  As the researchers highlight, DNA storage in this study cost $3,500 per megabyte. However, they see the cost falling with improvements to DNA synthesis chemistry, as well as ‘quick-and-dirty oligo synthesis methods’ that consume less machine time.” https://www.zdnet.com/article/dna-data-storage-landmark-now-its-215-petabytes-per-gram-or-over-100-million-movies/

*

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Genome_Center

*

Yaniv Erlich is an Israeli-American scientist. He is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at Columbia University and the Chief Science Officer of MyHeritage… Erlich was born in Israel. He earned BSc in Brain Sciences in 2006 from Tel Aviv University and a PhD in bioinformatics in 2010 from Watson School of Biological Sciences at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. From 2010 to 2015, Erlich was a Fellow at the Whitehead InstituteMIT. Since 2015, he leads a lab at Columbia University in computational genomics  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaniv_Erlich

*

“…DNA storage has been estimated to have a longevity of 2,000 years.” https://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-buys-10-million-dna-molecules-to-try-fitting-todays-sprawling-data-vaults-on-a-match-head/

DNA Data Storage Alliance Launches With Illumina …

https://www.bio-itworld.com/news/2020/12/01/dna-data-storage-alliance-launches-with-illumina-microsoft-twist-bioscience-western-digital

By Bio-IT World Staff December 1, 2020 | Twist Bioscience Corporation, Illumina, and Western Digital announced an alliance last month with Microsoft to advance the field of DNA data storage.

*

Illumina is mentioned here: previous blog post ‘Biology is Nanotechnology’

https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/13/biology-is-nanotechnology/

*

*

*

“DNA is an incredible molecule that, by its very nature, provides ultra-high-density storage for thousands of years,” said Emily M. Leproust, Ph.D., CEO and co-founder of Twist Bioscience…  By 2024, 30% of digital businesses will mandate DNA storage trials, addressing the exponential growth of data poised to overwhelm existing storage technology…   DNA Data Storage Alliance plans to develop use cases in various markets and industries as well as promote and educate the larger storage community to promote adoption of this future solution…

About Illumina

Illumina is …the global leader in DNA sequencing…

About Western Digital

Western Digital creates environments for data to thrive. As a leader in data infrastructure, the company is driving the innovation needed to help customers capture, preserve, access and transform an ever-increasing diversity of data… Our data-centric solutions are comprised of the Western Digital®, G-Technology™, SanDisk®, and WD® brands.

About Twist Bioscience Corporation

Twist Bioscience is a leading and rapidly growing synthetic biology and genomics company that has developed a disruptive DNA synthesis platform to industrialize the engineering of biology. The core of the platform is a proprietary technology that pioneers a new method of manufacturing synthetic DNA by “writing” DNA on a silicon chip. Twist is leveraging its unique technology to manufacture a broad range of synthetic DNA-based products, including synthetic genes, tools for next-generation sequencing (NGS) preparation, and antibody libraries…” https://investors.twistbioscience.com/news-releases/news-release-details/twist-bioscience-illumina-and-western-digital-form-alliance

*

*

February 21, 2021

Packing For The Millenium

Filed under: 1 — jenniferlake @ 5:04 pm
Tags: , ,

Earthships and Cob

*

*

https://earthshipbiotecture.com/amazing-new-earthship-video-with-drone-footage/

*

*

*

*

*

*****************************************************************************************************************************************************

Starting small with cob –lumps of clay-sand-straw– for the ultimate inexpensive DIY to multistory towers and other flights of imagination

**

*

**

Cob coming together

Building a wall in Wisconsin  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZS2ZEN2bTs

*

Timber and cob coming together for 3 weeks  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVFlkejVE8A

*

Cob house and family homestead  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J94TqEEPp1I&feature=youtu.be

*

Improving conditions

Allan Savory – grazing cattle restore gardens and grasslands https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7pI7IYaJLI

Brad Lancaster — harvesting rainwater in Tuscon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcAMXm9zITg

Bjorn Lomborg — social scientist looks at real world fire, flood, and climate facts with cost/benefit projections  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otsJno55J0g

*

*

 

 

February 15, 2021

Ancient Egyptian Secrets: Poured Concrete and Circumnavigation

Filed under: 1 — jenniferlake @ 4:47 pm

My added preface here is to state that ancient concrete and circumnavigation are ‘no-brainers’. The makers of this film apparently do not embrace any part of the ‘Forbidden Archaeology’ premise promoted by Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson that homosapiens have been around using advanced technologies for millions of years.  The contradictions inherent in rejecting ‘extreme’ human antiquity are best demonstrated in this film by juxtaposing the ‘lens’ method of concrete smelting (which is interesting!) with the hand-to-hand ‘bucket brigade’ building technique. Silly! If you watch it, skip ahead and save lots of time.  Here are two worthwhile programs featuring Michael Cremo:

1996 (NBC orig. on tv) “Mysterious Origins of Man” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u__Zm4stnug

2017 Michael Cremo at the Origins conference https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m-TKhEYe03M

*

Shown in The Pyramid Code, quartz blocks with smooth parabolic basins at Saqqara — lens molds?

*

*

*

*

February 3, 2021

Making and Faking Viruses

*

*image of ‘viruses’ in seawater sample

*

This post is a “cut to the chase” about the War Upon You – the uncomplicated version of context—drawn forward from the Big Science coup d’etat of World War Two and our cultural entry into the Nuclear/Space Age. The Big Science of biology and genetics goes from “Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Coronavirus” in my review Planting Viruses, as an intertwining parallel to the high-energy technology that brought nuclear missiles, satellites and global communications to the planet.  Radiation, whatever its source, is a biological weapon outside of the limited compatibility range in which we evolved. Radiation co-factored with chemistry –specifically biochemistry— is the basis of Life as we know it. Radiation and chemicals together makes, unmakes, and remakes the living world. Edward Teller, “father of the hydrogen bomb”, remarked that his weapons would “change mankind’s relationship with the universe”. Despite his own chronic health problems related to his work, Teller maintained that “radiation is good for you.”

The very “fine forces” that hold us together as living beings are electro-chemical bonds (not ‘flesh and blood’ per se) under constant over-riding assault from ‘technology’, be it frequencies, gmo foods, medicines, pollutants and the rest. That said, Planting Viruses is following the trail of documentation from TMV to CoV to show how public attention has been diverted away from the real causes of modern epidemics to the pseudoscientific Germ Theory of disease by way of planting viruses from plants! It’s a big, slow story in need of a Teller, you could say, to give it impact —  but a great deal of the evidence is straightforward at the laboratory level. Scientific “maker” culture reduces all to its smallest irreducible parts and “rebuilds” –  “build back better” as we hear it said today, applied to everything that defines us.  Planting Viruses is just one more Lost Chapter in the theft of our humanity, demonstrated here by the breaking of species barriers. Among the questions raised and addressed is the proposition that ‘universal’ polio vaccines of the 1950s were loaded with plant genes and propagated on substrates bearing plant genes, like Hela cells harboring Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The poliovirus, for all the world, is a plant.

*

Keep this in mind:

“It’s raining viruses, but don’t panic” (published 2018)

https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-03-09/its-raining-viruses-dont-panic

[article excerpt]

“Viruses and the organisms they infect are extremely highly coevolved,” Suttle explains, “and as part of that process, viruses are really, really good at moving genetic information around. In fact, the field of biotechnology originated [with the discovery] that you could use a virus to move genetic information from one organism to another. The original genetic engineering, if you like, was using viruses to actually move genes around among organisms.”

A large percentage of human nucleic acids — our DNA — is actually viruses that are “still stuck in our genome,” Suttle points out. The placenta of mammals contains a protein that was donated by viruses; major components of our nervous system are the result of genetic information donated from viruses. “Viruses are masters at moving genetic information around and, as a result of that, they’ve been absolutely crucial to the evolution of all organisms,” he says. [end except]

*************************************************

“Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity…” (published Dec.2009)

“Rapid progress in DNA synthesis and sequencing is spearheading the deliberate, large-scale genetic alteration of organisms. These new advances in DNA manipulation have been extended to the level of whole-genome synthesis, as evident from the synthesis of poliovirus, from the resurrection of the extinct 1918 strain of influenza virus and of human endogenous retroviruses…”  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20010599/

*

Polioviruses are “Members of the family Picornaviridae (genus Enterovirus) and of the family Secoviridae (genus Comovirus) were the first characterized members of the order and infect vertebrates and plants, respectively. The order also includes viruses infecting invertebrates (families Dicistroviridae and Iflaviridae) or algae (family Marnaviridae). Large-scale environmental genomic studies suggest the presence of a large number of uncharacterized picorna-like viruses in the ocean.” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123846846000707

“The poliovirus is capable of producing an encephalitis, with or without symptoms, in the absence of any damage to the spinal cord. As far as the pathologist is concerned all cases of polio are encephalitic”.[p21] It’s amazing that something so small can do so much damage…But the poliovirus doesn’t attach to and damage just any cell. It is a ‘guided missile’ that does one thing: seek out, damage, and destroy the neurons that “activate” you –the ones that activate your brain and muscles. The poliovirus is the perfect human “Off switch”… https://polioforever.wordpress.com/post-polio/

The author of those words, Richard L. Bruno in The Polio Paradox, appears to sincerely believe in the vaccine prevention of polio and writes nothing about the radiation and chemical cause of polio-like disease, a newly immanent crisis in the United States as the country emerged from World War II and catapulted into the Nuclear Age. Doctors in the 1940s attempting to ‘isolate’ poliovirus (serum) from polio patients were overwhelmingly unable to find the infectious agents.  The mandate to prevent polio with a ‘cure’ in the era of radioactive fallout seems incentive enough to “plant” a virus and use the vaccine in a new kind of “vaccine diplomacy” among nuclear-armed nations.

* Mahoney Type 1 poliovirus

 

The “wild” Mahoney type 1 poliovirus was collected and filtered into solution “virus” in 1941 by Dr. Thomas Francis of the Rockefeller Hospital. Personal physician to the Rockefeller family, Dr. Francis at the time had been newly set up at the University of Michigan on U.S. Army business in the capacity of  a public health laboratory. The Mahoney sample came from the pooled feces of three Cleveland area siblings who were asymptomatic –healthy!—and became the “type species” (first to be discovered) of the picornaviruses, or “prototype” as Eckard Wimmer noted in his 2002 created-from-scratch documents. The Mahoney strain procured in the lab, it turned out, was the deadliest of the recent polio filtrates. Work on another new polio vaccine, ongoing since the 1930s, however, was delayed;  Thomas Francis and his collaborator Jonas Salk were set on the task of making an influenza vaccine during the war. Clinically observed as sickness, there was no difference between polio and flu, but polio was to retain its distinctively special character as “infantile paralysis”—by then, a political definition of great value. All “influenza-like” disease, we now know, can be produced from exposure to radiation and chemicals.

Down Under in Australia’s city of Melbourne, Frank McFarlane Burnet was set on the same task of making an influenza vaccine for his government in WWII, to which he had also recommended the making of bioweapons in the form of intestinal agents. Burnet favorably selected influenza virus over the poliovirus for influenza’s quality of stability in lab experiments –having a larger genome it was less likely to mutate out of existence as poliovirus would were it not for vaccination and revaccination.

Contemporary  investigations reveal that plant viruses are normal commensals of the human gut, as they should be, able to be collected and reconstituted from newborn, exclusively breast-fed infants. In a very small but significant study, modern observers noted that 17 plant viruses were collected from newborn human feces, including tobacco mosaic virus, the “type species” of the helical rod, filamentous group. None of the parents of these newborns used or worked with tobacco, although it is known that TMV ‘infects’ many hundreds of plant species, including the most valuable food crops and flowers. Tobacco Mosaic Virus is the first virus, the prototypical “filtrate” substance obtained and ‘confirmed’ as a disease agent in 1892.  With this tobacco virus “tool”, I propose to demonstrate how TMV mutants and by-products became the “vaccine” viruses of modern allopathic practice.

*

Eckard Wimmer, the elderly researcher who created poliovirus from scratch: …”My favorite virus is poliovirus… and in 2002 we published a paper that we had recreated the virus from information on the internet and no virus was necessary…. This was an enormous shock…[because] the parent of this virus…was the computer.”

*

“Originally trained as an organic chemist, Wimmer developed a deep understanding and fascination for viruses as replicating (living) biological entities as well as (non-living) aggregates of organic compounds, or, “as chemicals with a life cycle”.[2][3] After working on the structure of tRNAs and the structure of a plant RNA virus (satellite tobacco necrosis virus), Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause irreversible flaccid paralysis and even death. Neither the molecular biology of poliovirus proliferation nor the mechanism of its pathogenesis was understood in the nineteen sixties…  Using the nucleotide sequence of the genome deciphered in 1981, Wimmer followed up on the work published in 1991 by synthesizing chemically the genome in the form of double stranded DNA (“cDNA”), which was then transcribed enzymatically[16] into genome RNA and “booted to life” in the cell free system.[3] This work, published in 2002 by Cello, Paul and Wimmer, was the first test-tube synthesis of an organism in the absence of a natural template achieved outside living cells.[3] The poliovirus synthesis caught global attention, high praise, ridicule and fierce condemnation…” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eckard_Wimmer

Wimmer’s company : CODAGENICS, is shopping its corona vaccine

“Starting from only viral sequence data (no physical virus), Codagenix can routinely design, construct, and grow multiple live-attenuated vaccine candidates ready for animal safety and efficacy testing in less than one month, and faster if needed as new outbreak strains are identified… We seek to upend the current approach to making live-attenuated vaccines”… https://codagenix.com/vaccine-programs/pipeline/

*

In reality… “Except for a few cases, viruses are not surrounded by a membrane. If present, the membrane around a virus particle – as seen in electron microscopic images – stems usually from the host cell. Viruses have no energy metabolism of their own. Consequently, they cannot perform syntheses and are thus unable to replicate themselves…  With plant viruses, the term specificity (or host-specificity) has a very narrow meaning, since no plant virus as such exists….” http://www1.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e35/35.htm

*

“All viruses are good viruses”…”they are solvents”….”[and] the only way [people] can get a swine flu or a bird flu is if [it] is injected in them” –Aajonus Vonderplanitz, PhD

*

From Stefan Lanka: Pathogenic, disease-causing “Viruses Don’t Exist” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NU9f3Vc67oE

*

 

 

Planting Viruses is a series-in-progress. So far, part three is currently under construction out of a probable five or six. When I finish it, I’ll be back to this spot to post a summary of each segment.

It starts here:  https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/15/planting-viruses-from-plants/

*

*

January 30, 2021

Planting Viruses Three

*                                                                                                 Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, PMMoV, pictured in Wikipedia

*

Part One: Planting Viruses –From Plants!    https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/15/planting-viruses-from-plants/

Part Two: Planting Viruses Two  https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/21/planting-viruses-two/

*

*

Self-assembling nano machines are not simply “inspired by biology”. They are biology. Biology is Nanotechnology.

The revelation of the present –and the point of Planting Viruses—is to show how plant viruses, derived from the original ‘filtrate’ methods made of diseased specimens from Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), have evolved into the bio-nano-technology of today. On the way, we’ll see how human viruses took the same path and ask a bigger Question based on evidence: Are modern (20th century) “emerging” virus diseases derived from plant viruses? The expanding scope of the virus industry recognizes more and more pathogens infecting a greater range of hosts,  phenomena known as species jumping and host-switching, but read almost any biology research document from a lab of the modern era and you can observe the species-jumping-host-switching activity for yourself by human intervention. Laboratory science in biological ‘evolution’ is not just a practice of learning methods but a goal  in itself with a very long technology-dependent history.

The field of virology is looking for “common ancestors” to prove evolutionary lineage but the ancestors I’m postulating are not viruses at all. We know their names, like Wendell Stanley, Hilary Koprowski, Aaron Klug, Craig Venter, etc. etc. Their names include mathematicians and physicists as well as contemporary software designers and gamers.  (–the learning game ‘Plague, Inc.’, for example)

Do viruses evolve?  –well, that’s a trick question. Viruses and their stuff can disassemble and reassemble, inside or outside of host cell environments. Viruses, like poliovirus, have been made from scratch with laboratory chemicals and formulas but then so has human DNA.

Fabricating DNA Evidence (news from the NYTimes)
https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/08/19/fabricating-dna/

Entire living organisms such as E.coli bacteria have been made from scratch in labs.  This puts the trick in evolution. Nature does have some ‘keepers’ among the genetic fragments and “virus-like particles” spread over the earth, and those are called “conserved regions” in protein language. Conserved regions, which are small and dispersed orderly segments of proteins, show up along the replicated strings of genetic material in reproducing entities. They may or may not be evidence of evolution, but for the time being, evidence of identity and ‘targets’ for gene testing.  PCR tests, for example, are designed to target and “amplify” conserved regions in genetic specimens. In effect, PCR is a factory for making those certain ‘codes’ of interest and the reason you can stop wondering why a COVID PCR test is not a ‘heath’ test.

*

Covid testing is switching to sewerage anyway –despite the ‘social benefits’ of maintaining individual testing –and we’ll look at the sewerage situation with plant viruses. Vaccines made from fecal matter extracts –as it appears all the older vaccines were—injected plant virus particles directly into the bloodstream. It prompts another set of questions about CoV positive tests: if COVID positivity is the outcome of prior vaccination for polio. They have the same ancestors. Poliovirus likeness to plant virus is demonstrated in Part Two.

*

Part Three is going to focus on plant viruses infecting humans directly, without the need for an intermediate vector, like insects and vertebrates. It will also describe the peculiar differences between “infection” and “infectious” as it’s used in the literature, therefore determining a qualitative interpretation of “safety” as “non-infectious”, and I’ll apply that to TMV-derived nano-products. And, my favorite part –Pictures!—micrographs and progressive comparisons of “real” plant viruses, and some comparisons to “fake virus” images like the “clathrin-coated vesicels” pictured in Part One.

 

Here’s the Worksheet first (with clips from ‘search)

*

“Humans have antibodies against a plant virus: evidence from tobacco mosaic virus”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23573274/

*************************************************************************************

Can a plant virus make you sick?

29 April 2010

Pepper mild mottle virus is present worldwide in field-grown peppers. It is composed of an RNA genome wrapped with many copies of a viral protein that forms a rod-like particle with helical symmetry (pictured)… https://www.virology.ws/2010/04/29/can-a-plant-virus-make-you-sick/

 

*************************************************************************************

Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in Humans

*

Conclusions

Our study identified a local source of PMMoV and linked the presence of PMMoV RNA in stool with a specific immune response and clinical symptoms. Although clinical symptoms may be imputable to another cofactor, including spicy food, our data suggest the possibility of a direct or indirect pathogenic role of plant viruses in humans.

… PMMoV is a non-enveloped, rod-shaped, single-stranded positive sense RNA virus classified in the genus Tobamovirus, which includes viruses extremely resistant to physical and chemical agents [8][9]. It is one of the major pathogens of Capsicum spp (chili peppers). Complementary data from Zhang et al.‘s study have shown that PMMoV could be detected in non-diarrheic stool from 12 out of 18 individuals living in San Diego, USA or in Singapore, suggesting it might be geographically widespread, and in 3 out of 22 fresh and processed pepper samples. Moreover, the fecal PMMoV was viable and could infect host plants.

…All N. tabacum cultivar Xanthi NN plants inoculated with each of the three PMMoV RNA-positive food products developed local lesions typical of PMMoV infection within 5–7 days post-inoculation (Figures 2a–h)…

…We also identified statistically significant differences in the occurrence of fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus and the detection of specific immune responses to PMMoV in the case-control study. We, therefore, believe that we provide the first evidence that plant viruses may cause disease in humans…

************************************************************************************

*“Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus that occurs worldwide on species of field grown bell, hot and ornamental pepper species. It is caused by members of the plant virus genus Tobamovirus- otherwise known as the tobacco mosaic virus family

The origin of PMMoV has been linked to Tomato mosaic virus, as they both reside in the Tobacco mosaic virus family. The Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection brought about the link between PMMoV to ToMV from a French study dating back to 1964. ToMV affects a wide range of Solanaceous crops and a strain of this virus likely mutated into PMMoV.[3]”

https://m.blog.naver.com/ehongsik60/221532987034

*************************************************************************************

 

Tobamoviruses can be frequently present in the oropharynx and gut of infants during their first year of life

 …”Plant viruses have been reported to be common in the gut of human adults, presumably as result of food ingestion. In this work, we report that plant viruses can also be found frequently in the gut and oropharynx of children during their first year of life, even when they are exclusively breast-fed. Fecal and oropharynx samples were collected monthly, from birth to 1 year of age, from three apparently healthy children in a semi-rural community and analyzed by next generation sequencing. In 100% of the fecal samples and 65% of the oropharynx samples at least one plant virus was identified. Tobamoviruses in the Virgaviridae family were by far the most frequently detected, with tropical soda apple mosaic virus, pepper mild mottle virus, and opuntia tobamovirus 2 being the most common species. Seventeen complete virus genomes could be assembled, and phylogenetic analyses showed a large diversity of virus strains circulating in the population. These results suggest that children are continuously exposed to an extensive and highly diverse collection of tobamoviruses. Whether the common presence of plant viruses at an early age influences the infant’s immune system, either directly or through interaction with other members of the microbiota, remains to be investigated…

surprisingly, [plant viruses] were found as early as 2-weeks after birth in exclusively breast-fed infants. Tobamoviruses, in the Virgaviridae family, were the most abundant, and were present in most of the samples analyzed. Of interest, antibodies to plant viruses have been found in animals, including humans3, and it has also been shown that cowpea mosaic virus can disseminate systemically when orally administered to mice12. Whether the common presence of these viruses at an early age has an effect in the infant’s immune system and maturation of the gut remains to be investigated…

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-70684-w

 

*************************************************************************************

 

*

Antibodies in the bloodstream are taken as an unequivocal sign of infection by public health authorities. Livestock farmers have, many times over, had their antibody-positive (seropositive) animal herds seized and destroyed as a heavily enforced cautionary measure against the “presence of disease” even when no other signs of disease were manifest. In the animal world, this kind of “herd immunity” can get you killed.  Despite our understanding of antibodies as proof of immunity against disease, this seemingly paradoxical situation is used to define “infection” with pathogenic entities. A pathogen (as I was taught in nursing school)  is a microbe outside of its natural place. We recognize pathogens only in their ability to induce changes, but in the dynamic biosphere of our planet which is continuously building-up, breaking-down and on the move, pathogens are everywhere. Pathogens, in fact, are the “cause” of evolution if we stick to my foundation principle of out-of-place microbes.

Antibodies problems: http://theothersideofvaccines.com/2018/12/7-reasons-why-antibodies-cant-possibly-provide-immunity/

So, where are the “natural places” of some of these pathogens making us sick?  Many of them, of the least in size, belong on a long string of RNA and DNA.  The evolution of microscopic technology itself  took decades of unrelenting improvement and investigation into the tiniest classes of genetic fragments (made of nucleic acids) that amounted to something “microbe-like”.  A new class of ‘subunit’ entities discovered by science learning methods is called “subviral agents” and has emerged to categorize these genetic fragments. In plants these ultra-small pathogens are called “viroids”.

*

“Viroids are small (about 300 nucleotides), single-stranded, circular, non-encapsidated pathogenic RNA molecules. They do not code for proteins and thus depend on plant host enzymes for their replication and other functions. They induce plant diseases by direct interaction with host factors but the mechanism of pathogenicity is still unknown [in 2004]. They can alter the expression of selected plant genes important for growth and development…” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15448723/

[otherwise known as mRNA]

Viroid is a term exclusive to plants — a viroid associated with human disease is called “viroid-like**”. One particular viroid-like infection known in human disease is Hepatitis D, caused by a so-named “delta agent” that uses the Hepatitis B virus as a “helper virus” to provide it with functional parts –and a demonstration case of the HepB being a ‘host factor’. The Hepatitis D virion below looks like a ‘delta’ viroid (in blue) swallowed by a HepB ‘envelope’ shell (red and tan), or a virus-within-a-virus structure.  I’ll post some electron micrograph images of virus-within-virus structures further on.

**Viroid-like particles are also called “virusoids” –here’s a basic explanation of the differences in jargon, including ‘prion’ (infectious protein with no DNA/RNA) . https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/viroids-virusoids-and-prions/

Newborns are routinely vaccinated against HepB, a practice begun in 1983 and mandated in the U.S. in 1991.

*

*

So, how did science discover viroids? Accordingly, the credit belongs to Theodor Otto Diener, a Swiss plant pathologist who emigrated to the United States in 1939:

“In 1959, Diener joined the US Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service Pioneering Laboratory for Plant Virology at the Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland,[2] where he investigated the cause of the potato spindle tuber disease. This led to the unexpected discovery of the causative agent, a small RNA molecule, eighty times smaller than the smallest known viruses, for which he proposed the term viroid.[6][7] Later, viroids were characterized as single stranded covalently closed circular RNA molecules occurring as highly base-paired rod-like structures.[8] Viroids, together with viroid-like satellite RNAs have been officially endorsed by the International Committee for Virus Taxonomy (ICTV) as a novel order of subviral agents,[9] which, in its 2014 publication, encompassed 2 families, 8 genera and 32 species.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Otto_Diener

*

Diener himself wrote the following:

Abstract

“The discovery of the viroid in 1971, which initiated the third major expansion of the biosphere towards smaller living entities—after discovery of the “subvisual” microorganisms in 1675 and that of the “submicroscopic” viruses in 1892—has been officially endorsed by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy as a new order called subviral agents.

“In 1989, I proposed that, based on their respective molecular properties, viroids are more plausible “living fossils” of the hypothetical RNA World (widely assumed to have existed prior to the evolution of DNA or proteins) than are intron-derived RNAs, which were, at that time, suggested as putative survivors. There were few citations of my proposal—and virtually none of viroids—beyond plant virology unil 1994, when Cheles-Flores critically examined the hypothesis and pointed out a serious difficulty, as well as a process by which this difficulty could be overcome. In 2013, when investigations by Koonin and Dolja revealed that of extant RNAs, viroids “strikingly” display some of the molecular properties posited for the earliest evolving, selfish RNAs (primordial RNAs), but, because extant organisms, aside from higher plants, appear not to harbor viroids, they cannot be regarded as primordial fossils, but appear to have evolved post LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor). Here, I review whether some evidence nevertheless is compatible with the original postulate of the 1989 hypothesis. My analysis reveals no unequivocal evidence for an ancient origin of viroids, but suggests, alternatively, that viroids may have evolved de novo more recently, probably by novel processes similar to those suggested by each reviewer.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807594/

*

“…we show that circular RNA replicons analogous to [viroid family] Pospiviroidae emerge if evolution is seeded with minimal circular RNAs that grow through the gradual addition of nucleotides. Further, these rod-like replicons often maintain their structure if independent functional modules are acquired that impose selective constraints. The evolutionary scenario we propose here is consistent with the structural and biochemical properties of viroids described to date.” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31075860/

*

*********************************************************************************************

*

  • A) Tobacco Rattle Virus
  • B) Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • C) Pepper Mild Mottle Virus

 

 

Obtaining viroids (a word not-yet coined) for experimental purposes dates back to the 1955 Tobacco Mosaic Virus publication by Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley C. Williams from the Virus Laboratory of the University of California (Wendell Stanley’s lab). The men dissolved TMV in a chemical solution, purified and then reconstituted it in solution, obtaining a ratio of infective particles. Their experiment, set to prove the existence of RNA/DNA, caused quite a stir : “Gunther Stent wrote to Sidney Brenner, ‘Frankel-Conrat seems to have done the biggest thing with TMV since Stanley crystalized it. He can add soluble TMV protein to soluble TMV RNA, aggregate the whole mess into rods of which 0.1% are infective!!! Naturally, you don’t believe it–nor did I or anyone else, but unless he has made up the whole thing it seems that it must be true. You can’t beat that for laughs, can you buddy?’ It was true.”

Reference source http://evilutionarybiologist.blogspot.com/2007/10/this-weeks-citation-classic_26.html

*

This electron micrograph image shows their reconstituted virus

 

*

*Original document https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC528165/pdf/pnas00725-0006.pdf

*

The denaturing and reconstitution of infective TMV at UCBerkeley was paid for by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP known as the March of Dimes for polio research, and the National Cancer Institute of the NIH. Rosalind Franklin’s “structure group” at Birbeck, University of London, was also paid by NFIP and NCI to study polio (see part two), and these same entities paid for the development of both influenza and polio vaccines from the beginning of World War II forward.

*

When we get to the Common Cold section of this series, we will also see that the ‘discoverer’ of human coronaviruses, Dr. David Tyrell, launched his career as an epidemiologist with the British government following a polio outbreak in his hometown of Sheffield UK, famous for its metal products. Tyrell, however, was notably attached to the WWII U.S. Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB) during the war and returned to the States in 1951 to work (1951-1954) at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York.

Polio is, was, and remains a hub of constancy in nano-bio-tech; structurally identical to the common cold rhinovirus and the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus — its viroid cowpea mosaic virus is mentioned in the citations above as infecting and provoking antibody response in mice –from nature.com: “antibodies to plant viruses have been found in animals, including humans3, and it has also been shown that cowpea mosaic virus can disseminate systemically when orally administered to mice12.” Cowpea mosaic virus has proven more infective than its parent (or descendent, if evolutionary) and is another darling agent of nano-bio-tech, as are all viroids generally. Viroid research opened the way to new RNA technologies of the 1970s forward.

(search clip)

·  The unique potency of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) in situ …

pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32914796

[2020] “Our results indicate that CPMV in situ vaccine outperforms Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), Physalis mosaic virus (PhMV), Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV), bacteriophage Qβ VLPs, or Hepatitis B virus capsids (HBVc). Furthermore, ex vivo and in vitro assays reveal unique features of CPMV that makes it an inherently stronger immune stimulant…”

**************************************************************************

Viroid-type (not showing RNA) protein “disks” of TMV on the left, matched to the UCBerkeley (‘Fig.2) EM graph above, are compared to the assembled TMV rod with the dark RNA coil shown on the right in this illustration.

The next year [1956], Professor Fraenkel-Conrat and his team, which included his wife Beatrice A. Singer, ‘hybrized’ their TMV specimens, mixing the protein disks of one strain type with the purified RNA of another, illustrated below.  TMV mutants from these and other experiments were prepared in Berkeley’s particle accelerators by ‘Bea’ Singer and sent to Rosalind Franklin’s group in London for structural study along with ‘Mahoney’ strain polioviruses (crystals in filtrate). The Mahoney poliovirus strain was collected in 1941 from the feces of three siblings who were asymptomatic and considered the most deadly of ‘wild type’ poliovirus.

*

 

“Tracking the Elusive Viroid”

…”Like a virus, the viroid invades a cell and…forces the cell to duplicate the viroid’s RNA instead of its own. The viroid has no DNA. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, the molecules of heredity; with the exception of viroids and some viruses, all genes are made of DNA.

“The difference between viroids and RNA viruses is that viroids have no protective protein coat. The scientific dogma in 1971 was that an organism with no protein wasn’t supposed to be able to replicate itself, even with a host cell’s help. And an entity as small as the PSTV (potato spindle tuber viroid)—130,000 daltons—wasn’t supposed to be able to infect anything, even a potato.

“Until that time, scientists believed that the minimum weight necessary for infectivity was about 1 million daltons. (A dalton, also called an atomic mass unit, equals one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.)  Diener wasn’t much impressed by scientific dogma. He’d seen it turned upside down too many times. But he was very careful to prove that the viroid really existed. In all, it took him 6 painstaking years”… [1965-1971] https://www.ars.usda.gov/oc/timeline/viroid/

  • viroids in their two alternate 2D structures of ‘rod’ or ‘ring’

*

“Viruses (Virus particles or virions) are usually units consisting of nucleic acids and coat proteins called capsids. Viroids consist only of RNA, i.e. they contain no protein at all. Except for a few cases, viruses are not surrounded by a membrane. If present, the membrane around a virus particle – as seen in electron microscopic images – stems usually from the host cell (see picture to the left). Viruses have no energy metabolism of their own. Consequently, they cannot perform syntheses and are thus unable to replicate themselves…  With plant viruses, the term specificity (or host-specificity) has a very narrow meaning, since no plant virus as such exists. Instead, plant viruses can be grouped in a number of ‘varieties’. The tobacco mosaic-virus (TMV), for example, multiplies within Nicotiana-species, several other solanaceous plants, and a few species of other plant families. The name of a virus is usually derived from the name of its main host plant. Although with viruses, the term ‘species’ may not quite correspond to the way it is defined in biological systematics, it is perfectly reasonable and common to use it for viruses, too, since all viruses and viroids contain an original genome with a species-specific information. Its continuity over generations is [only] guaranteed by replication in the host cells. The genetic information of viruses is either encoded by single-stranded RNA (most plant viruses), double-stranded RNA (wound tumor viruses), single-stranded DNA (gemini-viruses) or double-stranded DNA (cauliflower mosaic-virus: CaMV). Based on the shape of the virus particle, it is distinguished between rod-shaped and icosaedrical viruses with a capsid that seems almost spherical.”

Picture : Viral membranes. Maturation of the virion (Maus-Friend-leukaemia virus) by budding off the host cell’s plasma membrane. Notice the similar structures of the membrane surrounding the virus and the membrane of the host cell (deHARVEN, New York).

*

http://www1.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e35/35.htm

**********************************************************************************************************

…making new ‘things’ with TMV:

EASY PIEZY

“The pH affects molecular charge, since it is well known that proteins disaggregate as the charge increases, and they aggregate as the charge decreases. Two often quoted examples are hemoglobin (Fanelli et al., 1964) and tobacco mosaic virus protein (Klug, 1979”)…

https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/10307262054844/3-12%20Attachment%20-%20Blank%2C%20Electromagnetic%20Biology%20%2C%202008.pdf

*

2015– Metal-Based Nanoparticles (MBNPs)

“This review explores the synthesis of inorganic metallic-based nanoparticles (MBNPs) (metals, alloys, metal oxides) using biological and biologically inspired nanoreactors for precipitation/crystallisation. Such nanoparticles exhibit a range of nanoscale properties such as surface plasmon resonance (nobel metals e.g. Au), fluorescence (semiconductor quantum dots e.g. CdSe) and nanomagnetism (magnetic alloys e.g. CoPt and iron oxides e.g. magnetite), which are currently the subject of intensive research…  Biological nanoreactors for crystallizing MBNPs within cells (magnetosomes), protein cages (ferritin) and virus capsids (cowpea chlorotic mottle, cowpea mosaic and tobacco mosaic viruses), are discussed along with how these have been modified for applications and for the next generation of new materials.  Biomimetic liposome, polymersome and even designed self-assembled proteinosome nanoreactors are also reviewed for MBNP crystallisation and further modification for applications. With the advent of synthetic biology, the research and understanding in this field is growing, with the goal of realising nanoreactor synthesis of MBNPs for biomedical applications within our grasp in the near future.”

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/cp/c5cp00375j

*

Display of epitopes on the surface of tobacco mosaic virus: impact of charge and isoelectric point of the epitope on virus-host interactions

M Bendahmane 1M KooE KarrerR N Beachy

Abstract

The biophysical properties of the tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) coat protein (CP) make it possible to display foreign peptides on the surface of TMV. The immunogenic epitopes G5-24 from the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein, and 5B19 from murine hepatitis virus (MHV) S-glycoprotein were successfully displayed on the surface of TMV, and viruses accumulated to high levels in infected leaves of Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi-nn.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10388554/

*

Rabies virus is in a family called rhabdoviridae

Rhabdoviridae – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhabdoviridae

Rhabdoviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates (including mammals and humans), invertebrates, and plants serve as natural hosts. Diseases associated with member viruses include rabies encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, and flu-like symptoms in humans caused by vesiculoviruses.

*

RHABDOVIRIDAE – Stanford University

https://web.stanford.edu/group/virus/rhabdo/2004bischoffchang/Rhabdo.htm

Rhabdoviridae is a virus family within the Mononegavirales order, which also contains the Bornaviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Rhabdoviridae contains six genera: vesiculovirus, lyssavirus, ephemerovirus, norvirhabdovirus, cytorhabdovirus, and nucleorabdovirus.

*

Abstract

“Classical plant rhabdoviruses infect monocot and dicot plants, have unsegmented negative-sense RNA genomes and have been taxonomically classified in the genera Cytorhabdovirus and Nucleorhabdovirus. These viruses replicate in their hemipteran vectors and are transmitted in a circulative-propagative mode and virus infection persists for the life of the insect. Based on the discovery of numerous novel rhabdoviruses in arthropods during metagenomic studies and extensive phylogenetic analyses of the family Rhabdoviridae, it is hypothesized that plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are derived from insect viruses. Analyses of viral gene function in plants and insects is beginning to reveal conserved and unique biology for these plant viruses in the two diverse hosts. New tools for insect molecular biology and infectious clones for plant rhabdoviruses are increasing our understanding of the lifestyles of these viruses.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30500682/

*

“The Hemiptera /hɛˈmɪptərə/ or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species[3] of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, bed bugs and shield bugs. They range in size from 1 mm (0.04 in) to around 15 cm (6 in), and share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.[4] The name “true bugs” is often limited to the suborder Heteroptera…Most hemipterans feed on plants, using their sucking and piercing mouthparts to extract plant sap.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemiptera

 

Plants — “Monocots, as the name implies, are defined by having seeds that contain a single (mono-) embryonic leaf known as a cotyledon. This is a monophyletic group that constitutes a majority of our agricultural biomass and include many important crop staples including, but not limited to, rice, wheat, corn, sugar cane, bamboo, onion, and garlic… the biggest difference of all between monocots and dicots, is the seed… Often incorrectly thought of as a tree, the banana plant is actually a monocot and is closely related to the grass family… https://biologydictionary.net/monocot/

 

Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) is a coronavirus

2001, Abstract “Inoculation of mice with most neurotropic strains of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus results in an immune response-mediated demyelinating disease that serves as an excellent animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. Recent work has shown that either virus-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells are able to mediate demyelination and also that the antibody response is crucial for clearing infectious virus. Another exciting advance is the development of recombinant coronaviruses, which, for the first time, will allow genetic manipulation of the entire viral genome.” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11495812/

*

*

1999, “Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides…containing the…epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV, [coronavirus])… The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV [coronavirus spike protein] epitope on the surface of the TMV…  Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 x LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d[days] post challenge.  …These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with [corona] viral infection.” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10393897/

January 21, 2021

Planting Viruses Two

*

*

 

Have you wondered HOW or WHY a vegetable tests positive for COVID-19?

[search clip]

·  Can Coronavirus Be Transmitted via Fresh Fruits and Vegetables?

http://www.msn.com/en-us/health/nutrition/can-corona…

“Mar 09, 2020 · In fact, a research study from 2013 on coronavirus in strawberries and lettuce found that the virus only survives on produce between four and 10 days”…

********************************************************

The keyword above is “on” the produce as opposed to “in” the produce, suggesting outside contamination of CoV spreading in 2013.  But a case of Tanzanian paw-paw fruit that tested CoV positive last May took the tack of faulty testing, even though goats tested with the same tool were also positive –animals test positive and develop covid, we’re told, just like people—and was accepted.  But fruit?? A coronavirus gene sequence in fruit?– now, that just can’t be allowed.

It’s a wild story.

[search clip]

Faulty coronavirus tests suspected as fruit tests positive

nypost.com/2020/05/06/faulty-coronavirus-kits…

“May 06, 2020 · Coronavirus test kits have aroused suspicions in Salaam, Tanzania after results taken from goats and fruit came back positive in what the country’s leader has dubbed a “technical error.” https://nypost.com/2020/05/06/faulty-coronavirus-kits-suspected-as-goat-and-fruit-test-positive-in-tanzania/

***************************************************

In Part One previously, I posted a 2005 vaccine research document that showed SARS-CoV antigen (the immune ‘provocation’ element) genetically embedded in tomato, tobacco, and potato plants as a plausible food vaccine that was demonstrated to be successful. The scientists wanted to show  “that the plant system provides many practical, economic, and safety advantages compared with conventional systems… without injection-related hazards”…

That was 2005.  Here’s the link again:  https://www.pnas.org/content/102/25/9062

Despite an outcry against it be aware that food vaccines are coming back. Tobacco after all is a food, a “Feed The World” kind of nutrient-dense, protein-rich food source (see the previous post Planting Viruses) that has a lot of appeal over, say, worms and insects. It just isn’t a snack like a tomato or a pawpaw and that’s what’s coming back –the whack in your snack!

[search clip]

·  GMO tomato as edible COVID vaccine? Mexican scientists work …

allianceforscience.cornell.edu/blog/2020/05/gmo…

“May 06, 2020 · The only similar work that can be found in the bibliography is the development of a tomato with SARS-CoV antigens, which was responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Southeast Asian countries in 2002-2003 and has 70 percent genomic similarity to the pathogen behind the current pandemic”…

*

 

In Part Two, here as you read, we’re going to look back at the small group of researchers who worked with Tobacco Mosaic Virus to discover it’s properties –its structural properties—and how they learned what constitutes “virus,” including the genetic makeup of its proteins, all from architectural models of structure.  Revealed by X-rays, electron microscopes, mathematical algorithms, and cleverly designed cameras –the tech-heavy core of discovery– a simply-derived liquid ‘filtrate’ called “virus” was turned into building blocks of nanotechnology. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) today is both a tool and a medium for redesigning biology.

The group, which I’ll call the ‘Structure Group’, has in its members some of the most renown scientists of modern history; Watson & Crick and their Nobel-winning colleague Maurice Wilkins who won their Prize for modeling the structure of DNA; Rosalind Franklin who supplied them with the graphs to prove it; and John Desmond (J.D.) Bernal, the genius who showed them the way. The art and artifice of the Structure Group in London created a cultish destination point of pilgrimage, a Mecca of methods where eager young protein chemists vied for a place. Many of them are still living and teaching today, responsible for the ‘classic’ images of viruses I’ll be showing you in this post.

…Such as…

A Comparison Example: Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV) is one of a half-dozen plant viruses we’ll look at that were analyzed by students of the London Structure Group. It’s identical to a number of human viruses; poliovirus, rhinovirus, Norwalk virus, and more. Dr. Jim Hogle signed his name (with lab colleagues) to the TCV image ‘map’ below. We’ll meet Jim Hogle briefly in this work as a polio researcher at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla CA, a neighbor facility to the (Jonas) Salk Institute and campus of UCSD in northern San Diego.

Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV), image source https://www.rcsb.org/structure/3zx8

***********************************************************************************************************************

*

and this: Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV), identical and structurally ‘solved’ by the same friendly small group of students under tutelage by the Structure Group                     ****************************************************************************************

*

*And before I change the subject away from food-borne virus, the U.S. government says that Norwalk virus is the most common viral contaminant on fruits and vegetables.

*Norwalk Virus*

Norwalk virus is structurally alike to Turnip Crinkle and Tomato Bushy Stunt viruses, at least by protein analysis methods, which teaches that surface (capsid) proteins of these “macromolecules” can turn, twist inward, and project outward on “protein hinges”, exposing different amino acids (proteins) on their surfaces with or without changing their gene sequences. They can move, in other words, subject to something acting upon them. Mutants, which occur naturally, or deliberately, and easily from very minor or single alterations of chemistry, can signify a gene change as well as a surface protein shape change.

Part Two will also endeavor to define “virus” in a greater context. Tobacco Mosaic Virus was the first ever created with a scientific purpose, credited to Dmitri Ivanofsky, a Russian botanist who was sent to investigate a failing tobacco crop in the Ukraine.  In the late 1880s, Ivanofsky mashed his diseased leaf samples together, added water, and ‘purified’ the liquid through an ultrafine filter. For decades to follow, indiscriminate liquid filtrate from disease specimens has been called “virus”.  If you had a polio vaccine as a child, the viral component was likely to have originated by this method:

Poliovirus: procured as described

“Materials and Methods

“Virus.–The Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus used for this study was obtained from Armstrong (2) September 27, 1950, in the form of an infected mouse brain and cord representing the 379th mouse passage [through the brains of others]. It was passed twice through cotton rats in this laboratory. The second passage material was homogenized to a 20 per cent suspension in distilled water with the aid of a Waring blendor and served as a stock pool”…

Document source: “THE INTRACELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF LANSING POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF INFECTED COTTON RATS* BY CARLTON E. SCHWERDT, I~.D., ANO ARTHUR B. PARDEE, PH.D. (From the Virus Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley) (Received for publication, April 25, 1952)”

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.274.2913&rep=rep1&type=pdf

*

Recent news on Polio, issued August 2013

An article by Scientific American.

“Global eradication of polio has been the ultimate game of Whack-a-Mole for the past decade; when it seems the virus has been beaten into submission in a final refuge, up it pops in a new region. Now, as vanquishing polio worldwide appears again within reach, another insidious threat may be in store from infection sources hidden in plain view. Polio’s latest redoubts are “chronic excreters,” people with compromised immune systems who, having swallowed weakened polioviruses in an oral vaccine as children, generate and shed live viruses from their intestines and upper respiratory tracts for years. Healthy children react to the vaccine by developing antibodies that shut down viral replication, thus gaining immunity to infection. But chronic excreters cannot quite complete that process and instead churn out a steady supply of viruses. The oral vaccine’s weakened viruses can mutate and regain wild polio’s hallmark ability to paralyze the people it infects. After coming into wider awareness in the mid-1990s, the condition shocked researchers.”

https://www.nature.com/news/the-hidden-threat-that-could-prevent-polio-s-global-eradication-1.13557

 

 

*

 

“Watson began working on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which contains a nucleic acid called RNA. He hoped that his studies would help him eventually learn about DNA. Watson began learning how to make X-ray crystallography images in order to try to show that TMV had helically stacked protein”…

http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-doublehelix/chapanal016.html#:~:text=Watson%20began%20working%20on%20tobacco%20mosaic%20virus%20%28TMV%29%2C,to%20show%20that%20TMV%20had%20helically%20stacked%20protein.&gsc.tab=0

“In 1952 he determined the structure of the protein coat surrounding the tobacco mosaic virus but made no dramatic progress with DNA. Suddenly, in the spring of 1953, Watson saw that the essential DNA components—four organic bases—must be linked in definite pairs.” https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Dewey-Watson

***************************************************************************************************************************

Tobacco Mosaic and Polio viruses were the ultimate study objects of the London Structure Group when Rosalind Franklin joined the Birkbeck College Lab (Univ. of London) in 1953 on the invitation of J.D. Bernal.  In those pursuits, thanks to the intrepid networking of Franklin as history records it, an intimate partnership was forged with the University of California Berkeley. Carlton E. Schwerdt, cited above with his polio mouse-brain virus, sent his wife Patsy from San Francisco to Birkbeck carrying a sealed vial of poliovirus crystals in her purse for the exclusive study of the Structure Group. The polio crystals sent by Schwerdt to Birkbeck, however, were the Mahoney strain of poliovirus considered deadly and the cause of the “Cutter Incident” which suspended the original Salk IPV until ‘fixed’.

UCBerkeley, many biology historians will tell you, was the seed-point of modern virology as the academic home of Wendell Stanley who created the Virus Laboratory (Stanley Hall) after his prize-winning accomplishment of crystallizing Tobacco Mosaic Virus (1935), thus opening the way.  Crick & Watson’s ‘DNA’ colleague, physicist Maurice Wilkins, spent his time on the Manhattan Project at the Berkeley Virus Lab with Wendell Stanley– and Stanley became a constant friend and asset to the Group.

For as much as the Manhattan Project was a joint British-American enterprise, the spread and control of tobacco was it’s larger and historical counterpart.  No entity on the planet would possibly benefit more (excepting the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation & co.) if tobacco could ‘Feed the World,’ or feed-and-vaccinate the world, than the British American Tobacco corporation –the BAT in your Covid soup. British American Tobacco is the contractor for DARPA’s tobacco corona vaccine. ( See ‘Tobacco Vaccines, by DARPA )

*

132) Tobacco Vaccines by DARPA
https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2020/09/23/tobacco-vaccines-by-darpa/
*

The Movie, Race For The Double Helix, the 1987 British-made film (originally titled ‘Life Story’), is a mostly fair account of discovering the structure of DNA –with a few omissions. Tobacco Mosaic Virus gets a mention, if you can catch it, when Jim Watson (Jeff Goldblum) says, misleadingly, “maybe I should study Tobacco Mosaic Virus, but it’s not DNA”. Watson did in fact study and attempt TMV crystallography without the needed quality results. What Crick and Watson really needed were Rosalind Franklin’s pictures, photograph #51 to be precise, which she called the ‘B’ form –a diffraction grid pattern showing two helical chains. Franklin’s TMV samples had from one to four internal ‘strand’ helices by her evidence. The photo(s) and notes were stolen from her lab and passed to the men by Max Perutz, Francis Crick’s doctoral supervisor at the Cavendish who was himself supervised for his PhD by J.D. Bernal. By then Bernal had already arranged (since March 1952) for Franklin to leave Cambridge (King’s College, and Cavendish Lab at U. Cambridge) and join him at Birkbeck (U. London, across town) to work on TMV.

Worth the watch:  https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/the_race_for_the_double_helix

Max Perutz ultimately won his own Nobel Prize standing with Crick & Watson in 1962. (left-to-right; F.Crick, M.Wilkins, John Steinbeck, J.Watson, Max Perutz and John Kendrew)

*

*

*Advisors on the movie included Aaron Klug and John T. Finch who were Rosalind Franklin’s own assistants and doctoral students: the two Structure Group members who remained at the hub of Birkbeck, collaborating together for more than forty years and training students of their own (and others) from around the world. Max Perutz and John Kendrew maintained ties with the Birbeck Structure Group (as did Crick and Watson) winning their Nobel together for the structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin.

*

“ ‘Rosy, of course, did not directly give us her data. For that matter, no one at King’s realized they were in our hands,’ Watson admitted.”  https://medium.com/s/the-matilda-effect/rosalind-franklin-dna-matilda-8c54e6222848

*

Nobel winner Wendell Stanley became “the father of virology”

*** Quote attributed to Francis Crick: “Any child could make a virus”

 ***************************************************************************************************

 The Structure Group, Birkbeck College U.London

l

Lab leaders J.D. Bernal (beg,1937) and Aaron Klug (beg.1958)

*

*
Aaron Klug

*

John Desmond ‘J.D.’ Bernal (b1901-d1971) graduated from Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge (London) in 1922 at the age of 21 with a degree in mathematics. From there he was sponsored at the Royal Society’s Faraday Laboratory by William Henry Bragg to learn the art of crystallography (X-ray diffraction physics) and was set to work for the British government studying the structure of graphite. In 1927, he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in crystallography and by 1934 was made assistant director of the Cavendish Lab. Bernal began studying organic molecules at the Cavendish; oestrin and cholesterol (1929); vitamin B1 and liquid water (1933); pepsin(1934), vitamin D2 (1935) and Tobacco Mosaic Virus in 1937. His doctoral students included Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, who became his confidant and lover, Alan Mackay and Max Perutz. His nickname in these years became ‘Sage’. Denied a fellowship at the Cavendish in 1937 by Ernest Rutherford, Bernal was invited to Birkbeck, University of London, where he assumed the laboratory developed by Patrick Blackett and moved into the apartment upstairs. He was honored with membership in the Royal Society. After the war, Bernal’s lab expanded to become the Biomolecular Research Laboratory (BRL), set up in two buildings on the University’s Torrington Square, becoming in the process an arm of the British government’s Medical Research Council (MRC). The spirited atmosphere of Birkbeck under Bernal’s influence led to a continuously dynamic interplay of politics and science carried on nightly among students and visitors. Bernal is remembered for his war work (advising heads-of-state and planning for D-Day), his devotion to Soviet communism (which caused ‘distancing’ from his peers in the mid-fifties) and his legacy of books and articles.

“His first adult visit to the USA (his mother was a bilingual English and French speaking American, but he was educated in Ireland and England) was curtailed by the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Post-1945, many of Sage’s visits to the USSR and Eastern Europe (several of whose scientific academies awarded him Membership) and to China and India included both scientific lectures and peace campaigning. He met Khrushchev, Mao Zedong and Nehru, gave a demonstration to Churchill, and participated in committee meetings in the White House, the Kremlin and 10 Downing Street. His experience of less developed countries began with laborious and uncomfortable war-time travel for Mountbatten but thereafter he made many lengthy tours to countries with emerging economies to advise on the development of each nation’s science…   Perhaps Bernal’s greatest scientific contribution was to nurture a clutch of Nobel prizewinners in the development of molecular biology”….  https://www.iucr.org/news/newsletter/volume-15/number-1/book-review

**

                             ***************************************************************************************

Aaron Klug (b1926-d2018), born in Lithuania and raised in South Africa, Klug arrived at Cambridge in 1951 to work on his PhD (rec’d 1953). He went to Birkbeck to study Tobacco Mosaic Virus with Rosalind Franklin, along with John T. Finch. Klug and Finch were key investigators of the plant viruses when the lab ‘took a step’ to poliovirus obtained from UCBerkeley.  A peak moment for their small group was the creation and display of ‘person-sized’ models of TMV and poliovirus made for the 1958 World’s Fair in Brussels Belgium. Rosalind Franklin died in the midst of these preaparations –Klug tookover her work and the operational leadership of the lab. In 1962 he received a teaching fellowship at Cambridge and relocated his academic base with the headquarters of the Medical Research Council, maintaining his ties with Birkbeck, especially in course of Bernal’s deteriorating illness brought on by a series of strokes. In 1969 Krug was made a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1982 he won a Nobel Prize for advancements in crystallographic electron microscopy. Queen Elizabeth II knighted him in 1988 –this one year after the tele-broadcast of “Race For The Double Helix”– and in 1995 he became President of the Royal Society. In Israel, where he was a frequent visitor, Ben Gurion University named an institution for him in 2013, the Aaron Klug Integrated Center for Biomolecular Structure.

“His certificate of election to [president of] the Royal Society reads:

Mathematical physicist and crystallographer distinguished for his contributions to molecular biology, especially the structure of viruses. Development of a theory of simultaneous temperature and phase changes in steels led him to apply related mathematical methods to the problem of diffusion and chemical reactions of gases in thin layers of haemoglobin solutions and in red blood cells. Then the late Rosalind Franklin introduced him to the x-ray study of tobacco mosaic virus to which he contributed by his application and further development of Cochran and Crick‘s theory of diffraction from helical chain molecules. Klug’s most important work is concerned with the structure of spherical viruses. Together with D. Caspar he developed a general theory of spherical shells built up of a regular array of asymmetric particles. Klug and his collaborators verified the theory by x-ray and electron microscope studies, thereby revealing new and hitherto unsuspected features of virus structure.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Klug

*

 

 

*

Don Casper, who co-developed the “Caspar-Klug” theory of structure was a career collaborator and visitor to the Structure Group.

“Caspar completed his BA in physics from Cornell University in 1950. He joined Yale University from where he earned his PhD in biophysics in 1955.[1] He was supervised by Ernest C. Pollard. His thesis was on the structure of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) titled The Radial Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus. While waiting for his degree he worked under Max Delbrück at the California Institute of Technology as post doctoral student.[5] He worked with James D. Watson, with whom he had close professional association throughout his career. After receiving his PhD, he went to England having been awarded a fellowship at King’s College London under Rosalind Franklin and during 1955–1956 worked with her at Birkbeck College in London. Their meeting was fruitful both personally and professionally. He remained one of Franklin’s closest friends during her brief lifetime. In 1956 he and Franklin published individual but complementary papers in the March 10 issue of Nature, together showing that TMV was a hollow rod, rather than a solid structure as generally believed. They also demonstrated that RNA in TMV was wound along the inner surface of the hollow virus…”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Caspar

*

“Kenneth Holmes was born in London in 1934… He obtained his B.A. at St. Johns College, Cambridge. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1959 at Birkbeck College London working on the structure of tobacco mosaic virus with Rosalind Franklin (officially supervised by JD Bernal). Tragically, Franklin died during this period and the work was completed with Aaron Klug… After a post-doc (1960-61) at Childrens’ Hospital Boston, with Don Caspar where he also started to work on muscle structure with Carolyn Cohen, he returned to the newly opened Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. Here he developed methods and X-ray optics for the analysis of structures by X-ray fibre diffraction. He worked with Aaron Klug on the structure of tobacco mosaic virus… In 1968 he moved to Heidelberg to open the Department of Biophysics at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research where he remained as director until his retirement in 2003. During this time he completed the structure of tobacco mosaic virus…” https://www.mr.mpg.de/emeritusgruppen/biophysik/holmes/curriculum_vitae#:~:text=After%20a%20post-doc%20%281960-61%29%20at%20Childrens%E2%80%99%20Hospital%20Boston%2C,the%20analysis%20of%20structures%20by%20X-ray%20fibre%20diffraction.

*

Rosalind Franklin and her three assistants (Klug, Holmes, and Finch) were funded by the Agricultural Research Council – Holmes was assigned to work on the structure of TMV for his PhD while Klug and Finch investigated additional plant viruses. In all, they produced 17 papers on TMV. In October 1957, with funding from the U.S. (Public Health Service and NIH) they began the study of poliovirus.

*

John T. Finch –“John’s first project on TYMV [turnip yellow mosaic virus] was technically demanding because of the very large unit cell (700 Å), then the largest that had been studied… Comparing the patterns from the full and empty particles, they showed that the protein coat was likely to have icosahedral symmetry, with the nucleic acid having lower symmetry (4), in accord with earlier suggestions about the symmetry of the coats of small spherical viruses (Crick & Watson 1956). At the time it was not feasible to take the analysis to high resolution by X-ray diffraction, so John later turned to electron microscopy to study TYMV.

…At the Birkbeck lab… Finch’s “second PhD project involved crystals of poliovirus, which were given to Rosalind in 1957 by Drs Schaffer and Schwerdt from Berkeley… [P]olio was still a scourge in the 1950s. However, Sir Lawrence Bragg (FRS 1921), director of the Royal Institution, was very interested in the project and he allowed John to continue to use the X-ray set up there, even though the containment facilities were no better than at Birkbeck. Aaron wrote out a protocol for storing and handling the crystals, which were transferred to the School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, across the road from Birkbeck. John mounted them there and then took them to the Royal Institution for X-raying. Only crystals mounted in [glass] capillaries could be brought into the laboratory, with adequate supplies of neutralizing formaldehyde close by in case of accidents. The members of the group were vaccinated against polio with the newly available Salk vaccine. X-ray exposures were long, sometimes overnight, and, as someone had to be in attendance, John remembered the nighttime Royal Institution as an eerie place…  The study showed that poliovirus was rather similar to the small, spherical plant viruses also being worked on then, but the analysis was not taken any further.” https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsbm.2018.0028

*(Mrs. Carlton Schwerdt, Patsy, hand-carried the crystal poliovirus from San Francisco to London in her purse)

*

Poliovirus was not just “rather similar to the small, spherical plant viruses” –it was identical, and the ‘next generation’ of  protein crystallographers trained under this group and their associates would have to learn it for themselves.

*

Learning about the identical structure of the small (but ‘macromolecule’) plant viruses and poliovirus came as a “surprise” to crystallographer Michael G. Rossmann, who was convinced by his ‘team’ crystallography expert, Roland Rueckert, not to compete with his friend and colleague Jim Hogle studying poliovirus 1 (the Mahoney strain).  The Mahoney strain makes the best crystals, but it is also considered highly virulent, paralyzing 80% of those infected with it. No infections at the laboratories handling the Mahoney strain (in this work) have ever been recorded. The Mahoney type 1 poliovirus was collected in 1941 from the pooled feces of three children of the Mahoney family who were ‘asymptomatic’ during an outbreak in the Cleveland Ohio area.

*

Poliovirus type1 Mahoney strain

Source: http://www.virology.wisc.edu/virusworld/viruslist.php?virus=p1m

*

GRASP (project) computer-generated video of rotating poliovirus1 http://www.virology.wisc.edu/virusworld/viruslist.php?virus=p1m#youtube

More elaborate video of poliovirus1(Mahoney) modeling structure, movement, and antiviral drug ‘entry’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBDKmDS734E&feature=emb_logo

                                                                           *****************************************************************

*During most of the 1970s, Michael Rossmann studied Southern Bean Mosaic Virus, although he was eager to work on a human pathogen. He was persuaded to study human rhinoviruses and picked rhinovirus #14.

*

*Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV), with two views*

*

*

Michael Rossmann –‘MR’– gave an Oral History to Sondra Schlesinger –‘SS’– of Washington University St. Louis in February of 1999. Here’s an edited excerpt:

SS. Let’s spend a little more time on southern bean mosaic virus, because that was really the first time you really had a structure to look at.

MR It was the second virus structure.

SS What you said was that it told you more about evolution than about function.

MR It told us about evolution but then when I started to learn the graphics – I spent a half a year studying the graphics – I worked out all the structural relationships …and of course this was published in a paper..[where] I go into great detail about the way the T=3 symmetry works. And the T=3 symmetry doesn’t actually work quite like Caspar and Klug predicted, but it roughly works. There are deviations and what is accurate and what is inaccurate, what is quasi and what is not quasi. I worked all this out for southern bean mosaic virus…

About that time…in 1980 I went to the Strasbourg International Conference of Virology. I had the opportunity to talk with Roland Rueckert . We were not that far away [from] each other in America but we had to go all the way to France to talk and we decided to combine our projects on rhinovirus. Actually, even before, Aaron Klug had shown that poliovirus crystallizes and so I had Sherin Abdel-Meguid, a post doc with me go to Ellie Ehrenfeld’s lab in Salt Lake City to start working on poliovirus. Of course Jim Hogle was working on poliovirus too and so Roland said you really shouldn’t compete like that. Roland was quite right because we had no idea or very little idea that rhino and polio viruses would be so similar.

SS Maybe this is really hindsight but since you had just found that southern bean mosaic virus and tomato bushy stunt virus were similar, it couldn’t have been quite as surprising to expect polio and rhino to be similar.

MR No, No, in fact, when we did solve rhino virus – it is very, very similar to southern bean mosaic virus – the only difference is that southern bean and tomato bushy stunt have 3 identical subunits A, B and C. In the picornaviruses [rhino and polio,ie ] A is VP1, B is VP3 and C is VP2.

SS I would have thought you would have expected rhino and polio to be similar.

MR No. we really didn’t. But something did happen. Our first crystals, not very good, of rhino virus were actually pseudo-isomorphous to Aaron Klug’s crystals of polio. Then we realized, although we could never do much with those crystals, they weren’t very good. Then we realized there would be a relationship, but not before that. Maybe we were just stupid. Maybe you would have realized [it] as a virologist.

SS No, I think it’s hindsight in a sense…

SS In fact, let’s go back to Francis Crick, we all use the example that he and Watson made about viruses being composed of identical subunits. Did that influence your thinking at all?

MR Yes! Definitely. That was the reason why I wanted to study viruses. They are ideal for molecular replacement.

SS Because they are identical?

MR We didn’t know how identical. Lots of people argued with us.

SS So now we’re just about ready to start with rhinovirus. You had chosen them partly because of your discussions with Roland?

MR Yes and he was extremely helpful…

SS How did you choose which rhinovirus to work on?

MR Roland made that decision. He rightly wanted a rhino virus that was easy to propagate that could be propagated in quantity. He looked into what was a good serotype for that and it was rhino 14…

[end excerpt, page 9 on WORD pagination] http://virologyhistory.wustl.edu/rossmann.htm

*

                           *computer model rhinovirus showing receptors* https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/249476/view

                           *model rhinovirus with antibodies attached * https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/249477/view

*

[excerpt2]

MR…Now what we did for rhino virus was to extend from 6 angstroms, where the map was just nothing really to 3.5 angstrom resolution and the map changed from nothing to something which we could interpret very quickly and we must have got to this on some early date in April [1985]. … we printed out the map and we stacked the map – that took all day… I started looking at it in the evening and, before it was too long into the night, I had been able to trace the VP1 chain and there was some helpful data from Roland and Barbara Sherry about mutations which were involved in binding antibodies and these should be on the surface …and I think it was by the end of that 2nd day [which]..was a Tuesday that we had placed all the amino acids of VP1, 2 and 3. VP1 I had done in the evening [before] and then we did VP2 and VP3 the next day. It was a very, very good map… You might have had 30 steps, I’m not quite sure of the exact number, in going from 6 angstroms to 3.5 and at each step you do many cycles and each cycle takes a long time. It was a big computer operation in which we had made a mistake halfway through and had to backtrack. We wasted about 2 weeks in that but I knew when I saw that 3.5 angstrom map that it was an incredibly good map.

SS At that time what was the resolution for southern bean mosaic virus?

MR About 3 angstoms. The other thing which we realized in those two days was that the structure [of rhinovirus 14] was like southern bean mosaic virus, that VP1 corresponded to the A subunit, VP2 to the C subunit and so on- and that was an immediate realization. Actually, Jim Hogle was working on polio at that time at Scripps in La Jolla and I visited him on a number of occasions. He called me just before lunch so I couldn’t go out with the rest of the lab and by the time the lab got back I was still on the phone. One thing I remember very clearly, I was describing to Jim the structure and I was assuming that Jim had realized this would be like tomato bushy stunt and turnip crinkle which he had worked on in Steve Harrison’ lab and suddenly I realized that Jim didn’t understand what I was saying. I said, ‘Jim, this is like tomato bushy stunt and southern bean mosaic virus.’

[end excerpt, p14]

  •                                                                             James M. Hogle

*

**

*

The upshot of Michael Rossmann’s long phone call to Jim Hogle was a decision to help him ‘understand’ and use the rhinovirus model to resolve the structure of poliovirus. A key to this effort was in identifying the ‘canyons’ on the capside surface –the deep depressions which Rossmann figured to be receptor binding sites, where a cell surface and a virus interact. Rossmann’s team also discovered capsid surface mutations where antibodies would not bind to the virus –called escape mutations:

[excerpt3]

MR …we saw that the escape mutations were on the surface. We didn’t have [as] many sequences of rhinoviruses as there were for poliovirus which had just been published. [But we still] saw that these were hypervariable regions and that they were on the surface and were not in the canyon. We didn’t know anything about conservation of residues [the amino acid regularity of sequences that stay the same in replication, from one virus to the next] in the canyon but it immediately suggested why the canyon was there – namely for receptor binding.

SS So you’re saying that the idea of receptor binding came immediately?

MR Yes, within days of the structure… [So] When I wrote the initial draft paper [on rhinovirus], I was looking up all the foot-and-mouth disease virus stuff, all the poliovirus stuff. Unfortunately its my habit that I don’t usually read until afterwards and so I was reading…and it was really a very good education for me at this point.

SS Had the receptor for rhino been identified by then?

MR No, not until 1989…

[cont.]…the polio work now had a lot of help from us because Jim (Hogle) knew what to look for. It was like turnip crinkle virus which Jim had worked on with Steve. He also learned how we had solved it…

SS In the poliovirus work, did they have all these escape mutants?…

MR Oh yes, absolutely, in fact there was a meeting in Philadelphia…in March of 1985 where Philip Minor was and he had escape mutations but he couldn’t organize them [to predict their locations] and [Barbara Sherry] showed him how to do it…

[Inserted by author] When Philip Minor read Michael Rossmann’s oral history he wrote that his ‘data of which there was a substantial pile had well organized long before he met Barbara Sherry at the 1985 Philadelphia meeting… He continued to explain, ‘Polio suffered from its peculiar antigenic properties. Most of the monoclonal antibodies against type 2 and type 3 are against a site which is not normally seen at all in type 1 [the Mahoney strain]. This is hard to believe for such similar viruses and the field fell into a morass of peptides…and immunogenic sites…[which] was seriousy misleading…[and] clearly thought by Michael to have seriously misinterpreted their data…  Philip Minor wrote that he thought that ‘the strange imbalance in immunogenicity in the [polio] virus (which is not seen to the same extent in rhinovirus) has major effects on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of polio and the type specific distribution of disease, and is therefore of absolutely no interest to x-ray crystallographers.’ …..

SS So what were some of the surprises from the rhinovirus work?

MR The biggest surprise which we didn’t expect was that it was like the plant viruses, that animal viruses were like plant viruses. That was a big surprise

[end excerpts at http://virologyhistory.wust.edu/rossmann.htm]

*

Philip D. Minor is head of the UK government National Institute for Biological Standards and Control and advisory member of the WHO

*

In this slideshow presentation, the author introduces plant viruses and states that Four Families out of eleven plant virus families infect plants and animals.

Slideshow https://slideplayer.com/slide/5327863/

*

to be continued…..

Coming soon, Planting Viruses Three

 

 

 

January 15, 2021

Planting Viruses –From Plants!

*

Tobacco plants at harvest time*

*

*How much fakery can you take? What if I told you that since the 1950s, if not before, all the “viruses” promoted as dangerous, deadly, and necessary to vaccinate against actually came from common plants?  –and that all the “pictures” from electron micrographs of these so-called viruses are entities derived from either (1) plant extracts or (2) the harmless natural cell components of living systems? I’m going to post a series of articles as ‘proofs’ that the familiar virus images of the past and present are indeed particles derived from plants –and suggest in particular that one plant, tobacco, is the mother of them all.

*

‘Fake it ‘til you make it’ seems to be a creed of modern times, in science as much as politics and other endeavors.  Keeping Up With The Hoaxes and other staged events has potential for full-time occupation –not how you want to spend your time in this life, I suppose – nor I, so I’ll do my best to make it quick. But I’ve also promised not to skip the “bats, rats, and vats” in these contrivances, especially now as it applies to COVID. The long version will be here, just not today.  Scroll past my “clathrin”  picture example and read about the SARS-CoV positive tomato and tobacco plants fed to mice in 2005 –created by a group of researchers that included a famous medical scientist named Hilary Koprowski, who created polio vaccines in the ‘50s and was implicated in the creation of HIV/AIDS. Poliovirus, if you scroll down to ‘COVID: Going Down With Polio’ is identical to Tobacco Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV) and many other plant viruses. The researcher, Barbara Pearse, who discovered clathrin –my fake virus example– shown below, was married to John Finch and learned her craft under his tutelage. John Finch was a member of Rosalind Franklin’s Virus Structure group, studying Tobacco Mosaic Virus and poliovirus at Birkbeck College London

*

Today, briefly, is one example with some pictures of how to deceive people with “Virus”photo fakery:

*Cells need to eat. They take in nutrients and other materials by “endocytosis”, which is a way of packaging and transporting matter from the outside of a cell membrane to the inside of the cell.  One of these methods that makes a virus-like particle at the cell membrane is called “clathrin-mediated” endocytosis.  It looks like this:

*  Left side image is the formation of a “pit” along the vertically oriented cell membrane which has outer cell receptors clustered along the depression (long fuzzy gray mass in picture 1). The membrane “pits” ( in picture 2) and encloses itself ( in picture3) with the help of “adapter” proteins (Aps) and clathrin particles on the opposing inner side of the membrane. Picture 4 is a newly created ‘vesicle’inside the cell, made by and from the cell, that has swallowed the extracellular particle-containing fluid. Not many electron micrographs are as good as these images, which are excellent.

*

*Here’s “clathrin-mediated” endocytosis illustrated –CCV stands for Clathrin-Coated Vesicle:

*

*

*And here are more clathrin-coated vesicles. There are ‘no viruses’ in these pictures below, but a “virus” in extracellular fluid can be ingested (called invagination) by the same method, which is key to inducing artificial nanobio ‘virus’, carrying drugs and genetic cargo, into the cells.

*

Picture ‘B’ above is a “clathrin cage” showing the structural propensity of clathrin assembly. Clathrin architecture is shown below with its ‘triskelion’ subunit.

 

 

                                 *********************************************************************************************************************************************

*

*

*

2005 SARS-CoV research from Hilary Koprowski (and colleagues)

“Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: Development of recombinant vaccine…”

“In view of a recent spread of ..SARS, there is a high demand for production of vaccine to prevent this disease. Recent studies indicate that SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spike protein (S protein) and its truncated fragments are considered the best candidates for generation of the recombinant vaccine. Toward the development of a safe, effective, and inexpensive vaccine candidate, we have expressed the N-terminal fragment of SARS-CoV S protein (S1) in tomato and low-nicotine tobacco plants. Incorporation of the S1 fragment into plant genomes…was confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analyses. High levels of expression of recombinant S1 protein were observed in several transgenic [plant] lines by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies. Plant-derived antigen was evaluated to induce the systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice. Mice showed significantly increased levels of SARS-CoV specific IgA after oral ingestion of tomato fruits expressing S1 protein. Sera of mice parenterally primed with tobacco derived S1 protein revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-specific IgG as detected by Western blot and ELISA analysis.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7787023_Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_SARS_S_protein_production_in_plants_Development_of_recombinant_vaccine/citation/download

“parenterally”=

“Of drugs or nutrients, taken or given by any route other than by the alimentary canal. Parenteral routes include the intramuscular and the intravenous.”

**************************************************************************

Virology: Fake Science

by Jim West (please share and cite)

Virology is at the root of much unsupported Medical propaganda with regard to disease causation and vaccination. Due to Medicine’s acknowledged bad reputation, it is unwise to accept medical announcements (press releases) without first running them through a critical gauntlet.

Therefore, proof of virus existence and character should always be required from the claimers of viruses — before going into the related topics, i.e., before going out on the thin limbs, leaves and flowers of a tenuous rootless tree.

This will get you nowhere with a doctor or judge, as they represent authority over science, even if irrational. Nevertheless, virus criticism is essential for an honest conversation, to keep the mind sharp.

Virology: Two Achilles Heels

1) Isolation of viruses is not actually achieved, as it is claimed. Critical examples are poliovirus and HIV.

2) Toxicology is missing. That is, the toxic effects of antibiotics used in virological studies are not discounted. The clinical diagnoses and the epidemiology avoid environmental toxicology.

Going into detail

1) Virus Isolation “Isolation” of viruses has always been broadcasted as a great achievement, because it intuitively conveys a sense of total dominance and understanding of the so-called virus.

Example, poliovirus:

That famous “isolation of poliovirus” in 1909, by Landsteiner and Popper, consisted of the injection of emulsified extract of spinal cord taken from one paralyzed human child into two monkeys. The monkeys became ill, and one died. This illness was interpreted as “polio”, “infection” and by subsequent journalists and scientists, “virus isolation”  …. The term “isolation” is derived from the true success of inorganic chemistry (non-biological chemistry).

Example: H2O can be split into two isolates, i.e., two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, through electrolysis. Endless types of experiments can then be run on each of these isolates to determine their properties, density, weight, etc. Examples: A) Fill a balloon with hydrogen and watch it rise into the sky. It must a low density element. B) These isolates can be reacted with each other again to produce H2O again.  D) The proportions  of H2O can be ascertained. E) They can be reacted individually with metals to form metal oxides and hydrides, e.g., rust was determined to be iron oxide… Clever virologists faked this method and its terminology. They did this by (in practice) redefining the word “isolate” to mean  “mixture”, the opposite of its actual meaning. In practice, “virus isolates” are complex mixtures of biological matter…

[Stefan]Lanka notes the lack of evidence for measles virus. He specifically critiques the work of virologist John F. Enders, PhD. [Article 2015] [Article 2001] [Interview 2018] [Virology details 2/2017, German Language]
Lanka: “The first paper was published in 1954 by Enders et al… Enders… cut down dramatically on the nutrient solution and added cell-destroying antibiotics to the cell culture before introducing the allegedly infected fluid. The subsequent dying of the cells was then misinterpreted as presence and also isolation of the measles virus. No control experiments were performed to exclude the possibility that it was the deprivation of nutrients as well as the antibiotics which led to the cytopathic effects.”

And a few notes from me on the fakery of virus isolation by Enders…  John Enders is also falsely credited for isolating the poliovirus, according to a critical review by journalist Neenyah Ostrom, on the authority of biochemist Howard Urnovitz, PhD. [Ref] “[P]oliovirus was not actually isolated by these investigators, either. They successfully grew “filterable agents,” which they assumed to be poliovirus, in human embryonic tissues.”

Enders’ fame as “The Father of Modern Vaccines” is perhaps due to his tremendous inheritance and elite membership in Yale’s wealthiest secret society. No joke. [Ref]

(read more) https://harvoa-med.blogspot.com/2020/08/viriso.htm

********************************************************************

….thank you Jim!

*

*Genesis 3:22 –“Then the Lord God said, ‘Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life and eat, and live forever’ ”

*(verse 23)”therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken.”

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

*Back to the garden:

A Few Words on Tobacco

“ The Old World encountered tobacco at the dawn of the European Age of Exploration. On the morning of October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus set foot on a small island in the Bahamas. Believing himself to be off the coast of Asia, the Admiral dressed in his best to meet the local inhabitants. The Arawaks offered him some dried leaves as a token of friendship. Those leaves were tobacco. A few days later, a party from Columbus’ ship docked off the coast of Cuba and witnessed local peoples there smoking tobacco…

*

By the end of the 16th century Spain controlled the ‘global’ tobacco trade which was worth its weight in silver well through the next century as the English developed a rival market.

“Probably the most famous Englishman associated with the introduction of tobacco is Sir Walter Raleigh. Settlers rescued from his Roanoke Island expedition in 1586 had picked up the habit of tobacco smoking (or “drinking” as it came to be called). Hariot remarks in his account of 1588 that: ‘We ourselves during the time we were there used to suck it after their [the Native Americans’] manner, as also since our return, and have found many rare and wonderful experiments of the virtues thereof…

“In the spring of 1610, the young John Rolfe arrived at Jamestown, a member of the party which had been delayed by shipwreck on the Bermuda Islands. This new settler observed the Powhatan Indians growing N. rustica. An English pamphlet of the time reported that: ‘The people in the South parts of Virginia esteeme it [tobacco] exceedingly . . . ; they say that God in the creation did first make a woman, then a man, thirdly great maize, or Indian wheat, and fourthly, Tobacco.’  Rolfe, however, was not impressed with the quality of N. rustica…[as] inferior in quality to the fine Spanish weed N. tabacum…  How Rolfe came by fine Trinadad tobacco seed is not known, but he was growing it experimentally by 1612 in Virginia. Rolfe’s agricultural attempt was an unqualified success. By 1614, Ralph Hamor, a secretary of the Colony, reported: ‘. . . Tobacco, whose goodnesse mine own experience and triall induces me to be such, that no country under the Sunne, may, or doth affoord more pleasant, sweet and strong Tobacco, then I have tasted. . . . I doubt not, [we] will make and returne such Tobacco this yeere, that even England shall acknowledge the goodnesse thereof.

…”2,300 pounds of tobacco were exported to the Mother Country in 1615-16. True, this was a paltry amount compared with the over 50,000 pounds imported from Spain in the same period, but it was a start. In 1616, Rolfe visited England with his new wife Pocohontas and presented James I with a pamphlet in which the Virginian modestly revealed tobacco as “the principall commoditie the colony for the present yieldeth”… Little did Rolfe guess how important his tobacco crop would become to the economic survival of Virginia…” https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/tobacco-the-early-history-of-a-new-world-crop.htm

*

As tobacco crops spread among the English colonies of America so did written observations and advice on managing this “demanding” commodity:    …“[In] the world of the eighteenth-century Virginians, [t]obacco touched nearly every aspect of their existence…Indeed, the majority of the planters’ waking hours were spent, as they would have said, in ‘making a crop’. Almost every surviving letterbook from this period contains a detailed description of tobacco production, and even Thomas Jefferson, who never distinguished himself as a successful plantation manager, instructed a European correspondent in the mysteries of cultivating the Virginia staple.” [p41, Tobacco Culture, by T.H.Breen, 1985 Princeton Univ. Press] George Washington failed at tobacco and grew wheat instead. “Tobacco was not like wheat… [It] could never be taken for granted. It dictated a series of tasks…[ throughout the year, wherein] [e]ach step in the annual process required skill, judgement, and luck… [A] French traveler reported that ‘the culture of tobacco is difficult, troublesome, and uncertain’ “[p45, ibid.]

Curiously, the principal judgement of when to harvest ‘ready’ tobacco, depending on the appearance of the plants, fits the categorical descriptions of disease: “…to cut unripe tobacco was folly. Immature leaves heavy with moisture seldom cured properly…[It] had [to have] the ‘right’ appearance. According to Tatham, ‘the tobacco when ripe changes its colour, and looks greyish; the leaf feels thick and if pressed between finger and thumb will easily crack’…Richard Henry Lee, a gentleman who possessed the necessary experience, advised growers to look for ‘spots appearing on the leaf’ ”[p49, Tobacco Culture] Other descriptors include yellowing, wilting and curling.

A more contemporary account from Kona Hawaii states: “The object of curing was to produce a yellowing of the leaf by prolonging the death of the green cells in the leaf. The yellowing was essential. Too short a cure produced a green leaf.” https://konahistorical.org/mailes-meanderings/up-in-smoke-the-rise-and-fall-of-konas-tobacco-industry/   And though we might guess the golden harvest was disease-free, being strict on terms, pictures tell a different story –a natural story—that the “viruses” ubiquitous in tobacco (and other plants) that confer shape, decoration, and color to leaves were desirable in outcomes of commerce.

 

  • TMV-infected tobacco

 

*

Tobacco goodnesse thereof:

“Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is the third of eight B vitamins. Niacin is a term that relates to several chemical forms of vitamin B3. These forms include nicotinamide and nicotinic acid. These names are all based on the research done on tobacco in the 1930s in which vitamin B3 was first isolated in a laboratory while working on the nicotine collected from tobacco leaves. Niacin, like the other B-complex vitamins, plays an important role in energy production in the body. Two forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), are needed by the body to convert protein, fat, and carbohydrates into useable energy. The processing of fats in the body, like those involved in the building of cell membranes and even fat-based hormones (otherwise known as steroid hormones), all require the presence of vitamin B3 to initiate synthesis. Niacin has also been used to lower total blood cholesterol with great success, even though the body actually requires vitamin B3 to produce cholesterol in the liver.Vitamin B3 is also involved in the manufacture of DNA. A link between DNA damage and a deficiency of niacin can be found. It is being researched particularly in terms of the formation of cancer and its possible prevention.  Blood sugar regulation is another benefit of vitamin B3, as it has been shown to be involved in the metabolism of insulin. Although researchers are yet to completely agree on the process by which vitamin b3 does this, they do support the idea that glucose tolerance factor (GTF), of which vitamin B3 is a part of, must be present in the body to help maintain optimal insulin activity.” https://breakingmuscle.com/healthy-eating/the-abcs-of-vitamins-vitamin-b3-niacin

*

Tobacco can Feed the World:

Tobacco “may in time become one of the world’s principal sources of protein for human consumption and livestock feed.” So stated no less an authority than the World Health Organization’s Farm and Agriculture Organization in 1981. . Nevertheless, tobacco as a protein source has received so little publicity over the years that most of us are still largely unaware of it’s potential to feed a hungry world. Protein From Tobacco : Among the protein extracts that were prepared from a variety of green plants and forage crops, those originating from the leaves of the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, according to Wildman, a leading protein chemist, had “properties which make them uniquely desirable as sources of edible leaf protein”. https://www.acsh.org/news/1992/01/01/food-from-tobacco-a-well-kept-secret

*

Feeding the world with tobacco, apparently even when this article was published in 1992, was a nonstarter. The public mind is set against it, they say. We live in a world were a tobacco plant is dangerous and a nuclear plant is safe, and these concepts start really getting mixed up as the history carries forward into the twentieth century –the interlacing history of tobacco, virology, and high-energy nuclear tools –coming back as “Part Two.”

*

One more ‘goodnesse’ you may have heard:

Abstract

“Reports from various countries suggest that tobacco smoking might protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection, since the prevalence of smoking in COVID-19 hospitalized patients is lower than in the respective general population. Apart from nicotine or other chemicals contained in tobacco smoke, we propose that a single-stranded RNA virus that infects tobacco leaves, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), might be implicated in this effect. TMV, though non-pathogenic, is found in smokers’ airways, and stimulates adaptive and innate immunity, with release of specific antibodies and interferons. The latter may have preventive and/or therapeutic effects against COVID-19. If confirmed by epidemiological and interventional studies, this might lead to the use of TMV as an immunological adjuvant against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32763662/

*

*continue to Part Two, https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2021/01/21/planting-viruses-two/

*

Next Page »

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.