Jennifer Lake's Blog

May 30, 2011

Fukushima: Faked Quake

looding_from_Tsunami_near_Sendai,_Japan_satellite_NASAImage credit NASA.
 Sendai area, much of which is below sea level
“..the real seismic data..proves beyond a doubt the quake is not what we were told and was, in fact, an inland 6.8… The Japanese government is going along with the story of a scientifically proven false 9.0…
“Fukushima was impossible…”
As Jim Stone points out, the tsunami in  and near Sendai slammed into perfectly good buildings that show no earthquake damage. Watch these youtubes again, and notice (1) a person walking on top of a building at risk for being swept away.  How could one of the largest earthquakes in world history leave this area undamaged unless it didn’t really happen?!
In this TV special, “Mega Quake;  Hour That Shook Japan”, 2 minutes and 40 seconds into part 2, an American named Brian Barnes is filming from a car trying to find the road out that leads to high ground. The narrator says they have only seconds left to flee before the tsunami strikes– the view out the windshield shows clean streets and perfect buildings– no broken glass, fallen signs or roof tiles, none at all.  Passersby look nervous and uncomprehending, as Jim Stone suggests, taken by surprise. Notice the very large puddles –the Fukushima site had large puddles too. The region had been saturated with rain. ; minute 14:30 says the Fukushima seawall was 5.7 meters high and “at its highest point, the tsunami reached 38 meters above sea level”, suggesting a wave of ocean water over 32 meters above the seawall crashed into the nukes –at minute 12:07 the image shows cars in the parking lot behind the tower are still neatly parked.
Japan’s Nine-Eleven
I don’t intend here to provide an analysis of events because everything that’s wrong with the quake/tsunami story seems to be built in to the ‘Megaquake’ program, much besides the absence of earthquake damage. The timing offered for the tsunami coming ashore at various locations makes no sense whatsoever, for a quake erupting at 2:45 (14:45) An epicenter 80 miles offshore,
generating a wave at 400 to 500 mph would hit the nearest places in 10-15 minutes. The narration notes a Japanese Coast Guard ship “3 miles” out bobbing over the tsunami and then announces “they have less than 30 minutes before the big waves start to hit” [Coast Guard clip; riding over two swells]  –cut to Brian Barnes in Otsuchi, 80 miles north of Sendai, who is fleeing the town at 3:11, “moments before”. A city neighboring Sendai on the coast, Arahama, doesn’t get the wave until 3:55. If we’re to believe this program, then the damaging tsunami appears like many smaller local tsunamis, and we’re only shown “damage” occurring within land-sheltered harbors. Is this a case for Tsunami Bombs as Jim Stone declares? Thing is, Stone never suggests a series of smaller tsunamis and there’s no footage of anything resembling a “peak height of 124 feet” (maybe here )
Brian Barnes,  the dolphin activist who provided footage of Otsuchi while fleeing by car, it turns out, is an extreme weather storm-chaser. The BBC used Barnes’ and his outfit for a documentary about tornadoes in 2009 saying “Brian has been at the game for years.” I can guess  he’s an expert on radar signatures. ; He was in Japan representing, a project of Earth Island Institute. “Earth Island Institute is an umbrella organization with[sic] has more than 60 projects for the conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth.”  Brian is missing the best tornado season ever  — his company website,, is “No longer in business.”
Barnes, and the 5 activists who were with him, were on a mission to film Otsuchi fishing practices –activists from the Sea Shepherd crew had been in the area since late February, about 2 weeks of coming and going –but they couldn’t find their way to the highroad.?? Interesting– He tells his interviewer, “I just felt that it was time to start documenting..” The sensitivity of locals to the Sea Shepherd mission to document dolphin killing concerns a statistic that the catch in  “Iwate Prefecture came to 866 tons in 2009, accounting for more than half of the nation’s total [dolphin] catch of 1,404 tons.”

Barnes never actually mentions his own experience feeling a quake. His first edited words mentioning earthquakes are,”When I went to Japan, I didn’t even think about possible earthquake, I didn’t know a tsunami would happen…”
Water receeding from the porpoise butcher houseOtsuchi tsunami wall in the background
Another account of Otsuchi’s tsunami from a dolphin activist relates “The police, who had taken up a post at the only place we could pass, were frantically motioning for everyone to get through the gates in the tsunami wall. We got through. These walls and gates are massive… They extend high up into the air and rim the entire harbor area of the town… As we were driving along the interior of the wall, the huge gates were being closed… It was not long before the water drained from the harbor and then refilled. We learned from the firemen to expect to see several cycles of this draining and refilling… and all the while afterhocks were happening… [After the high water dragged seaward with debris carrying a woman, the activists attempted a rescue]..We continued to venture out on a seawall that was constantly being exposed and then overtopped by water. It was a gamble..”
“City firemen manually closed the 12 water gates in the port’s tsunami wall…”
“It is known that four members of the fire brigade died during the disaster…and it appears that another seven may also be dead because seven more..have not been found… It was the duty of the No.2 branch fire close the storm barrier gates when an earthquake struck the region… The earthquake had shut down the power supply therefore the warning system was not functional… the former head of the same branch of the local fire brigade stated that he could hear the bell that Fujio Koshida was ringing in order to warn people.”
..”apparently the time between the quake and the full-force arrival of the tsunami was longer than reported earlier. There was even time for one of our elderly neighbors to make it to safety walking with her cane… Having been in Otsuchi several times when quakes triggered false tsunami alerts, I fully understand the lack of urgency among those who failed to escape… One of the most haunting accounts came from those who took refuge on top of hall. They watched Fujio Koshita..ring the bell on top of the nearby firehouse until he and the building were swept away. As the warning siren failed to work properly Koshita took it on warn the town.”;
“The waves hit the eastern coast of Japan about 1.5 hours after the quake… ‘I was actually shocked’ to see all the damage the waves had caused, Barberopoulon told OurAmazingPlanet, because the damage didn’t match up with initial estimates of the earthquake’s magnitude..”
A structural engineer, who was driven into Otsuchi in mid-April to survey damage, had this to say about his observations: “During this time, at least in my opinion, one can’t help but develop a further appreciation of an underlying elegant expression of Japanese lifestyle. What you notice is the concept that anything undertaken should always be done with the best effort and utmost precision of execution. When everyone does this, a harmonious mechanism results where everything appears to be just where it ought to be… there appears to be a remarkable lack of graffiti, litter or spiteful vandalism. Our arrival in the tsunami-stricken area of Otsuchi Bay was therefore quite shocking, because in the span of a few seconds, or less than a few hundred meters, the serenity of the scene is utterly transformed into chaos; there is extremely little middle ground between the unaffected and severely damaged zones…  with essentially no exceptions, seawalls were overtopped… Undermining failures have also occurred… In other cases, some concrete gravity seawalls were overturned by the return flow after inundation, rather than by the incoming tsunami… heavy steel gates..seem to have resisted well the incoming flow but not necessarily the outward return flow.”
“[Scott West] was in..Otsuchi this week when the city was essentially destroyed..Suzanne West said. ‘He said that the gates for blocking tsunami waves were ripped from hinges..’ ”
“Patrick Fuller of the International Red Cross Federation [said] ‘I don’t think you will find anywhere worse on the coastline.’ ”
Otsuchi’s broken and missing tsunami wall:
Otsuchi fishing is destroyed: “Two months after..far from recovery and, with many working-age people moving away, they face the prospect that they could simply wither away and, ultimately, perhaps even disappear.”
Sumatra, December 26, 2004, 9.1 earthquake and tsunami, depth of 18.6 miles
Tsunami wave time map:
Banda Aceh witnesses, 155 miles from the epicenter, saw waves they believed were 10 meters high:
“People [were] standing around or examining the remains of wrecked houses and cracked concrete.. Then suddenly..between 15 and 20 minutes after the quake..a swift powerful wall of water engulfing a busy street, rising to at least the second floor of buildings..”
Comparing the Sumatra tsunami makes the timing in Japan’s ‘Megaquake’ impossible. We’re obviously being treated to a large dose of video fakery.
   For example, one of Brian Barnes’ live-action clips that shows a tree engulfed by rising water also has a pile of flood debris already on its top. Did they run this clip backwards?  While driving the streets of Otsuchi with a soundtrack blaring sirens, a person in the car asks, “Are we hearing sirens?” –someone answers “yes”. They chatter about escaping the tsunami, worried that “bridges might be out” while viewers witness the perfect scene in front of them… All too revealing in the style of 9-11 perception management.
So, is it possible to localize a tsunami?
If a swimming pool model works, the answer is yes. Did Japan’s seawalls contribute to a swimming pool effect, and were the effects ‘boosted’ from inside those barriers?
  2002 image
The image of the wave crashing into Fukushima, above, was supposedly a “new” release a month after the tsunami –not a lie exactly– since the same angle shot appears in ‘Megaquake’ but shows a definitely much thinner spray and calmer sea — that ‘thin’ image seems to appear only in the broadcast version of ‘Megaquake’, and not in the internet edits that I can link or paste. Either way, a careful look at the site damage confines its perspective to a small area of the first tier platform where 3 white tanks group together, and a patch on the second tier that fits with damage from hard falling water. It clearly doesn’t correspond to the notion that the essential generator buildings were under 15 feet of water. Not that it matters, apparently. Reactor safety features were not dependent on the generators according to Jim Stone who concludes that sabotage is the only way that the Fukushima reactors could have exploded.
   According to this post and the official TEPCO diagram, the flood on the reactor level was 14 to 15 meters deep:
Compare the wave spray heights with this:; or these still photos  and it looks like the Daiichi wave video was taken during a storm at some other time. “In 2004, eight cyclones passed over or skirted Japan’s Tohoku region, where the Fukushima Dai-ichi power station is…The earliest was May that year…”  For my money, the small leafy trees in the foreground of the power plant tsunami video look more like May than March.
News update: Aug.08,2011 –“Towering waves from a tropical storm threatened to hit a chemical plant in a Chinese port city… Waves as high as 65 feet (20 meters) broke a dike..and threatened to hit the..Fujiahua chemical plant..”
–lest we compare the waves with the Fukushima plant, this item is circulating without wave photos.
MORE RECENTLY (below), however,  a September 2011 Typhoon-generated wave offers comparison
View Image  Go to fullsize image
 Go to fullsize image a larger image shows rectangular chunks of seawall in the wash; a tsunami height of 46 feet minus a seawall height of 18 feet leaves 28 feet of water crashing above and ‘carrying’ the wall, except that all the images I can find of the Daiichi plant aftermath show that the platforms and seawalls are intact. Can someone explain this image?
   The New York Times is sticking by this story: “..the tsunami was as high as 46 feet, the report said…. The tsunami struck [Fukushima] 46 minutes after the magnitude 9.0 earthquake..”
   There are obvious tons of debris on the site from the explosions, but this video footage shows that the seawall is still there –plans for sandbagging the walls are underway as cyclone season intensifies,0,7287295.story;
   Excellent photos of the Daiichi waterfront, damaged reactors, and debris help with site orientation and confirm the “tsunami” shots as improbable-to-impossible
Curiously, following the satellite map down the coast in Fukushima prefecture (south of Minamisoma) shows a very different-looking Daiichi site with an additional ‘dog-leg’ breakwater inside the  large surrounding triangular arms. The shape of the interior ‘box’ breakwater was also changed.
Everyone was surprised
The “papers” now coming out on the Tohoku-Oki Quake are writing a new chapter in geophysical science history:
“[It’s] not the [quake]size alone that has people worried; it’s the fact that something this size occurred on a segment of fault that we didn’t think was capable of producing a quake of this magnitude (an estimate that has had disastrous consequences at the Fukushima nuclear reactors)…  The initial period of rupture occurred relatively deep under the plate and lasted for up to 40 seconds. That was followed by an extremely brief but violent horizontal rupture as the North American plate released the built-up pressure… This violent horizontal motion was followed by up to a hundred seconds of further deep rupture… [The] horizontal motion was the primary cause of the tsunami, but only provided a portion of the energy released in the quake. Thus, if a quake can generate that sort of motion on its own, then we could see much smaller quakes generating tsunamis that are far larger than we would have predicted… Globally, the quake has also told us that it’s possible for a relatively small fault segment to spawn a giant earthquake. A perspective quotes the US Geological Survey’s David Wald as saying, ‘If you can get a 9 that is this compact, it increases the number of places you can [fit in] a 9 where you may not have expected one.’ So, coastal nations around the globe might want to start re-evaluating the risks they face…”
The Foreshock
“The March 11 earthquake was preceded by a series of large foreshocks over the previous two days, beginning on March 9 with a 7.2 event approximately 40km from the epicenter of the March 11 earthquake, and continuing with another three earthquakes greater than M6 on the same day.”
Infrared emissions before the quakes: dense infrared signatures appear near Otsuchi on March 8 and 10
On March 9 a 7.2 hit northeastern Japan: ..”7.2 magnitude has struck off the coast of Japan, shaking buildings in the capital, Tokyo, and triggering a small tsunami…A 60cm (24in) tsunami reached the coastal town of Ofunato, with other towns reporting smaller waves shortly after the quake hit at 1145 (0245 GMT) far no reports of damage or injuries..”; The Sidney Morning Herald reported a near-identical location offshore for the March 9 quake: “The quake hit at 1:54pm about 169 kilometres off the city of a depth of 14 kilometres”
What about HAARP –could HAARP have enabled the events of March 9-11? Could the huge circular signature over Otsuchi on March 8 and 10 signal that an infrared-based ground technology exploiting  terahertz frequency was being used? Are there networked, off-grid (and subsurface) weapons that depend on infrared and the presence of HAARP? Read an earlier piece on the Haiti quake: What caused the strange diagonal pattern seen on the 12th, accompanied by another ‘target’?
Infrared (IR) signatures from previous quakes bear no resemblance to the round target-like images presented to the public in the technologyreview link. Quake radiations are pressure generated, asymetric, and sometimes butterfly-like,  emanating along a fault or fault system. A closer-earth image, provided by NASA,  of thermal IR scanning in India in January 2001 shows one such example (satellites showed intense IR 5 days before the deadly 7.9 Gujarat quake that killed more than 20,000) scroll down to third picture:
“Relative to the..8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake, the Tohoku-Oki earthquake was deficient in high-frequency seismic radiation –a difference we attribute to its relative shallow depth.”
–Gujarat India was also shallow at 17 kilometers.
In 2008, “Minoru Freund, a physicist and director for advanced aerospace materials and devices at Nasa’s Ames Research Center in California, told BBC News: ‘I do believe that we will be able to establish a clear correlation between certain earthquakes and certain pre-earthquake signals, in an unbiased way.’ …the BBC understands that scientists also observed a “huge” signal in the ionosphere before the Magnitude 7.8 earthquake in China on 12 May.
   “Last year, we looked at some fascinating data from the DEMETER spacecraft showing a significant increase in ultra-low frequency radio signals before the magnitude 7 Haiti earthquake in January 2010…”
Earthquake Animation sequence, beginning 00 hours March 11 JST, showing 1,326 quakes in the sequence:
August’s AUDACIOUS UPDATES with additional programming on the disaster, confirming even more video fakery to further confuse tsunami events, is PBS’s NOVA release of a newly made hour-long documentary in which Otsuchi (pop.18,000) is identifed as Miyako (pop. 52,000) and uses some of the same footage with “special thanks” credit to Brian Barnes. A satellite map pinpoints Miyako up the coast, set deep inside Miyako Bay which opens to the north, away from the traveling direction of the tsunami. . Nova drums up additional experts, such as Roger Bilham of the Univ. of Colorado who states, “Never before have we had such a surplus of data. There are no mysteries in this earthquake. We know exactly what happened.” New sets of facts and obfuscations, not put forward in earlier programs, should really muddle things up. Around minute 32, Nova focuses on a snowy mountain village called Kahoku which had a saltwater lake appear within 24 hours of the first wave, surge from the coast that funneled into a river and traveled several miles uphill to flood out the town. Orientation to Kahoku suggests it’s not far south from Ofunato, yet Kahoku evades a map search.  To make a point, PBS assures us that this tsunami had “no clear pattern to when or where” it struck.
 Tulane University has created a class around Nova’s production. The webpage states that “despite the fact that a tsunami warning system was in place, the earthquake was so close to the coast that little time was available for people to react.”
Seismologists report
“We used observations of open-ocean tsunami wave heights measured by deep sea-bottom pressure gauges..[from] 12 sensors in the Pacific ocean east of the Japan trench….”
Global wave intensity image (click on the link):; showing a strongly compact eastward thrust of the wave. Consider that Hawaii, Oregon and California received the tsunami but the Philippines and New Guinea did not.
Below:  colorized motion; March 11 epicenter is outlined with a black star (top of the red patch). This motion graph shows that the quake occurred at some distance from the trench.
“A ‘major’ earthquake is one measuring greater than magnitude 7.0… On average, the world has [had]..16 major quakes annually since 1900… In some years, such as 1986 and 1989, we have recorded only six major quakes while 32 of them occurred in 1943.”

May 11, 2011

The Minimal Genome Project

“Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’..”
“The search for the ‘smallest autonomous self-replicating entity,’ which subsequently became the search for the smallest cell genome, was begun in the late 1950s by Harold Morowitz… This led to studies of the mycoplasmas, showing that these microorganisms have the smallest reported cell and genome sizes [as of 1996]. The DNA sequence of the smallest known mycoplasma genome, that of Mycoplasma genitalium, recently was determined… The nature of selective pressure for repeated genome not known..[but] have been suggested to be due to selection for faster (hence, smaller) replicating genomes to produce greater progeny..yields, selection for smaller genomes to reduce the energy limiting nutrient environments, and loss..[due to] deleterious mutations… Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’… subtracting the minimal gene set from an organism’s total gene inventory should reveal genes for the phenotype characters that make each organism unique.”
Harold J. Morowitz:
Oral History Interview, March 16, 2005 — “This interview chronicles Morowitz’s scientific career in detail, beginning with his education in physics, his transition to biophysics, to his ongoing attempt to apply..information theory to..biological problems. His a valuable insight of how and why physicists after WWII came to be interested in..biological problems…[and] illustrates the reciprocal interaction between scientific Yales’s biophysics program..and the Atomic Energy Commission’s promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy (e.g. nuclear fallout debate)..”

Remember SARS in 2003? Looking back on SARS led me to something dubbed the Minimal Genome Project which I found a lot of experimental documentation for between 1998 and 2000, including the creation of completely new amino acids –until this, every biological entity that has ever existed used the same available 20 amino acids. SARS patients were found to be infected with a novel corona virus and, coincidently, a novel corona virus was created in a lab with a new amino acid in 2001. Since the original outbreak, the SARS creature seems to have disappeared. Was it part of an experiment to create a new “minimal genome organism” ?  Indirect evidence is tantalizingly suggestive that it could be the case.  First, consider this research news in the right time window, and I’ll add more to this post supporting a proof-of-concept. This link, within Sweating the Small Stuff states that coronavirus is the largest known genome in nature –ripe for a take-away project, I suppose. Since the 2003 outbreak new information about coronavirus is being published, such as this statement from August 2004: “The coronavirus replicase-transcriptase was recently predicted to contain RNA-processing enzymes that are extremely rare or absent in other RNA viruses” –in other words, the researchers have made a novel discovery about their specimen. In this case, the studied coronavirus is generating a unique protein that has an ability to preferentially cleave double stranded RNA (dsRNA): . This feature of the SARS virus is creating a handy new enzyme tool for genetic engineers.

Minimal genomes are a boon to living DNA computers:“Human cells and computers process and store information in much the same way… ‘If you look inside the cell, you find a bunch of amazing little tools,’ said Adelman, who made the first DNA-based computation in 1994. ‘The cell is a treasure chest.’ ”; Leonard Adelman is employed by George Mason University and the MITRE Corporation, producer of the JASON reports for the DoE, DoD, etc.; Leonard Adelman says “Late one evening, while lying in bed reading Watson’s text, I came to a description of DNA polymerase. This is the king of enzymes – the maker of life. Under appropriate conditions, given a strand of DNA, DNA polymerase produces a second “Watson-Crick” complementary strand, in which every C is replaced by a G, every G by a C, every A by a T and every T by an A. For example, given a molecule with the sequence CATGTC, DNA polymerase will produce a new molecule with the sequence GTACAG. The polymerase enables DNA to reproduce, which in turn allows cells to reproduce and ultimately allows you to reproduce. For a strict reductionist, the replication of DNA by DNA polymerase is what life is all about… DNA polymerase is an amazing little nanomachine, a single molecule that “hops” onto a strand of DNA and slides along it, “reading” each base it passes and “writing” its complement onto a new, growing DNA strand.; ; simpler genomes are helping this process along. Adelman’s counterpart in Israel, Ehud Shapiro, works on a project at the Weizmann Institute called “The Human Cell Lineage Tree** Flagship Initiative” An accomplishment of Shapiro and colleagues in 2004 illustrates a DNA computer at work: “Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated..allowing both input and output…. Such computers, using biological molecues as input data and bilogically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for ‘logical’ control of biological processes… As proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of..cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule after an anticancer drug.”

There it is: cell surveillance and cancer ‘self’ control.

With DNA polymerase to “process”, restriction enzymes to “cut” and ribozymes to “paste”, the working parts of DNA computers look to be on hand with the exception maybe of genetically stable, high-fidelity replicators.
I speculate that cancer cells are very useful for this purpose with their immortal qualities, and in so many cases, engineered recombinant microbes (i.e. viruses) in current therapy use end up causing cancers, that the cancer cells, and controlling the cells, in the first place is the most useful approach. Minimal genomes, real and artificial, look like other lines of pursuit running apace for the ultimate creation of DNA computer life. This general field of study is called bioinformatics and another of its Holy Grails is finding perfect cell-based delivery systems. The DNA computer ‘proof of principle’ by the Israelis (above) used a “stochastic molecular automaton” to provide the computer input, meaning a precise-targeting agent –I’m perusing the literature to find the exact agents– but this fundamentally defines the action of viruses. And the genetically small ones, like SV40 monkey virus and polioviruses are already human-adapted and under intense ‘quantitative’ experimentation to see how well they deliver genetic information.
**Human Cell Lineage Tree Project collaborators in the U.S. are Shimon Weiss of UCLA  and Stephen Quake at *Stanford; for more ‘flagship’ programs see this


Chalk this up to spooky things scientists say.
November 22, 2002 — “Craig Venter’s ‘minimal genome’ project announced Wednesday is not about creating a new life form…[that comes later with Synthia]. The high profile project was just funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) with $3 million going to the Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives (IBEA), one of the nonprofit research institutes Venter founded after leaving..Celera Genomics early this year.
   “The question of the minimal genome for an organism [–the base gene set required for life–] is always ‘minimal in which environment,’ said Francisco J. Silva of the University of Valencia in Spain. Silva and colleagues..are studying the genome of the insect endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which appears to have an even smaller genome than that of the parasite Mycoplasma genitalium, Venter’s organism of choice.
   “..pathogenic bacteria usually have more genes than their harmless relatives do..but the disease-related genes are not essential to life, so they could be the first catagory of genes a scientist would jettison from a minimal genome organism… ‘A minimal genome organism’ [Silva] said, ‘will be a prisoner of the laboratory dish where it lives, and will be unable to compete with the outer world.’
   “The minimal genome organism now being planned..will be further crippled so that it cannot survive wihout laboratory coddling. The strategy is to synthesize an artificial chromosome containing the presumptive minimal gene set, remove all existing genetic material.. and then insert the synthetic chromosome into the vacant cell… The long-term goal..will be to help the world solve some of its environmental problems. That’s why the funding is coming from DoE, where recent genetics projects have focused on bioremediation…”
>>>In June 2010, Venter announced “Synthia” –“a synthetic cell from scratch” and “a hitherto unseen lifeform…To do this, he read the DNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, a bug that infects goats, and recreated it piece by piece. The fragments were then ‘stitched together’ and inserted into a bacterium of a different species… he claimed the breakthrough had changed his views on the definition of life. ‘We have..the first synthetic cell powered and controlled by a synthetic chromosome and made from four bottles of chemicals,’ he said..”–wipe-humanity.html
“The constraints of the genetic code are history”
Feb. 14, 2002 – ” ‘The constraints of the genetic code are history,’ proclaims Peter Schultz of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California…’At least in bacteria, the genetic constraints..are gone.’ Dr. Schultz’s statement is no idle boast…[His] laboratory, along with another team of chemists based in Japan, are introducing completely new strands [of DNA]…If successful, they will fabricate..a new sort of living thing… [C] developed unnatural versions of all the ingredients in this process: the bases, the DNA, the RNAs and the amino acids. The result is a protein that could never have existed in nature… By exposing..unnatural bacteria to the sort of conditions believed to have prevailed on the early might be possible to observe whether bacteria with 21, 22, or even more amino acids might win out over those with the standard complement… Back in the present, the next order of business is to apply the research to mammals. Dr. Wang says that a certain strain of monkey cells has shown a promising tendency to incorporate unnatural amino acids. Within a year, he thinks, the group should have made mammalian cells equipped with 21 amino acids.”
>>>Dr. Lei Wang is on the faculty of the Salk Institute; it certainly seems like the Schultz team was eager to know if their creations would ‘compete’ outside the lab.
   In July 2002, Eckard Wimmer of SUNY, in conjunction with the Pentagon, announced the result of his DARPA-funded project to create viruses from scratch:
“This is the first time that a working biological entity has been made using chemicals alone…But poliovirus is easier to build than many others. It has a short and simple genome and assembles itself directly from a DNA template… More complex viruses could be synthesized, Wimmer believes, by additional chemical steps or by putting synthetic genes into living cells..”
Commenting on Wimmer’s achievement: ” ‘This work should never have been done, funded, or published,’ said J.Craig Venter…’Somehow the whole system broke down here.’ ..The work, [Wimmer] said, was intended to serve as a warning of what is now possible.”
2004— “Several attempts have been made to identify the minimal set of genes that is required for life using computational approaches… These experiments resemble those already performed by nature; a few hundred million years ago an ancestor of E. coli was domesticated by aphids which resulted in the elimination of 70-75% of the original bacterial genome. Amazingly, the small genomes of the imprisoned bacteria are more stable than those of their free-living relatives.
   ..”Obligate host-associated bacteria have among the smallest genomes known in nature… Two different scenarios have been proposed to explain the process of genome shrinkage in B. aphidicola… that the minimization..was continuous, with genes being lost individually through a large number of small deletion events..[or] that many genes were lost simultaneously at an early stage of the internalization process..through the elimination of large blocks of DNA spanning multiple genes…
 …”as computational analysis becomes more refined and the data sets grow larger, fewer genes remain that are conserved among all taxa…[and] the few remaining genes are organized in a surprisingly similar manner… The lack of..sequences..reduces rearrangement possibilities…
   “The next few years will tell whether..the..endosymbiont genomes are self-sustainable… An interesting question for the future is to determine whether the dependent partner will be ‘allowed’ to stay as a ‘silent parasite’ if the need for its functions is lost during evolution, or if such a loss will cause it to deteriorate and collapse.”
Error Catastrophe
Too many mutations, too rapid a pace and/or too few genes leads to a potential species collapse in a  nose-diving degenerative process that microbe researchers in the lab call “error catastrophe”; virus experimenters document the fundamental principle, noting, “There is an intrinsic limit to the maximum variability of viral genetic information before it loses meaning and if an RNA virus quasispecies goes beyond that mutation limit, the population will no longer be viable. The phenomenon that occurs when the loss of genetic fidelity results in a lethal accumulation of errors has been termed ‘error catastrophe’. Most cellular organisms have evolved a number of sophisticated processes to maintain their genetic information with high fidelity and stay far away from the threshold of error catastrophe. In contrast, it has been predicted that RNA viruses with high mutation frequencies exist close to the edge of error catastrophe and can be forced into error catastrophe by a moderate increase in mutation rate… We also describe direct evidence that the error catastrophe theory applies to poliovirus.”
“One very important fact to remember is that radiation increases the spontaneous mutation rate” — Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) power plant training manual on the effects of ionizing radiation
   Another important fact is that viruses are not organisms or cells and have no strategies for survival! The authors of the ‘error catastrophe’ paper are really telling us that the “edge of viability” on which polioviruses (and others) exist needs maintenance to prevent their extinction. Circulating polioviruses were determined in 2000 to be all vaccine-derived, and the buzz around the conference tables of the WHO and other agencies brought up the issue of stopping the inoculation programs. Very soon thereafter
a complete scratch poliovirus made from mail-order chemicals blitzed the science headlines invoking a new threat from terrorists. As a mode of comparison, organisms do have an array of survival strategies.

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