Captain Archibald H.M. Ramsay wrote, in The Nameless War:
“If the new-found knowledge of Hitler’s anxiety to preserve the British Empire has come as a surprise recently to many people in [Britain], it must surely have come as a real shock to them to learn that President Roosevelt, on the other hand, was its inveterate enemy; that he was not only a pro-communist of Jewish origin, but that before he brought America into the war he made it clear that he wished to break up the British Empire…
Mr. Churchill, the self-styled ‘constant architect of the Jews’ future’ now found himself playing second fiddle to an even more trusted architect… Karl Marx had denounced the Empire long ago, and in the year 1941, it was only foolish opponents of Judaism and Marxism, like Herr Hitler, who were anxious to stand by that Empire because they recognized it as a bulwark of Christian civilisation.
…I was fully aware that among the agencies both here [in Britain] and abroad which had been actively engaged in promoting bad feeling between Great Britain and Germany, organised Jewry, for obvious reasons, had played a leading part. I knew the U.S.A. to be the headquarters of Jewry, and therefore the real, though not apparent, centre of their activities.
…the question arises: whom, and which interests did President Roosevelt not betray. To this query I can only see one answer, namely, those people and their interests who planned from the start the use of United States arsenals and Forces to prosecute a war which would annihilate a Europe which had freed itself from Jewish gold and revolutionary control: people who planned to dissolve the British Empire to this end; and to enable the Soviets to ‘bestride Europe like a colossus’ in other words, International Jewry.”
British patriot and parliamentarian Ramsay, who documented the infiltration of Jewish hegemony into the English hierarchy from the time of Cromwell, was arrested and held at Brixton Prison from 1940 to 1944.
Not by chance, the synchronized ascendancy of FDR and Hitler (1933-1945) brought us into the Nuclear Age following the “Miracle Year” of 1932 in physics. Both leaders embarked on massive “recovery” campaigns of industry and socialization, and likewise later appear sequestered from the essential progress in physics. In 1936, FDR was assured by Albert Einstein that atomic weapons were “probably impossible” or at least, many decades distant. In three years time (1939), the urgent “letter from Einstein”, penned by Leo Szilard and delivered by Alexander Sachs, insistently pressured for making the Bomb. To this end, the British dispatched a stream of facilitators, scientists and spokesmen who represented the MAUD committee that had proven the feasibility of the weapons. Inappropriate ‘aliens’ under the British flag worked on the project from Canada. It was another chance-less move in the “saving of science” orchestrated by the British.
The most influential of the 1933 rescue organizations, the U.K.’s Academic Assistance Council, was founded by the two physicists, Ernest Rutherford and Leo Szilard, and a London School of Economics governor, Lord Beveridge. Szilard, who obtained his AAC position shortly after the Reichstag fire, was brought into London by Frederick Lindemann (the later Lord Cherwell who established the Claredon physics lab at Oxford) and economist Ludwig von Mises. In conjunction with well-endowed relocation organizations and innumerable exigent rescue operations, competent bomb-makers were fanned out to the receiving industrial nations. In the U.S., not merely technical experts, but a “fully articulated” Jewish culture was imported by the exodus –chemists, biologists, engineers, social and political scientists, doctors, lawyers, artists and musicians– forewarned for the arrival of a “million Jews”. The relocation of tens of thousands of academics at this time appears irrefutable, yet no cohesive accounting has been documented. True to the words of Bertrand Russell, America now had its “society of experts”.
Not by chance, Harvard’s most influential Zionist, Felix Frankfurter, spent the 1933-34 academic year at Oxford as a visiting professor –he was able to visit Palestine and Egypt several times as well. Frankfurter kept an active ‘friendship’ going with Niels Bohr, even during the Manhattan Project years when the chiefs of the project were aware that Frankfurter was getting inside information, yet they failed to either sequester Bohr or bring Frankfurter to account (for spying, many believe), who by then was a Supreme Court Justice (appt in January 1939) http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~law00106
BOHR and HEISENBERG
What the wartime establishment knew about the race for the bomb came almost exclusively from the word of Niels Bohr as he joined the Manhattan Project along with his son Aage in 1943. Bohr had previously spread the news in January of 1939 that chain-reaction had been accomplished, embarking on a US lecture tour that included Harvard and Columbia Universities before returning to Copenhagen. Bohr’s “closest colleague”, Werner Heisenberg, was also in the US in June/July of 1939 visiting Samuel Goudsmit at the University of Michigan who reputedly tried to influence Heisenberg to stay.
[from “Popularization and People (1911-1962)” by Niels Bohr and Finn Aaserud]
“Bohr’s relationship with Heisenberg was special, both personally and scientifically. This comes to expression in particular in Bohr’s New Years greeting to his younger colleague towards the end of 1928: ‘Rarely have I felt myself in more sincere harmony with any other human being, and I still rejoice when I think back on our walks and discussions“. [p116]
As the memoir explains, Heisenberg was Bohr’s assistant in Copenhagen in the mid-1920s after the departure of Bohr’s longtime helper Hendrik Kramers: “Heisenberg took over his positions..”. Kramers later became the Chairman of the Science Committee for the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission.
TELLER and HEISENBERG
[from Edward Teller’s Memoirs, 2001]
“I do not believe –and there is no evidence that suggests it– that Heisenberg actively pursued research on an atomic bomb [p230] …It is inconceivable to me that Heisenberg would ever have pursued such a purpose. He loved his country, but he hated the Nazis… In 1936, Heisenberg was even attacked in an official Nazi publication as being ‘a white Jew’ and ‘Jewish in character…
Yet, Heisenberg, still in disfavor and therefore at great personal risk, in 1942 tried to save the parents of Samuel Goudsmit (a Dutch colleague) from deportation to the concentration camps. In 1944, Heisenberg again bravely intervened when the Nazis were about to dismantle Niels Bohr’s Institute and ship the instruments to Germany. Carl Friedrich [von Weizacker], who was very close to Heisenberg, once told me that ‘Heisenberg died without regrets’. To me, that statement makes it clear that Heisenberg never worked for the Nazis in the real sense.
This story is a different account from the one that Niels Bohr, Heisenberg’s mentor and closest colleague, carried to Los Alamos in 1943. Bohr claimed that Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen after Denmark had been occupied by the Nazis. Bohr said that Heisenberg had told him that he was working on the bomb for Hitler and considered that a good thing to do. Bohr never moderated or modified his statement.
Most scientists at Los Alamos and elsewhere in the Western world accepted Bohr’s simple story without question. But I was deeply troubled by it… I could not imagine that… why, when Heisenberg knew that he himself was under suspicion and that Bohr was in open opposition to the Nazis, did he go to confide in his old friend and mentor? [p232]
Bohr’s influence in the postwar world did not stop with the damage to Heisenberg’s reputation. Bohr loved paradoxes… Before the end of the war, Bohr had succeeded in telling both Roosevelt and Churchill his ideas about the path the development of nuclear energy should take: ‘Nuclear energy has made war impossible. Work on nuclear energy must be conducted on an international basis and we should begin by sharing all of our knowledge with the Soviets.’ ” [p233]
GOUDSMIT and HEISENBERG
Goudsmit’s turnabout regarding Heisenberg’s role in the German bomb race came after Heisenberg’s death. By that time, Goudsmit had attained the most prestigious positions that a physicist in the US could achieve: he was science chairman of the Brookhaven National Lab and editor-in-chief of the American Physical Society’s journal. The crux of Goudsmit’s revisions suggested that he harbored a personal resentment of Heisenberg for failing to “save” his parents from the Holocaust, but genealogical records indicate that his mother, at least, Marianne Gompers Goudsmit, died in 1939.
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit received his doctorate in Holland at the University of Leiden in 1927 and within months took a professorship in the USA at the University of Michigan. According to one of his closest graduate students and colleagues, Robert F. Bacher, “Goudsmit had an extraordinary knowledge of what went on… he knew every physicist in the world… [P]eople who were there [at U Michigan] from 1927 to ’30 included Niels Bohr, Paul Ehrenfest, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer.. and many others
Of these times in academe, Bacher said “everything was changing like mad in physics. In fact, physics in the United States, one could say, went from being sort of third [rate] through being second [rate] to being as good as anyplace over a period of about ten or fifteen years. By the mid-thirties, the physics in the United States was very good.”[
oral history, page 10]
Heisenberg “was a frequent visitor at the Ann Arbor, Michigan summer schools on theoretical physics. During the last of these [June-Aug, 1939] his colleagues in the United States [and Goudsmit in particular] attempted to convince Heisenberg to remain in the U.S. but he refused. Soon after Heisenberg returned to Germany, Hitler unleashed his forces into Poland, touching off World War II.” http://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/p10.htm
The physicists who gathered in Michigan all seemed to know what was in the offing. A note about their last days together before the outbreak of war is included in the well-aired ‘debate’ between Jeremy Bernstein and Thomas Powers who have a standing argument about how much Heisenberg and his cohorts knew about atomic weaponry:
“An amusing story related by Powers:
… In a letter written to me a few years back the Italian physicist Ugo Fano described a party at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, home of Samuel Goudsmit, scientific director of the Alsos mission, in late August 1939. There two Nobel Prize–winning physicists, Werner Heisenberg, soon to return to Germany, and Enrico Fermi, a refugee from Mussolini’s Italy, were both honored guests. “At that party,” Fano writes, “[Edoardo] Amaldi drew me aside to point out its humor: ‘See Fermi, see Heisenberg, sitting in that corner. Everyone in this room expects a big war and the two of them to lead fission work on opposite sides, but nobody says!'” (Letter of September 18, 1993) Within a month Heisenberg had in effect been drafted to do theoretical work on bomb physics and he soon wrote two papers which were the basis of further German research during the war.” http://infoproc.blogspot.com/2009/08/heisenberg-uncertainty.html
Physicist Edoardo Amaldi, on Fermi’s Italian team until they split up in 1938, said “Goudsmit used to come to Rome almost every year. Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck were both great friends of Fermi”. http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4485.html
NYU physicist Benjamin Bederson wrote that “at some point during the war [Goudsmit] was placed in charge of the [M.I.T.] Radiation Laboratory document room; that turned into a very important assignment… The “RLE reports” became a primary source for the huge amount of technical information acquired during the war that proved invaluable to American physics..after the war. Towards the end of the war, his career took an unusual and dramatic turn when he was made scientific chief of Alsos… The Alsos mission was to learn of Nazi scientific accomplishments..and, most importantly, of the Nazi progress towards developing nuclear weapons.
“In fact, Werner Heisenberg actually stayed in Goudsmit’s house on occasion and they had become good personal friends. Thus the choice of Sam for [the Alsos] assignment was a wise one, although he himself claimed not to know how or why he had been selected
Moe Berg and Alsos
“By the fall of 1944..intelligence [was]..reasonably confident that Heisenberg was in Hechingen. On December 8, there was word from Bern that Heisenberg was going to give a lecture in Zurich, one in a series arranged by Paul Scherrer. As a result, Morris Berg arrived at the ETH lecture hall on December 18 carrying a gun. His assignment was to listen carefully to Heisenberg..and if he became convinced that the Germans were close to an atomic bomb, Berg was to shoot him while he was still in the auditorium. [p50]. The idea of depriving Heisenberg of his life or liberty was not new. In 1942 refugee scientists Hans Bethe and VictorWeisskopf had proposed kidnapping him, but [Leslie] Groves and [Robert] Furman did not [look] for the right man for the job until 1944… Bringing a gun into a lecture hall and shooting someone was considerably easier. And so, Berg sat..and listened as Heisenberg lectured on..S-matrix theory… Berg’s gun stayed in his pocket.Soon Berg had a second chance… But Hesienberg’s comments [at a dinner party] that the war was lost gave Berg..less of a motive to kill him, even if he had the means and a golden opportunity.” [p51, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey T. Richelson]
polioforever>>> Richelson details the Alsos report from France, recieved a month prior, that Joliet-Curie told them the occupying German scientists who used his lab had no knowledge of making an atomic weapon.
“Alsos had conclusive proof that the feared German program was actually, in Goudsmit’s words, ‘small-time stuff’. The program clearly had not moved beyond preliminary research, had not produced a chain eaction, and had not discovered an effective means of enriching uranium.” [p59]…[Ten] captured scientists were moved to an estate in the English countryside, Farm Hall, and…microphones would record the astonishment, even disbelief, of Heisenberg and others when they first learned in early August  that the United States and Britain had succeeded in..build[ing] an atomic bomb.”[p61, Spying on the Bomb] http://polioforever.wordpress.com/nelson-a-rockefeller/
“There is a little anecdote about Dr. Sam Goudsmit that I would like to tell. As the war was winding down in Europe, the scientists here decided that they would like to know what, if anything, was going on in Germany in th microwave area. They knew, if anything at all was going on, that Heisenberg would have to be involved. This mission, I believe, was under the aegis of the OSRD. They, plus the military, set out to find Heisenberg. They finally found him in a little laboratory tucked away somewhere out of the way. Dr. Goudsmit was to meet with him. Their friendship dated back to Sam’s early days in Germany. As Sam told the story, the military went in ahead of him. Sam thought the military was looking at him a little suspiciously, and he found out why when he got to Heisenberg. There on Heisenberg’s desk was a picture of Heisenberg and Sam with their arms linked.”
The pretentions of the scientists, however, do not hide the activity of early preparations or camouflage the scope of their participation. In the book “Spying On The Bomb”, author Jeffrey T. Richelson includes a footnote on page 34 taken from a memo concerning detection of the enemy’s atomic activity by monitoring industrial fluoride use. Met Lab physicist Philip Morrison wrote in his memo that “the fundamental special material in the whole process, besides the metal, is probably fluorine. Even metal production depends on fluorine at one step, and almost all separation methods known require the use of uranium hexafluoride”. Memo dated March 16, 1944.
There is little print given to fluoride history prior to WWII. Even Christopher Bryson’s new classic on the subject,”The Fluoride Deception”, neglects the interwar years but fluorine chemistry registered national interest in the mid-1920s when fluoridation experiments began being widely carried out:
In 1895, Andrew W. Mellon founded ALCOA, and in 1913, created the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research at the University of Pittsburgh, to protect company interests from fluorine emission and other lawsuits. In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, with the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) under his control.”
[in 1902, the USPHS was created from the Marine Hospital Service]
…” Funded by Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont in 1930, the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati was organized under the direction of Dr. Robert Kehoe. Kehoe’s laboratory was set up for contract research on chemical hazards in the fluoride industry and for protection against litigation and government restrictions. …As medical director of the Ethyl Corporation, consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Division of Occupational Medicine of the USPHS, Dr. Kehoe was committed to the suppression of industrial fluoride dangers. By 1931, most of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities were devoted to the study of fluorides.”
The U.S. Public Health Service, which operates only military hospitals, was greatly expanded in 1930 on a wave of new construction. Andrew Mellon fulfilled his oversight of the Treasury in 1932 (physics ‘miracle year’). Much later, in the postwar , the Mellon-endowed University of Pittsburgh hosted another key operation in the atomic program– the production of Salk polio vaccine.
Nuel Pharr Davis (Lawrence and Oppenheimer) wrote in 1968, “By 1949 bomb development at Los Alamos had reached a stage that is still classified and perhaps in some aspects still truly secret.” The Russians tested their first nuke in August of ’49, something not predicted to happen for many years more. Davis, describing the Congressmen who received the details of the USSR’s bomb in secret meetings, added “the news if true confirmed what they had known all along: Security should have been given tighter control over scientists.” [p294]