Jennifer Lake's Blog

March 20, 2017

Atomic Oswald Two

The “bulletin board” saga  continues from the original post, for ease of reading, now after two years of filling in the holes. Atomic Agent Oswald leaves off in the detailing of the 1959 defection of Robert E. Webster, employee of the Rand Development Corporation of Cleveland Ohio, described as a CIA front.

*Catch up with the original post here:

Robert Edward Webster* defected to the USSR on Saturday October 17, 1959 at a meeting in the American embassy of Moscow accompanied by his “employers” H. James Rand and George H. Bookbinder.

Webster defected one day after Lee Oswald’s arrival in Moscow on the 16th. There was commotion at the embassy that day, the 16th, when “Russell A. Langelle, the chief security officer in the Moscow embassy, was charged with espionage, declared persona non grata.. [after being]‘kidnapped by five unidentified Russians’ who had then threatened him and his family and tried to blackmail and bribe him into becoming a Soviet espionage agent.” p277, Mole, by William Hood,1982. –the Langelle story appeared in the New York Times Oct. 18. “…Langelle returned to the United States on 25 October…” p280, ibid. Six days later on Saturday 31 October, exactly two weeks after Webster, Lee Harvey Oswald entered the embassy to announce his defection. No record yet  indicates the presence of additional people from Rand Development or the Commerce Department during Oswald’s defection.
The window on Webster’s world reveals a fascinating subset of intelligence activity with direct bearing on the heart of this thesis, perhaps the most speculative aspect of the posts regarding a counter-proliferation role for Oswald. Internal memos from the CIA requested by the HSCA investigation note that Rand and Bookbinder had traveled previously in 1958 to the USSR with “Brigadier General” W. Randolph Lovelace, an eminent physician with Atomic Energy Commission contracts who co-founded the Lovelace Clinic in Albuquerque New Mexico. One memo reads: “For your information, only Rand, Bookbinder, and Lovelace have had frequent contact with Soviet officials both in the United States and the USSR, including Mikhail Ilich Bruk, formerly with the Soviet Ministry of Health, who was identified by AEDONER [Yuri Nosenko] as an agent of the KGB. You will note that Rand was the employer of Robert E. Webster who defected…”
Dr. ‘Randy’ Lovelace*  appointed in 1958 to become NASA’s chairman of its Life Sciences. Later in April of 1964, LBJ invested Lovelace as NASA Director of Space Medicine, a post he held for barely 8 months until dying in a small plane crash with his wife and pilot.
   The Lovelace Foundation, research arm of the clinic, housed and tested U-2 pilots and astronauts for the government looking for The Right Stuff. The foundation was created in 1947 when, after losing two sons to polio, Lovelace left his job as Chief of Surgery for the Mayo Clinic and moved back to New Mexico. He hired Dr. Clayton S. (Sam) White to run the foundation on the “Mayo model”.  Dr. White pioneered the AEC contracts, which included nuclear blast effects on humans and the creation of the Fission Products Inhalation Project. The Lovelace Foundation gained extra space for its sophisticated atomic experiments and simulations at Kirtland Air Force Base, home to the Sandia Corporation.
“Sandia is the direct descendent of Los Alamos’s Manhattan Project ordnance engineering division that turned the Little Boy and Fat Man bombs into deployable weapons… known as Los Alamos ‘Z’ Division, established at what is now Kirtland Air Base… Sandia became a separate lab in 1949..[and] is the most diverse of the three nuuclear weapons labs… Sandia is also the “foreman” of the..nuclear weapons complex, acting as its liason to the Pentagon… Sandia’s secondary mission is studying nuclear weapons ‘effects’, which are not the horrific effects of nuclear weapons on humans and the environment..[but] the effects of nuclear weapons on nuclear weapons, to make sure they are radiation hardened..[to] operate in..a nuclear war.”
The other effects, i.e. on humans, were contracted to Lovelace. This is the era of “nuclear battlefields” where soldiers were expected to take ground contaminated by radioactive fallout. Here’s a sample report of blast and radiation effects produced as a collaboration of the AEC, Lovelace Foundation and Sandia Corp.
                                                                                  *Lovelace Foundation Clinic*
  Dr. Sam White’s adoring younger brother Byron was at that time making his mark in the world of football and law, and in 1960, Byron R. White became the Colorado manager of the JFK for President campaign. JFK rewarded Byron White by appointing him Deputy Attorney General of the United States, under brother Bobby Kennedy.  The friendship between them dated back to their college days when White met the Kennedy family in London while he was preparing to enter Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. During WWII as an ONI officer, White wrote up the report on JFK’s PT109 incident.
*   *Byron R. White with Kennedys
Here possibly was an inside track for the Kennedys to get information about nuclear testing, fallout, and a potential back- channel to the Soviets.
“A choice of cancer or polio”**:
   Medical technology was listed as the principal commodity of the Atoms For Peace program when the government distributed its manuals in 1956, a broadly defined field already in advanced development. To this day, the standard history of polio omits a causal relationship with radiation. A famed collaboration to produce a global polio vaccine was well underway with the Soviets by 1958.
The Russian scientists, led by Deputy Minister of Health Dr. Viktor Zhdanov and leading polio expert, Dr. Mikhail Chumakov of Moscow’s Institute for the Study of Polio, actually refined Sabin’s vaccine and developed it into a useful form that could be taken orally. Russian scientists then conducted trials of the vaccine on a massive scale. In all, well over 70 million people in the Soviet Union received the Sabin vaccine. Its successful use in the Soviet Union established the vaccine internationally, and the Sabin vaccine was subsequently widely used in the United States and became the worldwide standard vaccine for the prevention of polio.”
In February of 1962, and again in August, the Sabin polio vaccines were shipped into Cuba for mass inoculations. For the record, it was the CIA chief John McCone, most recently chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, who stood his ground in August of 1962 that nuclear missiles were being deployed to Castro’s Cuba:
“On August 21, Robert Kennedy asked McCone if the CIA caould stage a phony attack on the American military base at Guantanamo Bay as a pretext for an American invasion of Cuba. McCone demurred. He told John Kennedy in private the next day that an invasion could be a fatal mistake. He warned the president for the first time that he thought the Soviets might be installing medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. If so, an American sneak attack might set off a nuclear war. [p222] He advocated raising a public alarm about the likelihood of a Soviet missile base. The president instantly rejected that idea, but he wondered aloud whether the CIA’s guerillas or American troops would be needed to destroy the missile sites –if they existed. At that point, no one but McCone was convinced that they did.
…Thirty-eight Soviet ships had docked in Cuba in the past seven weeks, McCone told the president.[p223] Their cargo “might contain missile parts. We do not know.”
…A U-2 flight passed over Cuba on August 29. Its film was processed overnight. On August 30, a CIA analyst bent over his light table and shouted: I’ve got a SAM site! It was a surface-to-air missile, an SA-2, the same Soviet weapon that had brought the U-2 down over Russia.”[p224, Legacy of Ashes, by Tim Weiner, 2007]
They tell us this is what the photoanalyst saw on August 30, 1962*
**Song lyrics, The Salt of the Earth: “…Raise your glass to the hard working people… Who need leading but get gamblers instead… And a parade of the gray suited grafters, A choice of cancer or polio” –Rolling Stones, Beggars Banquet 1968
* Albert Sabin and Victor Zhdanov in 1958 * Governments have concealed the spread of polio (brain infection) occurring with nuclear industry, including x-ray use and electronic RF. Not surprisingly, Oswald’s concealed New Orleans milieu was rooted in activities of cancer and polio. “Webster’s window” in the USSR may have been similar, whether or not Webster himself was any more than a diversionary defector, a “double dangle.”  It is inherent in the study of radiation injuries to encounter cancer and polio.
   “In the first five months of 1959, ten million children in the Soviet Union received the Sabin oral vaccine.”
According to sources, Robert Webster began planning his defection in May of 1959 as a professional visitor in Russia with Rand Development Corp.  Anthony Summers called Rand Development Corp “one of the first American companies to negotiate with the Soviet Union for the purchase of technical products and information… A Congressional Expense Inquiry shows that Rand Development held several CIA contracts. The president of Rand Development, Henry Rand,  has been identified as a senior veteran of the Office of Strategic Services –or OSS– the forerunner of the CIA. So too was another top official of the company, George Bookbinder. Rand Development’s onetime Washington representative, Christopher Bird, was a CIA agent.” p148, Conspiracy, by Anthony Summers, 1980
   The source on Rand Development’s product sharing with the Soviets appears to come from the Mankind Research Unlimited Inc.’s bio-sketch on Christopher Bird. MRU and its fundraising foundation MRF were not incorporated until 1973, but Bird’s professional relationship with Rand dates from his years “after military service”, about the same time that he became the assistant of Cleveland industrial-financier Cyrus S. Eaton for the purpose of organizing the international nuclear disarmament conferences known as ‘Pugwash’, held first in July of 1957. Eaton sponsored and hosted not less than three Pugwash conferences between 1957 and 1959. The extent of Christopher Bird’s involvement with Eaton and Pugwash is not yet known. Cyrus Eaton, who got his start in working life during school summer vacations on the estate of John D. Rockefeller, made many trips to the USSR including a reception to receive the Lenin Peace Prize in 1960.
–see pages 34-35
Pugwash 1957 conferees* Pugwash, Nova Scotia, hosted by Cyrus S. Eaton
*** “Eaton spent his summer vacations working at Rockefeller’s estate and returned to Cleveland upon graduation… Rockefeller offered him full-time employment. An early assignment was to placate property owners whose lawns were being torn up by the East Ohio Gas Company… [D]uring the 1920s ‘he was into everything, buying, selling, swapping, maneuvering, manipulating. His touch was the purest gold,’ wrote E.J.Kahn Jr. in..New Yorker magazine in 1977. His innumerable holding companies owned utilities, steel mills, a major portion of Goodyear Tire, [mines] and..other businesses… As early as the 1920s he was Herbert Hoover’s guest at the White House…”

“There are no Communists in America to speak of except in the minds of those on the payroll of the F.B.I.,” he said in the spring of 1958. It delights him to be able to bring persons he unquestioningly identifies as Communists into his familiar capitalistic orbit…”  (Oct.1977 New Yorker article by E.J.Kahn Jr.)

Eaton made his first well-publicized ‘peaceful trade’ business trip to the USSR in August of 1958.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber is another prime example of corporate adventurism into nuclear industry:
“In April 1952, the [U.S.] Atomic Energy Commission announced a proposed new expansion of the nation’s atomic energy program…[which would include] a new gaseous diffusion plant to increase the production of fissionable materials… [T]he commission [chose]..a site in Pike County Ohio for the new plant…   A new name would be brought into atomic energy plant operations when Goodyear Atomic Corporation was selected as the operating contractor in September 1952.”
 The Secret Life of Plants* *coauthors Christopher Bird*and OSS veteran Peter Tompkins* l**
Peter Tompkins’ WWII/OSS partisan resistance fighter networks in Italy, Corsica, Sicily, and North Africa were largely assumed by James J. Angleton who became the OSS/CIA station chief in Rome.
*Rand at 1957 press conference holding electron microscope image of viruses. Did “Dr. Henry Rand” participate in the “vaccine diplomacy” of the Sabin/USSR polio campaign? Is this the genesis of Rand’s future cancer vaccine? Ultimately, the vaccine question is if the polio/cancer combination was a nuclear battlefield prophylactic to radiation-harden humans. The same protocols, if successful, had applications for nuclear-powered aircraft,  bomber pilots, and deep space travelers.


The Pugwash conference of 1959, hosted by Eaton and assisted by Bird, put special emphasis on Chemical and Biological weapons.
Researcher Gary Hill:
“It occurred to me it is not appearance but personality that links these two individuals [Webster and Oswald]. Therefore since…both men appear to have been manipulated in their behavior, then perhaps they were chosen because of their similarities. If so, then the same forces controlled both men…
   “That this company [Rand Development] is a CIA front is not news…however, its interest in hypnosis and mind-control as an intelligence tool may be… Could Bird be the key to Webster’s odyssey? According to [author Dick] Russell, Bird would later become ‘Biocommunications Editor/Russian Translator’ for Mankind Research Unlimited Inc…[with a] company capabilities list included [as] ‘brain and mind-control… acquiring on a daily basis a large amount of unique bio-cybernetics data from Eastern Europe. MKUltra gave the CIA an alternative to false defectors…Programmable defectors..willingly believing [in] false information… It is interesting that at this point the numbers of defectors took a sharp increase… Oswald had been hospitalized and incarcerated for periods adequate to allow the process to occur.” Fourth Decade, July and September 1995 issues
Christopher Bird may at least be a key to Rand Development and the activities of H. James Rand.
   A deeper association of some kind between Rand and Lovelace Foundation is confirmed in the sanitized “papers” collection of Floyd B. Odlum, chairman of the Lovelace Foundation and owner of Atlas Corporation who oversaw a uranium mining empire.
see personal correspondence item section #9 on page 13 of 105: “James Rand”–this could be either father or son, but coincident with the Lovelace Foundation’s collaborations with the Atomic Energy Commission and National Institutes of Health in the 1951-1953 time period. Also of note in this immediate subsection of Odlum’s papers are “scientific psychic studies” which recurs with specificity from this point onward.
  *** Odlum specialized in the financial investor-funded acquisition, reorganization and merging of companies in the great wave of mega-corporations that arose in the first decades of the 20th century. He owned Consolidated Vultee Aircraft –Convair– when it won the contract to build the first nuclear-powered aircraft.
   Additionally, “In 1951, the Air Material Command..awarded Convair Project MX-1593 a contract to intercontinental ballistic missile. Convair engineer Karl Bossart named the project “Atlas” and Convair began to develop America’s first ICBM… In 1952, Convair received a contract to develop a supersonic bomber to succeed the Boeing B-47…”
Consolidated Aircraft’s history up to the merge with General Dynamics in 1954:
General Dynamics gained the Convair plants in San Diego CA, Pomona CA, and Fort Worth TX. It “could now bid on U.S. aerospace contracts…  The Convair Division would operate over the next half century primarily as an independent company under the General Dynamics corporate umbrella.”
“In 1955 a gift of 320 acres of land from the city of San Diego helped [John Jay] Hopkins to establish the General Atomics Division. In collusion with the City Council, Hopkins was instrumental in persuading the Regents of the University of California [contract operators of Los Alamos weapons lab] to establish a ‘scientific and technical’ branch at La Jolla.”  The University of California San Diego was born. Further offspring soon joined the complex as the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and Salk Institute of Biological Studies.
A web of personal associations between H.James Rand and Odlum could be present in the following facts:
Rand’s wife, Martha Osborne Rand,was employed by Bonwit Teller, a women’s quality apparel store in New York, bought by the Odlums/AtlasCorp in 1934 and personally managed by (ex-) Mrs. Odlum for the next fifteen years. Other questions raised above have suggestive answers in the environment of Cleveland, the Cleveland Clinic, Case Western Reserve University, the Case Institute of Technology, and the Pugwash collaborations of Bird and Cyrus Eaton.
   Case Western Medical hired Frederick C. Robbins in 1952 who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in Medicine for groundbreaking work on the isolation and growing of polioviruses, making the Salk and Sabin vaccines possible. Rand had a working relationship with Case Medical personnel, in at least one instance resulting in a successful product in 1947– a heart defibrillator co-developed with Dr. Claude S. Beck who was also hired in 1952 by the University. Dr. Robbins, incidentally, after retiring as the medical dean in 1980, worked on special tasks for the U.S. government which included becoming chairman of NASA Life Sciences Strategic Planning Study Committee during Reagan/Bush. To say that Robbins was well-connected in the nuclear establishment is an understatement. His father, William Jacob Robbins, was a renown plant physiologist, Director of the New York Botanical Gardens and laboratory, and longtime operative of the Rockefeller Foundation. The elder Robbins’ annual fishing buddies counted among them Karl T. Compton of MIT (native to the Cleveland area) and Jerome C. Hunsaker, a titan of aviation and director of NACA, NASA’s predecessor. All had worked for special projects of the Atomic Energy Commission. Frederick Robbins brother, Daniel Harvey Robbins, was a vice-president of Itek Corporation and optics engineer contributing to classified camera work for the CIA, used in the U-2, Corona, and subsequent spy satellites.
   Case Technology employed T. Keith Glennan, who became an AEC Commissioner in 1950, returned to Case after his term and became the first chief of NASA in 1958. Glennan was the head of NASA when H.J.Rand and Bookbinder were escorting NASA’s top medical man around the USSR. Floyd Odlum and his second wife, aviator Jacqueline Cochran, were also traveling in Russia in this time period, extending over the defections of Webster and Oswald.
The operating founders of the Cleveland Clinic, the Drs.Crile, father and son, lived next-door to Rand.
  James H. Rand III bought this ‘sanitarium’ and hotel in 1934 (his approx. age 22) and renamed it Ohio Institute of Oxygen Therapy, used for research and closed down two years later. The hyperbaric steel sphere was later dismantled for scrap in the war effort. “Oxygen therapy” was precisely the shared interest of Dr. Randy Lovelace and Dr. Sam White which brought them together as colleagues and friends.***
Taking the suggestion from Gary Hill that Webster and Oswald were controlled by the same Forces, namely Rand Development Corp. providing oversight of both defectors, a relevant timeline [to be posted] emerges full of possibility. Added to the timeline activity is an even greater resource from the legacy documents of Cyrus S. Eaton: the Eaton Papers at the Western Reserve Historical Society. Cursory perusal of the collection presents nearly every contextual element supporting the Atomic Agent Oswald framework described here.
   While the lists make only guesswork of the contents, the evidence of longstanding personal contact with Eaton includes James H. Rand, Christopher Bird, David Rockefeller, Edward Teller, Lewis Strauss, Clint Murchison Sr. and family, the Mellon family, Rockefeller family members and Rockefeller Foundation, John J. McCloy, John McCone, George Kennan, Roger Revelle (of Scripps Institute of Oceanography), Linus Pauling, Leo Szilard, Allen Dulles, Dean Rusk, Alfred P. Sloan, Leo Cherne, Earl Warren, Harry Byrd, Henry Kissinger and many more recognizable people. Business contacts range over the alphabet from Alcoa, Anglo-American (South Africa), Atlas Corporation, Dresser Industries, Dupont, Kerr-McGee, Itek, Loeb Rhodes & Co, Pfizer, Seagram & Sons, Sears Roebuck, Shell Oil, Standard Oil, RCA, Rio Tinto Zinc, TRW, Texas Gulf Sulphur, Textron (owner of Bell Helicopter), U.S. Rubber, Vanadium Corp. and various mining companies in taconite (iron), uranium, coal, gas, oil, gold, diamonds, copper, platinum, etc. Interwoven are the special project folders like the American National Exhibit in Moscow 1959, Atoms For Peace Awards, Atomic Industrial Forum, American Security Council, March of Dimes, Planned Parenthood, “Gary Francis Powers”, Radio Free Europe, Rotary Clubs Int’l, etc., etc, etc
….Eaton, Bird, Odlum, Rand and Bookbinder…  all possibly Webster’s defection ‘managers’. Were they Oswald’s managers, too?
“Twice in the span of his Moscow [exhibition] assignment Webster returned home, presumably in line with his work. He was also trying to make up his mind about other things, Rand believes. Apparently there were attempts even then to dissuade him from defecting. When they failed, Rand flew to Moscow and got in touch with Anastas Mikoyan (Mikoyan visited Cyrus Eaton once and is or was second in command of all the Russians). This was in late fall, 1959…” –ref. The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 19, 1962;
“Mikoyan is still warmly remembered by many Americans for his surprise high-level visit to the United States in 1959 where he opened the Soviet exhibition in New York [N.Y.Coliseum opening night June29, 1959, which may be in error regarding Mikoyan. Mikoyan paid the U.S. an earlier unofficial visit Jan-Feb.] and met with businessmen like Averell Harriman and John J. McCloy… In Washington, he met President Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. In Cleveland he visited.. Cyrus Eaton… That same year, Mikoyan also paid a very important visit to Cuba and fell in love with the island.”
Anastas Mikoyan, Deputy Premier of the USSR, with J.F.Dulles (died May 24 1959)*
One can generate narrative from the Eaton Papers folder listing alone, regardless of the content of those folders. The plethora of related “groupings” cannot be coincidence. Below is a brief example of one grouping which can be expanded from the same folder list and journalist sources.
Box 279, folder: Richardson Foundation, 1956
The context of the Richardson Foundation from p77, George Bush, the Unauthorized Biography :  “…Prescott Bush was essentially a covert operative in Washington. On June 10, 1954, Bush received a letter from Connecticut resident H. Smith Richardson, owner of Vick Chemical Company (cough drops, Vapo-Rub)…[which read], ”I want to get your advice and counsel on…what should be done with the income from a foundation which my brother and I set up, and which will begin its operation in 1956…” This letter presages the establishment of the H. Smith Richardson Foundation, a Bush family-dictated private slush fund which was to be utilized by the Central Intelligence Agency… The Bush family knew Richardson through their mutual friendship with Sears Roebuck chairman, Gen. Robert E. Wood… General Wood’s daughter Mary had married the son of Standard Oil president William Stamps Farish… In The late 1950s, the H. Smith Richardson Foundation took part in the ‘psychological warfare’ of the CIA…carried out mainly against unwitting U.S. citizens.”
Box 279, folder: Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, 1960-1973
Context from Family of Secrets, pp70-75: “While Dimitri von Mohrenschildt clearly enjoyed the high-society glamour [of elite life in the U.S.], in reality his life was heading underground. Dimitri’s lengthy covert resume would include serving in the [OSS] wartime spy agency and later cofounding Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty…  When the Hooker marriage unraveled, Dimitri began seeing Betty Hooker… Betty’s son, Edward Gordon Hooker, entered prep school..[and] shared a small cottage with George H.W. ‘Poppy’ Bush… The relationship between Bush and Hooker lasted…until 1967, when Hooker died of an apparent heart attack. He was just forty-three… In 1937, Betty Hooker and Dimitri von Mohrenschildt married. By then, Dimitri had been hired by Henry Luce as a stringer for Time magazine… Meanwhile, Dimitri’s younger brother George…finished highschool and then joined a military academy… [George de Mohrenschildt came to the U.S. in 1938, moved in with Dimitri and Betty, and eventually] “In 1950, together with Poppy Bush’s old friend and former roommate Eddie Hooker, [George] launched a modest oil investment firm, Hooker and deMohrenschildt with ‘offices’ in New York, Denver, and Abilene…”
Box 120, folder: Dresser Industries, 1944-1959
Context from Family of Secrets, Ch.3: “After graduating from Yale in 1948, Poppy [GHWB] headed out to visit ‘Uncle Neil’ at Dresser Industries, which were then in Cleveland. Mallon dispatched [GHW, Barbara, and baby George] to Odessa [Texas]… Poppy’s initial jobs included sweeping out warehouses…but he was soon asked to handle more…[escorting foreign clients and dignitaries]… [T]here is the not-surprising fact that Dresser was well-known in the right circles as providing handy cover to CIA operatives… Continuing his whirlwind ‘training’, Dresser transferred Bush to California…to work the assembly line at Dresser’s Pacific Pump Works…[which was], like Dresser, an important cog in the war machine. The firm…even provided crucial parts for the top-secret process that produced the [first] atomic bombs… In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation to Dallas, which besides being an oil capital was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite… Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the non-profit Council on World Affairs, in whose Cleveland branch he had been active. Started in 1918, the World Affairs Councils of America were a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations, the presidency of which Allen Dulles had just resigned to take his post at the CIA.”
The vignettes above are but a subgroup that can be drawn from a larger group including Box 352, folder: U.S. Rubber Company, 1928-1965. The U.S. Rubber Co. was purchased by W.A. Harriman and Co. in 1928 which promptly installed Prescott Bush as its international sales executive. U.S. Rubber sponsored an array of intelligence activity within its extensive reach. This grouping can also include Box 294, folder: Slick Airways Inc 1956-1972., owned by Texas oilman, adventurer, and CIA operative Tom Slick who also sponsored MK-Ultra programming. Perhaps it suffices to demonstrate that Eaton’s business, and the legacy of his document collection, was an extension of the Anglo-American intelligence establishment.

Economic Warfare

An Economic Defense Advisory Committee (EDAC) policy paper issued by the U.S. Dept. of State in January 1959 notes that “..Only the Department of Commerce [ headed by Sec. Adm. Lewis L. Strauss] has made recommendations for changing current policy…[to] the reversal of the present attitude toward ‘peaceful trade’ and the substitution of the economic warfare approach… which would deny US exports of strategic or nonstrategic goods to the USSR unless such exports are individually determined to be to the advantage of the US.”, 
   The CIA weighed-in with this addition: (item report #d335) “The Soviets probably genuinely desire an increase in US-USSR trade. The possibilities for expanding this trade are severely restricted, however, by the limited range of Soviet goods likely to be marketable in the US…  We believe it reasonable.. to modify certain administrative restrictions, especially export licensing, [so that]US export to the USSR might expand over the next few years…  the USSR [can balance trade].. by selling more gold to the Free World…  [T]his special estimate, submitted by the CIA, was prepared by CIA, INR, and the intelligence organizations of the Departments of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Joint Staff. All members of the U.S. Intelligence Board concurred in this estimate on October 7 [1958] with the exception of the representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Bureau of Investigation who abstained on the grounds that the topic was outside their jurisdiction.”
Readers of Atomic Agent Oswald (part one in this series) are familiar with the collaboration of the FBI/AEC “dual agent” program (1949-1964), mediated by the FBI’s Charles Bates between the principals, J.Edgar Hoover and Lewis Strauss. No remnant of the publicly available file covers the period from 1954 to 1964 (file closed Sep30, 1964)  as the world witnessed a new international trade in atomic technology.  Example: “[I]n 1957, as part of the Atoms For Peace program, Washington had the components for a TRIGA Mark I reactor delivered to [the Belgian] Congo. This compact facility was made by..General Atomic and installed by on-site Belgian technicians. It went operational in 1959 ..[and was] a symbol of progress in Africa…[even as] the young nation quickly descended into civil war and chaos… Twenty years later, one of the fuel rods suddenly turned up in Italy. Smugglers offered the uranium, which was at least 20-percent enriched, to what they thought were buyers from the Middle East– in reality agents of the Italian police’s Central Investigating Service… [A]uthorities apprehended twelve people, all of them members of the mafia…” pp154-155, A Short History of Nuclear Folly, by Rudolph Herzog, 2012.
                                                                                Roswell Garst (left foreground) offered hybrid corn to the USSR in January 1959, and again for the cameras on Krushchev’s goodwill tour of the U.S., September 15-27, 1959. The Russians wanted industrial chemicals.
   As far as U.S.-USSR atomic relations were concerned, 1959 was an historic breakthrough year under sway of a nuclear test moratorium. On September 15, after the closure of Moscow’s American National Exhibit, Nikita Krushchev and entourage flew to Washington for a 12-day visit. The first order of business on that day was a Krushchev meeting with Eisenhower and a separate meeting of the Soviet atomic energy chief, Vasily S. Emelyanov, with the AEC’s John McCone.
*Ambassador Lodge managed Eisenhower’s presidential campaign*
On September 17, Krushchev and his party boarded a train for New York City, accompanied by an American escort, Ambassador and US representative to the U.N. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.  Lodge wrote in his personal notes of the “conversation with Krushchev on the train…[that] he used it as occasion to bring up the subject of nuclear tests… On the negotiations on the cessation of nuclear tests he said that we wanted to get intelligence operators into the Soviet Union….”×1/11soviet5.html
 The same day in New Orleans, Lee Oswald booked passage on a freighter to Europe.
……..posting in progress……..

March 26, 2015

Atomic Agent Oswald

Linked from Lewis Strauss and JFK

“We must always remember Bertrand Russell’s profound unanswered question after he had received an advanced copy of the Warren Report. ‘If, as we are told, Oswald was the lone assassin, where is the issue of national security?’ Russell’s question…has never been answered.” –John Chuckman (‘Forty Years of Lies’ November 12, 2003)
   The persistence of secrecy and withholding of classified documents on Oswald, not to mention testimony from witnesses and government agents, suggests something greater at stake than the mere revealing of another government agent. Were Oswald an “atomic agent” trained in counter-proliferation and supervised in some measure by the FBI and AEC, national nuclear security can dictate endless official silence and justify the words of investigators that “we will never know the truth” about the Kennedy assassination.
Proposition to the field:
   While there is no absolute proof of an “atomic agent Oswald”, decades of diligence in JFK assassination research has produced an abundance of evidence giving a high probability to such a case. It lacks only a voice and a statement, so I’m going to make that case here, as expansively as I can, incorporating “new knowledge” learned from radiation-caused polio and other sources of background that also define a role for the atomic energy chief, Admiral Lewis Strauss.
*                                                         usa-and-the-red-menace-8-638L.L.Strauss in upper left background



“Hoover lied his eyes out to the [Warren] Commission, on Oswald, on Ruby, on their friends, the bullets, the gun, you name it…” –Congressman Hale Boggs, House Majority Leader and former member of the Warren Commission (ref. p.314, Official and Confidential, The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover, by Anthony Summers)

Here’s what we know:
Oswald worked for the FBI, having pay vouchers in his possession (which provoked a secret session of the Warren Commission) because the FBI was required by law of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act to provide security and policing to the newborn nuclear industry. In 1949, due to discoveries about missing atomic materials, the FBI entered into a tentative “dual agent” program with AEC Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss (exclusively, unbeknownst to his co-commissioners) which failed on its face. In a series of declassified memos, dated 1949-53, it appears that Hoover delegated his authority to develop such a program to Strauss after he became AEC chairman in 1953. The fate or function of any dual FBI/AEC counterintelligence program is unknown.
    Atomic plant security harbors a ghastly record; Strauss was the official “atomic plant” director after resigning his Commissioner’s seat in 1950, concurrent with his interim job as personal banker to the Rockefeller Brothers. It is unthinkable to suppose non-existing counterintelligence  security for the industrial safety of atomic reactors and weapons. We should expect that measures were taken and nuclear allies assured, even as the Atomic Energy Commission prepared a drastic downsizing of its participation due to scheduled privatization. The atomic agency itself was growing large, adding thousands of employees.  By 1960-62, the AEC was cutting many of its contractors loose, subject to the vagaries of commercial markets. Arms treaties with the Soviets hung in the balance.
J.Edgar Hoover expressed official concern for Oswald’s welfare (and the disposition of his passport) in Russia to the State Department in June of 1960 prompted by a letter to the FBI from his mother Marguerite, received earlier in May. Hoover may have been “discharging his duty” to atomic security in displaying this interest.
Oswald worked for the CIA, as sworn testimony suggests but does not describe, in preparing for his travel and stay in Russia which originated through his service with U-2 spy plane operations in 1957-58. The  CIA’s U-2 program functioned under the security umbrella of the Atomic Energy Commission, initiated while Adm. Strauss was AEC chair (1953-58). Strauss had full U-2 clearance and was additionally an extraordinary sponsor and friend to Edwin Land (of Polaroid), the key designer of U-2 program development.
–Oswald indeed, especially in New Orleans, became closely involved with the flow of small arms and ammunition and there is speculative evidence that nuclear materials were moved by that flow. Key persons and agencies connected to the JFK assassination had direct and profitable activities in atomic industry. Even a reframing of the U.S. Public Health Service particle accelerator story given by Ed Haslam in Dr. Mary’s Monkey, has more ominous implications if used to “recharge” or transform nuclear fuel from a spent or raw state to weapons and reactor grade material.
–Accepting the atomic agent premise, Oswald was a “special” special agent, perhaps on a solitary mission for the “common task” enunciated after the Kennedy-Krushchev  talks to halt nuclear proliferation in anticipation of a long sought test-ban. Agent Oswald entered the USSR in October of 1959  as the superpowers suspended atmospheric testing on the initiation of the Soviets with the consideration of a future treaty. Eisenhower described the suspension as a “moratorium on atomic weapons”. Edward Teller, director of the Livermore weapons lab through the Eisenhower-Kennedy transition, lodged a statement in his autobiography that he authorized the secret manufacture of nuclear weapons continuously, against the policy of a moratorium.
–Creation of the false “Oswald” trail in New Orleans by the CIA began January 20, 1961, the day of Kennedy’s inauguration and two weeks before Oswald himself first petitioned to return to the U.S.
–Former CIA agent Victor Marchetti suggested to BBC journalist Anthony Summers that Oswald worked for the ONI, restated by Jim Marrs in Crossfire: “...They were sent into the Soviet Union or into eastern Europe, with the specific intention the Soviets would pick them up and ‘double’ them if they suspected them of being U.S. agents, or recruit them as KGB agents. They were trained at various naval installations both here and abroad, but the operation was being run out of Nag’s Head, North Carolina.” –p117, Crossfire
                                                                   CardOldITMNola New Orleans International Trade Mart, scene of Oswald’s street performance handing out pro-Cuba leaflets in the summer of 1963. The Trade Mart, managed by Clay Shaw until 1965, was the model for another World Trade Center connected to Shaw, called the Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC) in Rome, Italy
Getting a Clue from Cuba
In February of 1962, ten months after the Bay of Pigs invasion, a medical team of Americans led by Dr. Albert Sabin launched a mass vaccination campaign in Cuba using his OPV, oral polio vaccine, that Sabin had co-developed with the Soviets in 1956. Historically, Cuba recorded its first early cases of polio among U.S. residents living at the Isla de Pinos in 1906-09,(a likely after-effect of popular X-ray treatments in those days). “The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years…  Between 1957 and 1961, the disease.. reached epidemic levels [during peak fallout from atomic tests!]… In 1962..using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign.”;jsessionid=F7B2770745445DAEA5B2E1EEB78586D1
   Polio in Cuba, and the presence of the vaccinators, prior to the Missile Crisis of October 1962 was the first inkling to this researcher that uranium or radiation-emitting products, other than fallout or Russian rockets, were moving around the island.  Inevitably,  pursuit of explanations for polio records, be it in Cuba, Canada, San Francisco or New Orleans leads to some unusual territory. Precisely such a polio pursuit concerning a major epidemic in Brooklyn New York back in 1916, led to the career origin of a young law student named John J. McCloy who was later appointed by LBJ to the Warren Commission. McCloy, at the time of Kennedy’s death, was a chief nuclear disarmament negotiator. Additionally, McCloy had another shadowy role as the chairman of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. [see ], where he finctioned as the “eyes and ears of Lewis Strauss”.  Jonas Salk, president of his eponymous lab, announced in 1962 that cancer was going to be prevented by vaccines. It must have been a comforting litany to the many Manhattan Project scientists who worked for the Salk. One of the founding funders of the institute, Colorado oilman John W. King, failed to bribe Jim Garrison with a judgeship to drop the prosecution against Clay Shaw.
                 TrumanandMcCloy     JFKandMcCloy
McCloy, “bankers’ lawyer” and representative for the ‘Seven Sisters’  (all seven oil majors), Truman’s Asst.Secretary of War and Kennedy’s arms negotiator, was alleged to be present in Texas at the Murchison family ranch meeting on Nov.21, 1963. McCloy’s best lifetime friendships were among the partners of Kuhn, Loeb & Co: Benjamin Buttenweiser, Freddie Warburg [who lived next door in Connecticut], and Lewis Strauss. McCloy’s other next-door neighbor, close friend, and tennis rival, was Henry C. (‘Harry’) Brunie, president of the Empire Trust.
   “In [Warren] Commission arguments over the ‘single-bullet theory’, it was McCloy who finally proposed that the evidence supporting this theory be called ‘persuasive’..” –p.467, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
   “The figure of John McCloy stands at the crossroads of several different Rockefeller worlds…” p243, The Seven Sisters, by Anthony Sampson, 1975 “When President Kennedy took office in January 1961 McCloy advised him…   At the very same time he was practicing as a very highly paid lawyer in the prestigious firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy, and from that office, it later transpired, he represented the antitrust interests of all seven of the Seven Sisters: ‘My job,’ as he described it to [author Sampson] later, ‘was to keep ’em out of jail.’ …McCloy appeared as part of that discreet ‘supragovernment’ which remains while Presidents come and go…” p198, ibid.
McCloy began his law career of distinction with the firm Cravath, Swaine & Moore in the 1920s.
   Mid-way between the Cuban polio inoculations and the Missile Crisis, In June ’62, Lee H. Oswald made his homecoming after spending more than a year petitioning for his exit from the USSR. Oswald spent almost three years with the Soviets. That same month of June ’62, a Russian KGB officer named Yuri Nosenko made his first contact with the CIA in Switzerland. Nosenko, “since the age of twenty-two..had served in Soviet intelligence. In 1949 he joined Soviet naval intelligence… In 1953 he work for the State Security Agency, known.. by the initials KGB… From February to June 1962 he was attached to the Soviet disarmament delegation in Geneva as chief security officer. It was then that he first contacted an American diplomat and asked to be taken to see a CIA officer.” [p.5, Legend, by Edward J. Epstein]. Nosenko initially agreed to remain an ‘agent in place’ and carry on his normal KGB routines but after JFK’s assassination, he urgently pressed the CIA  to expedite his defection to the U.S.  He again slipped out of a Geneva disarmament conference in January of 1964 and told his handlers he had information about Lee Harvey Oswald; “Nosenko explained that..he was the KGB officer appointed to make a ‘complete investigation’ of the Oswald affair… He could therefore testify from his firsthand inspection of the complete files that the KGB had no connection to Oswald.” [p.11,ibid.] “At Langley, [Richard] Helms realized..[the]CIA could not afford to lose a potentially valuable witness to Oswald’s activities in the Soviet Union. He took the matter to John McCone, the Director of the CIA.” [pp13-14, ibid.] and previously Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission under Eisenhower. Lewis Strauss, the AEC predecessor chairman, claimed to have hand-picked his successor McCone.
       JFK, Dulles, and McCone  jfkdullesmccone                         YuriNosenko Nosenko (was he affirming the Kennedy-Krushchev ‘common task’ of nonproliferation?) “Nosenko had made his first contact with U.S. officials..on June 3, 1962. That was two days after the Oswalds left the Soviet Union.” p212 footnote, Reasonable Doubt, 1985, by Henry Hurt
McConewar profiteer John A. McCone, Bechtel-McCone, AEC, CIA, shareholder in Big Oil’s ‘sister’ Standard Oil of California (Socal). Author Anthony Sampson (‘The Seven Sisters’, 1975) said McCone’s “relationship with government has been shrouded in mystery.” p234, The Seven Sisters

“McCone was an ardent Cold War warrior and in 1956 attacked the suggestion made by Adlai Stevenson that there should be a nuclear test ban. McCone, a strong supporter of Dwight Eisenhower, accused American scientists of being “taken in” by Soviet propaganda and of attempting to “create fear in the minds of the uninformed that radioactive fallout from H-bomb tests endangers life.”

In 1958 President Dwight Eisenhower rewarded McCone by appointing him Chairman of the Atomic Energy commission. After the Bay of Pigs disaster, President John F. Kennedy sacked Allen W. Dulles as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Under pressure from right-wingers in the intelligence community, Kennedy appointed McCone as the new director of the CIA.”

“ his Senate confirmation hearing, [McCone] faced charges of having tried to oust members of the faculty at the California Institute of Technology (where McCone was a trustee) because of their expressed views on nuclear testing.” p53, The Weapons Culture, 1968, by Ralph E. Lapp

It is repeated often by author/researchers on the JFK assassination that CIA sources claimed McCone was not told about Cuban-exile guerilla activities or plots against Castro and Kennedy, conspiracies in which Oswald took part especially –could it be that end-running on McCone (if it’s true) was done to conceal Oswald’s involvement because ex-AEC chief McCone would have recognized an atomic dual-agent? According to Seynour Hersh in The Samson Option: “There was every political reason [for JFK] not to appoint him [to the CIA]: McCone not only was a prominent Republican but had spoken out against the White House’s much-desired test ban treaty… [however] McCone had his own policy goals, and they meshed closely with the young President’s, said [McCone aide Walter] Elder: ‘McCone was most adamant about American nuclear superiority…and nonproliferation.’ ” [p105] “Myron B. Kratzer, the AEC’s director of international affairs… [said] ‘One of McCone’s goals..was to force the Israelis to accept international inspection of Dimona.’ “, then being promoted as an enterprise in peaceful uses, but characterized by Hersh as a “classic example of illicit proliferation.” [p77, The Samson Option, Seynour Hersh, 1991]


James Douglass wrote, “We have no evidence as to who in the military-industrial complex may have given the order to assassinate President Kennedy. That the order was carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency is obvious. The CIA’s fingerprints are all over the crime and the events leading up to it…  Investigative journalist Joseph Trento testified in a 1984 court deposition that, according to CIA sources, James Angleton was the supervisor of a CIA assassination unit in the 1950s. The ‘small assassination team’ was headed by Army colonel Boris Pash… Trento testified that his sources confirmed, ‘Pash’s assassination unit was assigned to Angleton’. ” [p142, JFK and the Unspeakable, by James Douglass, 2008]
     wikiPash Boris Pash  LBJandPashatParkland Pash with LBJ at Parkland Hospital
>>>incidentally, some JFK researchers identify the man above with LBJ as Dallas Secret Service agent Forrest Sorrels, of whom no photos exist wearing eyeglasses. “In 1963, Secret Service agents, like their FBI counterparts, wore crewcuts, dark suits, and narrow ties.”–p320, Crossfire— just as he is pictured below on the left. “Dallas Secret Service agent-in-charge Forest V. Sorrels was the only Secret Service agent to return to the scene of the assassination within an hour or so.” –p321, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989.  Sorrels claimed to have entered the Book Depository unchallenged with nobody asking for his credentials, possibly much sooner than “an hour or so” before the building was closed and guarded. Other claims posit Sorrels return to the TSBD from Parkland within 20-25  minutes.
   Later throughout the day on 11-22, Sorrels came and went from the police department hallway crowded with photographers, a number of them known to him, yet no individual with the likeness of “Pash” (as above) was captured on camera. Though controversial, Boris Pash may have had his own covert reasons for being at Parkland Hospital in addition to his work with the CIA’s Health Alteration Committee which was developing a bioweapon for use against Fidel Castro. One of those weapons was the ‘cancer vaccine’ project underway in New Orleans over the summer of 1963, involving Oswald, David Ferrie, Judith Vary (Baker), and as the evidence seems to indicate, Drs. Mary Sherman and Alton Ochsner.
   During WWII, Pash’s subordinate Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa, and not long after that under the Truman administration, LBJ sat on the powerful congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
*sorrels-forrstv *SorrelsNewspaper Forrest V. Sorrels, the image on the left, also from a newspaper, was possibly taken on 11-22-63
   By the time of the Kennedy assassination, Pash had already made his mark on history: “Lt. Col. Boris T. Pash at G-2 Army Intelligence in San Francisco [was] Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast… He had spent much of his career hunting communists… After America entered World War II, he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans [in a program conceived and authorized by Asst. Sec. of War John J. McCloy]...and then was assigned as the Manhattan Project’s chief counterintelligence officer.” [pp.190-191, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, 2005]
   “Pash served from 1949 through 1952 as the CIA’s Chief of Program Branch 7 (PB/7), a special operations unit within the Office of Policy Coordination [OPC], the original CIA clandestine service. Pash’s boss, the Director of Operations Planning for OPC, told the Senate [Church Committee] investigators that Colonel Pash’s Program Branch 7 unit was responsible for assassinations and kidnapping as well as ‘special operations’. Pash denied..responsibility for assassinations… Former CIA officer E. Howard Hunt Jr. told the New York Times on December 26, 1975 that in the mid-fifties he had been informed by his superiors that Boris T. Pash was in charge of a.. unit responsible for the ‘assassination of suspected double agents and similar low-ranking officials’…
   “Despite the CIA’s claim that it had no records dealing with assassinations, the Senate committee staff investigators concluded that Pash’s unit was indeed assigned ‘responsibility for assassinations and kidnappings.’ It was documented, for example, that while working in the CIA’s Technical Services Division in the early 1960s, Pash was involved in the attempt to design poisoned cigars destined for Fidel Castro.” [p.254, ibid.]
   Pash also denied ever having worked for the CIA, maintaining that his regular employer, the U.S. Army,  loaned out his services. Over the course of 1953-54, Pash’s service was devoted to AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss in the cause of removing Robert Oppenheimer from any classified position of authority within the nation’s nuclear program. The Oppenheimer Case, which is the subject of American Prometheus by Bird and Sherwin, is also the title of a book by Philip Stern, the son of Edgar and Edith (Rosenwald) Stern of New Orleans, owners of NBC-affiliate WDSU TV and radio, and friends of Clay Shaw.
John J. McCloy, Earl Warren, and Boris Pash, together, had the common responsibility for implementing McCloy’s Japanese internment program during WWII.
   “Carey McWilliams, the editor of the Nation…observed that ‘no one person had more to do with bringing about the removal of the West Coast Japanese during World War II –citizens and aliens alike; men, women, and children– than Mr. Warren’.” [p.40, Plausible Denial, by Mark Lane]
    AllenDulles     “Allen Dulles used to tell his sister that 1953 and 1954 were the good years at the CIA, when everything seemed to be going right and the Agency was his brother’s strong right arm in helping to reshape the world… For the first time, the CIA now had a budget running at over half a billion dollars, and there was no one outside the Agency Allen needed to tell how the money was spent...” [p.323, Dulles, by Leonard Mosley, 1978]  “...Never before or since has the CIA had more support from the State Department, or, because Secretary Dulles was so powerful, more freedom to infiltrate U.S…offices in foreign countries. [CIA] had complete freedom to undertake projects of enormous tactical or strategical significance with little or no oversight... [p.364, ibid.]
   “In 1955, Allen was able to extend the CIA’s kingdom to the stratosphere. [Literally, with the U-2 aerial reconnaissance program, p.365] …But the trouble with the Agency was that there was such a multiplicity of small activities going on at any given time that no one could keep account of them all, except, perhaps, the finance department, which had to pay for them –sometimes in weird and wonderful ways.” [p.370, Dulles, A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and Their Family Network, by Leonard Mosley, 1978, Dial Press]
“Allen Dulles’s interest in Texas seems to have picked up shortly after he left the Kennedy administration. In December 1961, he contacted a request contact information for agency officers based in Houston. After the assassination, Johnson would bring Dulles back into government –first as a member of the Warren Commission investigating Kennedy’s death and then as a member of the Gilpatric Committee, a group of advisers on the proliferation of nuclear weapons.” [p99, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker, 2009]
The 1964 Gilpatric Committee, including appointees Dulles and McCloy from the Warren Commission, was formed to advise on strategies of nuclear counterproliferation: “The recommendations of the Gilpatric Committee remain largely unknown today. Johnson had prepared to announce a new American counterproliferation policy during a speech to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations, but Robert Kennedy discussed counterproliferation in a speech a few days earlier, leading Johnson to abandon the theme. The Committee’s report was then kept classified for three decades.”
**jfkandrfk  The importance of subject matter in Robert Kennedy’s speech mentioned here is that it was RFK’s maiden Senate speech: “Teddy waited fourteen months before making his maiden speech; Bobby made his, a powerful condemnation of nuclear-weapons proliferation, a little more than five months after he was sworn in, earning grumbles from ‘the club’ that it was too soon.” –p116, Good Ted, Bad Ted, by Lester David, 1993
   Garrison    Jim Garrison wrote: “Much later in 1978, James A. Wilcott, a former CIA finance officer, told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Lee Oswald had been recruited from the military by the CIA ‘with the express purpose of a double agent assignment in the USSR.* [footnoted:] Wilcott testified under oath that he had handled the funding for the project to which Oswald was assigned...” [p.49, On the Trail of the Assassins, 1988]
   James Douglass contributes: “Jim Wilcott worked in the finance branch of the Tokyo CIA Station from 1960 to 1964. During the same years [his wife] Elsie Wilcott was a secretary at the Tokyo Station... [Wilcott recounted]..’a man I knew and had worked with before showed up to take a disbursement and told me Lee Harvey Oswald was a CIA employee. I didn’t believe him until he told me the cryptonym under which Oswald had drawn funds when he returned from Russia to the U.S…. It was a cryptonym..that I was familiar with…  It was common knowledge in the Tokyo CIA Station that Oswald worked for the Agency.’ In an article based on what he learned at the Tokyo Station, Jim Wilcott wrote: “He had been trained at Atsugi Naval Air Station, a plush super secret cover base for Tokyo Station special operations… Oswald was recruited from the military for the express purpose of becoming a double agent assignment to the USSR… More than once I was told something like ‘so-and-so was working on the Oswald project back in the late ’50s.” [pp 146-147, JFK and the Unspeakable]
The image of Boris Pash and LBJ together in Dallas on 11-22-63 at the Parkland suggests the immediacy of an Oswald problem. The above link to Jim Fetzer’s Real Deal program features a description of what happened to the next famous patient brought to the hospital:
(minute 36:30)
   “LBJ, or an LBJ top aide..called Henry Wade in Dallas [to insist] ‘You have your man…just move forward’…
   “Charles Crenshaw, who was one of the trauma room physicians when JFK’s moribund body was brought in… he closed JFK’s eyelids… was responsible two days later to take care of Oswald…[during which] he was notified he had a phone call from the President of the United States… There was that all too familiar voice of Lyndon Johnson saying he wanted a deathbed confession from the assailant. Crenshaw explained to him that actually Oswald seemed to be doing better and he thought [Oswald] was not going to die. Lyndon told [Crenshaw] there’d be a man in a trench coat there waiting to take the confession… and when Crenshaw returned to the room there was a sinister-looking guy in a trench coat whom I believe was David Sanchez Morales –but [then] Oswald took a turn for the worse and died. There was no deathbed confession. But, it’s really a fascinating aspect revealing how much LBJ was personally involving himself in covering up the case.”
   This Real Deal episode, incidentally, concerns the Murchison ranch ‘party’ the night before JFK’s murder, attended by witness Madeleine Brown –LBJ’s mistress– who swore to the occurrence there of a secret high-level closed-door meeting at which J.Edgar Hoover, Richard Nixon, John McCloy, LBJ and others were present. The Murchison meeting is the presumed green light for the next-day assassination.
An additional Real Deal program recorded in April 2015 with Alan Salerian, discussing the altered Zapruder film, mentions that Oswald’s arrest report was filed by the Dallas police at 1:40 pm, charging him with the murders of Officer Tippet and President Kennedy, ten minutes before Oswald was actually arrested (minute 1:16). The same program offers the location of one of the sniper teams in the open window office of Dallas Uranium and Oil (DUO), a CIA front company in the Dal-Tex building where the shooter had “George [H.W.] Bush supervising him.” (minute 33)
“Perhaps Dallas homicide had systematically altered evidence not just to nail Oswald… Perhaps it had behaved as it had intentionally, to protect the actual killers of both John Kennedy and J.D. Tippet. If that were true, it would mean we were dealing with something beyond incompetence, even beyond cover-up. It would mean that Dallas homicide– or key members of it– had at worst colluded in the assassination before it happened or at best actively ratified it afterwards.” –Jim Garrison, p203, On The Trail of The Assassins, 1988
AGENT OSWALD TIMELINE               MarineOswald
Circa late 1953 “Oswald…claimed his first contact with communist ideology came with a pamphlet handed to him on a New York street corner… about the age of 15…” –p98, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
October 24, 1956: With his mother’s consent, at age seventeen LHO enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was sent to Camp Pendleton (San Diego/Oceanside, CA) for basic training.
March 18, 1957: LHO was assigned to Jacksonville, FL Naval Air Station for training in RADAR. He graduated in May and proceeded to Keesler AFB in Mississippi for aircraft control, finishing #7 in his class in June when next he was ordered to station in Atsugi Japan.
August 21, 1957: LHO boarded the USS Bexar in San Diego for a 21-day voyage. He served a 13 month tour in Japan.
November 2 1958: Oswald departed Japan for a two-week ride to San Francisco, where he received a new assignment at the El Toro Air base in Santa Ana, CA.
February 25, 1959: Oswald took his first Russian language test.
March 1959: LHO applied to the Albert Schweitzer College in Churwalden Switzerland for the 1960 spring term.
July 1959: filed for help with an early discharge to the Red Cross
August 17, 1959: filed for a ‘dependency discharge’ (to help his mother), approved September3
September 4: filed for a passport in Santa Ana (“to attend Albert Schweitzer College”), rec’d Sept.10
September 11: officially discharged, took a bus to Fort Worth TX, arrived 2am Sept.14
September 16: left TX for New Orleans, received a passport stamp “Import-Export”
September 17: booked passage with Int’l Trade Mart company Travel Consultants Inc. for the freighter Marion Lykes, headed to La Havre France. Oswald self-described as a “shipping export agent”.
Sept.20– shipped out of New Orleans, arrived in France on October 8, 1959; Claim of spending one week in England, then on to Helsinki Finland; received a visa to enter USSR in 24 hours.
October 15, 1959: LHO left Helsinki by train, bound for Moscow, crossing the border at Vainikkala.
—timeline reference source: Legend, The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jay Edward Epstein—
“In a Moscow interview shortly after arriving in Russia, Oswald told newspaper reporter Aline Mosby: ‘I’m a Marxist…I became interested about the age of 15… An old lady handed me a pamphlet about saving the Rosenbergs… I looked at that paper and I still remember it, I don’t know why.’ Julius and Ethel Rosenberg had been convicted of passing atomic bomb secrets to the Russians.” p98, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs
“In December 1959 [Oswald] dropped out of sight for more than a year. No friends or relatives in the United States heard from him. Oswald’s activities are known today only because of a reconstruction based, often, on the most questionable of sources.” –p210, Reasonable Doubt. “Oswald’s defection and return occurred at a time when the CIA was openly debriefing simple American visitors –to the tune of 25,000 annually– as they returned from the Soviet Union. Even tourists’ snapshots were reviewed and those of CIA interest copied and filed. Through incredible coincidence, the CIA just happened to have a picture taken by a tourist of Oswald on a Minsk street.” –p218, Reasonable Doubt, 1985, by Henry Hurt
According to Warren Commission testimony, tourist pictures of Oswald in Minsk include those taken by Rita Naman, Monica Kramer, and “Mrs. Marie Hyde” (more below)
 Import-Export; director of the NOLA Trade Mart and Rome CMC  Shaw Clay L. Shaw
  ” In early January of 1960, Oswald was sent to Minsk –one of six Soviet cities to which defectors customarily were sent– and given a job as a metal worker [inspector] in a radar factory… he was given a number of privileges not available to the average Russian worker,  including a comfortable apartment and a relatively high salary.
   “In February 1961, after 15 months in the Soviet Union, Oswald applied at the American Embassy in Moscow to return to the United States.  The following month [March ’61] he met Marina Prusakova…the niece of a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet Union’s domestic intelligence service. In April, less than two months after they met, they were married.”– p.50, On The Trail of The Assassins
   ...”[That the] United States government..demonstrat[ed] almost paternal solicitude for Lee Oswald’s welfare even while he was in the Soviet Union comprised, to my mind, a steady uninterrupted pattern. And the preferential treatment did not end with the arrival of Lee and Marina and their young daughter in New York in June of 1962…
   “…Immediately upon his return to the U.S., Oswald..moved to Fort Worth, Texas. There he worked at the Leslie Welding Company until October 7, 1962, when George de Mohrenschildt and his wife came over from Dallas to spend the evening as guests of Lee and Marina at their modest apartment.” –p51, ibid., Garrison
De Mohrenschildt  George deMohrenschildt of the Dallas Petroleum Club, ‘suicided’  March 29, 1977 after meeting with journalist Jay Edward Epstein, the same day he was later scheduled to meet with House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) investigator Gaeton Fonzi, a meeting that never took place.
   DeMohrenschildt’s fourth wife Jeanne had moved to Dallas in 1953 where she got a job designing for Nardis sportswear: “While Jeanne designed clothing, her co-worker Abraham Zapruder cut the patterns and material.” [p79, Family of Secrets] ” Jeanne had been born Eugenia Fomenko in 1914 in Harbin Russian parents… [S]he and her first husband, Robert LeGon, had fled Manchuria when it was under Japanese control… Eventually, they made their way to New York, where brother Sergei was working on the top-secret Manhattan Project… [p78, ibid.]
“The following day, October 8, Lee packed up and moved to Dallas, 30 miles away, where deMohrenschildt lived. Oswald wasted no time in seeking a new job at the Texas Employment Office in Dallas… [B]efore October 1962 was over, Oswald had obtained a job that, for a former defector to the Soviet Union, seemed quite unlikely. Jagger-Stovall-Chiles, under a contract with the Pentagon, was engaged in the production of charts and maps for military use. Writer Henry Hurt has observed that ‘part of the work appeared to be related to the top-secret U-2 missions, some of which were making flights over Cuba’. This job required an extremely high security classification. Lee Harvey Oswald not only was given the job within one week of his arrival in Dallas, but also had access to a variety of classified materials.
   …”Socially, despite his ‘defection’ and his ostensibly vocal allegience to communism, Oswald and his family were welcomed with open arms by the White Russian community of Dallas… Oswald’s most frequent associate in Dallas, I discovered, was George de Mohrenschildt… His father, Baron Sergius de Mohrenschildt, had been governor of the province of Minsk for the czar. The family had fled from the communists after the 1917 revolution. De Mohrenschildt spoke Russian, French, German, Spanish and Polish. In World War II he had worked for French intelligence… [and] possessed a doctorate in international commerce and a master’s degree in petroleum engineering and geology… Among his close friends, one of the more interesting was Jean de Menil, the president of the mammoth international Schlumberger Corporation, which had close ties with the Central Intelligence Agency. [footnote] The CIA and Schlumberger had a mutual interest in the O.A.S. [Secret Army Organization]..led by former French generals who had revolted against President Charles DeGaulle in 1961 when Algeria was in the process of winning its independence. The Agency had been a staunch, although secret, supporter of the French anti-Gaullist movement.” pp52-53, ibid.,Garrison
DeGaulle Author and professor Joan Mellen writes, “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962. [Guy] Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw Banister and ..PERMINDEX (Permanent Industrial Exhibition), based in Switzerland.” –p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005
Ringleader of the French OAS generals, Jacques Soustelle JacquesSoustelle former colonial governor of Algeria and French atomic energy minister
GuyBanister Ex-FBI New Orleans private detective Guy Banister : In a curious statement to the Louisiana Senate’s Legislative Committee on Segregation in March of 1957, Banister said, “We are particularly vulnerable to smuggled atom bombs. Even the big bombs were comparatively simple to assemble once they were made. Now they have them down to the size of an artillery shell. Dedicated Communist Party members can smuggle them in, leave them. I doubt that we have enough screw drivers and men to use to find them. They can be triggered, set off by a radio wave, or in several other manners. I know that it is possible and comparatively easy to assemble one of them and New Orleans is a key city in the south land…”
In March of 1957, when Banister made this statement, Oswald was being trained on radar in Florida. The man who designed nuclear weapons “down to the size of an artillery shell” was Theodore B. (‘Ted’) Taylor, who left Los Alamos between 1956 and 1957 to join the creative staff of General Atomics, subsidiary of General Dynamics, in La Jolla CA. Ted said that General Atomics was like “Los Alamos West”. More on Ted Taylor below.
GarrisonSmallImage “Spring of 1963 arrived and Lee Oswald– as usual, without fanfare or any other preliminaries– left Dallas in late April for New Orleans. His wife and daughter arrived there shortly afterwards. By May 9 Oswald had obtained a job in New Orleans at the Reily Coffee Company, just on the other side of the post office building from Guy Banister’s office… Now I was interested in taking a closer look at how he found his way to employment at the Reily Coffee Company… Judging by [a] lengthy series of [Warren] Commission exhibits, he had sought employment at half the businesses in the city of New Orleans.” —pp56-57, On The Trail of The Assassins— “…[D.A. investigator] Frank agreed with me on the probability of Oswald’s impersonation in the job applications. What it amounted to, of course, was that Oswald had been destined from the outset to go to work at the Reily Coffee Company, close by Guy Banister’s office. All these applications by someone impersonating him were intended to obscure that.” –p59, ibid.
“It had always puzzled me why Oswald had left Dallas in April 1963 to spend the summer in New Orleans, only to return to Dallas again in October. But given what I had learned, this began to make sense. Clearly, if Oswald was being set up as a communist scapegoat, his close association in Dallas with the anti-communist White Russians had to be severed. Likewise, a summer of ostentatiously handing out out pro-Castro leaflets in New Orleans reinforced the image of a crazed communist assassin. In the intelligence community, there is a term for this kind of manipulated behavior designed to create a desired image: sheepdipping. It seemed to me that Oswald had been in New Orleans to be sheepdipped under the guidance of Guy Banister and that he had been sent back to Dallas when the mission was accomplished.
   “To see if I was on the right track, I studied more closely Oswald’s return to Dallas and his last two months before the assassination. On September 23, 1963, a pregnant Marina Oswald and her daughter left New Orleans. They were driven westward to Dallas, I learned, by Mrs. Ruth Paine. It was generally agreed that Lee Oswald left approximately a day later… [But it was not until] October 4, Lee returned to Dallas. He spoke of having been in Houston, looking for work. Ten days later Ruth Paine obtained an interview for him, and he got the job– at the Texas School Book Depository.
   For reasons that remain unclear, Oswald rented a series of small rooms in Dallas while his wife and daughter stayed at the Paine’s house in Irving. Although Lee kept a number of his personal possessions with him in Dallas, Mrs. Paine made her garage in Irving available to him for his other possessions.
   There was no way of guessing what Lee had in mind with this odd living arrangement, nor who suggested it. However, it was undeniable that this situation worked to the advantage of whoever was behind the assassination.” –pp63-63, ibid.
In 1954 it was Russia, not the U.S., that was most concerned nuclear weapons would spread. ‘Since even peaceful nuclear activities could lead to the production of materials usable for bombs, the proposed stimulation of such activities throughout the world could actually lead to an intensification of the arms race,’ the Soviets wrote in a January 1954 letter to Washington…
  [And, furthermore] “… ‘The kind of catastrophic accident that Strauss and his successors believed could never actually happen have taken a significant toll.’ “
   1954 turned out to be a banner year for nuclear expansion following Eisenhower’s  December ’53 “Atoms For Peace” speech to the U.N. General Assembly in New York. U.S. atmospheric tests that year took place exclusively in the Pacific Proving Grounds, scheduled as Operation Castle beginning March 1, 1954 with test ‘Bravo’.–a test so unexpectedly radioactive from more-than-double its predicted megatonnage, that an outcry over the fallout came in from around the world. AEC chairman Strauss was a shipboard observer at Bikini Atoll for Bravo which was the first and only bomb test he ever personally attended.
Lookout Mountain (Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles) studio film of Operation Castle:
Castle- Bravo test weighed in at 15 megatons from its predicted 7 Mt and contaminated 5,000 sq. miles, including inhabited islands that were not evacuated beforehand, although the same islands had been evacuated in every prior test. “Wind shift” was blamed, however the monitors reported that the exact pattern of wind direction “was blowing at us for days”. The fate of the Marshallese is described here:
The military response to Castle-Bravo was to cancel two of its planned detonations, including the largest, and space the remaining tests farther apart, adding more than three weeks to the operation. The Salk polio vaccine field tests on American schoolchildren were also commensurately delayed.
Chairman Strauss returned to Washington at the end of March. filed his report about “wind shift”, and proceeded with his historic AEC tribunal against Robert Oppenheimer. Boris Pash and the FBI were indispensable Strauss allies throughout, and by May’s end Oppenheimer was banished, relegated to return to Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study under the authority of  Strauss, who was chairman of the IAS board.
August  of  1954 produced a renewal of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act, instituting a license framework for the private ownership of nuclear facilities and materials, nationally and internationally, at the discretion and approval of the Atomic Energy Commission –a curious challenge in light of the vapid attempt at a dual FBI/AEC agent program that dissolved in 1953. Or did it? An apparent gap in the FBI’s  record of memos spans more than ten years until September 30, 1964 when the last declassified memo signed by William C. Sullivan announces the final disposition of the files, sanitized and reclassified, to the Bureau’s general archive. Sullivan’s memo is dated just two days after dissemination of the published Warren Report.
     William C. Sullivan William_C._Sullivan_(FBI_agent) headed the Oswald investigation for the FBI and allowed his serious “doubt” about Oswald’s guilt to lodge in the journalistic record. Sullivan was “accidently shot” to death on 11-9-77 at his woodsy New Hampshire home, “mistaken for a deer” (while standing on his front porch, they say). He was the FBI’s first Atomic Energy Commission liason officer (beginning 1947, followed by Charles Bates seen below) and contributed to two special study groups for government counter-proliferation strategy after resigning the FBI and before his death. The first special study, sponsored by the AEC, resulted in the Rosenbaum Report of April 1974 which includes the statement that “It is not the AEC’s business to conduct this sort of intelligence [such as infiltration of plutonium smuggling groups], but it is the AEC’s business to see that those agencies of the United States Government which have intelligence gathering responsibilities, including the FBI, CIA, and NSA, focus their attention upon this particular threat…”
Sullivan had been scheduled to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Sullivan was one of six top FBI officials who died in a six month period in 1977. Others who were due to appear before the committee who died included Louis Nicholas, special assistant to J. Edgar Hoover and his liaison with the Warren Commission; Alan H. Belmont, special assistant to Hoover; James Cadigan, document expert with access to documents that related to death of John F. Kennedy; J. M. English, former head of FBI Forensic Sciences Laboratory where Oswald’s rifle and pistol were tested; Donald Kaylor, FBI fingerprint chemist who examined prints found at the assassination scene.”
The pseudonymous Torbitt File, written by lawyer David Copeland and bearing the title “Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal”, makes this claim:
The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five [Sullivan’s command] of the Federal Bureau of Investigation…[acting] dualy with the Defense Intelligence Agency..under..their highly secret policy agency– the Defense Industrial Security Command [DISC][which] acts..on behalf of NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Information Agency, and the arms, equipment, ammunition, munitions and related..manufacturing corporations contracting with NASA, AEC, USIA and the Pentagon.
   ..The Defense Industrial Security Command had its beginnings when J.Edgar Hoover in the early 1930s organized the police force of the fledgling Tennessee Valley Authority at the request of David Lilienthal [then governor of TVA and by 1947, chairman of the AEC until 1950] …This force grew and Lilienthal took it forward to cover the Atomic Energy Commission, thus tying it into the Army Intelligence Service.
   “L.M. Bloomfield, a Montreal, CANADA lawyer bearing the reputation as a sex deviate, the direct supervisor of all contractual agents with J. Edgar Hoover’s Division Five, was the top co-ordinator for the network planning the execution. A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties.

The five groups under Permindex and their supervisors were:

1. The Czarist Russian, Eastern European and Middle East exile organization called SOLIDARISTS, headed by Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian Premier, and John DeMenil, Russian exile from Houston, Texas, a close friend and supporter of Lyndon Johnson for over thirty years. [deMohrenschildt’s friend and president of Schlumberger oil services]

2. A section of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES headed by H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.

3. A Cuban exile group called FREE CUBA COMMITTEE headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban President.

4. An organization of United States, Caribbean, and Havana, Cuba gamblers called the Syndicate headed by Clifford Jones, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Nevada and Democratic National Committeeman, and Bobby Baker of Washington, D.C. This group worked closely with a Mafia family headed by Joe Bonnano.

5. The SECURITY DIVISION of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headed by Wernher Von Braun, head of the German Nazi rocket program from 1932 through 1945. Headquarters for this group was the DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL SECURITY COMMAND at Muscle Shoals Redstone Arsenal in Alabama and on East Broad Street in Columbus, Ohio.

The Defense Industrial Security Command is the police and espionage agency for the U.S. munitions makers. DISC was organized by J. Edgar Hoover; William Sullivan, his chief assistant, is in direct command. We shall later examine the involvement of a large number of the DISC agents including Clay Shaw, Guy Bannister, David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby and others with Permindex’s Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada in charge.

As it must be, all of the preceding facts are established and documented by overwhelming evidence beyond a reasonable doubt on the following pages. Gordon Novel obtained the aid of the Columbus office in 1967 when Jim Garrison was attempting to get him back to Louisiana from Ohio. Personnel of the Defense Intelligence Agency were subject to assignment with the Defense Industrial Security Command.”(ref. found here: )*

Copeland’s wife worked at the Fort Worth, TX Convair plant, subsidiary of General Dynamics, the largest defense contractor in the U.S. and parent company of General Atomics.
* GarrisonSmallImage  Jim Garrison came across the likes of “CIA asset” Gordon Novel after learning about a “munitions raid” by the FBI back in [July 31 and] August of 1963, shown to him as front-page New Orleans news items by investigator Frank Klein. Garrison wrote, “So, some ammunition had been found north of Lake Pontchartrain…There had been no announcement of any arrests. I pushed the news story off to the side. Later I would recall having almost tossed away a major lead…” (p36, On the Trail of the Assassins)
GordonNovel Gordon Novel, who participated in a weapons transfer from a Schlumberger bunker two years before the FBI raid, was in the “[Guy] Banister apparatus, as [Jack] Martin described it, .. part of a supply line that ran along the Dallas-New Orleans-Miami corridor. These supplies consisted of arms and explosives for use against Castro’s Cuba. The security control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule. On the occasions when such explosives were held in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.” (p40, ibid.)
“A copy-righted story in the New Orleans States-Item, April 25, 1967, [claimed its] investigative team working parallel to the Garrison probe reported that a reliable source close to Banister said he had seen 50 to 100 boxes marked ‘Schlumberger’ in Banister’s office storeroom early in 1961 before the Bay of Pigs. The boxes contained rifle grenades, land mines, and unique ‘little missiles’. Banister explained that ‘the stuff would just be there overnight’… It was alright, assured Banister, ‘I have approval from somebody.’ 
   ….According to the States-Item article, Novel’s oft-repeated account was that the munitions bunker was a CIA staging point for war materiel destined for use in the impending Bay of Pigs invasion. [Novel] is quoted as saying that on the day the munitions were picked up, he was ‘called by his CIA contact and told to join a group which was ordered to transport munitions from the bunker to New Orleans.’ The key to the bunker was by his CIA contact. Novel reportedly said the others in the CIA group at the bunker were David Ferrie, Sergio Arcacha Smith…and several Cubans. The munitions…were dropped in Novel’s office, Ferrie’s home and Banister’s office storeroom.”
   “The [arms] cases…were said to be labeled either ‘Schlumberger’ or ‘Interarmco’, the company owned by Sam Cummings, the Philadelphia arms merchant who supplied the guns for many a revolution…
    [The account of Luis Rabel Nunes] “who replaced Sergio Arcacha Smith..[was that] Rabel supplied a laundry truck with which weapons were transported” when it wasn’t being used on behalf of the Catholic Church’s aid to refugees, which “had the backing of both Mayors– Morrison and Schiro, Dr. [Alton] Ochsner and FBI agent Warren DeBrueys. It wasn’t until years later that I learned they had sometimes used the truck to transfer weapons.
   …[Novel] informed the FBI: “Schlumberger Well Service had an arrangement with the CIA wherein it leased a bunker…for the CIA. Eventually the material would be shipped out of the United States in Schlumberger boxes marked ‘Machinery’…”
     *OchsnerWithTextMeAndLee* Dr. Alton Ochsner, apparently a supporter of Catholic Cuban Relief, was a nationally prominent physician then teaching at Tulane University in New Orleans. He was one of a small clique of medical lobbyists belonging to the Lasker Group, originally founded by Albert and Mary Lasker, seeking to expand the National Institutes of Health and take control of the American Cancer Society.
Cubans in the Congo
It appears that intoning “Bay of Pigs” or “anti-Castro” as an explanation for CIA paramilitary operations connected with the New Orleans Banister apparatus occurs with liturgical frequency, however at the timing of the earlier Schlumberger bunker “heist” by Novel and his compatriots, the CIA was farther afield assisting in the secession of Katanga from its mother state of the (former Belgian) Congo. Mineral rich Katanga had been the object of covetous colonialism for the whole of the 20th century. Lewis Strauss, the Warburgs, and Herbert Hoover had once spear-headed a plan to make Katanga the center of a “United States of Africa”, even as Edgar Sengier of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga was then in the process of arranging uranium yellowcake for delivery to the Manhattan Project.
   When the nationalist Congolese overcame their occupation rule winning independence for their country in June of 1960 and inaugurating Patrice Lumumba as the first prime minister of new Zaire, Allen Dulles issued an ‘urgent’ directive for his demise. CIA intervention included providing Katanga’s ‘leader’ Tshombe with an army of mercenaries:  Cuban exiles and other soldiers-of-fortune induced by “high pay” and other Agency perks. Tshombe was ultimately blamed for Lumumba’s murder on January 17, 1961, in the very last days of Eisenhower’s administration.
   New Orleans native Gordon Novel himself had a violent Neo-Nazi racist past, if the Congolese operations had any ideological personal meaning. He later expressed great admiration for his CIA cohorts as the “best people” and “real patriots”.
* PatriceLumumbaPatrice Lumumba, died by CIA-assisted assassination January 17, 1961: “Apparently what happened is that this [CIA] man William Harvey..recruited someone by the codename QJ/WIN to assassinate Lumumba… [Harvey] was supposed to recruit people from the underworld..[and] suggested using..Corsicans… They didn’t want to bring in the [Sicilian] Mafia because [CIA] were protecting [them] as payback for their help… [Harvey] hired this man QJ/WIN on November 1, 1960 in Frankfurt for the Lumumba operation.”
DagH [1]Sweden’s UN Secretary General, then residing in NYC, died in a mysterious plane crash on September 18, 1961, on his way to negotiate a ceasefire on behalf of Tshombe’s Katanga. Sweden too, uncoincidentally, was seeking to acquire atomic bombs and join the Nuclear Club.
Early in Europe’s WWII, Union Miniere du Haut Katanga and its chief Edgar Sengier had a pre-arranged shipment of Congolese uranium yellowcake shipped to the U.S., to sit dockside on Staten Island, New York awaiting its use in the future Manhattan Project. Sengier’s good friend Lewis Strauss later sang the Belgian’s praises for his remarkable “foresight”. Later on, in 1942, following an alleged act of enemy sabotage at the New York docks, the US Navy negotiated a dock protection contract with Meyer Lansky for the duration of the war. This arrangement between the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence and Meyer Lansky (or, as some sources purvey it, Charles ‘Lucky’ Luciano) was dubbed Operation Underworld (and also published as The Luciano Project). Luciano’s role, ultimately, was to accept deportation from prison back to Sicily where he helped re-institute the Sicilian mafia, crushed under Mussolini, and aid the passage of Allied troops. Lansky, afterward, reigned as the Syndicate’s top man.
“Thus, the intelligence-mob collaboration established with Operation Underworld did not end after World War II. On the contrary, postwar narcotics overseas were subordinated to anti-Communist activities; and they were used as cover for ongoing use of mob assets, above all drug traffickers, around the world.
…”In this way, FBN [Federal Bureau of Narcotics] officials protected top-level international drug traffickers who were also anti-communists.” –p166-167, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, by Peter Dale Scott
Garrison described the Schlumberger ammunition retrieval : “The CIA, which was also supportive of the French OAS generals [Organisation Armee Secrete, in French!], had supplied Schlumberger with anti-personnel ammunition and in this operation at Houma [air base], following the demise of the OAS, was simply getting its ammunition back…which was then divided equally between Ferrie’s apartment and Banister’s inner office until the time arrived for its transport to Miami.” (p40, On the Trail of the Assassins)
   But the French generals, based in Algeria and Spain, at this point were still far from their demise. “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962.” (p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005, by Joan Mellen), which continues, “Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw, Banister and…PERMINDEX…”
Unique Little Missiles
*nuclearfuel003-22  Reactor fuel pellets
Did they look like this?
“In the wake of their [Bay of Pigs] defeat the bitter Cubans turned their wrath against the President who, they claimed, had not given the troops enough air support. However, according to an official government inquiry into the matter, the real reason for the overwhelming defeat was the failure of the CIA to provide the Cuban rebels with enough ammunition. The report added that the CIA had unilaterally stopped a convoy of supplies and ammunition to the troops –without the permission of the President.” [ref. Theodore C. Sorenson, Kennedy, p335 and The Hoffa Wars, p133, by Dan E. Moldea, 1978]
During the JFK murder investigation and the probe into Oswald’s weapon:
The Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition..raised questions about CIA involvement… In the mid-1950s, four million rounds of this ammunition was purchased by the Marine Corps, prompting the author of the FBI document to state: The interesting thing about this order is that it is for ammunition which does not fit and cannot be fired in any of the United States Marine Corps weapons. This gives rise to the obvious speculation that it is a contract for ammunition placed by the CIA with Western Cartridge Corporation under a USMC cover for concealment purposes.” –p.201, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
Did Oswald, under the alias Alek Hidell, purportedly mail-order a Mannlicher-Carcano to procure this unusual ammunition?
Researcher Peter Whitmey: “Oddly enough, when ordering the rifle, he chose not to purchase one hundred rounds of ammunition (which came with a free clip)”
   The surreptitious ammunition transfers from the Houma air base and beyond by the Banister outfit are among the most compelling and under-described of pre-assassination events. They occurred over a long period from at least the spring of 1961, before the Bay of Pigs, until the FBI raid in the summer of 1963.  Despite the “major lead” provided to Jim Garrison’s investigation, an intentional effort to downplay or disregard the significance of this traffick was announced by Garrison in his October 1967 Playboy interview:
Playboy: “The New Orleans States-Item of June 14, 1967 quoted [Gordon] Novel as saying that if he were granted immunity from the assassination investigation, he would be willing to testify on a number of points, including ‘international fraud, mysterious intelligence activities from November 1959 to date [Oct.1967] in the Southern quadrant of the USA and certain islands off Florida, seditious treason, hot war games and cold munitions transfers, ten 1950-model Canadian surplus Vampire jet supporter aircraft and certain Cuban-Anglo-French sabotage affairs of early 1961.’ Why did you reject this offer?”
Garrison: “These are all intriguing… but that isn’t the subject of my investigation.”
(excerpted from Part 3)
   Earlier in the same interview, Garrison responded to the “who, how, and why” question concerning a conspiracy of assassins with this reply:
“On the operative level, you find anti-Castro Cuban exiles…[who] believed sincerely that Kennedy had sold them out to the Communists. On a higher, control level, you find a number of people of ultra right-wing persuasion –not simply conservative, mind you, but people who could be described as neo-Nazi… After Kennedy’s domestic moves toward racial integration and his attempts to forge a peaceful foreign policy, as exemplifies by his signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, they found [a] target.
   So both of these groups had a vital stake in changing U.S. foreign policy… The CIA was involved with both of these groups…
   There was, in fact, a triangulation of CIA-supported anti-Castro activity between Dallas –where Jack Ruby was involved in collecting guns and ammunition for the underground– and Miami and New Orleans, where most of the training was going on. But then, Kennedy, who had signed a secret agreement with Krushchev after the Missile Crisis pledging not to invade Cuba if Russia would soft-pedal Castro’s subversive activities in the Americas, began to crack down on CIA operations against Cuba. As a result, on July 31, 1963, the FBI raided the headquarters of the group of Cuban exiles and Minutemen training north of Lake Pontchartrain and confiscated all their guns and ammunition –despite the fact that the operation had the sanction of the CIA. This action may have sealed Kennedy’s fate.”
The FBI raid, which may have even depended on information provided by Oswald, could have sealed his fate too.  Approximately eight weeks later, at the end of September ’63, Oswald took the alleged trip to Mexico City where he was said to visit both the Cuban and Soviet embassies –key (but false) evidence against him for a role in an international communist conspiracy. Just exactly what Gordon Novel was offering in testimony, had a deal been made,  slipped away as a lost opportunity. Novel moved on and is currently divulging secrets about Alien Contact. (See ‘Hidden Hand’, which includes Gordon Novel and Jim Marrs)
* DrMarysMonkeyMarySherman * judyth-vary-baker * Ferrie Mary, Vary and Ferrie
   An alternate story about the Schlumberger munitions cache moving through New Orleans suggests itself in a few particulars of Ed Haslam’s book, Dr. Mary’s Monkey [DMM], originally titled Mary, Ferrie, and the Monkey Virus. The featured center of activity in DMM is a high-energy particle accelerator hidden in the laboratory of the Public Health Service naval hospital. According to Haslam, the accelerator was used in developing a mutant virus for an urgent anti-cancer vaccine countermeasure against the SV40 monkey virus-contaminated mass polio vaccines. Haslam claims this secret medical do-gooding was assigned to the supervision of Dr.s Alton Ochsner and Mary Sherman with the outside assistance of Judyth Vary [Mrs.Baker], David Ferrie, and Lee H. Oswald. No evidence exists of Haslam’s anti-SV40-cancer program, but it’s a matter of record that Alton Ochsner supported the “community service” activities of the Banister-connected Cubans, which included the transfer, support, and resettlement of incoming refugees. Among these efforts was the use of a laundry truck known to have hauled off the munitions plunder more than once.
   Unfortunately, Dr. Mary’s Monkey does not prove that a particle accelerator was actually on the grounds of the New Orleans PHS in 1963. Nonetheless, as described, the machine in question bore the requisite assembly of industrial use equipment –not for medical purposes! Haslam’s multi-story accelerator split the primary vertical beam on a reflective hub set below in a basement chamber, directing the fractioned energy horizontally into thick fireproof containers resembling kilns. Inside such containers any number of high-energy transformations are possible, such as altering the molecular configuration of metal, wood or rubber to create new ‘metamaterial’ products.
   It happens that in 1961, coincident with the munitions transfers, one of the foremost American physicists from the UCBerkeley Rad Lab, Dr. Luis Alvarez, was granted a patent for an accelerator of this type designed to reconstitute spent nuclear fuel (or depleted uranium). It is easy to imagine, and much more plausible in application, that the NOLA accelerator in Ed Haslam’s scheme was re-producing nuclear fuel with the appearance of ammunition.
Recall Jim Garrison’s words:  …”control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule…   in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.”  If these munitions emitted a particular radioactive signature it would be wise to manage their storage in this way. On the Houma military base, which was guarded and active 24/7, perhaps it made no difference when the cache was militarily protected, but we are also to believe that the transfers were protected as a sanctioned trade under the watchful eyes of government operatives, even in the open on the streets of downtown New Orleans –why then would these munitions require dispersal and isolation? What made these munitions “unique” and who, with any firearms experience, would use the word “unique” in describing them? Were they variously labeled for purposes of special handling and destination routes? Was all the ‘cancer research’, including the disease cases of David Ferrie and Jack Ruby, more expressly intended for themselves as special handlers of carcinogenic cargo?
   Robert Oswald remarked on the physical changes in his brother Lee, returned from Russia at age 22, as having thinned wire-textured hair and a sallow complexion –very unlike the robustly youthful marine he had last seen in the fall of 1959. Signs of early aging, like LHO’s, are a common and predictable side-effect of radiation exposure. The black-and-white photo below on the right shows not just thinning hair but patches of scalp which can be confirmed in the video images of Oswald being taken through the Dallas PD hallway.
   *JudythVaryJudyth, Lee Oswald’s 1963 summer girlfriend, attests to the gunrunning she herself participated in helping to unload weapons shipped to NOLA’s waterfront in crates of bananas and furniture.
According to Judyth, discussing Lee Oswald:
“He believed that the world could be changed without violence –he believed in nonviolence… In the Marines, he was a member of a group that was against nuclear bombs, against nuclear war… He really was a double agent… Lee was in the middle of a lot of different operations… [and] was a very busy man… [a] real patriot…and a very brave man.” (, 2010 archives,
                                                             *OswaldArrest3  LHO newly turned 24yrs. OswaldArrest2
* LuisAlvarez Particle accelerator designer/builder and Manhattan Project veteran Luis Alvarez lent his formidable authority as a physicist to the Warren Commission, affirming its conclusions. Next to Leo Szilard and Ernest O. Lawrence, Alvaraz was the beneficiary of a privileged relationship with Adm. Lewis Strauss.
Alvarez melon shooting experiment, ‘proving’ a jet effect and retrorecoil of the President’s head:
Alvarez Zapruder film ‘jiggle’ analysis:
Film and audio analyses:
Zapruder observations:
Alvarez patent: April 19, 1960 US2,933,442, Electronuclear reactor “…is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce ..material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations… The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g. plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.”
Stealing plutonium fuel pellets, it turns out, was easy if you worked in an AEC contract plant. See the post ‘JFK File: Signs of Traffick”
*Ferrie David Ferrie, ‘suicided’ on the fifth day after the NOLA States-Item announced the Garrison probe on Feb.17, 1967.
Harold Weisberg:“The Warren Commission never conducted any investigation of Ferrie!” p168, Oswald in New Orleans, Weisberg, 1967. “Coronor Nicholas Chetta announced on February 28 that there was evidence of neither suicide nor murder… Coronor Chetta said death had to have come before four a.m. on February 22. George Lardner Jr, Washington Post reporter, was with Ferrie in his flat until four a.m. ‘Ferrie was certainly living when I said goodbye to him’…Lardner said…” [p164,ibid.]…“the corpse of David Ferrie shared the unkempt second-floor flat at 3330 Louisiana Avenue Parkway with three thousand books, including a full assassination library..[and] in the words of the Associated Press dispatch of February 28, ‘a blue 100-pound practice aerial bomb (exactly what the FBI seized when it raided the New Orleans invasion camp on July 31, 1963)...” [p163, ibid.] “..there is no denial of the third-hand report that the FBI had been investigating Ferrie ‘several weeks before 11-24-63’ [p182, ibid]
Ferrie was arrested by Garrison 11-25-63.
   He appeared to be a common denominator in New Orleans assassination activity. A most interesting bit of disregarded evidence about Ferrie concerned the “Winnipeg Airport Incident”:
   Two and a half months after the assassinations of JFK and Oswald, a 35-year-old businessman named Richard Giesbrecht who was waiting to meet a client, overheard a conversation in the airport restaurant lounge between two men, one of whom was Ferrie –‘positively’ identified, however, only after his death became front page news four years later. At the time of the conversation, Giesbrecht took notes. The men were discussing Oswald, how much his wife knew and then, “Ferrie asked about paper or merchandise coming out of Nevada. Latin Accent said it was too risky and that a house or shop had been closed down at a place called Mercury…[but] a good shipment had reached Caracas from Newport…”
   Giesbrecht may or may not have been wrong in his ID of Ferrie –the man he saw wore eyeglasses– and others with ‘Ferrie’ that day, including a third man who pursued Giesbrecht attempting to contact the airport’s RCMP office, have also eluded identification, but the location mentioned in the conversation is unmistakable.
   *MercuryRoad *TestSiteMercury ‘Gateway’ to the NTS and Groom Lake
   Mercury, Nevada is a “closed town”, according to wikipedia –an artificial barracks-turned-town on the Atomic Energy Commission’s Nevada Proving Grounds. “The town started in 1950 at the beginning of operations of the Nevada Test Site as Base Camp Mercury… In the early 1960s the town population grew to over 10,000… In 1962, the Desert Rock Airstrip was added for the visit from President John F. Kennedy on December 8. The town flourished until 1992 when all but subcritical nuclear testing ended… The population shrank rapidly thereafter..[to] a skeleton crew of scientists and military…last..recorded about 500 people.”
   Another Atomic Energy Commission facility factored into the Oswald-centered JFK-assassination scheme in a curious way: On July 26, 1963, the visitor registry at the Oak Ridge Tennessee Atomic museum was signed in the handwriting of Lee H Oswald, giving the address of Dallas Rd. Dallas. At the time, Oswald was still a resident of New Orleans, yet to make his public pro-Castro appearances.
   Additional, but implausible and unusual “sign-ins” under Oswald’s name occurred in other places after this, though the Oak Ridge registry appears to be standing the test of time. LHO was unemployed on July 26, fired from the Reilly Coffee Co. a week earlier on the 19th. He filed for unemployment on the 22nd and does not reappear in the NOLA paper trail again until the 29th. Many sources have noted that Oswald did not drive a car, but Judyth says he did and liked to drive fast.
Visitor-register-i “USSR” is scribbled after “Oswald”. Was it tampering after-the-fact?
If Oswald was actually in Oak Ridge on July 26, just a few days later the FBI in New Orleans launched its raid on the scattered munitions cache held by the Banister crew. On the same day as the Oswald visitor sign-in, President Kennedy broadcast to the public the signing of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
JFK announces the Test Ban July 26, 1963:
Boris Pash, and the FBI, maintained permanent offices at Oak Ridge.
According to Bill Kelly’s timeline, on July 27th “Lee H. Oswald makes a speech against communism to Jesuits in Mobile, Alabama.” Two days later on the 29th “The Dallas FBI office asked the New Orleans FBI office to ‘verify’ both LHO and Marina’s presence in New Orleans.”
Oswald was, during these last days of July, on a “family trip” with his uncle, aunt (the Murrets), and Marina, scheduled to visit the Jesuit seminary outside Mobile where his cousin attended.
Incidentally, Judyth recalls that the ‘mentor’, Col. Philip Doyle, who arranged for her to leave highschool in Florida and join in current elite cancer research prior to New Orleans, was a man with “close friends who had significant contacts to Oak Ridge…[and] did teach physics…”, adding that “he selected a few of us and worked with us, however..he was in a big community of retired military officers who supplied us with, like, geiger counters…” (, May 3 2010, podcast archive) The name Doyle is linked to Permindex and also to a curious and brief New Orleans encounter with Oswald caught on film.
* Richard Giesbrecht richard-giesbrecht was 100% certain that the odd-looking man he overheard in the Winnipeg Airport lounge was David Ferrie, as told to author/journalist Paris Flammonde.
   Mercury, Nevada was but one significant AEC location mentioned by the airport men; the other was Kansas City in reference to a meeting that would soon be held as a “textile” business gathering. Kansas City, Missouri was host to a special Atomic Energy Commission facility called the “Kansas City Plant” where for a period of time, reactor fuel slugs were made, though the main work of the plant focused on weapons components and assemblies.
NIOSH has information that KCP workers inspected and assembled uranium components, machined uranium slugs, and handled uranium billets [small cylinders] and ingots… In February 1951, KCP set up a machine shop to produce 1,000 slugs per day to fuel AEC production reactors…. [p.21, NIOSH document] …The first report [to NIOSH] of DU handling at KCP was in April 1958, however DU machining began September 9, 1958…” [p.23]
*The KCP, Kansas City Plant,  situated in the Bannister Federal Complex
According to information from Giesbrecht to Flammonde:
“...the [men] began speaking of a meeting to take place at the Townhouse Motor Hotel in Kansas City, Missouri on March 18. They mentioned that the rendezvous would be registered under the name of a textile firm… Ferrie mentioned that an ‘aunt’ (or ‘auntie’?–gay patois for an older homosexual) would be flying in from California. A name which Giesbrecht thought sounded like ‘Romeniuk’ was mentioned several times…. the author [Flammonde] inquired whether the word might have been ‘Romanian’ but [Giesbrecht] did not know…”
[Flammonde interviews Giesbrecht]:
Flammonde: “From the photographs you have seen of David Ferrie..[with] a three year lapse between seeing the man and the photograph… on the basis of that, what would you say your certainty that it was Ferrie was? Fifty percent? Eighty percent?”
Giesbrecht: “I would say a hundred percent.”
Initially, the Minneapolis FBI responded to the Giesbrecht/RCMP information with enthusiasm, calling it the break they’d been waiting for. Within a few months, however, Giesbrecht would be told that it was “too big”. Confusion over the location of the “Townhouse Motor Hotel” was to reign at FBI offices until the matter was dismissed. Researcher Peter Whitmey added, “… I had no idea whether or not the Kansas City or Wichita offices followed up on the “Townhouse” lead, since I had not received any document in this regard as a result of my FOIPA request. However, by inputting “Townhouse Motor Hotel” during a search of the NARA website, I discovered that there was, indeed, a four-page report, dated April 9, 1964. Initially, the FBI in Kansas City made inquiries with the Townhouse Motor Hotel on Seventh and State Streets in Kansas City, Kansas, as well as the Coates House Hotel on Tenth and Broadway in Kansas City, Missouri to no avail. In addition, the report included the results of a further investigation conducted by the Wichita, Kansas office, after discovering that there was a Townhouse Motel on the corners of Kellogg and Broadway. As in the case of K.C., there was no reservation for a textile group scheduled on or about March 18, nor for anyone by the name “Romaniuk…”
   In this same link is another turn of Giesbrecht’s ‘hearsay’, written down by his lawyer Harry Backlin the day after the airport incident: “Reference was made in Backlin’s detailed letter to a planned ‘sales meeting’, the first since November, to be held in ‘a place sounding like Townhouse in Kansas City’. Mention was made of the names ‘Kellogg’ and ‘Broadway’…”
   No researcher yet has suggested that the men involved in the airport incident may have been using an informal name code, counting even use of the name Oswald, but we can consider going along with Sherlock Holmes on this one and “ruling out the impossible” (names and places that don’t match) for a remains closer to truth.
James P. Hosty JPHostydescribed as the Dallas FBI ‘handler’ of Oswald, was transferred to Kansas City Missouri after the issuance of the Warren report (but transferred later, in 1965):
“As a consequence for not arresting Oswald before the assassination, Hosty was banished by Hoover to the Kansas City KS FBI bureau. In those days it was considered by the director as the graveyard for agents who failed in the line of duty. But Hosty’s opinion of Kansas City…was a great place for him and his late wife Janet to raise their nine children, and a good place for an FBI agent to work.”
–note that this interview erroneously names the state of Kansas, ironically the one ‘Kansas City’ with an actual Townhouse Motor Hotel, listed as the Cross Lines Tower in wikipedia today.
   Peter Whitmey remarked that Hosty was the only assassination case investigator familiar with Giesbrecht: “Hosty indicated to me that he was aware of the Giesbrecht allegations and had, in fact, read both the FBI reports and the RCMP’s own statement, which he claimed were furnished to the Warren Commission.”
Kansas City Missouri Chief of Police Clarence M. Kelley ClarenceMKelley  Far from an FBI agent’s wasteland, Chief Kelley, installed in 1961 on the recommendation of Atty. Gen. Robert Kennedy, innovated and updated policing there to a national model. After Watergate, and following the resignation of the hapless Patrick Gray, Kelley became Director of the FBI on Nixon’s final appointment to the post.
Hosty was the only known FBI agent to interview Oswald at the Dallas Police Department after his arrest. Hosty additionally handled the investigation into the “Sylvia Odio encounter”, a visit allegedly made by Oswald and two Latin men to the Dallas apartment of Ms. Odio in late September ’63. Oswald’s ‘official’ whereabouts at that time put him in Mexico City, though known and confirmed to have been an imposter, the identity of the Odio visitors remains unresolved. Hosty himself said, “I’m also the third of three Agents who was assigned to the Lee Oswald case. The first one John Fain had it for two years and he is the one that interviewed Oswald twice before the assassination. Then the second Agent to have it assigned was Milton Kaact. K-a-a-c-t… Milton Kaact was in New Orleans… Oswald was interviewed one time in New Orleans by Jack Quigley… I got the case in October of 1963, one month before the assassination, lucky me. I never did interview Oswald until he was arrested… I was forbidden to interview Oswald because he was a contact case. As you [FBI] all know..when they contact the Soviet Embassy, you may not interview them without specific permission. In this case, I am sure it would never have been granted because the CIA was involved… I might add that I found out later that all of the, quote, CIA agents, unquote, who were conducting the surveillance were actually FBI Agents who had left the Bureau, gone to the CIA and had set up a system almost identical to what we had in New York and Washington Field Office. I got that straight from the legal attache [legat] from Mexico. I forget his name…but he told me and several other agents…in September of ’63 that these were all ex-FBI.”
At odds with Hosty’s account is another that asserts, “Dallas FBI agent James P. Hosty Jr. For over a year in 1962-63, Hosty had been keeping occasional tabs on Oswald and his wife, Marina.” p55, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
More references to pre-assassination activity in Kansas City, known to the FBI, includes ties to David Ferrie, Jack Ruby, and the anti-Castro Cubans.
Researcher-author-lawyer Harold Weisberg wrote about an alleged Castro “spy” named Fernando Fernandez, who was caught and tortured in Miami trying to infiltrate an anti-Castro group called CDM or MDC (Christian democratic movement), ostensibly to get back into Cuba. “Fernandez must have known better: Infante told the FBI that what really worried Fernandez, why he really wanted to get out of the country, was his fear of prosecution by the federal authorities at Kansas City. Fernandez confessed just this, in detail. He had operated ‘an employment agency wherein he imported Mexican women to act as maids to the Kansas City area’ a sideline while attending Kansas City University, ‘and this activity resulted in investigation by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Fearing arrest by INS, Fernandez left Kansas City and came to Miami…desiring to return to Cuba…  Fernandez also told the the Miami FBI that ‘he traveled to New Orleans, Louisiana, to receive commando training at a farm about 30 miles north of New Orleans..[which was] inadequate and it appeared to Fernandez that the MDC was conducting a racket by exhibiting the ‘commandos’ in training to wealthy Americans who were asked to contribute to the anti-Castro cause… Ultimately, Fernandez was relocated..[w]ith the help of the Catholic Cuban Relief, [and] sent to Chicago [where he was] charged with ‘encouraging and inducing the illegal entry of aliens…” [sentenced February 1964] Weisberg adds that “one reason for federal silence about this New Orleans training camp could be..embarassment at having tolerated such consummate incompetence. They could not plan and execute the capture of a home for crippled octogenarian women. The time had come…” pp157-161, Oswald in New Orleans, 1967
   Professor Peter Dale Scott records that “As the FBI agent assigned to handle both arms trafficking and the Oswalds before the assassination, Hosty quickly became a party to some the FBI’s most serious cover-up activities. [p119, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK] “One possibility…is that Oswald was indeed an FBI informant…and that in Dallas James Hosty, the FBI liason on gunrunning cases, was using Oswald to investigate gunrunning.” [p120, ibid.]
“On January 24 1964, the Warren Commission heard from Dallas district attorney Henry Wade and Texas attorney general Waggoner Carr that Oswald had been an FBI informant since September 1962, that he had a government voucher for $200 at the time of his arrest, and that FBI Agent James Hosty’s name and phone number were in his address book…[which] proved to be true…  As to the story that Oswald was an FBI informant, I doubt that Oswald was directly on the FBI payroll. A more likely possibility is that he worked for a private security agency which in turn reported to the FBI, the way that ex-FBI and ex-Office of Naval Intelligence agent Guy Banister, according to a CIA document, reported to the FBI in New Orleans. It is time to look more closely at Oswald’s extraordinary career, in which he appeared to develop revolutionary sympathies while in the Marines, established communications with the Communist party, and nevertheless was able to gain an employment at a firm (Jaggars-Stiles-Stovall in Dallas) which did classified work for the US.Army requiring a security clearance.” [p243, Deep Politics…,1993]
*DeepPoliticsCoverProfessor Scott uses an example of a dual agent in the person of Robert C. Ronstadt who “went to work for a Los Angeles firm, Allied Records, that was concerned about possible Communist employees. At the same time, Ronstadt began to sell subscriptions to the Communist Daily People’s World, and after some months he became a Communist Party member in the spring of 1947. Ronstadt, who had originally passed his FBI entrance exam in 1942, later explained…that his job had been to smoke out potential Red sympathizers. His actual employer was the private investigative firm of [McCarthy and Dunn], industrial security consultants to Allied Records…  After Ronstadt succeeded in joining the Communist party, he ceased to work for McCarthy and Dunn, and for the first time was paid directly by the FBI as an informant. [p244]
“Oswald’s business career is suggestively like Ronstadt’s… According to the Warren Commission, Oswald’s [Jaggars-Stiles-Stovall] job was found for him by the Texas Employment Commission (WR719). However, according to investigative journalist Anthony Summers, George deMohrenschildt’s wife and daughter both said that deMohrenschildt, who as we saw had CIA connections in both Dallas and Washington, arranged for the job…  Shortly after beginning work, in the same month of October [1962], Oswald and his wife established social contact with Max Clark, the chief of industrial security for the General Dynamics plant in Fort Worth which secured the controversial TFX contract in the fall of 1963.
“Thereafter, Oswald’s proximity to potential subversives, worthy of investigation, seems to have been continuous… Even during his next job, at the Reily Coffee Company in New Orleans, both he and his co-workers talked of moving soon to the newly opened NASA Space Center in nearby Michoud…[p245]
“All this suggests that, like Ronstadt, Oswald’s true employer may not have been the firms, but a private investigative agency doing industrial-security work. This would explain the FBI’s zeal to cover up the paycheck anomalies, and the reluctance of the government, to this day, to release Oswald’s income-tax records.” [p246, Deep Politics and the Death Of JFK, 1993]
   In the next chapter of Scott’s book, chapter 16 page 254, the author poses his inquiry into the title: “Oswald as a Double Agent for Hoover”, capturing the essence if not the substance of the point at hand.Were the documents available to him, Dr.Scott might have perused the Dual Agent memos of the FBI and AEC which were closed out,  refiled, and signed off by William Sullivan on September 30 1964, four days after the initial publication of the finished Warren Re[ort.
…. According to FBI/AEC Dual Agent Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.”… “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by the now Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to re-initiate the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”
*   AECDualFileSignSullivan
*   The most conspicuous facts about the FBI/AEC Dual Agent memos are the ten year gap in the record (1954-1964) at the time of greatest nuclear promotion and the curious closure of the files a few scant days after the Warren Report rolled off the presses. Rarely is it ever mentioned in the scheme of “who benefited” after JFK’s assassination that the fledgling government-funded nuclear power complex ballooned to new heights starting in January of 1964. The available record of early memos [1949-1953] also corresponds with the timing of the discovery of atomic spies Klaus Fuchs and the Rosenberg ring, and the successful tests of H-bombs by the U.S. and USSR.  “In August 1949 FBI Liason Charles Bates asked AEC security to investigate the activities of Klaus Fuchs, a physicist of British citizenship who had worked at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge during the war.” p114, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau, 1984. The statement has been made by Hans Bethe that if Fuchs had passed H-bomb secrets from Los Alamos to the Soviets it would have been harmless because they were then ‘headed in the wrong direction.’
Prosecution of the Rosenbergs was another FBI/AEC collaboration.
CharlesWBates   Supervising the would-be atomic agents in the dual FBI/AEC start-up was FBI agent and Dallas, Texas native Charles W. Bates, born in the north suburb of Lewisville  along with his twin brother. The Bateses were close family friends of Texas congressman Sam Rayburn and the boys looked on him as a second father, according to author Priscilla McMillan in The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a fact which impressed J. Edgar Hoover. Charles Bates’s maternal aunt was Sam Rayburn’s secretary, Alla Clary, who was well-known in Washington D.C. and a local celebrity in her hometown of McKinney Texas.
   During the secretive 1954 AEC tribunal against Oppenheimer engineered by chairman Strauss and abetted by Hoover, Bates became the special courier for files and messages between the two chiefs. “Hoover had chosen his go-between with care. At the age of thirty-four, Bates, a good-looking, gregarious man with slicked-back dark hair, dark skin, and sometimes dark glasses, had become part of Strauss’s inner circle… He spent nearly all his time at the AEC and had entree to everyone in the building. Not only did he deliver the FBI’s wiretap reports, but he carried verbal messages between Hoover and Strauss…  Bates now looked on Hoover, too, as a second father and came up with pretexts to drop in at his office… Bates got along with Strauss… Eventually Strauss relied on Bates and sometimes turned to him for advice. Hoover relied on help him gauge Strauss’s frame of mind.” [p189, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 2005, Viking/Penguin]
Of  the three boys born to Kate Clary Bates, ‘Benjamin Clary’ (the likely twin) became a doctor in Austin, ‘Charles William’ in the FBI, and ‘Uncas Daniel’ who remained in Dallas working for the city’s Water department. On 11-22-63 if it means anything, there was also a water hydrant incident on the motorcade route which blocked traffic at about the same time an ‘epileptic seizure’ event took place in Dealey Plaza. (called in by DPD  patrolman F.T.Chance, who requested dispatch to get help from the water dept.)
*   MarinaPriscilla Marina Oswald and author Priscilla Johnson (Mrs.) McMillan
   The purveyor of the privileged and secretive relationship among Hoover, Bates, and Strauss is none other than the “writing collaborator for the Agency” Priscilla Johnson, who interviewed Lee Harvey Oswald in 1959 at the Hotel Metropole in Moscow. At the time Mrs. McMillan was representing NANA, the North American Newspaper Alliance, which has been called an “OSS-CIA asteroid” founded by Ernest Cuneo, the WWII White House liason with British intelligence. She published three books in her career; Krushchev and the Arts (with Leopold Labedz) in 1965, Marina and Lee in 1977 (reissued for 50th anniversary of JFK’s death), and The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer in 2005.
    Johnson McMillan herself was to benefit from a privileged and exclusive relationship living-in with Marina Oswald in 1964 while the Warren Commission was in session. “[Priscilla] once was an assistant to Senator John F. Kennedy and went on to become an acknowledged expert on Soviet affairs. It is Mrs. McMillan who has been responsible for much of the information concerning Oswald’s personal life shortly before the assassination.” [p.120, Crossfire by Jim Marrs].
Priscilla Johnson earned a bit of extra notoriety for having “dated” Senator John F. Kennedy: “Though Priscilla refused to sleep with him, Jack enjoyed their playful, teasing relationship…’Jack,’ Priscilla told him, ‘if you get divorced, cease being Catholic, and get out of politics, I might think of you seriously.’ [Jack said] ‘You’ve been stringing me along all these years because I’m an interesting political figure.'” –p231, All Too Human, 1996, by Edward Klein
Lawyer Mark Lane stated that, “The FBI, in its previously top-secret documents, had considered only two persons to be suspects in the assassination of President Kennedy. One, of course, was Lee Harvey Oswald. The other was Priscilla Johnson…” [p.67, Plausible Denial] “Priscilla Johnson had met Oswald in Moscow in 1959, almost as soon as he arrived there”…[p.68] “Johnson had been assigned by the CIA to meet with Oswald and interview him.” [p.69, ibid.] Lane relates how during the last days of the Warren Commission, “the unresolved question…[about when] Oswald was supposed to have been in Mexico City for a week [Sept.26-Oct.3, 1963]…had no evidence of his presence [there]” until the sudden appearance of bus tickets, found by Johnson, folded inside a magazine in Marina’s hotel room.
   Of the two books authored by Mrs. McMillan in her career, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer (2005) positioned her as something of a go-to expert on Oppenheimer and the origins of atomic weapons (dontcha know– see “manhattan project voices” on the web). Two other writers of note already mentioned in this post seem to have followed an associated course: Kai Bird with American Prometheus (2005) and Philip M. Stern with the 1969 publication of The Oppenheimer Case. Stern dedicated his book to his mother, Edith Rosenwald, heiress to the Sears Roebuck fortune amassed by her father Julius and expanded by her brother, Lessing J. Rosenwald.
   Among numerous titles and offices held by Lessing Rosenwald was the wartime (WWII) presidency of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study, where Admiral Lewis Strauss, future chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, shared the executive as vice-president. The IAS produced essential research and technology for the Manhattan Project and weather control. The men were also to share over the course of many years office holdings in the American Jewish Committee, where Edgar Bloom Stern additionally held membership. We know today that the AJC sponsored ‘Frankfurt School’ psychology and the conferences which led to the creation of MK-Ultra, the CIA’s secret mind control programs.
As for Strauss insider and ‘dual atomic agent’ veteran Charles W. Bates, he “was at different times head of the FBI’s offices in Chicago, Cleveland and Omaha, Neb., and served seven years [1958-1965] as the legal attache at the U.S. Embassy in the United Kingdom [London], another Hoover appointment. In the [legat] position, he was chief of the FBI [intelligence] liason office covering England, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland.
    It is not possible to locate Bates’s actual whereabouts during his long-term London service, interfacing with MI5, MI6, and other U.S. agencies, though it is doubtless that Bates and Oswald were familiar during LHO’s transit through London and Helsinki. Bates later surfaced in a more public way: “In 1969, Charles Bates was a special agent at the Chicago office of the FBI when police killed Black Panthers Fred Hampton and Mark Clark while they were sleeping [during a 4am raid on a family apartment]… In 1971, Bates was transferred to Washington D.C. According to Watergate burglar James McCord…on June 21, 1972 (four days after the break-in), White House attorney John Dean checked with acting FBI director L. Patrick Gray as to who was in charge of handling the Watergate investigation. The answer: Charles Bates –the same FBI official who in 1974 would be in charge of handling the SLA investigation and the search for Patty Hearst.”
*                                                                         PaulineBates
Another ‘Bates’, Miss Pauline V. Bates, had an unusual encounter with Oswald only days after his return from the USSR to Fort Worth in June of 1962. Oswald sought legal stenographer services to type his loose notes from Russia, notes that “were very bitter against Russia” according to her Warren testimony. He left her with the impression, as the local headline reads after the assassination, that “He Was Secret Agent For U.S.”  Was Oswald feeding his legend*, his legacy, or naming his handler?
[legend: cover story]
   The oddity of Oswald’s first seemingly voluntary act as a redeemed American was the 3-day effort for the uncommunicative Oswald to get ten dollars worth of typewritten pages from Ms. Bates, a job paid for but left unfinished.
Asking the obvious: Was Pauline Bates a relative of Charles Bates? She said that she was first in the phonebook and rejoined with a statement that she was also the only ‘legal’ stenographer in the area, qualified for work with law enforcement.
Watergate Note:
   At the time of the June 1972 hotel break-in, Charles W. Bates was an assistant director of the FBI, chief of the CID, Criminal Investigations Division. J. Edgar had died weeks before on May 2, and was replaced by Nixon appointee and loyalist L. Patrick Gray. To fend off interference from the White House and CIA, four senior FBI asst. directors, now known to have worked collectively as ‘Deep Throat’, conspired to leak evidence about White House activities to the press: They were W. Mark Felt, Charles Bates, Robert G. Kunkel and Richard Long. In September of ’72, Dir.Gray announced that two of them would be leaving the capitol. Kunkel would be transferred to St. Louis and Bates would “exchange jobs” with the SAC in San Francisco.
The infamous slush fund for Nixon’s CREEP, used in part for the Watergate burglars and exposed during the House investigation by Wright Patman, included laundered cash provided by “Robert H. Allen, a mysterious nuclear weapons materials executive. Allen was chairman of Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation in Houston. His company controlled half the world’s supply of lithium, an essential component of hydrogen bombs…  Robert H. Allen was Texas CREEP’s chief financial officer… In keeping with its strategic nuclear holdings, Allen’s Gulf Resources was a kind of committee of the main components of the London-New York oligarchy.” p247, George Bush, The Unauthorized Biography, by Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, 1992
   Business filings in Delaware list Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation as established on January 20, 1961 –JFK’s inauguration day and an important Oswald imposter event that helped set up a false trail in Dallas while LHO was still in the USSR.
   “A decade after Watergate, it was revealed that the Hunt family had controlled about 15 percent of Gulf Resources shares. This Texas oil family hired George Bush in 1977 to be the executive committee chairman of their family enterprise, the First International Bank in Houston.” p248, ibid. The Patman investigation was derailed and shut down: “House Republican leader Gerald Ford led the attack on Patman from within the Congress…” p249, ibid.
Another Presidential assassin took a potshot at Gerald Ford in Charles Bates’s San Francisco jurisdiction —really in his jurisdiction– when S.F. FBI informant, linked to the SLA, Sara Jane Moore fired off a round on September 22, 1975, less than three weeks after Manson girl Squeaky Fromme attempted the same in Sacramento Sept.5. Had the attempt succeeded, Nelson Rockefeller would have become president.
*                                        GeraldFordSFattempt *SaraJaneMoore Sara Jane Moore, FBI-informant-turned-presidential-assassin — “Moore’s attempt to kill Ford was part of a string of bizarre crimes in Northern California.”
One of those bizarre crimes in which Charles Bates had direct involvement was the Chowchilla schoolbus kidnapping — Chowchilla CA became a post-assassination focal point in the mid-70s when an alleged former CIA contract agent named Claude Barnes Capehart, said to have been photographed at the Texas School Book Depository on 11-22-63, ‘retired’ to Chowchilla. There Capehart came to the attention of (former District Atty.) Judge David Minier who had ruled on Bates’s Chowchilla kidnapping case, and followed up on Capehart after learning about him “from the FBI”. Judge Minier filed a lawsuit against the CIA for the release of JFK assassination records.
*                                                                             FBILogo
While agent Oswald was in Japan, FBI and Deep-Throat conspirator Robert G. Kunkel was the U.S. embassy legat in Tokyo (1957-1959). When Oswald made his 1959 journey through the UK, Helsinki and USSR, as stated, Bates was the legat in London. British author of Official and Confidential, Anthony Summers, used Charles Bates as a vital source of information in the telling of J. Edgar Hoover’s secret life. Summers did not mention, however, any special relationship between Bates and Hoover or anyone else. What became situationally clear in Summers’ book just the same, was Bates acting on the special bidding of Hoover– example of implicating JFK in the ‘Profumo Affair’ sex scandal in Britain. For the brief remainder of Bates’ days in Washington D.C. after Hoover’s death and the Watergate break-in, he could have spent his time destroying documents which were known to have disappeared from the FBI repositories by the truckload.
The Profumo Affair was not just a sex scandal for Britain’s Defence Minister but a Soviet spy ring: [2013, The Mirror] “Christine Keeler comes clean and admits to being a spy… [Stephen] Ward used that first meeting [between Keeler and Profumo] to steal secret letters from Profumo’s briefcase detailing the delivery of nuclear weapons to Germany… Christine says she has now seen FBI documents that prove she was being watched by them.”
   At least three of Christine Keeler’s friends came to Washington DC: “JFK got involved with the sex parties arranged by Bobby Baker, connected, it seems, to Stephen Ward in London… By 1963 Kennedy realized that [LBJ] was behind Baker’s blackmail politicians in Washington…”
Legal Attaches..are expected to coordinate their investigative activities with other U.S. law enforcement and intelligence agencies, such as the DEA and CIA… Historically, organized crime has been the top priority of the Tokyo Legat…   FBI seeks candidates for Legat and ALAT [assistant legat] positions who have broad knowledge of FBI programs…and require minimal guidance and direction from FBI headquarters.”
*                                                            AtsugiWelcomeSign
By the time young Oswald reached Japan, “according to the declassified 1956-57 Far East Command ‘Standing’ Operating Procedures for Atomic Operations, 13 separate locations in Japan had nuclear weapons or components, or were earmarked to receive nuclear weapons in times of crisis or war… It is true that..the bombs stored on the mainland lacked their plutonium and/or uranium cores, and that the nuclear-armed ships were a legal inch away from Japanese soil. All in all, [an] elaborate stratagem maintained the technicality that the United States had no nuclear weapons ‘in Japan’.”
   Journalist Yoichi Shimatsu adds that Prime Minister Nobusuke “Kishi secretly negotiated a deal with the White House to permit the U.S. military to store atomic bombs in Okinawa and Atsugi naval air station outside Tokyo. (Marine corporal Lee Harvey Oswald served as a guard inside Atsugi’s underground warhead armory.) In exchange, the U.S. gave the nod for Japan to pursue a ‘civilian’ nuclear program… On his 1959 visit to Britain, Kishi was flown by military helicopter to the Bradwell nuclear plant in Essex..[and later] uttered the famous statement that ‘nuclear weapons are not expressly prohibited’ under the postwar Constitution’s Article 9… Covert weapons rife with problems. In the event of an emergency, like [the Fukushima meltdowns], secrecy must be enforced at all cost…”
* AtsugiGate   *atsugigate_r1   *AtsugiHangar
“In the 50-year history of U.S. overseas nuclear deployment policy, Japan has consistently been  positioned as an important nuclear base in Asia. When the overall occupation of Japan by the U.S. came to an end [c. 1951], an overseas nuclear war command center was established in the central part of Tokyo at the end of 1952. This was one of two such establishments in the whole world, with the other one near London.”
It soon followed that “President Eisenhower then authorized the use of war-gold [‘Golden Lily’ or ‘Yamashita’ treasure, combined with Nazi and Fascist loot, known as the Black Eagle Trust [or Japan’s Showa Trust] to set up the LDP [Liberal Democratic Party, which was neither], interfering in the domestic political process in Japan, putting the Japanese people back under a one-party dictatorship under a man –Kishi– who had been involved in armed robbery, narcotics, and slave labor since the 1930s.” –Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (p.236, Gold Warriors)
Atsugi was known as “one of only two locations outside the United States (along with Manila in the Philippines) where the CIA maintained a store of LSD.” (e.g. Peter Levenda,
Manchurian Candidate-style mind control, as Atsugi was transitioning for coexistence with a constitutionally self-governed Japan, was then initiated as Project Bluebird.
” ‘I went into Atsugi just as World War II ended, taking some of MacArthur’s bodyguard in there,’ says Colonel L. Fletcher Prouty, a former Pentagon-CIA liason officer (1955-63). ‘A montrous stairway went down into caverns you could drive a truck into. A huge underground base. The agency used it for a lot of things.’ “ –p135, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
Harold Weisberg (author previously of Whitewash and Whitewash II):
“At one o’clock in the morning of December 15, 1966, in the Oakland California studios of Radio Station KNEW, I had just finished appearing on..[a] lengthy phone-in radio program… There was a man on the line who..wanted to speak to me but not on the air [and] firther, he wanted the assurance that our conversation would be private… [p85]
   “This man had been in the Marine Corps with Oswald. From his personal experience, he did not believe a single word about the Oswald..that became public with the [Warren] Report. He had agonized in silence for..three years…[and] had built a successful life, had a family, and was worried about the possible consequences…
   “[H]e would only talk in anonymity…
   “Briefly, it is his story that Oswald was bright, not a kook of any kind, not a blatant or proselytizing Marxist, and really a quiet serious guy. They knew each other socially… He never heard Oswald say anything about Communism, for or against, in all this time.
   “More important is what he disclosed about Oswald’s position in the Marine Corps. The unit in which both served, said my informant, was one of three similar ones of which one was always in Japan and the others in the United States. Their function was classified. Every man in the outfit carried a security clearance. [p86]. They had a security designation of which I had never heard. These were that kind of unusual military organizations. Of all the men in the outfit, five had special ‘top’ security approvals. The entire complement carried a minimum of ‘confidential’ (the grade the official file records Oswald as having). Above this there were ‘secret’, ‘top secret’, and a special one, ‘crypto’. Of all the men only five were ‘crypto’. One of these was Lee Harvey Oswald!
   ” ‘Can you possibly be wrong?’ I asked him.
   “He insisted not.
   ” ‘Could your memory be playing tricks?’
   “No, he was positive. He went farther when I questioned him about ‘crypto’, which he indicated was ‘black box’ stuff. I took it to mean a connection with nuclear weapons.
   “If correct, this is more than in disagreement with the entire official story of Oswald, his relations with the government and the assassination… In every way he could, this man insisted he was not in error, that he knew. And he went into more detail..[about Oswald’s] ‘hardship’ discharge so he could care for an allegedly destitute mother… the mysterious caller specified that Oswald spent his last two or three weeks in the service with CID. [military intelligence]” –pp85-87, Oswald in New Orleans, by Harold Weisberg, 1967
   Godzilla comes to Tokyo 1954 GodillaInTokyo
Popular interpretation has it that the Godzilla impulse arose from the Bikini “Castle-Bravo’ test of March 1, 1954, attended by Chairman Strauss, and the contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon #5, but the not-so-secret arrival of nuclear weapons on Japanese shores suggests itself.
*                                                       operation__castle_bravo__1954___3_by_awesomeness360-d7g4k0y Is that Godzilla!? –no, it’s detonation Castle-Bravo: “This radiological calamity had a significant impact on world opinion and helped spark the movement for a nuclear test moratorium which ultimately led to the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty…  Until recently, an extensive collection of documents on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands was readily available on a Department of Energy website: The Marshall Islands Document Collection. It no longer has an online presence. In the fall of 2013, at the time of the U.S. government shutdown, this important collection disappeared from the web.”
“In 1954, the Japanese government began funding a [U.S. approved] nuclear research program. In December 1955, it passed the Atomic Energy Basic Law, establishing the Japan Atomic Energy Commission… the JAEC…[and] purchased its first commercial reactor from Britain but quickly switched to US-designed light-water reactors. By mid-1957, the government had contracted to buy 20 additional reactors...” –Peter Kuznik, The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists,
Atoms for Peace plans called for Japan to become a nuclear showcase. It was even proposed to site the first power generating station in Hiroshima, but the groundswell to ban nukes originating from “a group of middle class housewives in the Suginami ward in Tokyo… grew into a nationwide movement… Lewis Strauss..told the White House press secretary [that the fishing boat] was really a ‘Red spy outfit’, a component of a Russian espionage system. At the request of Strauss, the CIA investigated..and categorically denied it. Nonetheless, Strauss continued to maintain that the irradiation of the Lucky Dragon ‘was no accident’ for the captain..must have been ‘in the employ of the Russians’.”
The 23-man crew of Lucky Dragon #5 were all hospitalized in Tokyo after reaching their home port of Yaizu. All had suffered “nausea, fatigue, vomiting, anorexia, conjunctivitis…leukopenia, thrombopenia, and mild to moderate anemia” with a host of persistent skin disorders from radiological exposure. News in the U.S., some coming from fact-finding congressmen, assured the public that the fishermen would recover in “2 to 3 weeks”. Two AEC health investigators were sent to observe the patients.
   In September more than six months after Bravo, the first and allegedly only Lucky Dragon crewman to do so, died of radiation injuries. The others survived, recovering in a 2 to 3 years time. Six weeks after the radio operator’s death on September 23, the FBI opened it’s first Tokyo Legal Attache office in the embassy, November of 1954.
*Richard Case Nagell RichardCNagell
“The Man Who Knew Too Much” told journalist Dick Russell, “I knew Lee Harvey Oswald before 1962. We had a casual but purposeful acquaintance in Japan when he was stationed there in the Marines. My association with him, then and later, was strictly with an objective.” p80, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell
   Nagell’s objective was military intelligence, then working for the Army’s Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) coming off a two-year stint with it’s more secret Field Operations Intelligence (FOI) unit headquartered in Tokyo. FOI had its ostensible start under the leadership of MacArthur’s WWII intelligence chief Charles Willoughby: “In correspondence with Allen Dulles, Willoughby described his having ‘solved’ his intramural battles with the CIA in occupied Japan ‘thru the creation of a J.S.O. (Special Operations) in which CIA had autonomy but co-ordinated with us in covert operations to avoid crossing wires’… Willoughby also set up the original 441st Counter Intelligence Corps Group…   [T]he Asian network he had left behind was flourishing. MacArthur, Willoughby, and the CIA had midwifed a string of bone-crushing regimes calling themselves the Iron Triangle, as author Sterling Seagrave has written. These included Chiang Kai-shek’s old Kuomintang on Taiwan, right-wing strongman Syngman Rhee in South Korea, as well as puppet governments in the Philippines and Japan. By 1954, elements within South Korea’s Headquarters Intelligence Division (HID) and Chiang’s own spy net would unite conservatives from across the continent to battle the ‘red hordes’. They called themselves the Asian People’s Anti-Communist League (APACL). Their prime mover in Tokyo was Nobusuke Kishi, another war criminal freed by Willoughby… And [Kishi’s] seventy-five thousand [75,000]man National Police Agency, first established by MacArthur and Willoughby, spent much of their time keeping an eye on American servicemen and tourists with possible ‘subversive leanings’.” pp128-129, ibid. By 1955 “Willoughby was living on Park Avenue in New York.” p130, ibid.
“Meanwhile, the Munich-based Gehlen apparatus with which Dulles and Willoughby worked soon extended its tentacles far into Asia, its operatives hooking up with those of the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League.On Taiwan in October 1957, an international meeting was held setting the stage for a grand global alliance of such forces. Chiang Kai-shek, Syngman Rhee, and South Vietnam’s leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, all sent representatives to the steering committee. German veterans were included, notably Fritz Cramer– a former Nazi Abwehr officer who then headed up a private vigilante group that ferreted out German leftists at the behest of private industry. Its U.S. sister organization was the American Security Council (ASC), a private Washington group set up in 1955 by ex-FBI agents that built an index of over one million alleged ‘subversives’ for major corporations seeking security checks. Willoughby, a friend of Fritz Cramer, eventually sat on the ASC’s board… This event coincided with Oswald’s arrival in the Far East… In Tokyo the Nagell and Oswald paths were soon to cross for the first time.” pp131-132, ibid.
   In September of 1963, after posting an assassination warning to J.Edgar Hoover, Nagell went into a bank in El Paso Texas and fired two shots into the ceiling corner. He left the building and sat in his car until surrendering minutes later to an El Paso officer. “During the course of his El Paso trial in 1964, Nagell was asked to describe the [Army’s] CIC. ‘Well…the mission is to investigate any matters relating to treason, subversion, espionage, disaffection, that might be taking place within the military establishment or that might be conducted by civilians which are employed by the corporations, factories or concerns which are under military contract… And overseas..[CIC] have police powers… In fact, overseas they are just like the FBI in some ways.'” [p97, The Man Who Knew Too Much] …[Nagell] also told me [author Russell] the FBI was working overseas when they weren’t supposed to be.” [p26, ibid.] “As Nagell wrote years later, ‘What it all boils down to (the impetus behind the government’s diligent prosecution of me in the 1960s, the true reason for my lengthy imprisonment, all of this injustice) can be explained in one sentence: I informed the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and others, as early as September 17, 1963, that Lee Harvey Oswald and two of his Cuban associates were planning to assassinate the President of the United States… and nothing was done about it.’ “ p441, ibid.
According to Nagell, the Soviets had induced him to work for them, even at times when Nagell believed he was working for the CIA: “In the summer of 1963,’ as Nagell wrote to Senator Richard Russell, ‘I received instructions to initiate certain action against Mr. Oswald, who was the indispensable tool in the conspiracy, and thereafter depart the United States legally.’ Nagell was to try to persuade Oswald ‘that the deal was phony’… [p429] “In the event that Nagell failed in his attempt to get Oswald to back away from the ‘phony deal’, he was supposed to meet with him –and then kill him– in Mexico City… According to [Nagell’s lawyer] Fensterwald memo of a 1973 conversation with Nagell, ‘The USSR ordered Nagell to eliminate Lee Harvey Oswald because they thought it might be an extreme embarassment to them if he was caught, not because he was one of them, but because of his history.’ ” [p438] “Whatever else Nagell may have been involved in with Oswald, Nagell has never been willing to say… What alarmed Nagell was that he found himself caught in the middle of something going on between American and Soviet intelligence.” p440, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
Author Russell claims that “This book marks the first time that any known meeting between Oswald and Soviet intelligence in Japan has ever been alleged. Though I have only Nagell’s word that it occurred, the name of ‘Nicolai G. Eroshkin’ under a heading of former military attache at the Tokyo embassy does show up in the notebook taken from Nagell by the FBI in 1963. Nagell maintained that Oswald and the Russian colonel had more than one meeting, though he has never specified what they may have talked about. But Nagell did add that almost since the day ‘Oswald first saw Eroshkin at the embassy, the Soviets suspected the Marine of being an agent of one of the U.S. intelligence services.’
   “Something else was going on around Colonel Eroshkin in 1957 and 1958. The CIA was trying to entice him to defect to the American side.” [p.136]
   [A Japanese official and personal friend of Nagell’s]“Jun Murai, head of the Tohoku Regional Police Bureau and formerly director of the Cabinet Research Office, Japan’s equivalent of the CIA…’warned [Nagell] that the Japanese had penetrated the [Eroshkin] project and believed that it entailed something else, something unlawful that might further strain the already tense relations then existing between Japan and the USSR.’ Murai made ‘pointed reference to some unsavory incidents that had occurred over the past several years involving the CIA’…” [p138, The Man Who Knew Too Much]
Incidental to Russell’s research, on a prompt from Nagell regarding his 1963 suspected-KGB contact ‘Oaxaca’ in Mexico, who requested a meeting with Oswald through Nagell [the September ’63 Mexico City trip], Russell introduces a curious fellow named Albert Alexander Osborne, a.k.a. John Howard Bowen. Albert Osborne sat next to Oswald on a bus ride for 18 hours into Mexico. The figure of Osborne/Bowen, whom the FBI believed to be one person with a duel-identity, remains a mystery today, deepened in that Dick Russell’s detailed reference to Osborne in his 1992 book was wholly omitted from the 2003 re-issue of the Man Who Knew Too Much.
*                                                 Albert Alexander Osborne passportOsborne  a.k.a. John Howard Bowen, born and raised in England, had only one clearly traceable residence-location from where he came and went in the United States in Knoxville Tennessee, the nearest city to the Manhattan Project’s Oak Ridge Facility. It may even be that Albert Osborne adopted his second identity as Bowen in Knoxville in 1943 as Oak Ridge was being built and inhabited. Bowen was said to have left Knoxville after the summer of ’43. Over a ten year period beginnng in 1953, “Bowen” infrequently but occasionally announced his status as a missionary in Mexico through articles sent to the Knoxville Journal. Osborne later took refuge in Knoxville again in 1964 to escape hounding by the FBI according to his anonymous friends. The FBI at least caught up with Osborne in Nashville in March of ’64 for what was his third and last interview with the FBI. After this he was officially written off as a con man and witnesses were told to forget about him. He died in San Antonio, Texas in 1966 at age 77, believed to be caused by food poisoning.
   Besides his infamous September of ’63 bus ride with Oswald in Mexico, Osborne the traveler left New York City for the U.K. six weeks later on November 13. The journey included a novel visit to his English siblings who hadn’t seen him in 40 years and then, as his sister told it, Osborne departed for London, arriving on or near November 18, 1963. He returned to New York on an Icelandic Airlines flight originating in Luxembourg on December 5. Albert Alexander Osborne, whose name-parts were variously used as aliases by Lee Harvey Oswald (or his impersonators), was not the only Oswald contact trekking to London in the months or weeks before the assassination of President Kennedy.
Luxembourg is a tiny sovereign nation surrounded by France, Belgium, and Germany and “is one of the world’s largest financial centers as well as worldwide leader in the investment industry and the largest international private banking center in the Eurozone.”
Independent of Nagell, Russell revealed a forewarning of Kennedy’s assassination from a military source; a young Army  codebreaker stationed in Metz, France named Eugene B. Dinkin. Metz is less than 40 miles from the city of Luxembourg in Luxembourg. Dinkin’s troubles began, according to a superior officer, when “During a troop information class on the subject ‘Duty, Honor, Country,’ Private Dinkin made a 25-minute speech on the government’s stockpiling of atomic bombs…’ On September 24, 1963…Dinkin was given a psychiatric evaluation” which resulted in the revocation of his ‘crypto’ clearance and a transfer. Within a month, Private Dinkin initiated a personal campaign to warn U.S. authorities about a planned assassination against the U.S. president scheduled for late November. “So Dinkin suddenly left his unit. On October 25, he set set out to try to contact certain European ambassadors in the nearby nation of Luxembourg, in hopes that his message would then filter through their intelligence networks back to the United States. Nobody would give him the time of day except the Israeli ambassador to Luxembourg, who, Dinkin writes, advised him how best to present his case at the American embassy there.” [p554, The Man Who Knew Too Much] Private Dinkin was shortly to learn “through the military grapevine” that the Army was going to lock him up as a psychotic –he went AWOL and took his message to the press office of the U.N. in Geneva Switzerland, followed by a visit to Frankfurt, then on to the U.S. embassy in Bonn, W. Germany where he failed to convey his warning. Advised to return to his unit, Dinkin was promptly arrested and hospitalized on November 13 and held incommunicado, finally ending his travels stateside weeks later; “transferred on December 5, 1963 to Walter Reed Hospital in Washington D.C…[and] began receiving ‘therapy'” for his “unfortunate condition [of] schizo-assassination prognostication.” [p556, ibid.]
Osborne is very reminiscent of the “wandering bishops” written about by Peter Levenda, at least four of whom were working with Guy Banister in Louisiana (David Ferrie, Jack Martin, Thomas Beckham, Tommy Baumler). A week after the southbound Mexico bus ride, allegedly, Osborne returned to the US heading for New Orleans –one day later, Oswald returned and headed for Dallas where he lodged at the YMCA. Osborne too, frequented the local ‘Y’s on his travels, having been found by the FBI at a Y in Nashville.
   The wandering bishops of New Orleans in the JFK assassination plot were tied to two men who inducted them through “apostolic succession”, and both were working with the FBI by the time of the Garrison investigation in 1967: those two were Carl J. Stanley and Walter (Wolodymr) Propheta. Bishop Propheta in New York was even “installed as Primate” of the American Orthodox Catholic Church in ’67 by J. Edgar Hoover, according to Levenda. Another overlap occurrs relevant to 1963 with “yet another personality close to the Propheta organization [who] was the famous wrestler Antonino Rocca –retired from wrestling at that time– claimed to be an agent of the CIA working out of Lebanon; he further claimed that he was running Phantom jets into Israel under diplomatic radar by having them shipped to Luxembourg first and then flying them into Israel…” [p283, Sinister Forces, by Peter Levenda]
Again, similar to Osborne, was Fred Lee Crisman* FredLeeCrisman
Characterized as a roving minister and con man from Tacoma Washington, Crisman’s colorful background included a role in the first recorded UFO encounter known as the Maury Island incident in Puget Sound 1947. Crisman was a former military man, ex-employee of Boeing and allegedly Lockheed as well. He went on to promote his UFO and alien technology experiences in Amazing Stories magazine. Guy Banister, claims Peter Levenda, was sent in from Butte, MT in those days as the FBI’s “X-Files” officer. There were in fact nuclear aircraft in the works from the late ’40s up until the Kennedy years, specifically contracted to General Dynamics‘ California facilities. (General Dynamics and subsidiaries, Convair and General Atomics —see the record of physicist/weaponeer Ted Taylor, below)
   According to Garrison’s investigators: “Our information indicates that since the early sixties he [Crisman] has made many trips to the New Orleans and Dallas areas in connection with his undercover work for that part of the warfare industry engaged in the manufacture of.. ‘hardware’ –meaning those weapons sold to the U.S. government which are uniquely large and expensive.” Fred Lee 03#page/n0/mode/2up, Harold Weisberg documents archive
   Crisman was a ‘business partner’ with the younger Thomas Beckham, and friends with both Banister and Clay Shaw, alleged to have been the first person called by Shaw after his indictment.
   Investigator and photo analyst for Garrison, Richard E. Sprague, authored The Taking of America, 1-2-3 (1976) wherein he leveled his own indictment against Shaw, Ferrie, Osborne, Crisman, Ferrie, Nagell, Oswald and others as co-plotters.
*Theodore B. (Ted) Taylor tedtaylor *curveofbindingenergy, Los Alamos(1949-1956), General Atomics, Project Orion (nuclear spaceship)
   Physicist Freeman Dyson said of his colleague, Ted Taylor, “He was the first man in the world to understand what you can do with three or four kilograms of plutonium, that making bombs is an easy thing to do…” p79, The Curve of Binding Energy, by John McPhee, 1973
“Taylor once designed an implosion bomb that weighed twenty pounds… Studying ordinary artillery shells, he replicated their external dimensions in conceiving fission bombs that could be fired out of guns.” p78, ibid.
“So far as we know, everybody in the world who has tried to make a nuclear explosion since 1945 has succeeded on the first try.” p100  
…”There is good, better, and worse, but there is no nonweapons-grade plutonium in the nuclear industry.” –Dr. Ted Taylor, p113, The Curve of Binding Energy
   In the early sixties, Ted Taylor turned his attention to the issue of nuclear safeguards. “Safeguards cost money, which means a diminution of profit… Safeguards suggest dangers, which belie the promise of Atoms for Peace, and thus can be a hindrance to the promotion of nuclear commerce. The Atomic Energy Commission, as a whole, is profoundly dedicated to the growth and spread of nuclear power…” pp46-47, ibid.
   Another of McPhee’s sources, Russell Wischow who formerly worked for the AEC, added that “Safeguards are frustrating. The stuff is difficult to quantify. You can’t put it into a vault and keep it there. Once it is in the manufacturing cycle, you open it up to pilferage.” p48. Wischow was replaced by Charles Thornton who told McPhee, “The aggregate MUF [Material Unaccounted For] from the three diffusion plants alone is expressible in tons. No one knows where it is. None of it may have been stolen, but the balances don’t close. You could divert from any plant in the world in substantial amounts and never be detected.” p49, The Curve of Binding Energy
“When the Chinese exploded a uranium bomb in 1964, it was assumed that the Chinese were not smart enough to have figured out the technology of isotopic separation. Therefore, the Chinese must have stolen the U-235. Where? No one could guess. Some months later, though, it was disclosed that sixty kilograms of U-235 was unaccounted for at a nuclear-fuel-fabricating plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Perhaps the Chinese had stolen the uranium in Pennsylvania. While this speculation was going on, the [U.S.] government revealed…the presence of a gaseous-diffusion plant at Langchow.” p12, ibid.
   And there, apparently, the matter rested.
The plant in Apollo PA was called NUMEC, the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, co-founded by Zalman Shapiro in 1957 and co-owned by the Stern family of New Orleans –Edith Rosenwald Stern, friend and supporter of Clay Shaw from the International Trade Mart. MUF at NUMEC during the ’60s caused a stir as an alleged supply source for Israel’s clandestine weapons.
   “One of the most celebrated of the MUF cases occurred in the fall of 1965, when a [NUMEC] plant at Apollo Pennsylvania came up 207 pounds short in its inventory of highly enriched uranium, worth about $1 million at the time. The AEC had the plant closed down and began looking for the material. Thirteen pounds turned up in air filters… Another 15 pounds was discovered at a mountaintop burial pit, 8 miles [away]. But there were still 148 pounds missing at the end of the search…” p179, Unacceptable Risk, by McKinley C. Olson, 1976
   The significance of author McPhee citing the Material Unaccounted For (MUF) from NUMEC as the sole reference to suspect weapons-fuel gains by the Chinese in 1963-64 is a narrowing of the window-in-time that accurately describes the effort of the Israelis to acquire weapons-fuel. The Israelis later confessed to smuggling NUMEC fuel for their reactor at Dimona, recorded by Gordon Thomas in Gideon’s Spies (1999), however, assigning the contraband coup to year 1968. Mr. Thomas did not specifically cite ‘1968’ in his book, but later ‘concurred’ in a separate statement given during an investigation. The story made big news. The Apollo smuggling operation within the greater sphere of U.S.-Israel relations included using the political pressure of the Jewish Vote applied by American Zionist Abe Feinberg, a pressure that could only be effective in the re-election bid of JFK, and therefore in keeping with the 1963-64 time frame.
According to Gideon’s Spies:
“Trouble had begun in 1956, when France had sent a twenty-four megawatt reactor to Israel. Ben Gurion announced its purpose was to provide a ‘pumping station’ to turn the desert into an ‘agricultural paradise by desalinating a billion cubic gallons of seawater annually.’ [A desalination ‘nuplex’ for Israel was the brainchild of Lewis Strauss, proposed in 1956 and reconstituted with Eisenhower’s approval as the “Oasis Plan”] The claim promptly led to the resignation of six of the seven members of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission…
   “Ignoring all opposition, Ben-Gurion gave the order for the reactor to be sited in the Negev Desert, close to the bleak, sand-blown settlement at Dimona.. south of Tel Aviv... [p80]
“Three months after the reactor had been installed, a small nuclear material processing company opened for business in a converted World War II steel plant in the unappealing town of Apollo, Pennsylvania. The company was called the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, Numec. Its chief executive was Dr. Salman Shapiro.
   “On LAKAM’s computer database of prominent American Jews with a scientific background, Shapiro was also listed as a prominent fundraiser for Israel. Rafi Eitan knew he had found a potential answer to how to provide the Dimona reactor with fissionable material... [p81]
“The son of an orthodox rabbi… [Shapiro was] an important member of the nuclear research and development laboratory at Westinghouse; the corporation was contracted to the United States Navy to develop submarine reactors…  Shapiro, in his ‘typical discreet way’, had provided several million dollars for the Technion Institute in Haifa that offered tuition in science and engineering.
“In 1957 Shapiro had left Westinghouse and set up Numec. It had twenty-five stockholders, all openly sympathetic to Israel. Shapiro found himself head of a small company in an aggressive cutthroat industry. Nevertheless, Numec had won a number of contracts to recover enriched uranium, a process that usually led to the loss of a quantity of uranium during the salvage operation. There was no way of telling how great or when the loss had taken place. [p82]
“[T]he already uneasy relationship between Israel and the United States over the desire of the Jewish state to become a nuclear power increased when Ben-Gurion traveled to Washington in 1960. At a series of meetings with State Department officials, he was bluntly told that for Israel to possess nuclear weapons would affect the balance of power in the Middle East. In February 1961, President John F. Kennedy wrote to Ben-Gurion suggesting that Dimona should be regularly inspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
   “Alarmed, Ben-Gurion flew to New York to meet with Kennedy at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel… But Kennedy was firm: there had to be an inspection… He returned home convinced ‘a Catholic in the White House is bad news for Israel’. The prime minister [p83] turned to the one man in Washington he could trust, Abraham Feinberg, a Zionist supporter of Israel’s nuclear aspirations.
At one level, the native New Yorker was the most important Jewish fundraiser for the Democratic party. Feinberg made no secret of why he had raised many millions: every dollar was to ensure the party backed Israel in Congress. He had also discreetly provided many more additional millions of dollars to create Dimona. The money came in cashier’s checks to the Bank of Israel in Tel Aviv, thus avoiding the accountability of the Israeli foreign exchange controls. Ben-Gurion told Feinberg to ‘sort out the boy. Make the putz understand the reality of life’.
   “Feinberg’s method was straightforward political pressure– the kind that had already infuriated Kennedy when he was running for office. Then, Feinberg had bluntly told him: ‘We are willing to pay your bills if you will let us have control of your Middle East policy’…
   “Now he used the same direct approach: if President Kennedy continued to insist on an inspection of Dimona, he should ‘not count on Jewish financial support in the next political election’…

   “Nevertheless Kennedy was resolute…”

–more reading, “The Eisenhower Administration and the Discovery of Dimona: March 1958-January 1961” –when Secretary Herter asked the Israelis where the financing came from he was told “from [the United States]” —
“At some point in his AEC career, [Lewis] Strauss..met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann… neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis, who has had access to all of his father’s personal papers, knew that the two had met. The friendship with Bergmann provides the strongest evidence of Strauss’s sympathy for the Israeli nuclear weapons program… rules were bent for Strauss… [who] privately was in favor of a nuclear-armed Israel.” pp85-86, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh
   “Dino Brugioni briefed Strauss regularly on U-2 nuclear intelligence, but found him inscrutable when it came to information on the Israeli nuclear reactor: ‘I never knew what he was thinking; never understood him”…Brugioni had his own reasons for wondering about Strauss. He knew there was evidence inside the CIA suggesting that American and European Jews had been directly involved in the financing and construction of Dimona from the start. ‘There was a fervor…The attitude was ‘You had to protect Israel and anybody who did not suffered.’ “ p90, ibid.
   “Abraham Feinberg shared Lewis Strauss’s belief in operating behind the scenes on behalf of Israel…” p93, ibid. “The issue of Jewish political power and the Israeli bomb was complicated during these years by the fact that John Kennedy was intellectually and emotionally committed to a halt in the spread of nuclear weapons.” p98, The Samson Option
*            dimona-1image
Evidence of an operational Dimona reactor in mid-1963: pres-.elect JFK was briefed by Secretary of State Cristian Herter that Israel’s Dimona plant was capable of producing 90 kilograms of plutominum by 1963.
*        dimona-1

Rafi Eitan claimed to have boldly arranged shipment of NUMEC fuels to Israel in 1968 under the noses of the FBI and U.S. State Department, likely as cover for the earlier acquisition. The overtly marked radioactive containers observed by U.S. agents were meant to discourage inspection or interference –U.S. officials were dared to interfere, according to Eitan’s story, and assured that transport would continue under diplomatic immunity if they tried.


As further evidence of the conjunction in smuggling of drugs, small arms, and nuclear weapons materiel, author Gordon Thomas referenced this minor discovery, also at a much later date: “Justiano Torres was a courier for a Colombian drug cartel who had expanded into trafficking in even deadlier substance. [His] suitcase contained, in sealed containers, the two hundred grams of plutonium239 that [Soviet scientist] Tashanka had sold him. It had a street value of $50 million…[and was] sufficient to make a small nuclear device.” [p87, Gideon’s Spies]

The Israeli bomb project began “In the spring of 1952 [when Ben-Gurion] started his nation on the path to nuclear weapons… acting on the recommendation of Ernst David Bergman…in the Ministry of Defense…
   “Of particular importance to Israel was the relationship established with the French atomic energy commission [the CEA]. Israeli scientists were granted access to the Saclay Nuclear Research Center as well as Chatillon…” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson, 2006]
   …The [Israeli] cabinet.. chose to start small with a reactor purchased from the United States and located at Nebi Rubin, south of Tel Aviv. But an opportunity to advance Israel’s quest for nuclear weapons, with French assistance, arose out of a foreign policy fiasco. France had already become an important military supplier to Israel, largely owing to [Shimon] Peres… The director general of the Defense Ministry and future Prime Minister [Peres] also played a significant role in obtaining additional assistance that went far beyond training scientists at Saclay and Chatillon.
   Shortly after Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal in late July 1956, [the] French..asked Peres..whether Israel was willing to participate in a military operation along with France and Britain to seize the canal… [p238, ibid]
  “In mid-September, before the military campaign began, the Commisariat l’Energie Atomique [CEA] and IAEC [Israel Atomic Energy Commission] agreed, in principle, on the sale to Israel of a small research reactor similar to the EL-3 at Saclay. But t he military campaign turned into a debacle when Soviet leaders threatened missile attacks on the invaders and Eisenhower responded with condemnation rather than support. On November 8, Ben Gurion sent Peres and foreign minister Golda Meir on a covert mission to France to determine what kind of support the French would provide in case the Soviets made good on their threats against Israel…
   “What Israel wanted was an upgraded version of the reactor that the CEA had planned to provide Israel, one similar to the large G-1 (40-megawatt thermal power) reactor at Marcoule, which was capable of producing between twenty-two and thirty-three pounds of plutonium a year. In addition, Israel wanted France to provide the technology required to extract plutonium from the spent reactor fuel, and requested…an underground plant attached to the reactor.” [p239] ….By [mid-1959, with settled supply agreements in place] construction of the  [Dimona] nuclear facility was well underway… But political changes in France threatened to bring the joint effort to a halt well before the research center could be completed.
   “The potential stumbling block was French president Charles de Gaulle, who was determined to end his nation’s close military collaboration with Israel, in part because of fear of Arab reaction if the extent of cooperation became known. In 1959 [deGaulle] had been talked out of his plan to simply abrogate the nuclear agreement. In 1960, after the departure of pro-Israeli atomic energy minister Jacques Soustelle, [the] French…made three demands..[including] international inspections. Unless Israel complied, France would refuse to supply the natural uranium needed to fuel the reactor.
   “Accepting the French demands, particularly for international inspections, would threaten the plan to produce fissile material for atomic bombs… High-level discussions between deGaulle and Ben-Gurion followed in June 1960…[which resulted in] terminating official involvement through the CEA… Israel was able to take over most of the effort…” [p241, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson]
  *deGaulle and Kennedy de-gaulle-and-jfk
                                                                                                                     Soustelle jacques-soustelle2
In 1955, Soustelle was sent to Algeria as Governor General by Prime Minister Pierre Mendes-France; he developed a network of ‘colonialist’ supporters independent of his government position, networks that were to become a leading part of the Algerian Secret Army Organization. His provocative behavior led to his removal from office.
   “Returning to France, Soustelle was re-elected to parliament and became president of the France-Israel Alliance Caucus on the eve of the French government’s collaboration with Great Britain and Israel in the Suez invasion. [About this time or shortly after, Soustelle became the Minister of atomic energy]
   “It was only after deGaulle’s return to power [c.1958] that Soustelle openly discarded his ‘Gaullist’ clothing and went into exile, taking leadership of the OAS Algerian terrorists and other parallel groups. Soustelle’s terrorists had the active support of David Ben-Gurion and Israeli intelligence. Financing for the OAS and other bands came from the Permindex Corporation. This assassination bureau was established by British-Canadian Major General Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, who channeled monies through the U.S. FBI Division Five (which Bloomfield set up during World War II). Permindex engaged in over 30 attempts to assassinate President deGaulle, notable among them the [1962] Petit Clamart incident to which Soustelle was directly linked.
   “Seeking refuge in Switzerland, Israel, Madrid and Rome, Soustelle in the following period obtained aid from sources in the United States associated with William F. Buckley and his National Review circle…” [Executive Intelligence Review (EIR) Volume 6, No.44, Novemeber 13, 1979]
“It was out of the World Commerce Corporation that Permindex was formed [the post- WWII apparatus of Canadian millionaire and “master spy” William Stephenson who maintained British intelligence wartime espionage operations on the 35th and 36th floors of New York’s Rockefeller Center]”…“Schlumberger Ltd [owned by Mrs. Dominique Schlumberger deMenil, whose] husband, Jean deMenil, was a Permindex board member and close collaborator of [Louis] Bloomfield since the war. Involved in oil diagnostics [which uses radioactive ‘downhole’ explosives and tools] the firm [Schlumberger] served as a cover for Permindex operations internationally. During WWII, deMenil had been the head of deGaulle’s Free French Forces in Venezuela together with Jacques Soustelle.
   “In 1962, the Secret Army Organization of Permindex board member Jean deMenil oversaw an assassination attempt against.. deGaulle…”
                 Permanent Industrial Exhibition, Perm-ind-ex, was chartered in 1956 Basle Switzerland. In 1959, a Permindex center was opened in Rome called Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC). The head of Rome’s CMC was Georgio Mantello, a.k.a. George Mandel and often referred to as Mantello-Mandel. Permindex/CMC would later move operations to Johannesburg South Africa, c.1964.
“The leadership of PERMINDEX included a longtime asset of CIA Deputy Director for Plans Frank Wisner. His name was Ferenc Nagy and he was the president of PERMINDEX… Briefly, in 1945, he had been prime minister of Hungary. But it was Nagy’s CIA history that catapulted him to the leadership of PERMINDEX…
   “Confirming deGaulle’s thesis that PERMINDEX funded the OAS is that Nagy was a ‘munificent contributor’ to Jacques Soustelle… In 1960, Soustelle met in WashingtonD.C. with Richard Bissell, then heading the CIA’s clandestine services. A year later, Soustelle went into exile…Two years after that he would be accused of colluding with OAS in the attempted assassination of deGaulle…
   “In New Orleans, [Banister’s secretary] Delphine Roberts identified Nagy from his photograph as someone she had seen at Guy Banister’s office.” –p137, A Farewell To Justice, by Joan Mellen
*  Ferenc Nagy  1957-ferencnagy   * bkpam2178775_permindexhsca-053-ferenc-nagy
Researcher Maurice Philipps:
“Documents found in the Bloomfield archives gave us more details on the structure and leadership of Permindex. For instance, they show that Ferenc Nagy was the active leader of Permindex and, in 1960, was making contact with David Rockefeller in order to develop the New York City World Trade Center on the model of the CMC [or Centro Mondiale Commerciale, based in Rome, and itself modeled on the New Orleans International Trade Mart]…. Nagy eventually moved to Dallas, TX, where he was residing in 1963, allegedly engaged in anti-Castro activities.”
“…documents show that Ferenc Nagy…was the direct liason between Permindex and Rockefeller.”
[The Rockefeller Foundation, ‘RF’] “would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence, who unwittingly boasted that ‘if it hadn’t been for the RF, there would have been no atomic bomb.’ As [they] saw it, the Foundation now shared the awesome prospect of writing the ‘world’s obituary’ and shared in the responsibility of controlling the future use of atomic energy.” –p219, The Molecular Vision of Life, by Lily E. Kay, 1993
In January of 1960, Lee Oswald took up his position in Minsk at the electronics factory. Over the next few months his mother began to worry: “On June 3, 1960, Hoover sent a letter to the State Department warning that someone posing as Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia might try to get hold of Oswald’s passport… Also in the letter was an FBI report from Dallas dated May 12, 1960 in which Oswald’s mother, Marguerite.. said she was worried about the safety of her son. She had written to him in Russia…[and] all letters had been returned to her. The State department added a notation, issuing orders that Oswald’s passport would not be returned to him through the Russian postal system but only in person; and the passport was actually handed over to a man calling himself Oswald in July 1961…” –p111, The Assassination Chain
   The next month, August of 1961 and perhaps only days later, three American women who were traveling by car had brief encounters with Oswald. Two of them, Rita Naman and Monica Kramer, were roommates from Solvang,CA who started their journey in Britain. The third, Mrs. Marie Hyde, from the Seattle/Tacoma area of Washington, joined them in Moscow after engaging the women to give her a ride to Poland. Miss Naman reported to the Warren Commission that she took pictures in Minsk of a small group of people including Oswald standing by her car. One picture, at least, taken by Naman with Mrs. Hyde’s camera, showed Mrs. Hyde in a photo with Oswald. That photo apparently was sent to the CIA, shown neither to the Warren Commission nor the public. No testimony or photo image from Mrs. Marie Hyde has ever been published. Only a coincidence of surnames suggests a possible link between Mrs. Marie Hyde and Ruth Hyde, the wife of Michael Paine, an avid Russian speaker who befriended the Oswalds through the Dallas White Russian fellowship.
   Outstanding in the background of Ruth Hyde Paine was a generations-long family friendship with the Herbert Hoovers. Ruth’s husband Michael Paine, as many researchers note, bore a strong resemblance to Lee Oswald.
*     Ruth Hyde Painepain_ruthpaine   *michaelpaineandleeoswald Michael and Lee
” ‘I think the only really effective clandestine collection on Russia came from defectors,’ Richard Bissell said later… ‘It was part of the duties of the clandestine service to receive and encourage defectors, and some extremely valuable ones came in. But I don’t think clandestine collection is ever going to be a useful activity in a totalitarian society. The reason is only partly the difficulty of infiltrating agents into the country.’ “ –p374, Dulles, A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles…, by Leonard Mosley, 1978
Bissell’s methods of getting information out gets no mention from Mosley.
Judyth said that Lee Oswald knew Ruth Paine  a “long time before” she befriended Marina and Lee in Dallas. (The Real Deal interview Part One, April 30, 2010, www,
   For years Ruth had been involved in arranging exchange visits between Americans and Russians. “In 1958 Ruth Paine was involved in a Russian/American exchange program on a leadership level.”
   In the 1990s, Ruth “admitted to her friend that her father [William Avery Hyde] had worked for the CIA as an ‘executive agent’. Apparently while he was traveling abroad for Nationwide Insurance and then later while working for the Agency for International Development, he would gather intelligence information for the agency…Ruth’s sister [Sylvia Hyde Hoke] worked for the CIA as a staff psychologist in 1961…”
   Michael spent 3 years of college training in academic physics at Harvard and Swarthmore, netting a job in Bartol Research Foundation’s nuclear labs in 1951. Ultimately without a degree due to poor performance as a scholar, he still found a good position with Bell Helicopter Research in Texas, helped, they say and with certainty, by family connections.  His mother Ruth Forbes (ex-Paine) married Bell helicopter inventor and scientist Arthur Young when Michael was 18. On his father’s side, the influence was Trostkyite socialism. The politics of the Paines, it appears, was liberal and leftist, and their legacy in the conspiracy was to contribute the incriminating evidence of a violent and lone nut Oswald. The ‘lancer’ article above remarked on the extensive official interviewing of Ruth and suggests that they might have had “the wrong Paine”. Was Michael Paine someone to watch?
   Despite the relentless obsequiousness of Mrs. Paine’s Garage, author Thomas Mallon passes on something Michael said to a coworker at Bell, told to SA Hosty after the assassination: “George Stephenson, a Bell engineer who sold him a used car in the fall of ’63, would tell FBI agent Hosty that he recalled Michael Paine stating, ‘I may have a problem here and I may have gotten myself into something and I better try to get out of it.’ Mr. Stephenson stated that he understood by this statement that Michael Paine was concerned about having the wife and children of [Lee Oswald] reside with his wife in view of his pro-Communist statements. Michael doesn’t remember this conversation…” p183, Mrs. Paine’s Garage, by Thomas Mallon, 2002
 Michael Paine knew better than anyone that Oswald was anti-Communist.
Ruth Paine, on a tip from the neighbors, made the phonecall securing Lee Oswald a job in the Texas School Book Depository

Researcher Bill Weston: “The Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) moved into the seven-story, 411 Elm Street building during the summer of 1963, but exactly when is unknown. Ruth Paine, while driving on the freeway, saw the company name on a four-story warehouse and thought that Lee worked there, not realizing that a larger building, also within her view, was the place where he really worked. [2] Evidently a new sign was added later, but exactly when is unknown. The difficulty of obtaining specific details is of course due to the building’s role as a shooting platform, but there is something else to consider. From clues derived from a variety of sources, company executives used schoolbooks to disguise shipments of firearms and narcotics.”

Michael Collins Piper: “[W]hen Garrison launched his investigation of Shaw he had unwittingly unearthed the ‘Rothschild connection’ to the JFK conspiracy, although Garrison himself apparently didn’t realize it at first…  Documents unearthed by Canadian author Maurice Phillips demonstrate beyond question that Shaw’s associate on the board of Permindex (its chief executive officer and primary shareholder), Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, was a longtime attorney for the Rothschild dynasty… In addition, Bloomfield and Montreal liquor baron Sam Bronfman…were among a clique of money kings who, in the 1950s, bankrolled Israel’s secret nuclear arms program…”
Edgar Bronfman, son of Sam, said: “He [father] loved the oil business. ‘If it’s good enough for the Rockefellers, it’s good enough for me,’ he used to say… Father agreed to relocate his oil business to the United States [for tax advantages][though] we were still involved in the Canadian oil and gas business…[and] we stayed in the oil business. One reason was our eventual success in Forrest Oil, a company I had come 1953 when I worked at the Empire Trust Company…  [Edgar Bronfman] hired Dallas economist Carroll M. Bennett to guide the Bronfman oil investments…[and] move the Dallas where he lived.”
                                  Montreal lawyer, OSS, and FBI liason, Louis M. Bloomfield bloomfield2
Researcher Steve Gaal (interview by Bill Weston, 2010): “ connected to Clay Shaw. For a long time we have known that Clay Shaw was an asset of the CIA, but recently new documents have been found that show that Permindex was connected to Rothschild and British interests…. Freeport Sulphur was a [law] client of Doyle Smith and Doyle… Probe magazine printed an important article that connects Clay Shaw to Freeport Sulphur…[and] Doyle Smith and Doyle was a very important company within the conspiracy milieu. Another important British-connected company was Empire Trust. This company was controlled by the Rothschilds via Kuhn Loeb & Co [sic]. Jack Chrichton was part of Empire Trust… The British-connected Great Southwest Corporation had control of Marina following the assassination… The Great Southwest was made up of British interests, including Loeb Rhoades [&Co.] and Anglophiles William Zeckendorf, the Rockefellers, and Murchison family…”
“Perhaps our most interesting discovery, fitting tribute that it is to Wesley J. Liebeler, is the report of Portland (Oregon) FBI Agents Julius A. Bernard and William S. Brown. On November 26, 1963, they interviewed J. Pat Doyle, of..Portland. This was but four days after the assassination. Doyle told the government that his family had been on vacation in New Orleans the day Oswald got himself arrested giving out his handbills. Their son Jim took movies of the operation.  These movies are not in the Commission’s files.” [p175, Oswald in New Orleans, H.Weisberg, 1967]
“Rothschilds via Kuhn Loeb & Co” is a subject in the’ Lewis Strauss and JFK’ series, along with the special lifetime relationship between Strauss and Herbert Hoover. The “United States of Africa” was but one of many schemes they shared. Hoover, the mining engineer, claimed to have known Strauss since he was 19 years old, which would place their meeting in 1915 (Strauss was born January of 1896), pre-dating their co-administrations of the WWI Committee for Relief in Belgium (CRB). From their New York City CRB offices, significantly, Strauss worked for two agencies controlled by the Warburgs [Kuhn Loeb partners] at the same time; one was the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD), of which Strauss became president, and the other was the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee (JDC), which he claimed led to his partnership in Kuhn Loeb & Co.
“After the election [of Herbert Hoover] Strauss learned that another promotion awaited him, and on January 1, 1929, he became a [full] partner in Kuhn Loeb, a full member of the inner circle…  In only ten years, and at an incredibly young age, he had become one of the leaders in the world of banking, marked out to carry on the future of Kuhn Loeb.” [p40, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau]
British and Rothschild interests, by the 1960s, had long since coagulated into global energy domination, including a world-scale uranium cartel, encompassing the principal nations of the former Anglo-empire. The Rothschilds, who controlled the Rio Tinto mining operations since the 1880s, and had at times employed Herbert Hoover, took a distinctive interest in expanding their uranium holdings when radium first came on the market in 1903. At that time, radium was a drug costing $150,000 per gram until the Canadian ore came to Ontario’s Port Hope refinery, circa 1931.
In the U.S. alone, “Between 1948 and 1961, uranium ore production soared from 54,000 to 8,000,000 tons… By 1956 [when Permindex was founded] it was becoming evident that the AEC might be faced with an embarrassment of riches. In October 1957 [the month after Lee Oswald joined the Atsugi base] the AEC announced that it was ‘no longer in the interest of the Government to expand the production of uranium concentrate.”
By design, government-developed assets would be leased or sold into private hands.
“Although the AEC incentives ceased in 1962, the agency continued to purchase guaranteed prices through the end of 1970. Initially, the AEC paid $8.oo per pound… The industry was revitalized shortly thereafter by the prospect of supplying fuel to the developing commercial nuclear power industry.”
Rothschild Uranium:
“The twisting, turning career that Joseph Hirshhorn found to be the shortest distance between poverty and fortune zigzagged to a climax..[in 1955]..[at] Joe’s suite in Toronto’s Bank of Nova Scotia Building…   For the occasion, there perched on Joe’s desk [was] a cake whose pink-and-green frosting proclaimed: ‘Rio Tinto-Hirshhorn E Pluribus Unum’.  Towering at Joe’s [5’4”] side stood the natty British figure of Roy William Wright, boss the Rio Tinto Mining Co. of Canada Ltd.,  a new offspring of Great Britain’s venerable..Rio Tinto Co. Ltd., in which the Rothschilds have large interests. As the cake was cut, Joe sighed and sang “I’ll be loving you always and always.’ He had just traded Rio Tinto Ltd. His equity in a vast sweep of Canadian mining properties – uranium, gold, iron, copper, acquired over a period of two decades at a cost of some $4,800,000—for about $31 million in Canadian Rio Tinto stocks and debentures and the chairmanship of the Canadian company’s board…  [In] 1953, Joe put up $30,000 [and] two months later ..had the greatest uranium find outside Africa, a discovery that took Joe on to the sweeping deal with Rio Tinto.” p57, The Very, Very Rich and How They Got That Way, by Max Gunther, 1972, Playboy Press Chicago
It was in the late forties that Joe first acquired his interest in uranium, which was to prove more fascinating than anything he had touched in his life… [p65, ibid.] …[Joe’s geologist and partner, Franc Joubin] began reading about the leaching of uranium-bearing land where sulfur is present, and this gave him an idea [about deeply bedded deposits] ..[They decided] test..Algoma ore…” [p66]  “[The men] formed a Hirshhorn company, Peach Uranium…[and sent] trained men to stake the northern area [known as Blind River]… And on July 11 [1952], in mining recorders’ offices all over Ontario, lawyers and engineers raced in to enter a total of 1,400 claims covering 56,000 acres. [Toronto’s] Bay State was stunned. Joe and his friends had secretly staked out one of the most fabulous claims in Canadian history…” [p67]
   “As is his custom, Joe sought out some expert help –in New York, attorney Sam Harris who became his most intimate counselor, and in Washington [D.C.], the dignified Former Secretary of State Dean Acheson… By November 1954…[a deal] came to Joe—in the shape of Rio Tinto Co.Ltd. of London. Rio Tinto..was especially interested in a uranium investment… [and it ] soon became clear that longer-range interests of both Joe and Rio Tinto were neatly intersecting: Rio Tinto wanted permanent control over his whole Canadian mining empire, and Joe..needed a corporate package for all his holdings. The negotiations were complicated and delayed by Joe’s need to get a favorable tax ruling from the U.S. Treasury governing the transfer of his assets to a foreign concern. This ruling Dean Acheson succeeded in getting. The result.. was Rio Tinto Mining Co. of Canada Ltd. Into this elegant new receptacle Joe dropped all of his holdings in forty-six different Canadian mining companies (one of which was itself a package of seventeen earlier companies). Although Joe did not get voting control, he owned the biggest single slice of equity (55 percent).” [p68]
   [Hirshhorn describes his incentives and ‘passion for discovery’ to Fortune magazine]   …” ‘I’m not interested in the industrial or manufacturing picture,’ Joe explains. ‘That’s strictly competitive, not truly creative…[and] No, I don’t have a very high regard for Wall Street –it’s parasitical, what does it create? But resources –that’s something else. There you’re in the world of the Harrimans and the Huntingtons and the men who really built. So, look at Blind River. It took a lousy $30,000 to get it started –and now [1956] there’s four, maybe eight billion dollars in wealth there. But that isn’t all.  There will be 20,000 people making their living there by the end of next year. There are railroads [to build]. There are mills [to build]. There are homes. There are schools. The whole works. It’s new. It’s just been born…”  [p71, The Very, Very Rich]
Joe Hirshhorn*josephhhirshhorn “By 1960, he had made more than $100 million from uranium.”
“[The] Blind River discoveries..added some $30 billion to the Canadian economy”
   “[Hirshhorn] likes simplicity… Even Joe’s closest friends have no clear glimpse of his likely future moves. When Joe recently left for several month’s rest in Europe, Gordon Dean [former AEC chief, 1950-1953] could only remark: ‘His ship, I know, stops at Gibralter. I would not be surprised if he came back with the Rock.” [p72, The Very, Very Rich]
   “Aside from the penalty for exporting Canadian dollars during the war [WWII], Joe has had only one encounter with the law. In 1950, New York State Attorney General Nathaniel Goldstein, whom Joe had known since [ his youth in] Brooklyn days, took to the press to warn the public away from a stock offering by a company called American-Canadian Uranium Co. Ltd., in which Hirshhorn was involved… Goldstein submitted the facts to the SEC, but the SEC found no grounds for a hearing.
[Earlier] During the forties, Joe’s happiest venture had involved a U.S. company, Mesabi Iron, owner of substantial taconite properties. ‘When I bought Mesabi stock,’ he says, ‘no one knew what taconite was… I knew what it was, and I knew it was going to be big.’ “ [p65, The Very, Very Rich, Max Gunther, 1972 –article reprinted and edited from Fortune magazine November 1956]
 Gordon “Dean was a Democrat who had been a law partner of the late Senator Brien McMahon of Connecticut… [In] 1950, I spoke to the President [Truman] at the request of Senator McMahon to recommend the nomination of Dean [for the chair of AEC]… Dean had been the only one of the Atomic Energy Commissioners to support me..with the development of thermonuclear weapons. Dean and course of time became friends.” p332, Men and Decisions, by Lewis Strauss. Footnote, p334, “Mr. Dean lost his life in an airplane accident in 1958.”
   Senator McMahon, who had been the chairman of the Congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), died previously from a fast cancer and was replaced in a special Senate election by Prescott S. Bush, 1952. Bush took a seat on the JCAE.
As it happened, the uranium cartel taking shape in the  ’50s was brought to the bench in the ’70s, but first, in the ’60s, there was an industry to build:
“A legal suit filed against Rothschild mining interests by the U.S. Westinghouse Corporation [in 1976] contains heavy documentary evidence of a ‘monopolistic’ raise the international price of uranium to prohibitive levels… However, a continuing [EIR] investigation into the case’s background suggests that a broader, primarily Rockefeller family campaign to sources..has enjoyed the benefit of Rothschild cooperation…
   “Central in the affair is the Wall Street firm of Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Kampelman, which represents the international legal interests of both major Rockefeller concerns and the Rothschilds’ Rio Tinto Zinc Corp. Ltd, the largest British-based mining company whose uranium holdings extend throughout South Africa, Namibia, Australia, Canada and the United States… [T]he principal is partner Sam Harris… Westinghouse identified Sam Harris by name, and held the cartel responsible for increases..[up] to $40 a pound in 1976.


Thomas Eli Davis III* thomaselidavisiii –another strange character involved with “Oswald” who was arrested Dec. 8, 1963 in Tangiers Morocco. At the time of his arrest, Davis was carrying a letter in his own hand referring to Oswald and the JFK assassination. The addressee was lawyer Thomas G. Proctor, an original board member of the American-Canadian Uranium Co. Ltd.
   “At the time of the Kennedy assassination, Davis was in North Africa allegedly setting up a deal to supply arms to the OAS. Less than a month later he was jailed in Tangiers in connection with the assassination…  [He] not only was in New Orleans during the same time as Oswald in the summer of 1963, but once admitted to reporter George Carter that he used the name ‘Oswald’ while in North Africa.” [p207, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs]
   Davis’s wife traveled with him and told this to police: “She stated they left the United States on November 2, 1963, and arrived in Tangiers via London, Paris, and Madrid on November 28… Proctor reportedly [was the] legal agent [for] Morocco’s World’s Fair Exhibit New York.”
    From the small amount of information published about “soldier of fortune” Thomas E. Davis, it is known that he was born in McKinney,Texas (north of Dallas, hometown of the Clary/Bates family) and died from accidental electrocution in Jacksboro, 1973, supposedly in the act of stealing copper wire.
   Researchers have discovered that Davis was sprung from the Tangiers jail, possibly before or at the time of JFK’s assassination, by a mysterious intelligence agent known as QJ/WIN, whose identity is uncertain but said to have been an accomplished smuggler, spy and con man of French origin. QJ/WIN was enlisted by the CIA’s William Harvey to assemble an assassination team to kill Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, and continue in various undercover operations as a citizen of Luxembourg doing business in that city. Army cryptologist Eugene Dinkin is thought to have intercepted the Kennedy plot among the coded message traffic tied to this CIA-OAS group– Dinkin initiated his rogue campaign of warning in Luxembourg on October 25.  Both Albert Osborne-a.k.a. Bowen and the unfortunate Dinkin were flown out of Luxembourg on December 5, 1963, three days before the alleged arrest of Davis.
Jack Ruby and Thomas E. Davis:
“On March 15, 1959 Ruby telephoned and met with CIA-connected gun-runner Thomas Eli Davis III in Beaumont, TX. A year earlier, in June, 1958, Davis received a sentence of five years of probation for robbing a bank. While on probation Davis worked for the Agency training anti-Castro units in Florida. Soon, Ruby and Davis were supplying arms and munitions to Anti-Castro Cubans, apparently without the fear of arrest.
NOTE: When JFK was assassinated, Davis was in jail …[and]was released from jail through the intervention of the CIA’s foreign agent code-named “QJ/WIN,” who was identified by the top-secret CIA Inspector General’s Report as the “principle asset” in the Agency’s assassination program known as ZR/RIFLE.
    After Ruby’s arrest for killing Oswald, his defense attorney (Tom Howard) asked  Ruby if he could think of anything that might damage his defense. Ruby responded and said there would be a problem if a man by the name of “Davis” should come up. Davis was later identified as Thomas Eli Davis III…  Ruby told Howard that “he had  been involved with Davis, who  was.. entangled in anti-Castro efforts and that he (Ruby) had intended to begin a regular gun-running business with Davis”. Ruby warned Howard about this connection,  and feared that if it were to be revealed by either an investigative reporter or a witness it would blow open the CIA’s role in JFK’s assassination.”
                                                                                            *ruby* Ruby’s relationship with Davis allegedly began prior to a 1959 deal on which they collaborated to buy and ship jeeps to aid Castro in Cuba.
Michael Collins Piper: “Jack Ruby was connected to two people who were involved in smuggling nuclear triggers to Israel. One was Lawrence Meyers.”
Lawrence V. Meyers was in Dallas with Ruby at the Cabana Motel lounge on the night of November 21, 1963. He gave his family background to Warren Commission counsel Burt Griffin: “I have a daughter who is a nuclear chemist and who has worked at Argonne and various nuclear reactors. I have a son who was in the ASA [Army Security Agency] for a couple of years.. who had a crypto clearance, and I and my wife and my family have been investigated two or three times…”
Imports, Exports and Trade Fairs — Building a private Nuclear Power Industry:
   Excluding some 120 experimental reactors operating in the U.S., “By January 1961, only two reactors built under the Power Reactor Demonstration Program were operating… Five other small prototype reactors were under construction. That was the extent of the United States nuclear power program, for the electric utility companies had no plans to build a large number of additional reactors. The nuclear power program was a small, government-subsidized sideshow as far as the electric utility industry was concerned, and it was going nowhere. [p58, Cult of the Atom, by Daniel Ford, 1982] ...”Others put the doubts about nuclear power in starker terms. The atomic power program ‘has been quite a flop, and is not to be taken seriously,’ former AEC Chairman Lilienthal told an interviewer… AEC estimates that year still showed that the electricity from nuclear plants would be about 30 to 60 percent more expensive than from conventional power stations. [p59, ibid.] Given the widespread disillusionment with atomic energy, President John F. Kennedy asked [AEC] Chairman Seaborg in March 1962 to prepare a report that took ‘a new hard look at the role of nuclear power in our economy.’ “ [p60, ibid.]


Previously, in 1956 when Permindex was founded, the American Petroleum Institute presented its members with the scenario of Peak Oil:

Lewis Strauss wrote “… I ventured a prediction that nuclear power plants of much greater size and more sophisticated technology would soon be built.” [p324, Men and Decisions].  At the same time, a Shell Oil Co. geologist named Marion King Hubbert began working for the Atomic Energy Commission. As Hubbert recalled it: “In the summer…spring and summer of 1955, I had begun service and had a couple of preliminary meetings [with] the Advisory Committee of the..Atomic Energy Commission on Waste Disposal. Land Nuclear Waste Disposal… In the course of those hearings, I had obtained information which I had not had before on the magnitude of the energy that could be obtained from fission… previously I’d regarded nuclear energy as unpromising because of the scarcity of uranium and thorium… So, this awareness of the magnitude of energy..changed the picture in my mind… So that, in turn, reflected on my previous analysis of energy based on fossil fuels.
   “Some time in the fall of 1955…I was on a trip to Denver on company business..[and] encountered one of the Shell production engineers whom I knew from Houston, and we had breakfast together… [He] remarked that he was..chairman of the program committee of the forthcoming American Petroleum Institute March. And they were looking for someone who could give them a broad brush picture of the overall world energy situation…” 
   According to the website, ,  Hubbert had only recently obtained sufficient information from the AEC to give a presentation, and “at the time he was convinced that atomic energy was a viable source for future world energy needs [though] Hubbert did ultimately change his mind.” Later in life, when this interview took place, Hubbert’s opinion of nuclear power was “the sooner we get rid of it the better off we’re going to be.”  Nevertheless, Hubbert carried the torch for Peak Oil (that reserves would ‘peak’ in 1970 and thereafter decline toward a global shortage) from the time of his March 1956 presentation to the API in San Antonio and for the rest of his life. John F. Kennedy almost caused Peak Oil to become undone by marginalizing Hubbert in favor of a USGS report stating there was plenty of oil. Hubbert also later said of his Peak Oil theory that “there was not a lot of analysis that went it” but he still defended it. In 1964, Hubbert quit Shell and went to work for the USGS… “this led to a 1967..paper showing that discoveries..were declining..back to within the original [1956 predicted range]… The U.S. peaked in 1970.”*
*(JFK Conspiracy Con, part III)
*                                                                           atomium_320_by_240_ccby20_flickr_mike_cattell The Atomium, 1958 World’s Fair, Belgium*
In the summer of 1958 AEC chairman Strauss declined President Eisenhower’s offer to become the permanent atomic energy chairman. He further declined job offers as White House chief of staff, Secretary of Defense, and Secretary of State. “Finally, Eisenhower suggested a position Strauss would accept… [as] secretary of commerce…   Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it and because he felt qualified. Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War; as he told a Senate committee, ‘I believe that the economic warfare which the Soviet Government has [now] declared upon the United States can be most effectively countered in the work and decisions of the Department of Commerce.’  …Until Strauss assumed his new duty, he continued to serve as special adviser to the president for Atoms For Peace. “ –p223, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau, 1984  “Strauss’s..contribution..on Atoms For Peace was to chair the American delegation to the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva from September 1 through September 15, 1958. As in 1955 [the First Conference], elaborate preparations preceded the conference, and again the American exhibit was spectacular, this time including four separate [nuclear] reactors, a huge technical library, and exhibits by fifty American corporations.” p224, ibid.
In a February 4th, 1960 letter, Louis Bloomfield wrote from its Montreal law office to Dr Ernest Wolf, a Permindex director residing in Basle, Switzerland:
“You’ll be pleased to hear that David Rockefeller had a meeting yesterday with Dr Nagy… It was a great success. Mr. Rockefeller..suggested immediate collaboration..which I shall discuss with Mr. Rockefeller on my meeting with him in a week or so… In the meantime, Mr. Rockefeller contacted the Chairman of the New York Port Authority, which is the principal mover of the scheme for New York and which is a multi-billion dollar independent concern, to start technical discussions on collaboration.”
Bloomfield completed this letter by informing Wolf that Permindex’s literature shall be distributed by the U.S. Department of Commerce and its 33 field offices, according to an article that was published in the February 1, 1960 issue of Foreign Commerce Weekly.
   “Secretary” Strauss did not survive the Senate approval process for his cabinet post, losing his desk after the full chamber vote in June 1959: “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator [Harry] Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued this parting statement: ‘I have done the best I know how to do– to protect and defend the national security, even when that was not the recognized, nor easy, nor popular action at the time.” p240, No Sacrifice Too Great. “Most Americans knew him as the destroyer of J. Robert Oppenheimer…” p241, ibid. “After a trip [abroad]..he returned to Washington where he set up an office, attended to his neglected financial affairs, and enjoyed the society of the city’s elite, who welcomed the Strausses back into their circle.” p242, ibid.
“They were long time friends, Harry Byrd and Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss. Strauss joined Kuhn, Loeb and Company [in 1919] and with his financial backing Byrd went into the Martin Organization [of Virginia politics], which later became the Byrd Machine, with Rothschild backing. After many years of total dictatorial rule in Virginia, Byrd finally died. Strauss pushed his son to replace him and the Byrd Machine continued with..Harry Jr… [and] to those in the know it was always the Byrd-Rothschild Machine.”
The Byrds
Harry F. Byrd (Sr)*harry_flood_byrd_sr  brother, Adm.Richard E. Byrd*rebyrdinfur   cousin, D.Harold Byrd* dhbyrd
*   For reasons unexplained, Admiral Byrd kept an office at the Atomic Energy Commission headquarters until he died in 1957. The staff recalled being amused by the stories of the old polar explorer as he wandered among them. His cousin, David Harold Byrd, who owned oil and uranium properties, supported many of the Admiral’s adventures, including joint business dealings from a building he owned –the ‘future’ Texas School Book Depository building in Dallas.
Just a few weeks before Admiral Strauss won his bid from Eisenhower to ascend in Commerce, “ In the spring of 1958, Enrico Mantello, the vice-president of PERMINDEX and brother of Giorgio [Georges Mandel/Mantello] visited New Orleans. Touring the Trade Mart, he invited Clay Shaw to join the board of directors… Nagy appeared at the American Embassy in Rome to announce that he intended ‘to strengthen U.S. control in PERMINDEX by adding..Mr. Shaw, who is in charge of the New Orleans, Louisiana permanent exhibit.’” p138, A Farewell to Justice, by Joan Mellen, 2005    “Nagy claimed that Shaw ‘had from the outset great interest in the PERMINDEX project… When [Shaw] added his PERMINDEX directorship to Who’s Who in the South and the Southeast, the Department of Commerce warned Shaw about ‘this shadowy organization’ “ p139, ibid.–sure, sure, the shadowy organization that Commerce was soon officially promoting. It’s not known to this researcher to what extent ‘Secretary’ Strauss aided the fledgling PERMINDEX, either promoting or protecting, only that he was in the right place at the right time and used the same language (‘permanent exhibitions’) in his presentations on nuclear trade in Atoms for Peace. The Peaceful U.S. conferees in Geneva were selling their floor model reactors right out of their shiny showrooms.
   The Atomic Energy Act, as amended in 1954, mandated a role to the U.S. Department of Commerce to assume oversight of nuclear facilities: Sec.2,c., “The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material affects interstate and foreign commerce and must be regulated…”  Sec.2,f., “protection against possible interstate damage occurring from the operation of facilities for production or utilization of source or special nuclear material places the operation of those facilities in interstate commerce for the purposes of the Act.” (full text)
*                                                             uscustomsvintagebutton
One assumes that the policing and investigating agencies of Commerce, U.S. Customs principal among them, acquired expanded jurisdiction in operations and intelligence: “…government documents, released since Garrison’s investigation, ..suggest that Oswald shared, like Miami customs agent Cesario Diosdada, an affiliation with not only the FBI and the CIA, but also with U.S. Customs…  At Customs, Oswald’s handler was a man named David Smith. Oswald’s employment with Customs was so sensitive that the HSCA [House Select Committee on Assassinations] interview with bar owner and FBI informant Orestes Pena was sealed for twenty-five years… Pena placed Oswald with Customs officials on a regular basis. So explosive were Pena’s revelations about Oswald’s relationships with Customs officers that Pena’s files were systematically destroyed by the FBI in a multicity effort that stretched across Europe… After the assassination, David Smith was transferred to Uruguay.” p46, A Farewell to Justice
    By then the international trade in radioactive isotopes was booming: “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies, and clinics… [T]he AEC’s role in facilitating their widespread barely acknowledged in the historiography…[T]he AEC was, first and foremost, a production agency itself… as a consequence, by the early 1950s the government’s capital investment in atomic energy plant facilities and equipment totaled to more than the ‘capital investments of U.S. Steel and General Motors combined.’ As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business.’ …[Radioisotope use] flourished in the 1950s and 1960s in no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding.. particularly through the National Institutes of Health… Even the role of government as the main source of radionuclides was gradually lost from view by the 1960s as the infrastructure for radioactive materials was increasingly privatized on the consumer end.”
   Strauss made the case that “Over a million medical patients are being diagnosed or treated with radioisotopes each year. In industry, savings through isotope use were estimated at about a hundred million dollars in 1953. By 1958, they were five times that. This is the first return (other than the great, intangible dividend of security) on our national investment in atomic energy… As sources of massive radiation, their uses include sterilization of foods and drugs, vulcanization of rubber, polymerization of plastics, initiation of chemical reactions, and X-raying of castings, welds, etc.” p326, Men and Decisions. “The demand for isotopes..has been steadily gaining as new uses are found. It is entirely possible that these by-products of the fission process may have future economic value more important than the application of power… In 1955 our classification policies were revised to open up large areas of reactor information… As of today [1962], in the field of reactors, only data primarily of importance to reactor systems for military applications remain classified.” p327. “The feature of our international co-operation, or ‘Atoms for Peace’ program, which distinguished it most completely from enterprises by other nations, is that we were both able and willing to allocate quantities of reactor fuel. In 1958 there was a total allocation for peaceful uses of 100,000 kilograms of uranium 235… [designated] half for the Atoms for Peace program.” p329, Men and Decisions, by Lewis Strauss, 1962.
    If the nuclear industry was to find itself hamstrung in the future by cost deficits in electrical power or treaties banning weapons and tests, the commercial traffic in isotopes and research reactors was a bank of certainty in manufacturing, instrumentation, agriculture, and medicine. No modern nation can compete, or merely hold its own, without nuclear technology.
   Despite the sting of losing his post at Commerce before the fall of ‘59, Strauss himself was to remain a permanent exhibit of nuclear industry as a delegate to the IAEA, work in which he presumably engaged from his private offices in Washington. “From retirement Strauss occasionally tried to settle old political scores… he found ‘particular satisfactions’ in the defeats of.. opponents in 1959… ‘These were dividends of considerable savor to me,’ he commented.” p243, No Sacrifice Too Great. His most visible post-Commerce activity in the capitol was lobbying against any weapons agreement, most especially a nuclear test-ban treaty.
    Lawyer/author Mark Lane was to mention Lewis Strauss twice in his JFK assassination corpus; first, in Executive Action where the film version shows historical footage of both Strauss and Edward Teller lobbying against the Test-Ban Treaty; secondly as a nonsequitur  in 1991’s Plausible Denial (p124), relating to friendship with William F. Buckley Jr.—a thin lead, perhaps, for follow-on to subjects of involvement with CIA and the American Security Council. Lane even works a mention of plutonium worker Karen Silkwood into Plausible Denial (p30) along with the New York Times reporter David Burnham who “covered nuclear energy stories” and was assigned to discredit the House [HSCA] lawyer leading the formative assassinations investigation, Richard Sprague. Lane is unique for even mentioning Strauss.
It was just a few weeks after the losing vote for Strauss’s cabinet post in Commerce that Lee Oswald prepared for his Marine discharge. He proceeded from California to his mother’s house in Ft. Worth to New Orleans, bought a ticket for a freight- liner from the travel agency at the Trade Mart, and carried a passport marked “import-export”.
Was Oswald then under the wing of Commerce, Customs, PERMINDEX, and the World Trade associates?
*                                                                   oswaldwebstercomparison
*                                                                                                                                               websternewspaper
Robert E. Webster, “an American who told officials he was defecting to Russia less than two weeks before Oswald, is worth considering since there appear to be many similarities between the two. Webster, a former Navy man, was a young plastics expert who simply failed to return home with colleagues after working at an American trade exhibition in Moscow. He had been an employee of the Rand Development Corporation, one of the first U.S. companies to sell technical products to Russia. Although Rand Development was thought to be separate from the more notorious Rand Corporation –the CIA ‘think tank’ front..—there is some evidence of connections between the two. The firms were at one time located across the street from each other in New York City; Rand Development held several CIA contracts…  While in Russia, Webster took a Soviet girl as common-law wife (he was already married to a woman in the United States) and the couple had a child. Like Oswald, Webster claimed to have become disenchanted with Soviet life and he returned..about the same time as Oswald. But now the story turns even stranger. Although Webster is said to have told American officials he never had any contact with Lee Harvey Oswald, when Oswald was arranging his return to the United States in 1961, he ‘asked [U.S. Embassy officials] about the fate of a young man named Webster who had come..shortly before he did… Furthermore, there are some intriguing connections between Webster and Oswald’s wife Marina. Years later in America, Marina told an acquaintance that her husband had defected after working at an American exhibition in Moscow.” Pp116-117, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs
“..[S]uspicions about Marina were heightened considerably by a CIA document released under legal pressure in 1976…[about] a ‘holiday’ she took in the fall of 1960 at a government ‘rest home.’ In analyzing Marina’s address book, the CIA located an acquaintance she had made at a certain address..[where] an American named Robert E. Webster lived at the time in the same building… It could, of course, be mere coincidence that Marina Prusakova was on holiday and in the immediate vicinity of the two young American military men who had just defected. Or, it could mean that she was involved in some way with official Soviet interest in these Americans.” p217, Reasonable Doubt, by Henry Hurt, 1985
At the time of his defection in September of 1959 Robert E. Webster worked for James Henry Rand III, founder of the Rand Development Corp. of Cleveland. Rand stayed well-informed of Webster’s activity throughout his near-three-year defection and re-defection back to the U.S. in May of 1962 –just ahead of Oswald in each case. James Rand III was a twin son of Remington-Rand founder James Henry Rand Jr. who turned over the operation of Remington Rand in 1958 (which had previously merged with Sperry Corp), to James’s twin brother Marcell. Vice-president of research and development for Remington-Rand in those years (1948-1961) was the former chief of the Manhattan Project, General Leslie R. Groves. Among other sundry defense contracts, Remington-Rand was collaborating with Bell Labs on nuclear missile guidance systems:
   Rand Development Corp. turned its attention to medical devices –by the 1960s, engaged in the production of experimental cancer vaccines.
*   James Henry Rand III, aka H. James Rand, Dr. Henry Rand*1967-press-photo-h-james-rand-developer-camer-upcc-arrives-vaccine-b22f0bbd52515ea36ba492df939124ed employer of Robert E. Webster, photographed here in 1967 at the US District Court in Cleveland after the court “imposed as tough a ban as the law allows on further experimentation with the so-called Rand anti-cancer vaccine. H. James Rand and his Rand Development Corp. were permanently enjoined and restrained from manufacture and shipment of the vaccine, and even from further animal experimentation…”,9171,836753,00.html
If Robert Webster was involved in a cancer vaccine project, as Oswald was in New Orleans, no record has yet been disgorged, though he still appears to have a role within in the Cancer-Polio nexus providing context to the JFK assassination conspiracy. The Rands, father and sons, shared a common goal in supporting cancer treatment research.
* Founder of Remington-Rand, James Henry Rand Jr : ..‘in 1961-62, Rand left an estate in Stuart [Florida] to reside permanently in the Bahamas where he would begin building a ‘Science City’ to conduct important and vital research. Even while in Stuart, he was particularly involved with developing a cure or vaccine for cancer. Ironically, he died of cancer…”
*   Robert E. Webster likely did not work for James Rand III beyond the expedient of getting into the USSR:
Sept.1960 CIA internal memo, “[James Rand] mentioned the fact that Mrs. Robert E. Webster still thinks that her husband is returning to this country (although Rand does not) and that she had asked him recently if  ‘they would rehire him’, with ‘they’ being someone other than Rand Development Corporation. Rand said that he had told her he didn’t think ‘they’ would. The matter was dropped at this point…”
According to available internet compilations on Webster, Rand sponsored Webster as a traveling exhibitor, demonstrating the very products he displayed for the Moscow trade fair.
The American National Exhibit Moscow (ANEM) or the Sokolniki Fair
  * * First of its kind and a very important event in U.S-Soviet relations. Milton Eisenhower, Krushchev, and Nixon cut the ribbon on opening day, July 24, 1959. Exhibits included displays shown earlier at the 1958 World’s Fair in Belgium.
Organization for the Sokolniki Exhibition began in 1958. Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Commerce, Gilbert A. Robinson, described the effort: “[Howard C. McClellan and] I spent six months..putting it together. We sent managers over there. I also became the coordinator of the exhibition. We had staff in Moscow. Then he and I went over for six months and had the largest contingent of Americans since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917… A lot of people think that Nixon was the head of the delegation, but Eisenhower made his brother..the Chairman of the delegation… In fact, the President mandated that Commerce had the lead… Ambassador Tommy Thompson gave me an office there at the embassy...” TOCs/Robinson,Gilbert A.toc.pdf (oral history interview with Tom Brokaw)
 Robinson never mentions Sec.of Commerce Lewis Strauss missing his senior staff away in Moscow. Strauss was required to step down only days before the opening of the American National Exhibit.

*Post continues here: Atomic Oswald Two

October 28, 2013

School Days

Filed under: education,Eugenics,Rockefeller Science — jenniferlake @ 12:38 am
Tags: ,

“From the beginning, there was purpose behind forced schooling…forged out of what a highly centralized corporate economy and system of finance bent on internationalizing itself was thought to need… School was looked a branch of industry and a tool of governance…  By 1917, the major administrative jobs in American schooling were under control of a group referred to in the press of that day as ‘the Education Trust.’ The first meeting of this trust included representatives of Rockefeller, Carnegie, Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago, and the National Education Association. The chief end, wrote the British evolutionist Benjamin Kidd in 1918, was to ‘impose on the young the ideal of subordination.’

…”Arthur Calhoun’s 1919 Social History of the Family notified the nation’s academics what was happening. Calhoun declared that the fondest wish of utopian writers was coming true: The child was passing from its family ‘into the custody of community experts.’ He offered a significant forecast, that in time we could expect to see public education ‘designed to check the mating of the unfit.’

…”The 1920s were a boom period for forced schooling… William Kirkpatrick boasted in Education and the Social Crisis that the whole tradition of rearing the young was being made over by experts.”

   “Meanwhile, at the project offices of an important employer of experts, the Rockefeller Foundation, friends were hearing from president Max Mason that a comprehensive national program was underway to allow, in Mason’s words, ‘the control of human behavior.’ This dazzling ambition was announced on April 11, 1933. Schooling figured prominently in the design.

   “Rockefeller had been inspired by the work of Eastern European scientist Hermann Muller to invest heavily in genetics. Muller had used X-rays to override genetic law, inducing mutations in fruit flies. This seemed to open the door to the scientific control of life itself. Muller preached that planned breeding would bring mankind to paradise faster than God… Muller would win the Nobel Prize, reduce his proposal to a 1,500-word Geneticists’ Manifesto, and watch with satisfaction as 22 distinguished American and British biologists of the day signed it. The State must prepare to consciously guide human sexual selection, said Muller. School would have to separate worthwhile breeders from those slated for termination…”

   “Thirty-odd years later, between 1967 and 1974, teacher training in the US was covertly revamped through coordinated..key state education departments..which in time, impacted every school in America… The Behavioral Science Teacher Education Project identified the future as one ‘in which a small elite’ will control all important matters, one where participatory democracy will largely disappear. Children are made to see through school experiences that their classmates are so cruel and irresponsible, so inadequate..and so ignorant that they need to be controlled and regulated for society’s good. Under such a logical regime, school terror can only be regarded as good advertising…”

–John Taylor Gatto, “Some Lessons From The Underground History of American Education” [pp274-287, Everything You Know Is Wrong, 2002]

   Using falling literacy statistics dating from 1840 and 1940, J.T. Gatto makes his point about the success of educational failure:   “…abundant data exist from states like Connecticut and Massachusetts to show that by 1840 the incidence of complex literacy in the United States was between 93 and 100 percent… According to the Connecticut census of 1840, only one citizen out of every 579 was illiterate… By 1940, the literacy figure for all states stood at 96 percent for whites [and] 80 percent for blacks… Six decades later..the National Adult Literacy Survey..say[s] 40 percent of blacks and 17 percent of whites can’t read at all. Put another way [since 1940], black illiteracy doubled and white illiteracy quadrupled… think of this: We spend three to four times as much real money on schooling as we did 60 years ago, but 60 years ago virtually everyone..could read…
   “If you have a hard time believing this…meet William Torrey Harris, US Commissioner of Education from 1889 to 1906… Harris standardized our schools and Germanized them… Listen as he speaks in 1906: “Ninety-nine [students] out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths, careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial education, which, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual… The great purpose of school can be realized better in dark, airless, ugly places… It is to master the physical self, to transcend the beauty of nature. School should develop the power to withdraw from the external world.’
…”Since Aristotle, thinkers have understood that work is the vital theater of self-knowledge. Schooling in concert with a controlled workplaceis the most effective way ever devised to foreclose the development of imagination… Hegel was sold to America in large measure by William Torrey Harris who made Hegelianism [the provoking of crises] his lifelong project, and forced schooling its principal instrument in its role as a peerless agent provocateur.
   “Harris was inspired by the notion that correctly managed mass schooling would result in a population so dependent on leaders that schism and revolution would be things of the past… The psychological tool was [is] alienation. The trick was to alienate children from themselves so they couldn’t turn inside for strength, to alienate them from their families, religions, cultures, etc. so no countervailing force could intervene…
   “Alexander Inglis, author of Principles of Secondary Education..wrote that the new schools were being expressly created to serve a command economy and command society, one in which the controlling coalition would be drawn from important institutional stakeholders in the future. According to Inglis, the first function of schooling is adjustive, establishing fixed habits of reaction to authority. This prepares the young to accept whatever management dictates when they are grown. Second is the diagnostic function. School determines each student’s ‘proper’ social role…to justify the next function, sorting. Individuals are to be trained only so far as their likely destination in the social machine, not one step beyond.

   “Conformity is the fourth function. Kids are to be made alike…so future behavior will be predictable, in service to market and political research. Next is the hygenic function…the health of the ‘race’… and last is the propaedutic function, a fancy word meaning that a small fraction of kids will slowly be trained to take over management of the system…
    “And there you have the formula: adjustment, diagnosis, sorting, conformity, racial hygiene, and continuity…”
“The Ultimate History Lesson”, 2011 interview
Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs… In 1914, Julian Huxley offered Muller a position at the recently founded William Marsh Rice Institute, now Rice University; he hurried to complete his Ph.D. degree and moved to Houston for the beginning of the 1915-1916 academic year…
…1926 marked the beginning of a series of major breakthroughs. Beginning in November, Muller carried out two experiments with varied doses of X-rays, the second of which used the crossing over suppressor stock (“ClB”) he had found in 1919. A clear, quantitative connection between radiation and lethal mutations quickly emerged. Muller’s discovery created a media sensation after he delivered a paper entitled “The Problem of Genetic Modification” at the Fifth International Congress of Genetics in Berlin; it would make him one of the better known public intellectuals of the early 20th century. By 1928, others had replicated his dramatic results, expanding them to other model organisms such as wasps and maize. In the following years, he began publicizing the likely dangers of radiation exposure in humans…
In September 1932, Muller moved to Berlin to work with the Russian expatriate geneticist Nikolay Timofeeff-Ressovsky, a trip intended as a limited sabbatical stretched into an eight-year, five-country journey. In Berlin, he met two physicists who would later be significant to the biology community: Niels Bohr and Max Delbrück…  In 1933, Muller Leningrad…  In the USSR, Muller supervised a large and productive lab, and organized work on medical genetics. Most of his work involved further explorations of genetics and radiation. There he completed his eugenics book, Out of the Night, the main ideas of which dated to 1910… ”
The ideas Muller laid out for the development of a practical eugenics program differed from those of the American Eugenics Society, particularly his emphasis on ‘positive eugenics’ and the importance of a classless society as a precursor to a eugenics program. ‘Positive eugenics’ was Muller’s theory which promoted the perpetuation of good genes rather than the removal of bad genes from society (‘negative eugenics’).” [Galtonian eugenics was of this ‘positive’ type] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory archives

October 24, 2012


Morgification is something I’ve been thinking about for months. In part, as the involuntary and evil twin of Borgification, and in breadth as a process that derives “morg” from its original word-root as a condition of death. It only so happens that All Hallows Eve is on our doorstep and this haphazard piece turns out to be timely. The inspiration didn’t come from philosophy or religion, but from polymer science; specifically, the activities of the (defunct) Polaroid Corporation and the men who were dipping their probes into the mysteries of organic stereochemistry to make “interesting” plastics. And then there’s the overall driver which is a psychic hologram of scientific tyranny. Pardon my negativity but there’s a problem Houston! We’re losing the Race for Space –and I mean losing control of those engineered aliens ( the “race” for space).   So, I guess what I want to say is: get jiggy with it science guys or get morgued for a comeback as zombie pumpkins.

“Morg”, of course, is taken from Morgellon’s, a name on overdrive, standing in for the range of disorders manifesting as recurrent lesions, extruding fibers, films, crystals, technological objects and insects oozing and tearing out of people’s skin. Prognosis unknown. Morgellon’s suggests these are medical problems. Morgification, I’m suggesting, is conquest.

   No one can yet tell me if it’s killing people because so far what I’ve heard is that ‘morgs’ are killing themselves. I have too little to offer in the face of this tragedy, but recent exposure to advanced cases of morgification support a conviction that the issue needs to be, and must be, defined. It was Edwin (“call me Din”) Land, the founder and genius of Polaroid, who was fond of telling people that a problem defined opened the way to its solution.


The following description and accompanying photos (in the link) fits some of the morg specimens I’ve seen: “In this work, we discovered that.. PVP could self-assemble to form a macroscopic matrix made of a branched hollow polymer nanofibers… The self-assembled fibrous PVP structure formed in the aqueous solution was a jellyfish-like three-dimensional aggregate with a centimeter scale… Based on the..analysis of the early stage during the formation of the jellyfish-like PVP aggregate, the aggregate formation process can be divided into two steps: formation and fusion of PVP microspheres into pearl-necklace-like chains and growth of hollow fibers from the chains… The branched fibers produced in this work may serve as new templates for the synthesis of fibers or tubes of other materials… We discovered that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) could self-assemble into branched hollow fibers in an aqueous solution after aging the PVP solution for about two weeks. Based on this finding, we demonstrated two approaches by which the self-assembly of PVP into branched hollow fibers could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers.” [i.e. silica and gold nanoparticles]

 PVP powder, sold widely as a food additive, binding and thickening agent for foods, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, medical devices and blood plasma substitute. Mixed with iodine it’s called povidone, able to make light-polarizing film — it could have been among the many thousands of polymer compounds prepared by Polaroid.

Edwin Land, c1947 

For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized  “Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy  [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… and clearly demonstrated what they were investing in by granting Land control of a voting trust of the stock… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]   Din Land had shown them miracles, including a 3-D movie, which they restaged multiple times for scientists, capitalists, and the press. For the 1939 “World of Tomorrow” Fair in New York, Chrysler presented a 3-D Polaroid film of a car self-assembling as the animated parts danced before the audience. Still, Polaroid had little to sell and fewer customers, but 1940, World War II, new premises near M.I.T. and a flow of contracts from the US Navy changed everything. Near the end of the war, Polaroid took on a team of crack chemists and set out to make the products that Edwin Land had dreamed of.

One of the chemists who signed on to Polaroid in 1943 was Elkan Rogers Blout, newly promoted out of Columbia University with a chemical PhD and accommodated as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. Blout managed to keep his parallel life going between Polaroid and Harvard –Polaroid gave him wealth and Harvard gave him prestige– until 1962 and the fruition of Polaroid’s great commercial one-trick-pony: the instant color camera. Blout “led the team of chemists that synthesized more than 5,000 compounds in search of the key ingredients of the Polaroid color process.” By leaving the lab at Polaroid, Blout was to have time to make his mark in medicine. Since 1950, he’d had private lab space at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, sponsored by the Children’s Cancer Research Foundation under Sidney Farber: “Elkan established a spectroscopy laboratory at Children’ study biophysics of peptides and proteins… Indicative of his stature in the field of biopolymers, Elkan was a founding editor of the journal Biopolymers…”  At the top of his Harvard career, Elkan Blout was the Dean of academics at the Harvard School of Public Health, treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences responsible for a five-fold increase in monetary holdings and lastly, in retirement after having won the highest national awards, senior science advisor to the FDA.  But, from his first days at Polaroid during WWII, Blout (who was 24 at the time) had joined in the ‘classified’ culture of military secrets. It may have taught him much about networking and discretion, as doubtlessly as hobnobbing with financiers did with money. Perhaps it suited him as it suited Edwin Land.

When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada, Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…  From the first flight on July 4, 1956, to the day Gary Powers was shot down on May 1, 1960, the U-2 changed the course of history… suddenly a hidden world was totally revealed. It quickly became apparent that the bomber gap and the missile gap [promoted as falling behind the Soviets] were misapprehensions… the Western powers had overestimated Soviet strength… Subsequent flights totally revised American and NATO thinking about Russian capabilities.” [pp111-112, Land’s Polaroid]

The essential telling of U-2 surveillance and the involvement of Land is in the timing of its early flights a full year before the United States blew off the longest and dirtiest series of nuclear bombs over the heads of its citizens.  The Nevada tests known as Operation Plumbob in the summer and fall of 1957 initiated the period of peak atmospheric fallout that, according to epidemiological data, has never really abated due to the growth of nuclear industries, accidents, re-pollution and bioaccumulation. For some time now, even the public knows that the ‘testing’ excess was militarily unnecessary by any standard.  In the field of synthetic and biopolymers, however, fallout is magic.


Got a minute?

All polymers are made of linked units called monomers.
A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature.  Starch, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars [polysaccharides], amino acids [polypeptides], and nuceic acids [polynucleotides]. The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the polymer’s primary structure. Many biopolymers spontaneously “fold” into characteristic shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the shapes of biopolymers.”
“Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation…also known as 3D chemistry because the prefix “stereo-” means “three-dimensionality”.
The term ‘plastics’ includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Plastics typically have high molecular weight, meaning each molecule can have thousands of atoms bound together… Most plastics are based on the carbon atom. Silicones, which are based on the silicon atom, are an exception. The carbon atom can link to other atoms with up to four chemical bonds .. When we combine monomers, we generate polymers or plastics… The raw material formation may begin by separating the hydrocarbon chemicals from natural gas, petroleum, or coal into pure streams of chemicals. Some are then processed in a “cracking process.” Here, in the presence of a catalyst, raw materials molecules are converted into monomers such as ethylene (ethene) C2H4, propylene (propene) C3H6, and butene C4H8 and others….  Each monomer yields a plastic resin with specific properties and characteristics. Combinations of monomers produce copolymers with further property variations. So, within each polymer type, such as nylons, polyesters, polyethylenes, etc, manufacturers can custom make plastics that have specific features.”
“A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure. Covalent [shared electron] bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.”
“Most plastics are dielectrics or insulators…and resist the flow of a current… [but] Not all polymers behave the same when subjected to voltage and plastics can be classified as ‘polar’ or ‘nonpolar’…The polar plastics do not have a fully covalent bond and there is a slight imbalance in the electronic charge of the molecule… This ‘dipole’ will move in the presence of an electric field and attempt to line up with the electric field.”
Molecular self-assembly is mediated by weak, noncovalent bonds –notably hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds (electrostatic interactions), hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions and water-mediated hydrogen bonds. Although these bonds are relatively insignificant in isolation, when combined together as a whole, they govern the structural conformation of..macromolecules…”
Polymer fabrication techniques often use free radicals: Free radical polymerization is a which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks. Free radicals can be formed via a number of different mechanisms… The relatively nonspecific nature of free radical chemical interactions makes this one of the most versatile forms of polymerization available.. In 2001, 40 billion of the 110 billion pounds of polymers produced in the United States were produced by free radical polymerization.”
High-energy ionizing radiation produces free radicals for chemically cross-linking polymers: “..[a] polymer may be crosslinked using..electron beam (or e-beam), gamma, or x-ray. Gamma irradiation is usually most economical at lower doses..and for large, high-density parts…Irradiation creates free radicals which will often chemically react in various ways… The free radicals can recombine forming the crosslinks. The degree of crosslinking depends upon the polymer and radiation dose… Another oxidation during irradiation. Furthermore, oxidation can continue after irradiation causing changes in properties with time… A competing process, called scissioning occurs when polymers are irradiated. In this case, the polymer chains are broken…”
Plasma polymerization: …”as early as the 1870s ‘polymers’ formed by this process were known, but these polymers were initially thought of as undesirable…It was not until the 1960s that the properties of these polymers where found to be useful… Glow discharge is a technique in polymerization which forms free electrons which gain energy from an electric field, and then lose energy through collisions with neutral molecules in the gas phase. This leads to many chemically reactive species, which then lead to a plasma polymerization reaction… These plasmas are formed by a direct current, alternating current or radio frequency generator.
“This review describes recent developments in the emerging field of biomimetic polymeric biomaterials, which signal to cells via biologically active entities.  …The next topics are then the basic design rules for the creation of biomimetic materials. Here, the major emphasis is on polymers that are assembled in separate building blocks, meaning that the biologically active entity is attached to the polymer in a separate chemical reaction.”
“Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach…by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte [red blood cell] membranes..for long-circulating [drug or gene] cargo delivery…”
“Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap)…”
“Conductive polymers are expected to play an important role in the emerging science of molecular computers…”
Indeed… polymers are smart materials. If you knew nothing about plastics before reading this, I hope this random selection of quotes does a ‘Polaroid’–  gives you the picture in a minute.
   I have one last addition about the “pyrroles” :
“Polypyrroles are conducting polymers of the, all basically derivatives of polyacetylene. Polypyrrole was the first polyacetylene derivative to show high conductivity. In a series of papers in 1963, D.E.Weiss and coworkers reported high conductivity in iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole… In 2006, scientists from Brown University published work on a fast-charging and discharging battery chemistry based on polypyrroles. There are current studies into the medical applications… Polypyrrole..has been actively studied as a material for ‘artificial muscles’… Polypyrrole is used in the microwave fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, a new method that allows to obtain CNTs in a matter of seconds.”
….now there’s a real Polaroid moment.
In 1940, equal to Polaroid’s up-and-coming status as a think tank floating on Navy contracts, Edwin Land adopted Robert Burns Woodward as a special science advisor and chief “problem solver” to the company. Woodward was a Boston area native, PhD graduate of MIT, and soon to become the resident wizard of organic chemistry at Harvard. He was “considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century… During the..1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex..products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, and by meticulous plannng…  it was thought by some..that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab… Woodward was a pioneer in showing how, with exhaustive and rational planning, one could conduct reactions that were stereoselective. Many..syntheses involved forcing a molecule into a certain configuration by installing rigid structural elements in it, [a] tactic that has become standard today.”
   “In 1944, Land brought together two brilliant young chemists who had worked for Polaroid… twenty-seven..[and]..William E. Doering..[who] was twenty-six. Land provided them with a Polaroid laboratory and assistants, his own insistent energy and ideas, and a challenge to solve the classical problem… Synthetic quinine…” [p76, Land’s Polaroid] It was through Woodward, who had also been serving the War Production Board, that Elkan Blout came to Polaroid too. Woodward was to stay in the family –in 1946 he divorced his first wife and married Eudoxia ‘Doxie’ Muller, one of Polaroid’s first hires, described as a “humorous, cynical, blonde sprite” who was recruited to learn science on-the-job. “Doxie had been assigned by Land to begin the first chemical experiments on his instant photography project, given the code name SX-70, under Land’s daily guidance.” [p9, ibid.]
   Woodward’s “new era” in chemistry was to bear his name. “In the early 1950s, Woodward, along with the British chemist Geoffrey Wilkinson then at Harvard, postulated a novel structure for ferrocene, a compound consisting of a combination of an organic molecule with iron. This marked the beginning of the field of transition metal organometallic chemistry…  In the early 1960s, Woodward began work on what was the most complex natural product synthesized to date– vitamin B12… The synthesis included almost a hundred steps…  This [work] convinced organic chemists that the synthesis of any complex substance was possible given enough time and planning.” [wiki, above]
   Blout wrote of his friend, “Theoretically, interesting molecules always intrigued Woodward… He concluded that electronic effects had to be at work…”
“Recently the mixtures of collagen with synthetic polymers..are becoming more and more interesting for scientists and technologists… Since collagen alone does not show interesting enough mechanical properties, the idea to develop collagen based composite materials by adding a selected synthetic polymer is interesting. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is an interesting water-soluble synthetic… used for..plasmas (substitute of blood plasma), for hydrogel production by radiation methods and..hydrophilic gels…  Collagen and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)..are also well known for their interesting biological properties. The blending of collagen with PVP makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur.”
“…surgically induced fibrocollagenous tunnels induces angiogenesis in ischemic rat hindlimb model… collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone plus heparin induced significant vascularization…”
“Vascular tube formation and angiogenesis induced by polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles” [abstract title]
   Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, was a term first coined in 1900 but made-over in 1960s medical literature as a feature of cancer by the effort of a Boston [Children’s Hospital/Harvard] colleague, Moses Judah Folkman. Dr. “Folkman is widely known as a pioneer in the sudy of angiogenesis… Today [2008] there are more than 1,000 laboratories worldwide engaged in the study of angiogenesis, the field he founded.” In measurable practical value, however, Folkman may be better known for creating plasticized implants, including an early pacemaker: “While doing blood research for the Navy [Bethesda], Folkman had noticed that plastic tubing will gradually leak oil-based fluids… That led to a new drug-delivery system– implantable plastic capsules..[and] directly to the development of Norplant, the long-term contraceptive… Folkman gave the original the Population Council.”
…”Judah Folkman has taken us enormously close to converting cancer into a manageable chronic disease…”
   Without digressing here on the utility of cancer, this last comment fairly captures my perception of the goals of establishment medicine and brings up another haunting concept I’ve been thinking about as a result of this research: autoincarceration –for now, one to keep rolling. There are endless interesting citations about PVP.
   Polyvinylpyrrolidone was first made in a BASF laboratory, the company that advertizes “We don’t just create chemicals, we create chemistry” : “Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a genuine ‘multi-talent’ among BASF products because polyvinylpyrrolidones are good at (almost) everything… It all began around the end of Ludwigshafen. Walter Reppe, the inventor of acetylene chemistry, used acetylene and pyrrolidone to produce a new monomer called vinylpyrrolidone… PVP started its career as a substitute for blood plasma in the Second World War. Known as Periston, it saved the lives of thousands of people… Half of the polyvinylpyrrolidones produced by BASF are destined for the pharmaceutical sector…  Today, BASF is the biggest producer of PVP in Europe –and an end to this success story is nowhere in sight.”–PVP+and+more+Versatile+specialty+polymers+for+technical+applications-English.pdf
“When dry, it is a light flaky powder which readily absorbs up to 40% of its weight in atmospheric water. In solution it has excellent wetting properties and readily forms films…”
[1953]”This work..may serve as a basis for later investigations..on the combining of PVP for certain physiologic products with which it comes into intimate contact when used as a plasma expander…”
“Pulsed electron beam irradiation at high repitition rate generates several carbon-centered free radicals along the polymeric chain simultaneously and enhances the intra-crosslinking radical reactions. Smaller nano-gel particles..were attained at higher pulse repitition rate (300 pulses per second)…the nano-gel structure was synthesized using relatively low dose-rate radiation…”
“The microemulsion was..subjected to either electron-beam or UV-radiation to induce free-radical crosslinking of PVP at low temperature… E-beams produced orderly grids and UV produced a tangled mess…”
“Recently studies have shown that infection can occur in the presence of neutralizing antibodies…if the virus is first subjected to polymer encapsulation… By substituting polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for PVA [polyvinyl alcohol], gene transfer increased seven-fold…”
Naturally existing pyrroles, incidently, come from tobacco, and as part of its intriguing history as the first confirmed isolation of  any virus (published 1892), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) turns out to “exhibit fascinating structural features… TMV-based materials have already shown great potential in nanoelectronics.”
–now, I can only speculate what kind of story Big Tobacco might have to contribute here. Tobacco keeps coming up in my radiation biology studies; as a source of desirable chemicals such as nicotinic acid and pyrrole, as a crop target of early “radium fertilizer” and as a factor in the cancer of Henrietta Lacks, whose tumor cells were designated the immortal HeLa line in 1951 (beginning of US domestic atomic fallout), then to become the most ubiquitous of laboratory creatures (i.e., the basis of polio vaccines) –and now this too, ready nanoelectronics.
   Americans should know from history that the burgeoning economy of the Atlantic colonies was built on the slave labor of tobacco plantations. By the 1700s, excluding J.J. Astor, great fortunes were in tobacco, exemplified by Pierre Lorillard: “Lorillard is the oldest tobacco company in the world.; In 1968, Lorillard was acquired by Loews Corporation, controlled by the Tisch family. If you like, take the rabbit hole:; or jump in and follow the money
BASF, creator of the chemistry, was the 1925 founding corporation of I.G. Farbenunder the leadership of Carl Bosch…all shares were exchanged for BASF shares prior to the merger. Rubber, fuels and coatings were added to the product range“.

In 1927, prior to the Wall Street Crash and the construction of Rockefeller Center,  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben formalized a joint partnnership that created the world’s largest chemical consortium. Howard Ambruster published a critical work in 1947 on the interwar history of the Standard-Farben venture: “Treason’s Peace, German Dyes and American Dupes”.  Ambruster wrote, “ is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which..operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest and a world super-state directed by Farben.”…”

“Under the direction of Walter Reppe (1892 – 1969, chemist and member of the  Board of Executive Directors from 1952 to 1957), research begins in 1928 on the catalytic reactions of acetylene under pressure… Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius receive the Nobel Prize for the development of  high-pressure technology for ammonia synthesis and coal hydrogenation…Researchers in Ludwigshafen develop a groundbreaking new invention – magnetic  tape…  Ten years of intensive research into synthetic rubber culminate in success… A patent is filed in 1939 for one of the most interesting  derivatves of acetylene chemistry: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)… Times of war, 1940…The first 20 tons of caprolactam-based polyamide are produced in  Ludwigshafen. This opens up new ways of manufacturing fibers (nylon and Perlon)  and engineering plastics… ”

“I.G. Farben had a holding company in the United States… Paul M. Warburg, first director of the Federal  Reserve Bank of New York and chairman of the Bank of Manhattan, was a Farben director and in Germany his brother Max Warburg was also a director of I.G,  Farben. H. A. Metz of I.G. Farben was also a director of the Warburg’s Bank of  Manhattan. Finally, Carl Bosch of American I.G. Farben was also a director of  Ford Motor Company A-G in Germany… Another elusive case of reported financing to Hitler is that of Fritz Thyssen, the German steel magnate…[whose]..personal banking operation was affiliated with W.A. Harriman interests in New York..”  “Virtually all members of the German Warburg family fled to the United States or Great Britain by 1938.”  “The I.G.Farben cartel was created by loans from Wall Street in what has been called the Dawes Plan. Carroll Quigley calls the Dawes Plan ‘largely a J.P. Morgan production.’ The J.P. Morgan Group set up the loan to I.G. Farben, which created Hitler… Do you see what happened? A Rothschild agent [Morgan & Co.] set up a cartel that was directly involved in the horrible persecution of the Jews. Still the family maintains the illusion of being totally supportive of their race. At first Germany had a significant disadvantage… The nation had a fuel shortage…[but] were able to fight WWII through the use of synthetic fuels that were created by the hydrogenation process (turning coal into gasoline)… Standard Oil..was able to complete the research, facilitating the war…” [from Bloodlines of the Illuminati, by Fritz Springmeier,]

While the processes for producing gaseous and liquid fuels by conventional techniques were being developed, exploratory experiments to investigate the rapid pyrolysis of coal to gaseous products were in progress… The results of these studies show that the rapid pyrolysis of coal produces a gaseous mixture of which acetylene is the principal hydrocarbon constituent…”

The US Government’s sample of PVP came to the military in 1943 as captured German medical supplies: “At the 28 July 1943 [Subcommittee on Blood Substitutes] Conference..a bottle of Periston [polyvinylpyrrolidone]..that had been captured in Tunisia..was exhibited and arrangements were made for various studies to be conducted on it… [T]oxicity experiments revealed gross pathologic changes in the spleen..described as the type to be expected in severe bone marrow damage… Autopsy also revealed changes in the liver that were apparently progressive…”  Despite this, blood substitute science was unable to find suitable materials and Periston was bypassed because of adequate supplies of donated blood from the Red Cross program. The military dropped its inquiry at the end of the war, but in 1950 the Korean War revived their interest: “Periston was..[next] considered in the Subcommittee on Shock on 14 October 1950. Although it had been widely used in Germany during WWII and about half a million cases had since been followed up, not much was known… Apparently it caused no lasting damage to the tissues… At the 11 was learned that the Schenley [Distillers] Corp. could then import 5,000 to 10,000 bottles of Periston a month from Germany and by July 1951 expected to import an intermediate form that could be processed further in the United States… A research project had been approved in principle… The Food and Drug Administration was prepared to clear Periston…” [pp788-790] So Schenley Corp. became the government’s PVP contractor until late 1953 when Periston was dropped again in favor of another blood substitute called dextran –also provided by Schenley.

“Schenley had been owned by one Danny Weiskopf, formerly the right-hand man of Julius Kessler, the whiskey king of pre-Prohibition America. Weiskopf had sold out to Lew Rosenstiel..[who] managed to build up considerable stocks of ‘prescription whiskey’..[p95, The Bronfmans]… Before Repeal Rosenstiel had acquired..the important firm of Schenley with the help of..the totally respectable banking firm of Lehman Brothers… Rosenstiel was a true monster… He was a workaholic, needing only two hours of sleep, working seven days a week, impetuous.. a control freak who treated his employees like dirt, sacking them at a moment’s notice..[expecting] them to compromise themselves by talking in his absence, unaware that he had installed bugging devices in his offices… Rosenstiel was married four times and was bisexual…revealed from evidence given in a bitter divorce his fourth wife. If, as is possible, her evidence is true, it guarantees him a place in history as organizer of the parties at which J. Edgar Hoover could frolic in his favorite frocks, parties that featured boy prostitutes for the enjoyment of..guests like Roy Cohn. According to the fourth Mrs. Rosenstiel, at one party she attended Hoover ‘was wearing a fluffy black dress..with..lace stockings and high false eyelashes.’ Indeed it was the blackmail potential of the conversations recorded on the microphones Rosenstiel had thoughtfully installed throughout the house that allegedly explained Hoover’s refusal to pursue the Mafia. For it was at Lew’s place that Hoover met some of Rosenstiel’s business Frank Costello, Sam Giancana…Santo Trafficante..Angelo Bruno..and Meyer Lansky…” [p66, The Bronfmans, by Nicholas Faith] Sam Bronfman bought a 20% stake in Schenley. “Mr. Sam..–and above all Edgar– had been introduced to what would now be called ‘insider’ stock market dealings by the Loebs and the Gunzbergs… In France the Gunzberg connection with the Rothschilds enabled the Bronfmans to get in on the ground floor of..the innovative holiday group Club Mediterranee. In the United States the investments included a highly successful speculation into Polaroid..” [p175, ibid.]


This story, as you might surmise, has more places to go than tunneling nanotubes, and at some point I just have to leave-off and mention that the early medical research on PVP by the government was mixed at best. They sanctioned ’emergency use’ of PVP blood substitute and called for more study. The only moderately favorable clinical trial done in 1950 was submitted by Dr. Robert M. Zollinger of Ohio State U, the beloved mentor of Judah Folkman who got him into Harvard Medial School. Polaroid eventually filed a number of PVP-containing patents, some of which appear near the end of Edwin Land’s life in 1983. “Paradoxically, a man who spent much of his life developing devices and systems for recording history didn’t leave much of his own. He didn’t keep a journal and his personal papers were destroyed upon death.”



PVP in RESidence
Polyvinylpyrrolidone stores in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), currently called the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), “part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells..accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are..part of the MPS… The mononuclear phagocyte system is part of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity..[with] an important role in defense against microorganisms… [In] the liver, Kupffer cells store excess iron [coming] from the breakdown of red blood cells. In bone marrow and spleen, iron is stored in RES cells mostly as ferritin… The functions of the MPS..[are] formation of Red and White blood cells [RBCs and WBCs], destruction of old RBCs and WBCs, formation of antibody, formation of plasma proteins, formation of bile pigments [and] storage of iron.”
“When administered in very large amounts or over long periods (either as a plasma replacement or as a dryg carrier) deposits identified as PVP have been found in RES cells of various organs and in the lung, kidney and intestines… For example, PVP storage was apparent in 28 of 29 autopsies of patients who received intravenous injection over 2-81 days at total doses of 4 g[grams]. Microscopic examination revealed slight structural changes… Slight adverse effects to the function of lungs, kidneys, liver and intestines..have been described… Other reports have also noted..granulomatous or inflammatory reactions in association with PVP deposits in..the liver and lymph nodes… PVP deposits in a wide range of tissues..when examined up to 15 years later…”[noted here also at 20 years]
Edwin Herbert Land, “As a member of PSAC [the President’s Scientific Advisory Committee], Land co-authored a study that led to the establishment of the highly secretive National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), participated..and promoted the development of satellites..[and] also served on the special committee..that laid the foundations for the transformation of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into NASA…”; EHL would certainly have been aware of the research objectives expressed by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 :

Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space…”

September 19, 2012

The Moscow Signal

 photo 1959

The Moscow Signal was the name given by intelligence insiders to the low-power microwave beams claimed to have been broadcast into the US embassy for more than two decades, from 1953 until 1976. No members of the public were to hear of it until 1976, not even the staff of the US embassy in Moscow. Journalist Paul Brodeur, longtime writer for The New Yorker, recounted the events in his 1977 book The Zapping of America: “According to the first report of the affair, which appeared in the Los Angeles Times on February 7 [1976], Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel Jr had told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were using microwave beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and that such radiation could be harmful to their health…”[p95]

As it happens, the signal went undiscovered until 1962 when a security sweep for listening devices revealed the presence of an unusual pulsed series of microwaves. The Department of Defense had only recently terminated its Tri-Service Program, a microwave studies “health and safety” evaluation operated from 1957 to 1961, for reasons that Brodeur makes clear. What followed in the wake of the Moscow Signal discovery was a rapid withdrawal of related, defense-funded radio/radar research among independent non-military contractors. In 1966, the government classified its continuing effort as Project Pandora, a three year investigation that maintained complete official silence until the story of the Moscow Signal broke in the papers –most of Pandora’s experiments, it seems, have never been declassified.

   The focus of Brodeur’s whistleblowing in Zapping was the power density exposure, arbitrarily set and voluntarily adopted at the limit of ten-milliwatts per centimeter squared (10mW/cm2). The Russians, he states, set their upper limit 1,000 times lower, measured in microwatts. Even one milliwatt was a figure much too high for Russian workplace safety . During the mid-60s period of contentious debate among knowing Americans, a one-milliwatt (1mW/cm2) limit had been suggested by the deputy director of the Bureau of Radiological Health (Robert L. Elder) who then reversed himself to defend a five-milliwatt limit for industry. Not without irony, the Moscow Signal was said to be at four-milliwatts per square centimeter.
In Chapter 3 (The Cover-up Begins), Brodeur wrote,”By the late 1950s, virtually all the investigations into the biological effects of microwaves were being either conducted or financed by the Department of Defense, which had assigned the Air Force the responsibility of developing a program of coordinated research in the three [armed] branches…known as the Tri-Service Program…Therefore the task..was validating the ten-milliwatt level that had already been a theoretically safe level of continuous whole-body exposure to microwaves…[p32]…As for nonthernal, or low-level, effects upon human was virtually ignored during the Tri-Service Program. was treated as a joke…[p33] One was a the Naval Medical Research Institute [that] reported..testicular damage resulting in temporary test animals exposed to power densities of only five milliwatts per square centimeter. Another was an animal study by Russell L. Carpenter..whose findings not only suggested that pulsed microwaves, such as those used in radar, might have a nonthermal effect in producing cataracts, but also..that cataracts might occur through the cumulative effect of repeated exposures to low-level microwave[s].

   “By the time of the fourth and final Tri-Service conference which was held in New York in August 1960, it was apparent that the military-industrial complex had developed almost complete immunity to any information that might place the ten milliwatt level in question. By then, it was known that the power of microwave-radiating equipment, which had risen within the previous twenty years from average outputs of ten watts to almost a million watts, would soon be increased to meet the demands of the space age.”[p34]
   Wow –before World War II was over, the electrical output of radar zoomed from ten watts to a million. Then, along came the microwave ovens, source of the contentious and equally arbitrary 5mW/cm2 limit. One of Paul Brodeur’s driving points was that leakage from electronics –radar and broadcast anntennas to home appliances– was commonplace and in excess of the too-high recommedations anyway.
   “Over the next few years [after 1962] became apparent that the Russians had based their standard primariliy on the effects of low-level microwave radiation on the central nervous system, which they had observed in the course of many large-scale, long-term clinical investigations of workers… [It] turned out that the Russians had recognized unusual effects of radio-frequency energy on the human central nervous system as early as 1933 and had been studying the problem ever since. [p35]
…”Concerning the genetic effects of microwaves…[they were] first discovered [by an American] back in 1959 by Dr. John H. Heller and some associates..who observed gross chromosomal abnormalities in garlic root tips..irradiated with microwaves at power levels far below those necessary to produce heat. By 1963, Heller and his colleagues had demonstrated that low-power microwave radiation could produce in mammalian cells and insects mutations similar to those caused by gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays. Ironically, when the findings of Heller []..were published, they received more recognition in the Soviet Union than in the United States...[p90]
   “At first, it was believed [the embassy discovery]..had something to do with normal eavesdropping operations…[but it] was soon realized, however, that the Russians were using multiple frequencies and widely fluctuating microwave beams with irregular patterns which did not appear to be applicable to intelligence gathering… [The] motive for the Soviet microwave bombardment..became the subject of intense scrutiny by..intelligence agencies, including the CIA whose officials had become belatedly aware of the vast amount of research that the Russians had conducted..on human behavior…  In the autumn of 1965, the Institute for Defense Analyses..convened a special task force to assess the problem and..duplicate some of the Russian experiments… In addition, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)..set up a special laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where..rhesus monkeys were power densities..similar to the Moscow Signal. [p41]
   By May of 1976, as new rounds of disclosure made their way to print, “an Associated Press report by Barton Reppert quoted Richard S. Cesaro, who was in charge of Project Pandora, as conceding that some of the scientists connected with the study felt that low-intensity microwave radiation had produced signs of aberrant behavior in monkeys. [p101]…another Associated Press story by Reppert stated that recent tests..showed radiation levels in the Moscow embassy to be considerably higher than..earlier tests…and that an outside telephone line had actually been found to be carrying radiation directly into the office (and, presumably into the ear) of Ambassador Stoessel…[who]was ‘beside himself’ with this latest development…” [p103]
   “Two weeks later, the..indefatigable Reppert..revealed that over an eighteen-month period in 1967 and 1968 the State Department had conducted special tests to detect genetic damage in employees returning from Moscow, and..done so without notifying the employees about the purpose of the testing but had deliberately misled them into thinking..the tests were..for another reason… Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson, of the George Washington University Medical School..described the showing ‘funny results– lots of chromosome breaks.’ [p104]…[Dr. Thomas H. Gresinger]..recalled..[that] the technicians..had been instructed to take buccal smears from the Moscow employees as part of their routine homecoming physical examinations and to tell them that they were being checked for..bacteria. When I heard the words ‘buccal smears’, my ears picked up. Buccal smears are never used to culture bacteria; they’re a scraping taken from inside the mouth and they’re designed solely for the purpose of detecting chromosomal abnormalities.'”[p105]
   Fourteen documents from Project Pandora were released to Barton Reppert through a Freedom of Information request: “The remaining documents in the declassifeid Pandora file pertain mostly to meetings held in 1968 and 1969..[p118] ..”The April..meeting ended with the science advisory committee’s emphasizing ‘the need for information on humans in addition to the accelerated animal studies at Walter Reed.’ The committee urged ‘the Walter Reed facility to develop a human program…six to eight months and that they could be obtained from Ft. Dietrich [sic]… On May 12..the committee..met at the Institute of Defense Analysis to discuss just how to design and conduct the human studies. Among other things, they agreed that the strength of the signal used in the studies should be between four and five milliwatts per square centimeter…'[p119]…on June 18…the science advisory committee..reached the following conclusions about the human studies: ‘It was the concensus that the aim should be to duplicate or simulate the Moscow environment..over an eight-to-ten hour period’… Cesaro went on to tell the committee that there was evidence that low-level radiation could penetrate the central nervous system of monkeys..[and] who went on to say that the effects could be physiological, behavioral and genetic. As things turned out, the..clear direction for future research that was the spring of 1969 soon became clouded with uncertainty. Indeed, during the next few months, a mysteriuos change of heart and mind seems to have taken place in..Project Pandora…[p120]
   …[H]uman studies..after all, threatened to produce some embarassing data. [p121]…Project Pandora came to a rather abrupt end on January 12, 1970 after a final meeting… As for the planned human experiments, the committee decided that ‘based on existing information, there is no evidence that any permanent deleterious effects are to be expected.‘” [p124]
   In amongst the noise of the 1977 newspaper accounts was the quietly circulated notice that “..sources within the [State] department admitted privately that excessive radiation was emanating from the telephone of former Ambassador Stoessel. It was caused by a high-frequency one-thousand watt radio transmitter located on the roof of the embassy above Stoessel’s office. When this transmitter was operating, it induced high-frequency signals in the tens of milliwatts in phone lines running to the Ambassador’s desk, as well as in phone other offices in the embassy’s political section. Another State Department source..[claimed] that the..transmitter was never turned on…” [pp125-126] The State Department, Brodeur says, had no authority over the embassy’s transmitter, nor could they know or reveal any details about the equipment. It was classified. And so, the Moscow Signal ends as a sort of cliffhanger with the spooky insinuation that the  Americans in Moscow were irradiated by their own. Brodeur wrote, “conveniently..all of the blame for the irradiation of the embassy upon the Russians. However, there are..reasons for supposing that [the reports] may not be trueWhatever the legal resolutions,..since the Pandora meetings, the government and the military have systematically suppressed information about the genetic effects of microwaves in human beings…” [p134]
NOTE: current “safe” exposure is set by W.H.O. at 1 mW/cm2 (one milliwatt per square centimeter)
                  H.P. Schwan             Boris Rajewsky
   The original 10 mW/cm2 was adopted in 1955 following the recommendation of Herman P. Schwan , a “Paper Clip” biophysicist who had also worked for Siemens and Telefunken, recruited by the Navy in 1945 from the occupied Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Frankfurt.
>>>”Frankfurt-am-Main was designated as headquarters for the United States Navy for the occupation of Germany” [ref. p120,
   Schwan’s NIH obituary (b.1915-d.2005): “..His letter to the U.S. Navy in 1953 propos[ed] a safe limit for human exposure to microwave energy of 100 W/m2 [100 Watts per square meter, or converted by the formula  1 W/m2=0.1mW/cm2 —a recommendation of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter]
Here’s a piece of Herman Schwan’s story:
Schwan: …”In March 1944 we experienced..[a] series of bombings that essentially wiped out Frankfurt. The damage was very very heavy… Curiously enough my apartment house did not suffer. I rented near I.G.Farben administrative headquarters… It was completely preserved.”
Q: “You’re saying the Allied forces purposely avoided bombing that?
Schwan: “Yes. Absolutely. It was clear… [Later, in the US] An executive with DuPont and General Motors offered me [an] interpretation… I was dating a friend of his daughter,[so] he invited me to [his] estate and offered to help me. He also invited the president of Sperry get me a job with Sperry. He told me that I.G. Farben and DuPont were heavily intertwined… DuPont owned fifty-one percent of the stock of I.G.Farben, and vice versa. He said to me, ‘We never had any intention to ruin our own headquarters in Germany. That’s our stuff.’ ..So, I don’t know. Anyhow, I didn’t suffer much..[but] just two blocks away there was unbelievable damage.
>>>In 1945 to 1947, the I.G.Farben building was the Supreme Headquarters for Allies Europe: the Frankfurt I.G. Farben building “was the largest office building in Europe…housing the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG)…[and]was also the headquarters of the CIA in Germany.”
Q: “Was it possible to continue doing research…?
Schwan: “Our work suffered [toward the end of the war. After the Allied invasion]..I stayed at the institute a was occupied by American soldiers…[Director, Boris] Rajewsky was gone so I had to take care of the institute… I rapidly received active support from the [US] military government. That proved to be important later… I succeeded in getting protection for the institute…
Q: “How did things go after that?
Schwan: “The university started functioning a year later… Rajewsky returned. He used his influence to introduce me to..some important heads of some banks in Frankfurt. He appointed me acting Director..since he was a [Nazi] Party Member, he could not act as..Director until..cleared… During that time, I received many visits from..scientists and technicians..[who] were primarily American, but also some British… they were very concerned about what was going on [at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics]..since [it] was known for its..expertise in ionizing radiation fields…
Q: “It had been targeted because it was thought that it was a part of an atom bomb project?
Schwan: “Yes. I believe so… Rajewsky got major equipment installed. For example..a huge accelerator in a rather tall, new structure in Frankfurt….They [the Allies] must have noticed..and knew what expertise was there… Clearly that building was marked. It was hit and destroyed… I offered the Allies information about the high-frequency work, and the [submarine anti-radar material].
Q: “You wanted to cooperate fully?
Schwan: “Oh absolutely. Yes, I had been waiting for the Americans for a long time now… The anti-Nazis, of course, fully cooperated… As time advanced, other people came with biophysical backgrounds. For example, a lieutenant in the Navy, David Goldman..visited several times, and I talked with him. Some months later, perhaps as a consequence of those visits, I was offered the opportunity to come to [the US] under unusually favorable circumstances… so I accepted. That was in ’47. I came in late the Naval Medical [Aeromedical] Equipment Laboratory in Philadelphia… Then to my surprise, several good things happened…The Navy informed me they would like me to work on some projects only part of the time..[and] I would have the privilege of..projects of my choice… I proposed to start a sweeping study of electric and acoustic properties of biological materials..[hoping] to extend the range of frequencies to much higher and much lower frequencies than ever used before… they promised me the opportunity to set up a long-range research program…. Well, I mentioned the Americans made me an offer with almost unbelievably favorable circumstances… As it turned out, I could practically write my own ticket…  The majority..who came over under the so-called ‘Paper Clip Program’ were military scientists…most were technically oriented. So, the more basic scientists like myself were in a minority… I was [technically] on leave from the University of Frankfurt as a faculty member from 1947 to 1955”
Schwan’s oral history
   The value of ‘gleaning’ from Schwan’s career work and recollections has a lot to offer in context; a couple of decades before WWII, another Goldman was facilitating high-energy pioneers –banker Henry Goldman, of Goldman Sachs, who was paying the physicist pair of friends, Max Born and Albert Einstein, out-of-pocket on his visits to Germany. Schwan was trained by Russians in Frankfurt– Boris Rajewsky having ultimately attained the directorship of the Biophysics Institute through a form of placement initiated by his communist friends, Alexander Janitsky and the Joliot-Curies in Paris. The Nazis imprisoned Rajewsky’s predecessor and promoted Rajewsky in his place –go figure– and Rajewsky then enfolded the institute into the Kaiser Wilhelm (KWG) network.
   By the time Schwan wrote his microwave dosage recommendations in 1953 for the US Navy, the government had coincidently sanctioned “secret human experimentation” through the Secretary of Defense, Charles E. Wilson [the ‘Wilson Memorandum’], CEO of General Electric. Nelson Rockefeller had just become acting Secretary of Health [HEW], the weapons were going thermonuclear,  and it was in this milieu that the Moscow Signal ostensibly  began –unquestionably when it was most in the ideological interest of Americans to study biological effects.
   Schwan said for himself, “When I was first approached about biophysics, I thought that you couldn’t mix physics with biological material. As I became aware of what was happening in electrophysiology and the ionizing radiation field, my ideas changed. I began to believe that we were now at the threshold of more to come… I wanted to do physics of biological objects. This seemed revolutionary to me. In other words, I was not..motivated to study effects of x-rays… I was not questions raised by medical people or biologists. I wanted to look.. with a physicist’s eye…  Some of my early colleagues at the medical school at Pennsylvania claimed it to be heresy.”
It is well known that electromagnetic fields cause mechanical forces. If one applies an electrical field to a suspension of microscopic particles [i.e. metal colloids, metallorganic compounds, biological cell contents], these particles realign themselves along the direction of the field and form pearl-chain-like aggregates. These chains are mostly single stranded but they are frequently multistranded. This phenomenon has been investigated by a number of groups. Here we discuss the dependence of threshold field strength on particle size and frequency. Also, pulsed fields have been thought to be more effective than continuous fields of the same average power in evoking biological effects.”
   “Molecular rotation occurs in materials containing polar molecules having an electrical dipole moment, with the consequence that they will align themselves in an electromagnetic field. If the field is oscillating, as it is in an electromagnetic wave or in a rapidly-oscillating electric field, these molecules rotate continuously aligning with it. This is called dipole rotation. As the field alternates, the molecules reverse direction. Rotating molecules push, pull, and collide with other molecules…”
   “Dielectrophoresis (or DEP) is a phenomenon in which a force is exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a non-uniform electric field… ”; Dielectric materials are those which polarize in the presence of an electric field.
“…fields of a particular frequency can manipulate particles with great selectivity. This has allowed, for example, the separation of cells or the orientation and manipulation of nanoparticles…  Although the phenomenon we now call dielectrophoresis was described in passing as far back as the early 20th century, it was only subject to serious study, named and first understood by Herbert Pohl in the 1950s…   biological cells have dielectric properties…”
                                                 watts in a name?
                                                 “Now swift the days of manhood haste away
                                                 And misery’s pressure turns the temples gray
                                                 The woman’s hands an ample casket bear–she lifts the lid–
                                        she scatters ills in air” (Hesiod. 2nd century)
 In Greek myth, Pandora was the “first woman”, made and sent by the gods to the brother of Prometheus, creator of mankind. Prometheus and his brothers were the Titans of legend, punished for rebelling and endowing humans with knowledge and technology. The infamous Box, held in safekeeping by Epimetheus, contained all the undesired and unused commodities available on earth –plague, pestilence, vanity, greed, etc.  It was Epimetheus’s beguiling and curious new companion who freed them from their jar, all except Hope which remained; the last undesirable left sequestered by the ancients.

   Appreciation for Promethean tales goes a long way in describing the interaction of modern titans and weapons systems, both physical and psychological. It was the Rockefellers, after all, who centered their first premier building project around “Radio City” and erected a golden Prometheus to rule over it.
   At the end of Pandora’s operational years, a symposium was held in Richmond VA at the Virginia Medical College, an institution largely owing its existence to Robert E. Lee’s chief surgeon, Simon Baruch, father of the financier Bernard Baruch.  The September 1969 meeting “marked a long overdue turning point in the general attitutde of American scientists” according to Paul Brodeur –the ‘turning point’ resulting in a general call for research and funding– but it was also an enduring demarcation of “battle lines”.  A notable quote in Zapping states, “At the Richmond symposium, Dr. [Lawrence] Sher objected strongly to the use of the term ‘flaccid paralysis’ to describe the limp and unmoving condition of rats that had been exposed to four and six-tenths [4.6] milliwatts per square centimeter” [p121] Lawrence Sher was a Project Pandora advisory member and ‘flaccid paralysis’ had already been assigned as a new designation for polio. (It’s still the same today ; associated with encephalitis, meningitis, West Nile, “a severe asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells and/or their axons” Battle lines had everything to do with preserving tenuous victories. Not even Paul Brodeur ventured beyond the designated language.
                                                          Egyptian auditorium, Richmond, built 1845
            Baruch Auditorium: “The building has been compared to the Temple of Horus at Edfu…  At Founders’ Day exercises held at the Egyptian Building, 5 December 1940, historian Dr. Wyndham Blanton commented to alumni and guests:”What old Nassau Hall is to Princeton, what the Wren Building is to William and Mary, what the Rotunda is to the University of Virginia, the Egyptian Building is to the Medical College of Virginia. It is a shrine, a sanctuary of tradition, the physical embodiment of our genius. It is a spiritual heritage.”
Interior image of the wall sconces:
…And so, the Richmond symposium can join the roster of services as another high mass in the temples of science, which symbolically precludes a military conquest. Incidently, Admiral Lewis Strauss (formerly of Kuhn Loeb &Co) and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission was a major fundraiser for the Medical College of Virginia, as well as a board trustee.
   Had Paul Brodeur made the essential connection for his readers that flaccid paralysis was polioby another name, the public might have paid better attention to his arguments and learned that polio is a radiation disease. Possibly he didn’t know it himself, but the familiar and near-recent campaign of the Salk vaccine, funded by the March of Dimes, that had repurposed its mission to birth defects, was foreshadowing the shape of things to come.

   He wrote, “Anxiety about the genetic effects of microwaves first came out into the open in December 1971, when the Electromagnetic Radiation Management Advisory Council..warned that ‘the consequences of undervaluing or misjudging the biological effects..could become a critical problem for the public health, especially if genetic effects are involved.’” [p132] The Council “knew from data presented at the Richmond symposium of 1969 that microwave radiation had induced chromosomal abnormalities in kangaroo-rat cell cultures, and that the researchers who conducted these studies had found that ‘the types of chromosome aberrations observed..are the same as those induced by ionizing radiation in other organisms including humans.’ At least one of its members [Herbert Pollack] knew about the secret tests for genetic damge that the State Department had been running on its Moscow employees. As for the genetic problem, the official minutes of the Project Pandora meeting of April 21, 1969 are revealing. For one thing, they clearly show that..DARPA was aware of the implications of the five-year-old findings of Dr. [Abraham] Lilienfeld –that ’18 out of 25 mongoloid children had fathers who had been exposed to radar’…it is the following paragraph, from the minutes of the April 1969 meeting, which consitutes the ‘smoking gun’ of the State Department’s genetic cover-up: ‘Dr. Pollack reported the studies of Dr. Jacobson at George Washington University who has studied young women returning from [the] embassy in Moscow… [of]One hundred and forty blood samples..examined over a four-year period…Four of them reportedly showed serious chromosomal abnormalities.’ “ [p133]
   The women victims of the Moscow Signal were having their blood taken by Dr. Cecil Bryan Jacobson, a reproductive geneticist who later opened an infertility clinic in Vienna Virginia. Pandora’s Dr. Jacobson ascended to national infamy in 1992 when he was convicted of 52 charges of mail fraud, wire fraud and perjury, conducted through his business.
                                                           Dr. Jacobson
Most people will remember Jacobson for claiming to have fathered 75 children among his clinical patients. “Blood work” was obviously not his specialty, and all we can really know about the Project is that it didn’t end in 1969.
   “Dr. Jacobson..used hormone injections to create symptoms resembling pregnancy. With many patients he pointed out an insignificant image on a sonogram and told the patient that it was the image of a fetus. When he finally had to tell the women they were not pregnant, he told them their babies were dead and that the fetuses would “resorb” back into the bodies. Then he could begin a new round of hormone injections and pregnancy tests… Dr. Jacobson had mailed fraudulent insurance claims and bills… Jacobson also had committed wire fraud by phoning his patients to schedule appointments for fraudulent treatments.”; this while he “operated a fertility clinic in Vienna, Va., from 1976 to 1988” just as news of the Moscow Signal went public.
Project Pandora, 1962-1966 source document from Johns Hopkins notes the use of 2.4 GHz (then standard for radar and current for microwave ovens and tag-reader devices) in irradiation experiments on rabbits. Other signal descriptions offer the range of frequencies beween 2 and 4 GHz and FM (modulated) dual signals. An historical note is added that “The term Project Bizarre is not a separate project but was a code name for a special access category within the Pandora Project.”

April 13, 2012


“There are many actual cyborgs among us in society. Anyone with an artificial organ, limb or supplement (like a pacemaker), anyone reprogrammed to resist disease (immunized) or drugged to think/behave/feel better (psychopharmacology) is technically a cyborg… there is no consensus on what a cyborg is… Many see..Frankenstein’s creature as the first cyborg… ” –Chris Gray, p2, The Cyborg Handbook
“A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space….  the term “Cybernetic organism” has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts…
   “The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II…
The term [cyborg] first appears in print [in 1960]..when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper;
A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one.” — Clynes and Kline, 1960
Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline:
Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space… This self-regulation must function without the benefit of consciousness in order to cooperate with  the body’s own autonomous homeostatic controls…
…While it is quite difficult to set upper limits to ‘natural’ human physiological and psychological  performance, we can take as minimal the capabilities demonstrated under control conditions such as yoga or hypnosis. The imagination is stretched by the  muscular control of which even the undergraduate at a Yoga College is capable,  and hypnosis per se may prove to have a definite place in space travel, although  there is much to be learned about the phenomena of disassociation,  generalization of instructions, and abdication of executive control.
      We are now working on a new  preparation which may greatly enhance hypnotizability, so that pharmacological  and hypnotic approaches may be symbiotically combined.
Wakefulness… The extension of normal functioning through the use of that group of drugs known  as psychic energizers, with adjunctive medication, for this purpose is a  present-day reality…
Radiation  Effects. One  subsystem of the Cyborg would involve a sensor to detect radiation levels and an  adaptation of the Rose osmotic pump which would automatically inject protective  pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses. Experiments at the AF School of Aviation  Medicine already indicate an increase in radiation resistance resulting from  combined administration of aminoethylisothioronium and cysteine to monkeys.
Metabolic..Controls. In the case of prolonged space flight…food — poses a  major problem. During a flight of a year Or longer… Hypothermia  (reduction of body temperature) would appear to be a desirable state in such  long voyages in order to reduce metabolism, and thus human “fuel” consumption… The use of.. hibernation (through pituitary control), alone or in  combination with pharmaceuticals, all seem to offer possibilities in attempting  to obtain and maintain such a state…
Enzyme  Systems. Under  conditions of lowered body temperature, certain enzyme systems would tend to  remain more active than others. The extent to which pharmaceutical or chemical  agents could influence this enzyme activity has not been systematically  investigated, but beyond question they will play an important role. Since  metabolism is subject to enzyme control, several intriguing possibilities exist.  For example, it may be possible through in vitro radiation to convert certain  organisms from aerobic to anaerobic states and, by studying changes in the  enzyme systems, to adapt them for eventual human use
Psychoses. Despite all the care exercised,  there remains a strong possibility that somewhere in the course of a long space  voyage a psychotic episode might occur, and this is one condition for which no  servomechanism can be completely designed at the present time. While an  emergency osmotic pump containing one of the high-potency phenothiazines  together with reserpine could be a part of the complete space man’s kit, the  frequent denial by an individual undergoing a psychotic episode that his thought  processes, emotions, or behavior are abnormal, might keep him from voluntarily  accepting medication. For this reason, if monitoring is adequate, provision  should be made for triggering administration of the medication remotely from  earth
Current development in “remote medicine”:
May, 2012: [Nature magazine] “Researchers have remotely activated genes inside living animals, a proof of concept that could one day lead to medical procedures in which patients’ genes are triggered on demand.”
“Some laboratory mice were given specially engineered insulin-producing genes. These genes were then remotely activated using radio waves. This could mean a whole new field of medical proceedures in which we turn genes on and off at will. This breakthrough is the work of geneticists at New York’s Rockefeller University… Admittedly..the researchers did first have to inject some nanoparticles onto the mice’s cells in order to affect their genes…
   “The radio waves are ideal for this sort of remote manipulation because they can pass through thick layers of tissue, and they can be easily focused…
Even better, the researchers have already developed a way to achieve similar, albeit weaker, results without having to inject nanoparticles at all. They have developed cells that can grow their own required nanoparticles… However, as Nature explains, this would still require growing tumors inside humans to actually get these cell cultures in place, which means the treatment isn’t yet ethically permissible in humans.”
Manfred Clynes interviewed by cyborgologist Chris Hables Gray [published in The Cyborg Handbook, 1995]:
CHG: Why exactly did you guys decide to write about space travel?
MC: Nathan Kline was the director of this research facility there at the Rockland State Hospital and one day somebody asked him… Dr. Kline was interested in the application of drugs for the treatment of mental patients.
CHG: Yes, psychopharmacology
MC: Psychopharmacology. This man, I think Flaherty…
CHG: Yeah, he was with NASA.
MC:..invited him to write something for us at NASA. So, he talked to me and said, ‘Would you like to write something jointly with me? I will write about the drugs and you write about other physiologic systems.’ I said, ‘What do I know about this? I know nothing.’ Anyhow we agreed… And I coined this word cyborg…
CHG: I noticed you used the term participant evolution in that article.
MC: Yes. In other words man has now become conscious enough of the way he was built physiologically…that he could now supplement the homeostasis with which he evolved… So as to supplement it by his own imagination and through his own creativity…to simply allow him to make use of his faculties…
…I have to criticize a little what seems to be a great lack of appreciation of molecular biology among cyborg studies. The great things that are happening today in the scientific world are advances in molecular biology along with computers. Those are the two regions of our scientific world that are growing very rapidly, and compared to them psychology is dead in the water completely.
   It is already known that the emotional world of men is fashioned through molecules like neuropeptides… These peptides have receptors scattered throughout the brain..[and] it is known that the emotional world can be affected now by designer molecules. That’s where the computers and molecular biology will intermarry… computer-designed molecules..that will naturally work inside the brain and will be able to change the emotional aspects.
…They continually are making gene products, some are turned off, some are turned on…So that by controlling and knowing how to control the natural products, and turning the genes on and off, we will have tremendous power to change the emotional world of man.
…Evolution is more than survival of the fittest. And participant evolution can…probably improve the qualities of life more effectively..than by just waiting for the less fit to become extinct.” [pp46-53]
Cyborg Ethics
C.H. Gray poses the question, “Could there be a cyborg ethics? Yes, we think so. And not just one. Several systems are implicitly elaborated in the pages [of The Cyborg Handbook]… David Channel has elaborated what he calls a ‘bionic’ ethic: ‘A bionic ethic must take into consideration both the mechanical and the organic aspects of the cybernetic ecology in order to maintain the system’s integrity, stability, diversity and purposefulness. Neither the mechanical nor the organic can be allowed to bring about the extinction of the other.’ (The Vital Machine, p154).” [p12]
For the Human Materials Industry generated by “patient care”, the ethic is described:

When it appears that a patient will become brain-dead, a change in medical routines occurs. Care of the patient as a whole being becomes care of biological materials contained within and the technological components that convert them into useable products. There are two parts to the process; the maintenance of the body as incubator and storage container for the human materials, and the preservation and conversion of the specific materials themselves. It is important to note that this process can begin long before the patient is declared legally dead…
   “Once the brain ceases to function…the body is no longer a self-regulating system… Cyborg mechanics must replace brain functions…
   “Recognizing the considerable market potential of the human materials industry, pharmaceutical and medical supply companies have developed new products and entire new industries… The goals of these new products are to preserve tissue integrity before being removed, and to make the materials more ‘immunologically silent’ to prevent problems later when they are replaced inside another body. In essence, the human materials are being structurally, chemically and functionally transformed to make them more universal. In this way, they become not only substitutable mechanical parts, but more like off-the-shelf reagents, available for use in a variety of end-users.” [p208]
This is possible in a late-capitalist age in which commodification has reached into hithertofore unimaginable realms of life. However it meant that ideas about the boundaries of the body as well as boundaries between human and nonhuman had to change… new social interventions were required. The first and most important was a new definition of ‘death’. The cessation of brain now accepted as the legal and medical category ‘death’…Brain death allows the suspension of time, which in turn allows cultural and bodily processes to be fragmented and reconfigured. Significantly, it allows the process to be staged by biomedical ‘managers’ and experts… this medical-legal construction left us with an even more ambiguous entity; the ‘living cadaver’. In attempting to reduce ambiguity, it is necessary to deconstruct the subject (the person), and reconstruct an object (the production unit)… Throughout the process, cultural meanings must be stripped from the person. Identity must be erased… While these processes can be called social technologies, the core technologies used..are chemical and mechanical. Through these, the physical body is reprogrammed and retooled for new uses…” [p206]
While it may be true that many of us are living in cyborg societies, we have to remember that those are also plural societies… Future cyborg studies will hopefully attend to cultural beliefs and practices, and the ways in which they are transformed and transforming. Studying cyborgs and their social relations means not only learning where and how bodies exist in relation to machines, but also what types of bodies they are, and where they are situated. As Stone (1994) has pointed out, bodies and communities constitute each other. [p215]
                                                      TechnoCalypse: The Transhumanists
                               (part one)
                               (part two)
                               (part three)
                               (part four)
                                                        Walker Lake Dome Project

The Walker Lake Dome Project, built by Universal Yoyodyne and announced on March 30, 2012, intends to enclose the town of Westwood, California, in the volcanic northeast region of the state.;  “Interestingly, Westwood had a very large indoor shopping mall as far back as the 1930s, as well as a large theater, skating rink and club for the mill workers. The town was sold in 1944 to the Fruit Growers Supply Company, today known as part of Sunkist… The [2010] Census reported that 1,647 people (100% of the population) lived in households..and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.”,_California

“The company plans on using the town as a proving ground for technology that might one day enclose major U.S. cities, especially those prone to weather related disasters…”

Sunkist Growers, Inc  “is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, and one of California’s largest land-owners.”; “[Albert D.] Lasker is largely responsible for America’s infatuation with orange juice. Lord & Thomas acquired the Sunkist Growers, Incorporated account in 1908, when Lasker was 28…”  Formerly timberland harvested for Sunkist packing boxes, the Westwood area and other lumber centers are now managed forests:


Cyborg publications:

March 21, 2012

THRIVE or Threat

This is a “notebook” post on content and background of the film THRIVE, released on 11-11-11 to the internet.
                                              Executive producer and screen host Foster Gamble
Did the Universe labor for nearly fourteen billion years only to bring forth a species that would end up as an enemy to Life itself, and to its own home? I don’t think so… I’ve spent nearly a lifetime trying to figure out what happened… driven by the misery I saw and by my fear for our survival
Is it even possible for humans to thrive? If so, why aren’t we?”
I believe this Code holds a key to a new source of clean, sustainable Energy that could completely revolutionize the way all people live.”
I have realized WE are not a mistake. WE are simply mistaken.”
“..all that is about to change
After a lifetime quest, I’ve come to believe that this pattern actually holds the key to a world that works for everyone
This vision was what originally got me into science, trying to figure out how the Universe works…”
Considering the enduring wonders of Creation throughout the Universe and how unsustainable so many of our human systems are, I figured that learning how…would actually be quite useful.”
The Torus is like the breath of the Universe.. at every scale of existence… I spent decades researching… I became so excited by the potential of the toroidal energy form… Our collected research convinced me that the Torus and the Vector Equilibrium are primary creating the Universe…”
“Given that so much of the suffering in our world is the result of lack of access to Energy, I realized that Free, unlimited clean energy would be one of the greatest breakthroughs in history.”
Throughout the long introduction to Thrive, Gamble uses Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) techniques called lost performatives and presuppositions: “Lost performatives are when someone is talking about a personal belief, but presents it as though it was a universal truth. We then accept it as true without questioning it as we would if we heard it as someone’s personal opinion.”
“A presupposition is an innocent sounding statement that can only be understood  if certain facts or ideas are accepted as being true.”
THRIVE, in fact, is loaded with hypnotic speech patterns:
Cause and Effect patterns, embedded commands, presuppositions, syntactic ambiguity and lost performatives.
“In hypnotic language there are mixed messages that you can use to communicate on  multiple levels. The reason why you want to do that is because you still want to  entertain and distract the conscious mind, so that you’re free to work with the  subconscious mind… Then there are anticipation builders. Do you want to motivate and drive people  to take a certain kind of action?… There’s a lot more to hypnotic language patterns than what I can cover in this short  article. There are embedded commands, hypnotic words, nested loops, action  accelerators, and a lot more.”
Enter the ETs. The first 45 minutes of THRIVE are actually devoted to ‘proving’ the existence of extraterrestrials.
    In the words of Dr. Steven Greer, founder of CSETI, They have mastered the Laws of the be able to transfer through Space-Time in Real Time, through the vastnesses of interstellar space.” (The image provided is that of a UFO, captioned “UFO..measures 2-3 miles wide”.) Greer continues, “We have over 4,000 cases where these objects have landed on terra firma, left physical evidence– we have over 3,500 pilot cases; we have hundreds of cases..where these objects can track on normal radar going tens of thousands of miles per hour or dematerializing and reappearing in another point in the sky.”
   Astronaut Edgar Mitchell says, “Yes, there’s been ET visitation, there have been crashed craft, there have been material and bodies recovered.”  A US Army ET Retrieval officer says, “We have CONTACT with aliens, not originating from some foreign country but some other solar system and I have been a party to that.” The audience then hears of how one observer witnessed an encounter between a UFO and a nuclear missile: “Now remember this thing was flying several thousand miles an hour, so this thing fires a beam of light at the warhead –hits it, and then this thing flies up…fires another beam of light; goes around [to the side], fires another beam of light; down like this..fires another beam…flies out the way it came in and the warhead tumbles out of space. The feeling at the time was that it must have been extraterrestrial.”
   Next the audience is swept along into the (literal) field of evidence with a sequence of aerial crop circle footage. Gamble’s narration informs us that “More than 5,000 of these patterns have appeared in over 30 countries. Most of them in England.” We are asked to decide if hoaxers with “ropes and boards” could have made them, then shown “One of the most amazing designs [which] is not a circle but a rectangle that seems to be a direct response to a message sent out into space [in 1974]. The message was a radio signal depicting our planet’s location..and Earth’s people…  Twenty-seven years later in 2001, this [rectagular] crop design appeared…[that] matches the format of the NASA signal and describes a different solar system…nonhuman DNA, and a microwave antenna they apparently use…   NASA continues to deny extraterrestrial contact of any kind.”  But Foster Gamble wants THRIVE watchers to know that, “regardless of whoever created them and wherever they’re from, there must be an important purpose to these designs. They’re SO coherent!” He tells us, “I believe that they’re giving us a model for accessing energy in a clean, safe, and limitless way and a new means of propulsion. What more important message could there be to get to us. And especially we’re beginning to extend our careless reach beyond our planet.”
Foster: “So here we are, a relatively immature species struggling with possible self-destruction. If aligning with the Torus does hold the key to a new form of clean, safe energy access, imagine the implications. This could be the most important breakthrough of our times. So who wouldn’t want an energy source that’s freely available? That turned out to be a key question…”
…”One of the scientists we were going to interview for this film was Dr. Eugene Mallove… Dr. Mallove was mysteriously beaten to death in 2004…
Kimberly: ..”So much of the pain on the planet has to do with the lack of access to energy… If there is a fundamental pattern, which makes sense to me…and we can align with that pattern to create new technologies that will solve these problems, then it’s worth it for me to open my mind to these socially taboo subjects.”
Follow the Money with the Gambles: “energy corporations…[are] committing huge resources to undermine energy alternatives… They have enough money and influence to suppress anything that might threaten their monopoly.” Foster says, “As I followed the money, I began to see this same pattern of control in every area of our lives and I always saw the same families in charge… I’ve come to an inescapable and profoundly disturbing conclusion: I believe that an elite group of people and the corporations they run have gained control of not just our energy, food supply, education, and healthcare, but virtually over every aspect of our lives.”   He explains,“They call it a Corporatocracy.”
   Viewers get a lesson in Fractional Reserve Banking from Foster Gamble and David Icke. Then the bombshells start to fall. Everybody who watched THRIVE with me forgets this by the end: Icke–“No matter where you go in the world, the money is controlled by the banking system. They decide if people eat or they don’t eat...”
   Foster Gamble–“My research led me to believe that the same people who created the Federal Reserve; the Rothschilds, the Rockefellers and the Morgans, still control it…  I kept running across compelling evidence and credible experts saying that the secret agenda of the banking elite is nothing less than total global domination… what would they need to accomplish it?… I started making a list. First and foremost, they’d have to control money, and they do… Controlling money allows them to run everything else. They’d need to control energy, and they do. They already control Big Agriculture and World Trade. They’re buying up water supplies worldwide. They’ve got Health in their pocket and they’re trying to suppress natural alternatives. Mainly they’d have to control what information we get and how we’d react to it… For complete domination, dissent has to be controlled. They’d need to take away our rights, spy on ordinary citizens and track every aspect of our lives.” –the screen image goes down the list, check, check, check!– “I knew that a powerful elite had almost everything set up to rule the world and I had the frightening realization that Big Brother is not coming –he’s HERE NOW! We are already in the Matrix…  I believe we’re heading toward a totalitarian World Authority –actually a military dictatorship run by a tiny elite who have all the power and make all the rules. If they succeed, there’ll be nowhere to run and nowhere to hide. Think about it.
Their grand strategy for Global Dominance is already being implemented; they’re carving up the world into Superstates that transcend national boundaries so that we are easier for them to manage. They have already established the European Union and the African Union. Politicians from the United States, Canada and Mexico, under the title of the Security and Prosperity Partnership, have been working on the northern part of what could arguably be called plans for an American Union. This has been going on for years without citizen or congressional consent. A Pacific Union is already in process. This is the organizational chart for global tyranny, the structure for complete control [shows structure]. Here are two of the most powerful men in Europe talking about moving to a single World Government:
 [Jean-Claude Trichet speaking]: ‘It’s extremely important that We, in this new ownership of global governance, have particularly on both sides of the Atlantic the implementation of the same rules in the same fashion.
[EU president Herman Van Rompuy speaking]: ‘2009 is also the first year of global governance with the establishment of the G20 in the middle of the financial crisis.’
   Foster Gamble comes back with, “Like many people, I thought a conspiracy for global domination could not really work because basically people are just not that competent… Still, I wondered how something that is so big and corrupt can be kept secret.”
David Icke: “It’s a simple structure, and if it wasn’t simple it wouldn’t work. It can be likened to a compartmentalized pyramid…” The narration continues: “This kind of compartmentalization explains how the Manhattan Project..was kept secret despite having a hundred and thirty thousand people working on it.”    Kimberly Gamble adds, “Even though we’ve been systematically distracted and repressed, people have come up with innovative and ingenious solutions to a huge number of problems that we face. It’s not our fault that we didn’t recognize how organized and intentional this scheme is…”
   Foster Gamble: “In this New World Order of theirs, a tiny number of people would exercise total control over the lives of everyone through a system of intrusive surveillance, violent suppression of dissent and debt-slavery. Imagine tiny islands of opulence surrounded by a sea of misery..[THRIVE shows real images so you don’t have to imagine anything] …I’ve come to believe that their endgame is truly ominous and they will stop at nothing to continue implementing their plan… America represents the major hurdle to consolidation of global power.  If they can succeed at bringing down this country, I believe the international elite intend to transfer the power and productivity of Americans to their One World dictatorship… They’ve got us so in debt we can never repay it; they’re collapsing the dollar…”
   David Icke: “[They] want to change society in a way that you know that if you do it’re gonna get an adverse reaction. So you don’t do it openly. You play ‘Problem, Reaction, Solution’. Stage One, you create a problem… You tell the people your version of A)Who Did It, and B) Why… [The] mainstream media is a public relations office for the official version of events… Stage the reaction of outrage… Stage Three..openly offer the solutions to the problem they have themselves created.”
   Foster Gamble: “The idea of using tragedy, manufactured or simply utilized, was deeply significant in my finally understanding how far these people will go to achieve their goals.”
   Foster Gamble: ” Most of what is needed for a Police State is actually already in place. Right now in America, any of us can be imprisoned without warning or due cause, and we can be kidnapped, tortured or assassinated legally if the government decides that what we are doing is a threat to their plan. All they have to do is name us as a suspect in their so-called War on Terror. We’re being watched more and more. In 2010 there were 30 million surveillance cameras recording us in the U.S. alone… Every phonecall and email we send is collected and archived and can be inspected at any time. Our..licenses and passports have computer chips implanted in them to track our every move. And now hospital patients are getting these same chips implanted under their skin. In fact, it was Proctor and Gamble who developed these chips initially for tracking their products. It’s always offered as a way to help, but even an assistant director of [CIA] has admitted it’s an entry point for…control.
   “These would-be controllers, through the U.S. Space Command have outlined a plan called Full Spectrum Dominance;  sophisticated satellite surveillance as well as Directed Energy and laser weapons which are already developed have the ability to target dissenters anywhere on Earth. I believe they’re also trying to ensure they can deal effectively with any resistance. FEMA containment camps and railroad cars with shackles have been recently constructed or refurbished all over the United States…
   “There’s one more brutal realization of the Global Domination Agenda that I need to share. This was a horrible one for me to grasp, but without it, this inquiry would be dangerously incomplete… I came across convincing evidence that their plan actually includes the elimination of the majority of the world’s population.  As sick as it sounds, it makes sense… Every time I thought, “They wouldn’t do that!”,  I discovered I was wrong.
Sterilization is one of the many insidious ways this covert plan is implemented… In 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Homeland Security funded a proposed project to aerial spray over 7 million people in urban areas of northern California. After citizens organized against the plan, officials were forced to reveal that the spray included multiple toxins that can cause disease and disrupt the reproductive cycle… The U.S. government has been caught over 30 times covertly experimenting with toxic chemicals on its own citizens…  Right now, global human fertility is plunging. I’m convinced this is no accident. For me, being willing to consider and research a direct depopulation agenda was critical to my getting the whole picture… This is what depopulation looks like today: [screen image, top to bottom] Toxic food and water, HAARP, pesticides, toxic vaccines, Chemtrails, War, GMO foods, irradiation, [and] man-made pandemics… 
I’m convinced I’m not overstating the case… I see nothing less than the struggle for the soul of humanity… Are we humans what the elite would have us believe —stupid, greedy creatures who, if left to our own devices, would devolve into violence and chaos, and so for our own good must be ruled over by a self-appointed elite?”
Foster Gamble continues: “It may seem that the controlling elite has all the cards but we have many advantages of our own. First, let’s talk numbers
   The second important that all the power centers that the elite control require our participation…
Let’s take a look at the strategic antidotes to their economic domination… 
…I’ve been profoundly influenced by the work of Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises…
…I envision three overlapping Stages of the Solutions process. In Stage One we bring as much integrity as possible to our current systems…
…The TORUS provides a template for a society based on integrity…
If we respond with violence to the Domination agenda…it would only continue the old “us-versus-them” paradigm and provide an excuse for even more Police-State measures. I believe that it’s essential..that we take the path of nonaggression…
I’ve come to recognize that our primary compass is our own inner guidance…the voice that naturally knows and offers wise direction.”
[Thrive guest interview] DEEPAK CHOPRA: ..”we have to start telling a different story to ourselves. We have to start engaging in a different story with others– it’s a collective story that manifests as the world.”
[Thrive guest interview] BARBARA MARX HUBBARD: “If we had the vision and a worldview that says our crisis is a Birth…you could turn this desperate world into a renaissance of human creativity and Love.”
Kimberly Gamble : “Imagine a million of us acting in Unison…imagine even more…
Foster Gamble: “Let me be clear. This is definitely not a Jewish Agenda. It’s been documented that central bankers even funded both sides of World War II… I don’t believe wealth is their End Goal.”

Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain.” – Napoleon Bonaparte, 1815

                                        Watch the ‘House of Rothschild’; “The Rothschilds govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice. They stretch their hand with equal ease from Petersburg to Vienna.. to Paris.. to London.. to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true King of Judah… the Messiah so long looked for… He holds the keys of peace or war…” [minute 22:22, written in 1835]  “Religion is no longer able to guarantee the governments that the people will remain peaceful. The Rothschild system of loans can perform the task much better… It possesses the moral force or power religion has lost. It can act as a surrogate for religion. Indeed it is a new religion… Strangely enough it is once again the Jews who invented this new religion.” –Heinrich Heine, The Baths of Lucca, 1830 [minute 26]

The cofounders of neurolinguistics:
John T. Grinder; fellowship at Rockefeller University; PhD from the Univ. of California SanDiego (UCSD); professor of linguistics at Univ. of California Santa Cruz (UCSC)
Richard Bandler; Grinder’s student at UCSC
“NLP is a transformational technology. It is an outstanding technique to control and model a human mind and to put it in the fullest potential use… On the basis of their study of 3 chief therapists- Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls and Milton Erickson, Richard and John came out with.. NLP…  It exemplifies the greatest discovery of the 20th Century which is that ‘Change of the self is possible’.”
   Together, Grinder and Bandler published two volumes of The Structure of Magic, which analyzes “the langauge skills of the world’s most talented psychotherapists”
Richard Bandler’s website advertises “The effectiveness of my Strategic Mind Messaging™ sessions increases  significantly when combined with the augmented light and sound technology..”
And, while THRIVE is tripping the light fantastic…
 some of its guests object to the use of their interviews:
“So—what’s Paul Hawken doing in this movie? I emailed him to find out. He replied he was just as surprised as I was to find out he’s in the film… ‘I did that interview many years prior under false pretenses,’ Hawken replied. ‘I had no idea I was being interviewed for such a movie.‘    …Elisabet Sahtouris said that when she was interviewed for the film, she understood it was to be a very different kind of movie, and is ‘dismayed’..‘I deplore the context in which it was used’… It appears that Hawken and Sahtouris aren’t the only people who regret having appeared in Thrive. In a scathing interview on the Huffington Post, Georgia Kelly of the Praxis Peace Center reports that she has heard from several of other interviewees, none of whom had any idea they were helping to make a libertarian propaganda film.
THRIVE Liberty Section: “Today, involuntary governance is all that exists…  the most important word to guide us to a sustainable civilization – VOLUNTARY …”Liberty thinking is often misunderstood as Utopian – meaning a wishful vision of a world filled with only good, well-intended people where everything just works out. Actually this approach is very practical. It recognizes that there are dangerous people with skewed psyches and destructive intent in any society, so we need to make sure they are not empowered…  With endless local Private security firms in a free society, there would still be well-armed and effective protection forces that could band together..”
THRIVE Art Solution: “The arts attract more visitors, residents, and businesses, which brings more money into the community… In Stage 2, we would work to limit government control and support the arts on our own….The key in this stage is to not suppress the arts in any way. People should be able to express themselves freely.”
>>> Need an Art opinion? Read Lasha Darkmoon
THRIVE Economic Solution: …” we propose temporarily shifting Federal Reserve powers to Congress. Although we do not support more government power in the long run, it seems necessary to restore economic functions to the government”…”In Stage 3 coercive government is dissolved and private voluntary enterprise – including justice, insurance and security –  competes for..potential customers… Establish a truly Free Market: We have never experienced a truly free market without government intervention… …”In Stage 3, state courts would no longer be necessary. To take their place, researcher and host of Freedomain Radio, Stefan Molyneux suggests using Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs). Each person would have a DRO, similar to an insurance company, to insure their daily activities…”
>>>Need an Economic opinion? Read The Shock Doctrine; Learn about the relationship between Congress and the Federal Reserve and the effect of Ron Paul’s ‘Audit the Fed’ Campaign
Ludwig von Mises was a co-founder of the Mont Pelerin Society in Switzerland; one of its famous students being Milton Friedman of U.Chicago. Friedman helped design and implement witholding tax under Henry Morganthau’s Treasury On page 14 of The Shock Doctrine, Naomi Klein writes, “In the attempt to relate the history..that has culminated in the radical privatization of war and disaster, one problem recurs: the ideology is a shape-shifter, forever changing its name and switching identities. Friedman called himself a ‘liberal’, but his U.S. followers..tended to identify as ‘conservatives’, ‘classical economists’, ‘free marketers’, and later as believers in ‘Reaganomics’ or ‘laissez-faire’. In most of the world, their orthodoxy is known as ‘neoliberalism’, but..often..simply ‘globalization’.”
THRIVE Environment Solution: .” …One of the more compelling and new ideas is the “Sky Trust” proposed by Peter Barnes of the Tomales Bay Institute in California. The Sky Trust would make all citizens equitable owners of the air. Annual auctions would then be held to issue permits for available “dump space.” This model is based on the Alaska Permanent Fund, which gives residents of Alaska yearly dividends from state oil income…   Labeling of food- such as GMO’s proposed in Stage 2 (limiting government) – would no longer be mandatory or enforced by government. Rather, people would be forced to compete in the free market, and private “eco-labeling” alternatives would draw customers to the obvious, better alternative. In fact, GMO’s would likely be obsolete because their vendors would be continually sued for violating others and would become unable to purchase insurance...”                    
Libertarian propaganda? “The initial impetus for compiling these articles by Praxis Peace Institute was the widespread but private showings of the documentary film,Thrive. Through discussions of the content in the film and the written material on the Thrive website, we realized that many people viewing the film would not readily perceive the libertarian political agenda behind the film… For example, government regulation could have prevented the runaway libertarian agenda that was pushed by Alan Greenspan and his Ayn Randian cohorts…most of the actual solutions he proposes are strictly libertarian. …The website’s “Liberty” page (in the “Solutions” section) is a real shocker. Peppered with quotes from Ayn Rand, Ron Paul and Stefan Molyneux, the page even includes an attack on democracy. The reactionary program sold as a ‘vision’ on the Thrive website is nothing short of a dark fantasy that would catapult us back to the 19th century with ‘voluntary’ types of social regulation; i.e., no taxes, no labor laws, no child labor laws, no environmental regulations, no Social Security, no Medicare, no public education, no civil rights, and no government programs for the people.”
The Libertarian Party was founded in 1971 out of a small group of disaffected Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) supporters, many of whom labeled themselves “Young Republicans” unhappy with Nixon, who later endorsed the Reagan-Bush ticket.; “It was widely acknowledged that Lew [Wasserman] and Jules Stein helped create Ronald Reagan.” –p2, The Last Mogul, 1998 by Dennis McDougal. Stein and Wasserman ran the global media empire known as MCA, the Music Corporation of America, sold to the Bronfmans in 1995. As an MCA contract player, Reagan’s moneymaking career got a shot in the arm as spokesman and TV host for General Electric.
MCA’s lawyer, Cyrus Vance, became Secretary of the Army under JFK just as RFK’s Justice Dept was attempting an anti-trust suit (but that off-topic subject has to wait for another day) Suffice it to say that Libertarianism in the U.S. has the requisite marks of a military-industrial spin-off.
Old Rothschild- and Rockefeller hands controlled the Libertarian-Communist dialectic:
PROTOCOL No.2: “It is indispensible for our purpose that..war will thus be brought on to the economic ground…
PROTOCOL No.4: “..shocks delivered to economic life..have already created disenchanted, cold and heartless communities. Such communities will foster a strong aversion towards the higher political and towards religion. Their only guide is gain, that is Gold, which they will then erect into a veritable cult…”
PROTOCOL No.6: “At the same time we must intensively patronize trade and industry, but first and foremost, provide a counterpoise to industry… What we want is that industry should drain off from the land both labor and capital and by means of speculation transfer into our hands all the money of the world… To complete the ruin of industry..we shall bring to the assistance of speculation the luxury which we have developed… that greedy demand for luxury which is swallowing up everything…”
PROTOCOL No.8: “We shall surround our government with a whole world of economists. That is the reason why economic sciences form the principal subject of the teaching…”
PROTOCOL No.10: “When we have accomplished our coup d’etat, we shall say…’Everything has gone terribly badly..’ …It is indispensible to trouble in all countries the people’s relations with their governments so as to utterly exhaust humanity with dissension…”
PROTOCOL No.11: “It is this which has served as the basis for our organization of Secret Masonry which is not known to..these ‘goy’ cattle…
PROTOCOL No.13: “The part played by the liberals, utopian dreamers, will be finally played out when our government is acknowledged. Till such time…we shall continue to direct their minds to all sorts of vain conceptions of fantastic theories, new and apparently progressive…”
PROTOCOL No.15: “Under our influence the execution of the laws..has been reduced to a minimum. The prestige of the law has been exploded…”
PROTOCOL No.16: “Classicism..we shall replace with the study of the program of the future… The system of bridling thought is already at work in the so-called system of teaching by Object Lessons.”
PROTOCOL No.18: “When it becomes necessary for us to strengthen the strict measures of secret defense..we shall arrange a simulation of disorders or some manifestation of discontents finding expression through the co-operation of good speakers. Round these speakers will assemble all who are sympathetic to his utterances..”
PROTOCOL No.20: “..we shall touch upon the financial program.., the crowning and the decisive point of our plans… the sum total of our actions is settled by the question of figures… They will put an end to those abuses to which we owe our mastery over [them]..but which cannot be allowed in our kingdom.”
PROTOCOL No.22: “We shall contrive to prove that we are benefactors who have restored to the rent and mangled earth the True Good and also freedom of the person..”
 “The Harvard Economic Research Project (1948-) was an extension of World War II Operations Research. Its purpose was to discover the science of controlling an economy: at first the American economy, and then the world economy… [It] was discovered that an economy obeyed the same laws as electricity and that.. know-how developed for the electronic field could be directly applied in the study of economics… [It] follows that only..language translation and concept definition needed to be written for economics. The remainder could be gotten from standard works on mathematics and electronics…  [A]lternatives to war as economic inductors or economic flywheels are an open-ended social welfare program, or an enormous (but fruitful) open-ended Space Program…”
“[T]he filmmakers jump the tracks of rationality… [Thrive] plays the conspiracy card. And not just any conspiracy, but the granddaddy of them all: that a handful of families control the world and plan to enslave humanity… (As the torus symbol dominates Thrive’s first section, the pyramid dominates the second.) And at the top of this alleged pyramid of evil: the Rothschilds. Not everyone watching this film will know that this argument has been around, and been discredited, for decades. Apparently the desire to find someone to blame for all the world’s problems spans generations. And the Rothschilds make a pretty good target. Are the Rothschilds very, very rich? Undoubtedly. Are the members of this family doing the work of Mother Teresa or the Dalai Lama? Mostly not. Are they all-powerful puppet-masters who secretly rule the world? Are they descended from a race of snake-people? Do they eat children? Um…no, no and no.”

“My dear brothers, never forget, when you hear the progress of enlightenment vaunted, that the devil’s best trick is to persuade you that he doesn’t exist!” — Baudelaire, 1864


If Santa Cruzians want to battle over what to make of Thrive, right there on the Gambles’ home turf, the rest of us might step aside and take a lesson. There’s not a New Age enclave in America that isn’t feeling some pain by now. A Progressive commentator at Praxis writes, “So we and many others (including some interviewed in this film) are wondering out loud, What the bleep is actually going on?”

I’ll toss in the pitch for MIND CONTROL on the grounds that no legitimate political party seeking public endorsement would commit something to print as contemptible as the last sentence on the THRIVE Environment Solution: “Labeling of food- such as GMO’s proposed in Stage 2 (limiting government) – would no longer be mandatory or enforced by government. Rather, people would be forced to compete… In fact, GMO’s would likely be obsolete because their vendors would be continually sued for violating others and would become unable to purchase insurance...”  Nobody at Praxis seems to have noticed that some of the Thrive Solutions website pages are void of content (i.e. Science, Spirituality) so this veil gets pretty thin exposing THRIVE as a strawman for progressivism (gradualism) in the Dialectic.

Crop circles, UFOs, and alien abductions, as subjects with a long and murky past in hardcore mind control, suggests going soft doesn’t change anything –it’s still hardcore. So what are the makers of Thrive trying to prove? Is this a “mass-action social experiment”?



1991 was a big year in crop cirles that led to the creation of an investigative expedition called Project Argus: “Briefly stated, the project’s goal was to learn if some crop circles exhibited physical effects which would be generate by casual human activity… thanks largely to the dedicated work of Marshall Dudley and Dr.W.C. Levengood… Project Argus was a joint effort initiated mainly by two organizations, the North American Circle (NAC) and the Centre for Crop Circle Studies (CCCS)… significant contributions were made in particular by the Robert Bigelow Holding Corporation, the Fund for UFO Research and MUFON… the project formally began its fieldwork in England on July 9, 1992.”
   “Argus was headquartered..near the small village of Alton Barnes [Wiltshire, UK], the approximate ‘heart’ of crop circle country. From..[there] you could see one of the Valley of Pewsey’s several white horses carved in the chalk hillsides… Both Stonehenge and Avebury were but a few miles away.”
J. Marshall Dudley –Project Argus nuclear equipment specialist, formerly with Tennelec, Oak Ridge TN (founded by Edward Fairstein):
…”I had done some radioactive analysis  [in 1991]on a number of samples from crop circles  and found that in one circle a number of inexplicable radioisotopes were present  that are not naturally occurring and had a relatively short half life. In a paper that I coauthored with Michael Chorost I  proposed that the isotopes had been created by bombardment with high energy  deuterium (heavy hydrogen) particles. Such a source of particles is not known to  exist in nature…”
   Dudley’s deception is to present a summary deemed “inexplicable”. The isotopes he measured are commercially traded substances, created with particle accelerators. Three in particular are commonly used as biological tracers: bismuth-205, yttrium-88 and vanadium-48, listed here . Short-lived isotopes are just what the doctors order.
   Aside from common medical-use tracers are isotopes common to laboratories. All but one of Dudley’s isotope findings can be found on this “quantity regulation” labeling list:  The last, not listed on this Washington state document, is tellurium-119m, which may not have had significant applications in industry at the time or may have restricted uses as an “energetic material”.
Robert Bigelow, Las Vegas real estate mogul, was called the “Cosmic Landlord” by Forbes. Bigelow produces inflatable space stations for lease. “The U.S. space business had estimated revenue of $40.9 billion in 2010, according to the Aerospace Industries Association…’In ten years time the revenues will be more than double…’ Wealthy entrpreneurs are scrambling for position. Elon Musk, cofounder of PayPal, is developing new rockets and reusable spacecraft at his company SpaceX… ‘Space is not just in the realm of government anymore,’ says Peter Diamandis.”
            Laurance Rockefeller
Eight months after Project Argus took up residence in Wiltshire, in March of 1993, Laurance Rockefeller’s lawyer began producing documents for the Rockefeller Disclosure Initiative.
In the summer of 1993, a group of CSETI advisors and military  consultants met to discuss how to best develop a reliable point of contact (POC)  to the US government.
Steven Greer:”After beginning the CSETI Project Starlight UFO/ETI disclosure effort in the summer of 1993, I was invited to a meeting at Mr. Laurance Rockefeller’s JY Ranch near Jackson Hole WY, where I met Mrs Marie (Bootsie) Galbraith. I shared with Ms. Galbraith and the others gathered there our plans regarding collecting the Best Available Evidence regarding UFOs and our plans to  provide briefings for world leaders and the public on the subject… Mrs. Galbraith indicated a keen interest in assisting with this effort.  Subsequently I provided to her, to Mr. Rockefeller and to the BSW Foundation  a full complement of our plans, strategy and an outline of the BAE, ..’Best  Available Evidence’, the concept and strategy for its use, etc.
…”Subsequently, BSW and Mrs. Galbraith hired Don Berliner and Antonio Huneus [sic] to work on writing the BAE, although Berliner was the primary paid  writer/researcher.    In the fall of 1995, some 2 years after first providing the concept, title,  strategy etc to Mrs. Galbraith et al, she mailed me a NON-COPYRIGHTED Best  Available Evidence document to be used for briefing leaders as stated above… By September of 1993 this plan was in action, and with the assistance of  a senior official at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a meeting was set up at  Wright-Patterson Air Force Base with the top-secret Foreign Aerospace Science  and Technology Center located there…
Infighting among the champions of Disclosure, however, appears to have separated the field. Some of the documentation was removed and privatized. Steven Greer took his arguments public in interviews with Hustler magazine and Art Bell (who is incidently a celebrity Libertarian, as is Flynt, dontcha know)… And so it goes backgrounding the low-hanging fruit behind THRIVE, Disclosure and ETs… Greer said, “It’s about your pocketbook, not about little green men.”
   Greer claims there are dozens of alien bodies and crash material at “an underground facility near Fort Huachuca in Arizona.” Aliens or not, Fort Huachuca’s an interesting place. In 1954, the US Army turned it into the Electronic Proving Ground.
(According to “ufowatchdog”, Greer “has always been bonkers.” )
   One of the Libertarians’ leading lights, Harry Browne (1933-2006) put in Army time at Fort Huachuca in the mid-50s after a tour in the Marshall Islands monitoring the controversial H-bomb tests that unexpectedly spewed massive amounts of radioactive fallout. In 1996, and again in 2000, Browne was the Libertarian pick for President: “Harry Browne is best known as the author of Harry Browne’s Special Reports, an  investment newsletter published since 1974.”;
Browne did not appear on the 2000 Arizona ballot, however, as the Arizona Libertarian Party instead chose to run L. Neil Smith, whose candidacy was a protest against that of Browne.Science fiction author Smith, whose works “include the trilogy of Lando Calrissian novels”, as in STAR WARS, created the Libertarian Futurist Society’s Prometheus Award.”
Prometheus Award winners:
   The most decorated Prometheus winner, Victor Koman, runs a publishing house called KoPubCo, “publishing division of the Triplanetary Corporation” and promotes a philosophy defined by Samuel E. Konkin known as AGORISM. Konkin had another term for it too: anarcho-capitalism.
Agora (defined): the marketplace in ancient Greece, or in Hebrew, a coin.
One can plunge into the labyrinth of Libertarian agorism by following the marketeers at Agora Inc., many of whom emulate Harry Browne by marketing investment newsletters (some nasty stuff in there)
Another doubly-decorated Prometheus winner is Vernor Vinge.  At a NASA symposium in 1993, Vinge announced that “within 30 years, we will have the technological means to create super-human intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended.”,8599,2048138,00.html
   Vinge did not appear in THRIVE, but his colleague Barbara Marx Hubbard did, and so did several others of theirs who share in the ideas of “conscious evolution” — Marx Hubbard’s organization, Foundation for Conscious Evolution, has members in the production of THRIVE.
Real UFOs, distinctively terrestrial in origin, are getting grassroots disclosure :  Luke Fortune’s website goes for the nutshell promoting his work on “100 years of UFO patents” featuring people like Prof. John Searl and patent holder Henry W. Wallace.  Here Searl explains his “levity disc” and free energy generator
                                                      Searl levity disc
The Day Before ‘Roswell’
Albuquerque Journal, Sunday morning July 6, 1947:
The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight [Sat.July 5] as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers by hundreds of persons in 32 states, but mainly in the western United States for the past week. A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the results of Government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’… officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments involving ‘flying saucers’ under way and one of them added, ‘All we know is what we read in the papers’…Two Chicago astronomers said the discs are probably ‘man-made and radio-controlled’… Support for the Pasadena scientist’s statements came from several quarters. It appeared that the discs were definitely ‘man-made’ and not ‘space ships’ from another planet… And from Los Angeles came word that the idea of airborne ‘saucers’ is not new. Leo Bentz, once noted builder of racing autos, said he witnessed a demonstration of a saucer-like flying model back in 1928… Bentz said the inventor..was a Frenchman, George de Bay, who has since dropped out of sight…”
So, what is Conscious Evolution?
Decades of debate and collaboration by psycho-spiritual think tanks have been asking the same question:
William Irwin Thompson: “In 1975..[we held] one of our Lindisfarne Conferences on “Conscious Evolution and the Evolution of Consciousness”. This conference developed into a hockey face-off between the Confucian mandarinism of Jonas Salk and the ecological Taoism of Gregory Bateson… When I invited Jonas, I specifically asked him not to give the same speech on ‘Epoch A and Epoch B’ that he gave at a conference we were attending in Washington D.C., and I would have everybody read his book, The Survival of the Wisest… But Jonas gave his stump speech, so I was annoyed..that we could not take it to a higher intellectual level.” [Roger Revelle, the director of Scripps Research Institute who was called upon to help direct the founding of the Salk Institute, said Jonas Salk was “not too bright”. Marx Hubbard and Jonas Salk cofounded an organization together called ‘Epoch B’, the coming age of problem-solving in line with a shared concept of “metabiology”, the manipulation and application of biological resources for human use]
   Nevertheless, writes Thompson, “After the intellectual excitement of the summer conference of 1975…a new kind of group soul was being embodied of those who expressed the spirit of what I called the new planetary culture [and] I decided to create the Lindisfarne Fellowship..[for] those around the world whose works served to help us in articulating and effecting the shift from one world civilization to another… Later..I would call the political implications of this new culture the Green Politique.
   “In 1977 I had from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund –a grant of $15,000 a year for three years– to support a scholar-in-residence program for our new facility in Manhattan, and Gregory [Bateson] was my first choice… We had acquired an abandoned Episcopal church..[where] rent was only a dollar a year for ninety-nine years… To extend our discussions into physics, technology, and culture, we decided to invite physicist David Finkelstein and the inventor Arthur Young… [in biology] Francisco Varela..[became our] second scholar-in-residence… What emerged in this imaginative landscape of Lindisfarne was a new relationship between epistemology and ecology in Gregory’s critique of “conscious purpose” and John Todd’s “Living Machines.” …we all could feel that we were in the presence of something new, not simply a new idea or theory, but a new world view. When the critique of Computationalism in the “Embodied” cognitive science of Francisco Varela was added to this world view in 1977, and then the Gaia evolutionary theory of James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in 1981, it began to be obvious to all of us that a more human science was showing its face at Lindisfarne and that just such a science was as critical to the process of planetization as any esoteric philosophy of the past…
   And so, as the unconscious Gaia “is now the dark, polluted, global ecology in which we all dwell”, the Conscious Evolution as it is more recently described will reverse these trends and, with our help and applied ‘intelligence’, the planet will ‘awaken’ to itself and become vastly more intelligent. Or something like it.
   Manfred Clynes, who coined the term ‘cyborg’, used a similar phrase called ‘participant evolution’ which seems to describe a more personalized sense of ‘conscious evolution’.
The idea of Conscious Evolution, then, impels application on the order of the Universe:
   Marx Hubbard’s essay, quoting James N. Gardner and his theory of the “Biocosm”: “The universe we inhabit is in the process of becoming pervaded with increasingly intelligent life –but not necessarily human, or even human-successor life… Our purpose is to transform it from a collection of atoms to a vast transcendent mind…
   “The universe is coming to life, purposely and in accordance with a finely-tuned cosmic Code that is the precise functional equivalent of DNA in the terrestrial biosphere. The universe the process of self-assembly and self-animation, endowed with the capacity to…transmit heritable traits –the same cosmic Code…” Marx writes, “Gardner’s thesis implies ‘the emergence of trans-human intelligence as a necessary condition precedent to the task of cosmological engineering..’ In this meme, we are a vital link in this cosmic purpose. However, we are just a brief link. As Steven J. Dick of NASA says: ‘Biologically-based technological civilization is a fleeting phenomenon limited to a few thousand years, and exists in the universe in the proportion of one thousand to one billion, so that only one in a million civilizations are biological.”
Barbara Marx and husband Earl Hubbard were co-founders of the 1970 Committee for the Future (CFF): “They proposed establishing a lunar colony…as a great utopian experiment…  The CFF’s charter clearly voiced..utopian ideals: “Earth-bound history has ended. Universal history has begun…We, the Committee for the Future, believe that a long-range goal for Mankind should be to seek and settle new worlds…”
>>>Earl Hubbard was the brother of L. Ron Hubbard of Scientology fame. For more on Marx Hubbard and Jonas Salk, who co-created an orgnization called ‘Epoch B’, see comment  #10.
This is, like the blanks in the THRIVE Solutions pages, void of Science and Spirituality.
“The evolution of technology development is often confused with science in the public mind.” –Ralph E. Gomory, former president of IBM and protege of Emanuel Ruben Piore, chief of the Office of Naval Research. The human implications of the technological side of the Trans-human agenda is somewhat addressed here:
The DNA-like code referred to by Gardner above is related to plasma physics, and called THE KEY in part two of Thunderbolts of the Gods; Interestingly enough, the world’s first plasma/fusion energy project is called the Joint European Torus (JET) Project, built in the UK in 1977, achieving ‘plasma’ status in 1983 and generating fusion energy in 1991.; “A tokamak is a device using a magnetic field to confine a plasma in the shape of a torus.  Achieving a stable plasma equilibrium requires magnetic field lines that move around the torus in a helical shape. Such a helical field can be generated by adding a toroidal field… The word tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word токамак
THE CODE of Thrive
Foster Gamble (THRIVE): “I figured that learning how the Universe creates and sustains life would actually be quite useful. Each of these little packets of wholeness that Einstein discovered, called a quantum, is made out of its surroundings but is distinct within it, like a whirlpool in water. These packets are always the same pattern no matter what size and they are surprisingly relevant to issues as seemingly disconnected as wars in the Middle East, the global financial collapse and how to achieve justice for everyone. We’re about to explore how.
   Mathematicians call this pattern the TORUS. The energy in a torus flows in through one end, circulates around the center, exits out the other side. It’s balanced, self-regulating and always whole. I was officially introduced to the torus by scientist and inventor Arthur Young.”
The TORUS is a model of wireless dipole radiation, view here; “The 3-dimensional radiation pattern in free space is a fat doughnut with the  dipole piercing its central hole.”
   Arthur M. Young ( interview with Arthur Bloch): “..I didn’t tell you how spiritual Light is, did I?…I had to relearn physics and in relearning physics, I found that everything hangs on the photon. The photon is this unit of action that cannot be subdivided –you don’t have one-and-a-half actions–’s one thing or nothing…that’s what Planck discovered about light, that it comes in whole units, or quanta, and these quanta are very universal in their function. Everything that happens between these particles that we talk about (billiard balls..or what have you) in the form of photons, or Light. It’s not just communication of one atom to another, or one molecule to another –it’s the creation of particles themselves…
   So to sum it up, the photon has a very primary role. Now, why is  it spiritual –It’s spiritual because it has none of the properties that matter possesses. It doesn’t have mass; it doesn’t have charge; it doesn’t have position; it doesn’t have time. It’s outside of Time –clocks stop at the speed of light. It has no position because you couldn’t possibly locate it.  I think the most interesting thing of all about the photon is that only one person can see it…photons that one of you sees is not the same as another one sees. Only one person is seeing each photon because when you see a photon you annihilate it…[and] because they [the photons] don’t exist anymore, they’re a complete uncertainty. You couldn’t predict them. So, here’s the unpredictable and the immaterial and it’s in place Number One and is also responsible for the creation of matter and all the interchanges between matter…”
Practical applications with photons: “A maser is a device similar to a laser, which amplifies light energy by stimulating photons. The maser, rather than amplifying light energy, amplifies the lower frequency, longer wavelength microwaves and radio frequency emissions.”
   Young devised a “Theory of Process” which you can learn about here:
Comparing the Theory of Process and  Theosophy Critical parts of Arthur Young’s theory of Process, as  described in the Reflexive Universe and The Geometry of Meaning, were derived  from the Theosophical tradition. Institute founder Arthur Young will discuss  where his ideas converge and where they differ from those of Besant, Leadbeater,  Blavatsky et al.”;”The fundamentally satanic nature of Blavatsky’s ‘spirituality’ is indicated by many of her own statements, such as: ‘Stand in awe of him, and sin not, speak his name with trembling.   It is Satan who is the god of our planet and the only god…. When the Church therefore, curses Satan, it curses the cosmic reflection of God.’ …Most people will find it difficult to understand, but Luciferians and Talmudic/Kabbalist Jews (often the same people) have an entirely different worldview from the rest of us.  Christian Marion Knox explains: ‘..The core religion of their belief system comes from the Cabala, a book containing mysticism, and written by a sect of the Pharisees who went into Babylon after the destruction of Jerusalem.   As a matter of fact, the holy language of the Illuminati is Hebrew…The idea was to get together 13 powerful families or bloodlines; with the Rothschilds being the most influential, to rule the world. ‘ “  —Eric Karlstrom

Kabbalah worship: The Meru Foundation is a Young-supported and inspired group that applies the Theory of Process to the Kabbalah: “The Hebrew letters are said to connect our inner wisdom with our outer knowledge… it should be no surprise that the model human hand designed by Meru Foundation,  whose two-dimensional outlines look like the Hebrew letters, is actually a  clearly defined section of a torus!”;

“Anodos Foundation was created in memory of Arthur M. Young in  November, 1995…[because] scientists and philosophers alike have recognized that technological advances  have propelled society beyond its capacity to comprehend and be responsible for  ‘progress’. ”; Anodos (Greek, “odos” means “the way”; together with prefix “an”, it means to ascend or progress upward)”

Arthur Young is the inventor of the Bell Helicopter and step-father of Michael  Paine, who worked at Bell Helicopter’s Texas plant and at whose home Lee Oswald  stayed on the night before the assassination. Oswald’s wife Marina lived at the Irving, Texas home with Michael Paine’s wife  Ruth, who visited Arthur Young and his wife, Michael’s mother, in the summer of  1963…  After visiting with Young and Michael’s mother at their  farm near Philadelphia, Ruth Paine drove to New Orleans, picked up Marina and  the alleged assassination rifle, and drove them to Irving, while Oswald went to  Mexico City. The rifle was then stored in the Paine’s garage until the day of  the assassination.If the assassination of President Kennedy was the result of a covert  operation, rather than the act of a deranged loner, then the intelligence  networks that operated in conjunction with Bell Helicopter’s military arm may  have played a role in the murder…  Michael Paine’s mother, Ruth Forbes Paine Young — who was the more important  player and has the significant associations with the CIA officials connected  with the assassination. Ruth Forbes is a close personal friend of former OSS operative Mary Bancroft,  who was Allen Dulles’ wartime mistress. Ruth Forbes also helped organize Cord  Meyer’s World Federalists and the International Peace Academy (IPA) at the UN,  both pivotal organizations involved in the U.S.-Russian-Cuban nexus that  developed around the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis and the  assassination… Arthur Young and Ruth Forbes Paine Young are two of the most significant, yet  least known players in the assassination drama, a point that I hope to rectify  at this COPA conference.” –William Kelly

Kelly interviewed Arthur Young the year before his death, c1994, and wrote, “While I was talking to Young, we were interrupted by his wife, Mrs. Ruth Forbes Paine Young…  Arthur Young had explained earlier that she was in the beginning stages of [Alzheimer’s]… She sat down with us for awhile, and while I wanted her to talk about her good friend Mary Bancroft, Allen Dulles’ WWII OSS mistress, instead I asked her about her work with the World Federalists. Founded by Cord Meyer, Jr., a USMC veteran who later became a top deputy to Alan Dulles at the CIA, the World Federalists were an early attempt to support the United Nations and work towards the establishment of a world government. In its fledgling years, Ruth Forbes Paine Young held a number of charity balls to raise money for the organization, and helped it get established…  Arthur Young said that one of his wife’s most significant achievements was the establishment of the International Peace Academy (IPA) at the United Nations, which she did with the assistance of Gen. Rickie [sic], of the Indian Army…; Barbara Marx Hubbard is also a leading World Federalist. As William Dean Ross wrote in 2000, “Go to websites of Barb Marx Hubbard and find the relationship between  her and The Future World Society and the World Federalist  Association that are plastered all over the “Age of Cataclysm.” She was the  founder of one and the co-founder of the other and sat as president on both.  While you are there, look at her comrades: Norman Cousins, Buckminster  Fuller, Marilyn Fergusen, Timothy Leary and Lt. Col. Jim Channon. Read their books. These people are for  putting a “chip” in you so we can have a very peaceful controlled world.”

 Motion Picture Association of America 
The content of THRIVE, by extension, is being explored in additional posts:

October 15, 2011

Temples of Science

I can hardly think of a subject that needs and deserves an extraordinary essay as much as this one. In all my reading of late, no concept taps at the essence of occult development more than the idea of “scientific inquiry” transforming men into gods. And no time  seems more dangerously prophetic in attempting to fulfill that transition than the present.  But alas, this is not that essay and I am not that writer.  True to form, though, I can still take steps toward better elucidation.  The upside of all the reading and research going into my “books” is a swimming collection of quotes. I’m a quote junkie now. C’mon share the pain.


“If the conquests useful for humanity touch your heart, if you are overwhelmed before the astonishing results of electric telegraphy, of the daguerrotype, of anesthesia, and of other wonderful discoveries, if you are jealous of the part your country may claim in the spreading of these marvelous things, take an interest I beg you, in those sacred places to which we give the expressive name of laboratories. Demand that they be multiplied and ornamented, for these are the temples of the future.” –Louis Pasteur (ref. Pierre Curie, p70, by Marie Curie, 1923)

 “Science Angel” in the crypt of Institut Pasteur


“..early in May 1912 Weizmann wrote to Judah Leon Magnes, outlining a new scheme. Weizmann had just read in the press that Mr. Nathan Straus, a German-born philanthropist now residing in New York, had established in Hadera (Palestine) a health station under the direction of Dr. Wilhelm Bruenn… Weizmann suggested the following: Why not combine the various projects into one big institute, ‘something like a small Pasteur Institute…Such an institute could fulfill two functions: a teaching institute and a research institute, and could develop into the nucleus of the great Jewish research centers of the future.’ …In short, such a project would consolidate all the small scientific enterprises in Palestine… Moreover, Baron Edmond de Rothschild was moving closer to Zionism…’but it is up to us to steer him in this direction’ [he wrote]… the baron was indeed prepared to cooperate with the Zionist movement…  Weizmann did not waste a minute…[H]e called on Leopold Landau, a gynecologist in Berlin..[and] relative of Paul Erhlich, one of Germany’s most eminent scientists… Weizmann met Erhlich in the latter’s laboratory on March 10, 1913..[and] won over an important new ally… Weizmann [then] returned to Manchester full of energy. His friends on the Continent and in England promised their full support and he felt that his moment had come. ‘The movement has begun to smack of gunpowder,’ he wrote [to his wife] Vera, ..’I feel that I don’t belong to Manchester at all. Everything here is temporary and alien… To my way of thinking, this is the one slogan that can evoke a response just now –the Hebrew University. Die Zionsuniversitat auf dem Berge Zion! The Third Temple!’ ” –(Weizmann biographer) Jehudah Reinharz, Chaim Weizmann, The Making of a Zionist Leader, pp 375-378

>>>Rothschild did not support a university at this time, but endorsed a research institute “like the Pasteur..or Rockefeller institutes”; Nathan Straus was a subject in an article I wrote in 2008 called The Ruination of Milk

  Weizmann Institute


“Emerson said that an institution is the lengthened shadow of one man, and the [Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research] did reflect Simon Flexner… Flexner made Rockefeller sharp, edgy, cold… The room most feared in the institute was Flexner’s office. He could be brutal there, and several prominent scientists were afraid of him… He sought attention for the institute from the press and credit from the scientific community. His own work created controversy… The result was a publicity machine. Highly respected investigators mocked the institute for, said one who himself spent time there, ‘frequent ballyhoo of unimportant stuff as the work of genius’… Flexner..wanted the institute to become a living thing… It was a place of excitement, of near holiness… Flexner, [Peyton] Rous said, made the institute ‘an organism, not an establishment.’ ” –(historical writer) John Barry, The Great Influenza, pp 75-78

“Science would be the magic wand waved over any project… In 1917, when advising his father to pump another fifty million dollars into the RIMR, Junior explained his preference for medicine: ‘This is a field in which there can be no controversy, so that I think the possibility of criticism as regards the use of the fund or its potential dangers would be almost nothing. There is no limit to the development of medical work.’ ” –(John D. Rockefeller biographer) Ron Chernow, Titan, p568

 Rockefeller Institute


“Our society, in which reigns an eager desire for riches and luxury, does not understand the value of science. It does not realize that science is a most precious part of its moral patrimony… Neither public powers nor private generosity actually accord to science and to scientists the support and the subsidies indispensable to fully effective work.” –Marie Curie, 1923

The oral history of radium/uranium dealer Boris Pregel, Manhattan Project supplier : “..The centralization was at the Institute Curie… It was also a kind of scientific monopoly. They did the whole thing…  they were the most important… In fact, the Institute of the Curies had tremendous quantities of radium all along… That’s why later also, when Joliot-Curie and Halban and Kowarski wanted to discuss the..application of atomic energy, they were received very well… [A] lot of the most important work was done in France, because of the establishment of the Institute”

 Radium Institute, Paris


“The society of experts which I am imagining will embrace all eminent men of science… It will possess the sole up-to-date armaments and will be the repository of all new secrets in the art of war. There will therefore be no more war since resistence by the unscientific will be doomed to obvious failure. The society of experts will control propaganda and education. It will teach loyalty to the world government and make nationalism high treason. The government… will instill submissiveness into the great bulk of the population… It is possible that it may invent ingenious ways of concealing its own power, leaving the forms of democracy intact and allowing the plutocrats to imagine that they are cleverly controlling these forms. Gradually, however, as the plutocrats become stupid through laziness, they will lose their wealth; it will pass more and more into public ownership and be controlled by the government of experts. Thus whatever the outward forms may be, all real power will come to be concentrated in the hands of those who understand the art of scientific manipulation.” –Bertrand Russell, The Scientific Outlook, 1931


“The Public Health Law posits…that government has both the power and the duty to regulate private behavior in order to promote public health. The constitutional source of this authority is the police power which encompasses both directly coercive interventions and policies such as taxes and subsidies that shape behavior by altering the costs of certain choices.” –New England Journal of Medicine, 2003


“Judaism is not a creed: the Jewish God is simply a negation of superstition… It is also an attempt to base the moral law on fear,… regrettable…  Yet it seems to me that the strong moral tradition of the Jewish nation has to a large extent shaken itself free from this fear… Judaism is thus no transcendental religion… It seems to me, therefore, doubtful whether it can be called a religion in the accepted sense of the word, particularly as no ‘faith’ but the sanctification of life in a supra-personal sense is demanded of the Jew… [T]he Jewish tradition also contains something else …a sort of intoxicated joy and amazement at the beauty and grandeur of this world… This joy is the feeling from which true scientific research draws its spiritual sustenance… To tack this feeling to the idea of God seems mere childish absurdity… In its pure form, it is nowhere to be found, not even in Judaism where the pure doctrine is obscured by much worship of the letter. Yet Judaism seems to me one of its purest and most vigorous manifestations.  This applies particularly to the fundamental principle of the sanctification of life.”….. “The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice and the desire for personal independence –these are the features of the Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it… we shall continue not merely to survive as the oldest of living peoples, but by creative work to bring forth fruits which contribute.. as heretofore… We must be conscious of our alien race and draw the logical conclusions from it…” –Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, p184-186, 1934


“Just as some people live by the sword, we shall live by science” –Chaim Weizmann, 1948


“[Jonas] Salk dreamed of organizing his own Institute for Experimental Medicine, and in May of 1957, he drew up what he called its “Magna Carta”. He gave it the loftiest of goals, not merely to cure disease but to address ‘the problems of humanity that are the most important of the day’…he imagined an alliance of like-minded colleagues who valued ‘the freedom, integrity, and independence of the individual’ at a scale that preserved ‘flexibility and freedom’ and rewarded ‘boldness and courage’. Unlike traditional research insitutes, this one would include humanists as well as scientists…Its senior members would be fellows for life, a self-governing body..with ‘unencumbered time for contemplation and for action’… Following the Rockefeller Institute’s example, Salk would build his institute…’A shot in the light’ Salk called it.”…”In December 1959, Salk and architect Louis Kahn began a unique partnership to design such a facility… The buildings soon gained international fame for their dramatic and innovative design…“the modern equivalent of a temple of Zeus beside the Aegean”…Deliberately elitist, the Salk Institute would free its half dozen or so fellows from grant-writing, teaching, and administrative distractions. As masters of their own laboratories, the fellows could set independent research agendas. Salk, directly inspired by the cloister of St. Francis of Assisi and by its carceri (cells), provided the fellows with individual studies, places for reflection connected to, and yet buffered from, the bustle of laboratory life.”  –quotes referenced at

 Salk Institute


[On the creation of the Investigation of Human Ecology, a cover program for the CIA’s MKUltra]  “I am frightened about this one. If the scientists do what they have laid out for themselves, men will become manageable ants.” –Adolf Berle, personal diary, 1950s


“We have had the bomb on our minds since 1945. It was first our weaponry and then our diplomacy, and now it’s our economy. How can we suppose that something so monstrously powerful would not, after forty years, compose our identity? The great golem we have made against our enemies is our culture, our bomb culture –its logic, its faith, its vision.” –historian E.L. Doctorow, 1980s (ref.  preface, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin)


“I feel that at least several hundred scientists trained in the biomedical aspect of atomic energy –myself included– are candidates for Nuremburg-type trials for crimes against humanity for our gross negligence and irresponsibility. Now that we know the hazard of low-dose radiation, the crime is not experimentation –it’s murder.” –Dr. John Gofman, 1979; read more about fallout;

June 25, 2011

Shiga-boom Shiga-boom

Shiga toxin-producing (Stx) O104:H4 killer E.coli strain:
Blame Japan
“A private biotechnology company used their DNA scanning algorithms to determine that E.coli O104 has genomic signatures specific [to]..previously found..strains of the 1996 outbreak in Sakai City, Japan… 103 pieces among the nearly one million genome fragments of the E.coli O104 are also present in phages of enterohemorrhagic E.coli isolated in 1996 in Japan… Orion Integrated Biosciences Inc. has developed this capability to scan unknown DNA fragments and point to their most likely source. The company is funded by the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security and the National Institutes of Health to apply this technology for biodefense purposes.”
…back in 1996…
“The Japanese..learned the hard way, 15 years ago, when that health-conscious society was gripped by what may be history’s worst outbreak of E.coli O157:H7. The epidemic sickened thousands, most of them children, and killed at least 12. It also showed critical weaknesses in Japan’s public health system –problems that the government spent years trying to correct. Up to that time, E.coli O157:H7 was virtually unknown in Japan… That all changed in mid-July when health officials in Sakai City, a major port city with a population near a million, received reports… Within a week, thousands were ill, hundreds hospitalized, some with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), requiring kidney dialysis. And some were dying… Meanwhile, the epidemic seemed to be expanding… It was terrible timing. A few years earlier, Japan’s booming economy collapsed. Then, in 1995, an earthquake flattened the city of Kobe, not far from Sakai City. A few months later, terrorists [Aum Shinrikyo ‘yoga’ cult] released deadly sarin gas… Eventually the outbreak sickened at least 9,441 people…” A study paper published in 2002 reports the number of infection cases as 17,877:
But there’s always more to the story. Food Safety News missed reporting on the more unique features of Japan’s 1996 outbreak, which was documented as 22 separate outbreaks between May and October (there were a total of 7 E.coli outbreaks in the previous five years): “In July..a large outbreak of exclusively Stx-1 producingE.coli 0118:H2 occurred in a junior highschool in Komatsu city. This appears to be the first report in the world of clinical infection caused by this organism… 241 [students and staff] were symptomatic… Although Stx-producing E.coli was not isolated from the samples of food and water, it was isolated from a dipper… No subjects developed infection at 11 other schools that had served the same..foods… the source of the primary infection was not identified..” One month after that another type of E.coli, O26:H11, that also anomalously produced only the Stx-1 variant of shiga-toxin (again a world’s first), caused a small outbreak.
Evidently, something very unusual was going on.
Stx1 is now a promising treatment for breast cancer: [2009] “The high specificity and apoptosis-inducing properties of verotoxin-1 indicates that the toxin potentially may be used for treatment of  Gb3-expressing breast cancer….Gb3 expression was detected in the vascular endothelial cells of..tumor specimens…” >>>Gb3 is the glycolipid cell-surface receptor for Stx.
    What does not seem to have been recorded in the huge wave of Japan’s pathogenic E.coli that year was the presence of O104 E.coli.  The earliest mention of an outbreak of an O104 strain anywhere that turns up in the literature happened in Montana:  “During February-March 1994…Eleven confirmed and seven suspected case-patients were identified..” with a “rare serotype E.coli O104:H21 that produced Shiga-like toxin II” (Stx2-like, or SLTII)
News from June 23 put the E.coli toll in Germany at 3,533; 39 deaths, 810 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and 2, 684 less acute cases.; a same day report notes 5 confirmed cases in the U.S. of a “matching strain” and one suspected case resulting in death. The five were recent visitors to Germany: [updated June 30 to over 4,200 cases, 50 deaths, 898 HUS]
Something in the air?
“There seems to be little or no published work on the inhalation toxicity of Shiga toxin. However, there are often indirect effects on the lungs when the toxin is taken in as a food contaminant.”; “E.coli can grow in the air, using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor..”
 “Ricin and Shiga toxin share a unique mode of action, causing irreversible damage to host ribosomal RNA. Our understanding of how these bioterror agents cause tissue damage is incomplete… the mechanism(s) by which these signal transduction pathways are stimulated will be assessed using Shiga toxin mutants and isolated Shiga toxin subunits.” [grant award to Tufts Medical Center by U.S. Dept of HHS]
   Food and water are always the assumed vectors for E.coli contamination but if lung ‘effects’ from ingestion of the more toxic (HUS-causing) particle, Stx2, are indistinguishable from inhaled Shiga toxin then the Lords of the Air could whip up another perfect storm and blame it on ‘behavior’. The data on Stx (shiga-toxin) inhalation is currently similar to, and perhaps less than, the knowledge-ceiling of anthrax before the post 9-11 attack, given that no aerosol attack of Stx2 has ever happened before. At least no registered terror groups have ever launched a shiga toxin attack, but in case they do…well, the establishment looks almost prepared. Real time experience with countermeasures afforded by this new opportunity should be a good lesson, after all, the outbreak is erupting under the watchful eye of major defense contractors.
The new O104 strain is “not new” according to the CDC and “There is no reason to think that this strain was modified intentionally… The combination of Shiga toxin and enteroaggregative features has been seen before; 1) in E.coli O104 identified in Europe and Asia in the last decade, and 2) in a different strain of E.coli that caused a small outbreak in Europe in the 1990s. While this combination is uncommon, it is not new.”
   How new does new have to be? Toxic E.coli is new and became a reportable pathogen in 1982. Speculation about its emergence suggests it may have appeared in the 1950s. Looking at the volume of studies and papers on toxic E.coli generated at Harvard, for example, proves just how new the science is. There is nothing before 1997 and presumably no public funding either. Students and staff just don’t work on ‘unimportant’ diseases.
To wit : [2001] “Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) such as E.coli O157:H7 are important emerging pathogens in the United States… The genes encoding these potent toxins are present on viral particles known as bacteriophages… treating them with certain antibiotics leads to an increase in toxin expression. The antibiotics also lead to increased movement of the viruses…”; that’s called a bacterial “SOS” response, and a warning not to self-medicate with antibiotics –read the Colloidal Silver post too;  natural garlic ‘allicin’ has shown to be effective against shiga toxin bacteria.
Current CDC estimates for Stx-producing E.coli infections in the U.S. stand at 186,000 cases annually—how-does-fsis-justify-it/; up from approx. 110,000 annually a decade ago.
Where did  Shiga toxin come from?
   It was first isolated from an E.coli-like bacterium in 1896 Japan, and named Shigella for its discoverer, Kiyoshi Shiga. Four types of Shigella bacteria, all causes of dysentery (Shigellosis), have been characterized: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, the most complex of which is Shigella flexneri, isolated by Simon Flexner c.1900 in the Philippines. Among the four types, S.flexneri toxin induced neurological damage and most often led to kidney failure and death. Flexner soon became the founding director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) in New York.
The shiga toxin that is spreading in E.coli nowadays is carried by the lambda** phage, a viral particle and the most particularly interesting-to-science component of E.coli bacteria that has opened the secrets of genetic transference. Lambda phage was discovered by Esther Zimmer Lederberg, the wife of Joshua Lederberg, in 1950.
**” the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet…related to..the Cyrillic letter ‘El’..
 …”If the devil were to work overtime in a plot to confound scientists in their quest for a causative agent to a serious disease of unknown origin, it is doubtful whether he could have come up with anything better than the phage…”
 Head I        Head II
Joshua Lederberg, a Rockefeller University president and National Science administrator, is cited in this blog as the editor of a collected genetics publication about mutation: ;  In 1946, Joshua Lederberg codiscovered bacterial conjugation, the process credited to transferring Shiga toxins to E.coli.  He was also the principal coordinator of the first “artificial intelligence” project applied to chemobiology – the mid-60s DENDRAL super-computer at Stanford which set the groundwork for current Nano-Cogno-Bio-Information systems that plot “beyond conception” formulas for artificial life creation. Lederberg styled himself as an exobiologist.
“From 1979 to the present, Lederberg has been a Trustee of the Sackler Medical School at Tel-Aviv University, and, since 1990, has been a Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University. In 1994, he headed the Defense Department Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, “which concludes that there is insufficient epidemiological evidence for a coherent Gulf War
“ chairman of the..Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects.. Lederberg was also on the board of directors of the American Type Culture Collection, or ATCC…[that] made 70 government-approved shipments of Iraqi scientists..”
Bacteriophage lambda has been used as a host vector for [the] generation of genomic..libraries for quite some time; ..generated primarily because of the phage particles’ ability to efficiency infect bacteria in vitro [lab dish]. Some research workers prefer to use the original lambda as a vector while to propagate the gene fragments in a cosmid vector.”
   The link below is a patent that promises a lambda vector system that can deliver recombinant DNA into the mitochondria of mammalian cells; the lambda “taxi” can be virtually stripped of its own genetic material and used to import any select package of genes to almost any cell of choice, including genes that code for specific “receptors” to a range of viruses. These techniques offer the treatment paradigm of “virotherapy”, where viruses deliver genetic ‘correction’ to targeted cells.
    For a long time, antibiotics served as “tracers” in recombination studies by inducing resistance in the objects of study which could thrive and be isolated from cultures that were otherwise poisoned by an antibiotic– thus, not only do cellular entities accumulate antibiotic resistance as a type of mutation, but so do their interchangeable parts,  compounding their antibiotic-resistance profiles. For example, a citation from a Finnish study covering infections reported 1990 to 2000 notes E.coli “sensitivity to 12 antimicrobial agents. .  State-of-the-art recombination genetics is readily taking up “marker” protein genes like the green fluorescent protein (gfp) from jellyfish, ostensibly as a safer alternative and infinitely fascinating as another paradigm in transgenetics. Still, antibiotics are very useful genetic expression ‘promoters’ and continue to be used in bioengineering.
The toxin-making parts of lambda-bearing genomes have all been isolated and described but scientists have yet to realize the fullness of biochemical conditions that cause the toxin genes to turn on and ‘express’. They do know that “the bacteriophage life cycle is the dominant, if not the only, important factor involved in stx2 expression.”   Why would (some) scientists want to turn on the deadly shiga toxin-producing mechanism of the genes? There are reasons far beyond the call of medicine. Genetic engineers have very sophisticated needs in their search for knowledge and limited technologies and resources with which to explore them. I imagine there’s nothing quite as effective as handing a major public health threat over to a technically advanced society in order to get some help. The shiga toxin components of genes have enormously useful properties in the genetics industry.
   Here’s a thought about weaponeering: “The [Stx] protein is robust, stable, relatively easy to manufacture and has been the subject of intense research over many years…This [body of] information..may also be used to develop novel variants of greater effectiveness. The protein does not act through the skin, and effective protection can probably be obtained with a gas mask with activated charcoal filters.”
                                                                     CHANGE AGENTS
E.coli research has been a long-standing field of study. ..”The bacterium Escherichia coli is truly the workhorse of biology. Originally isolated in 1922 from a diphtheria patient, the strain of E.coli [completely and recently] sequenced  was used in 1945 in the discovery of spontaneous gene transfer. The strain, known as K-12, was universally adopted for fundamental work in biochemistry, genetics and physiology…E.coli is not the first bacterial genome to be sequenced, but with more than 4.6 million bases, it is the largest and possibly most important… The K-12 strain of E.coli is not pathogenic but closely related strains are toxic.” .  Mentioned earlier in “Transgenic Round-up”, recombinant DNA techniques were perfected by the 1970s with E.coli. See the work of Paul Berg and Maxine Singer.
   In the last decade E.coli research has opened a biotechnology platform for wholly new ‘life’ creations with artificial amino acids:
[2001] “Expanding the Genetic Code of Escherichia coli” [from the Scripps Research Institute laboratory of Peter Schultz and Salk Institute fellow Lei Wang]
“..We have evolved [a bioactive agent]..that makes possible the in vivo incorporation of [an artificial synthetic amino acid] into proteins in Escherichia coli… This unnatural amino acid was incorporated with high translational efficiency and fidelity.”
“Augmenting proteins with unnatural amino acids could make existing proteins more potent in their actions, or even endow them with entirely new properties that might be useful for industry or medicine. Dr. Schultz’s [E.coli] bacteria, for example, look and act entirely like normal creatures until they are placed in contact with a certain sort of poison. Then, because they are producing an unnatural protein, they survive while all the others die.”
“..multiple unnatural amino acids can be added to the genetic code of a single modified organism.”
   Raising the ‘possibilities of meaning’ in E.coli outbreaks occurring after 2004, when the ‘new amino’ insertion techniques became a commodious reality, deserve special attention. Two considerations come to mind; that the E.coli are stealthily vectoring artificial genes and the shiga toxin subunits are installing genetic controls: one vector with multi-use potential. It will take months and years for published study material on the current outbreak strain to make it into the public sphere, even then, the likelihood that new amino acids are factored into standard tests is slim-to-none. For the time being, only the upper echelon labs will have the capacity to identify the rogue material. General researchers fully understand that mutant strains present unknowns which can remain unknown or evade definition for years. If such a probability exists at present, it’s a secret experiment that will bear fruit for its instigators who have in their labs a description of ideal-sounding binary bioweapons. The close structural relationship and gene-swapping properties of E.coli and related “homologous” phage is a biological SureThing, spreading naturally wherever it is
introduced (albeit slowly unless unnaturally assisted).  Stx-producing enterohemorrhagic E.coli (STEC) is also a sure thing– sure to drive victims to seek emergency medical care. There’s going to be lots of samples, lots of DNA, and probable new toxic mutants.
“Physicians know not to prescribe antibiotics for O157 infections because the sudden killing of the bacteria can release HUS[hemolytic uremic syndrome]-inducing and potentially deadly amounts of Shiga toxin… that fact could have created one major problem in the early development of the [May 2011] outbreak: It is likely that German hospitals were only screening the first enterohemorrhagic E.coli symptoms for O157 and not O104, which no one would have suspected… ‘In this case, [said Jorge Giron], because it wasn’t O157, the physicians might have thought it was okay to give antibiotics, not knowing that O104 would produce the Shiga toxin… This potential misunderstanding over antibiotics might at least partially explain the high rate of HUS among the ill’ ” >>It might because somehow the unprecedented rate of HUS needs explaining. Previous toxic E.coli outbreaks have produced a rate of HUS around 3-6%, now trending upwards to 10%.  But just as likely to happen only moreso among skilled physicians who know they don’t have O157 on their hands is to give no antibiotics and allow the normally self-limiting infection to run its course– this is especially plausible with adult patients who subsequently made up the majority cases of HUS.  The 1996 Komatsu Japan Stx1 school outbreak (non-O157), linked above, is an example of infected patients receiving no antibiotics (approx. half) and resolving their infections equally well and sometimes better. Mr. Giron’s suggestion just doesn’t fly. The more I look at the German “Egyptian sprout” outbreak, the stranger it gets in comparison to other documented outbreaks. I’m considering the cofactor with radioactive fallout based on past anthrax episodes as an opportune moment-in-time, so I’ve set up a link with microbe-hunting results and I’m adding in the accumulating news.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a severe, life-threatening complication of an E.coli..infection that was first described in 1955… The Shiga toxin triggers a complex cascade of changes in the blood..and there is disruption of the inherent clot-breaking mechanisms… About ten percent of individuals with [toxic] E.coli..infections (mostly young children) goes on to develop Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.”; “The principle organ affected in STEC-mediated HUS is the kidney… The severity of renal injury varies in degree from urinary abnormalities such as hematuria and proteinuria to acute renal failure… The second most important organ affected in the disease is the brain… more serious cerebral complications, including seizures, cortical blindness, and thrombotic strokes, occur in 5 to 10% of patients… A similar percentage of patients may develop life-threatening cardiopulmonary sequelae, including adult [acute] respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS], congestive heart failure and myocarditis. The occurrance of neurological and cardiovascular complications is associated with more severe STEC-induced HUS and a higher risk of mortality during the acute illness. Other organs that are frequently involved in STEC-induced HUS are the endocrine and exocrine pancreas, liver, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It is evident that STEC-induced HUS is a systemic illness potentially affecting every organ throughout the body.
“…the outbreak originating in Germany shows 87% of those hit by the disease were women over the age of 20… the German outbreak..displayed ‘several intriguing microbiological characteristics’ and ‘several novel epidemiological and clinical features’..[that] ‘differed remarkably’ from previously described STEC/VTEC infections… Among the ‘completely unexpected’ features was the development of severe neurological symptoms in half of patients within 3 to 10 days of being admitted to hospital..”
                                                No treatment for humans — vaccines for cows
More information about Shiga toxin E. coli, Alexion* Pharmaceuticals Inc. ( and the bioweapon potential of Stx is here (page in progress) and keep this in mind:
“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution. In the case of fighting infectious diseases, GE animal-made antibodies can be produced from animals that have had the human antibody genes transferred to them. These animals can then be vaccinated against human diseases and antibodies can be collected from their blood and used for treating diseases in humans. For example, antibodies can treat infections that are resistant to antibiotics.”
“On March 13, 2009, the USDA granted a conditional license for a new tool in the battle against foodborne illness –a vaccine for cows to prevent infection with E.coli bacteria… Cattle themselves do not experience illness from the bacteria. ”
>>>cattle immunity to STEC  no longer seems to be true –another significant round of ‘firsts’ in 1996 involves cattle infections.
   Alexion Antibody Technologies was invited to give Congress a very exclusive pitch for Project BioShield funds in 2003, before approval of the program, and now the German health authorities have approved of Alexion running clinical drug trials on the latest E.coli victims. Alexion is giving away an ultra-expensive drug in exchange for access to patients.
*The nuclear power company UniStar bought Alexion Pharmaceuticals’ property in 2007;; does the relationship get cozier? “Arch Chemicals” also shares the site. There must be some advantage in having “the world’s largest owner and operator of nuclear energy facilities” as a landlord.; UniStar was taken over in 2010 by Electricite de France (EdF). “Both EdF and Areva are backed by the French state.”
[Feb 2011] Alexion Chairman Max Link sold 47,367 shares, valued at $95 per share… “he retains 92,898 shares… Dr. Link has been the company chairman since December 2002..[and was] formerly CEO of Corange, the parent company of Boehringer Mannheim Therapeutics..[also] formerly the Chairman and CEO of Sandoz Pharma, Ltd.”…”Ann M. Veneman was appointed to Alexion’s Board..previously she served as Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)”..[from 2005-2010, after resigning her GWBush appointment as Secretary of Agriculture]–cbl.aspx;
Dr. Max Link also became Chairman of Protein Design Labs Inc.[Fremont,CA] in 2004, when the developer of antibody drugs accrued major revenues from products like Avastin (licensed to Roche subsidiary Genentech): “Avastin is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody..of mouse origin..produced in a Chinese hamster ovary..” approved in 2004 for colorectal cancer treatment.
 “Ms. Veneman’s training and experience as a corporate lawyer for agribusiness do not qualify her for the substantial task of leading the agency most responsible for the rights of children worldwide. There is no evidence in her tenure as U.S. secretary of agriculture, secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, or deputy undersecretary for international affairs of the USDA of her interest in the world’s children or their health and well-being.”
   In addition to Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Veneman joined the Board of Nestle, the world’s largest food and beverage producer: “Veneman took the post despite pleas from nutrition advocates who urged her not to lend her imprimatur to the company’s marketing of breast milk substitutes”; the best preventive to Stx-producing E.coli in children is, naturally, breast milk. In Europe and the U.S., 1971 marked an all-time-low in breast-feeding when only 1% of new mothers chose to persist in natural feeding past their ‘hospital stay’. The successful War on Milk rages on…
                                                                Deadlier Threshold for Stx
Researchers recently learned that Stx genes multiply exponentially faster than their E.coli hosts:
 [2007] “Demonstration of the ability of [ Stx phage] to form multiple lysogens has two potentially serious impacts. First, multiple integrated prophages will drive the evolution of bacterial pathogens as novel Stx-phages emerge following intracellular mutation/recombination events. Second, multiple copies of the Stx gene may lead to an increase in toxin production and consequently increased virulence…. there is considerable scope for Stx integration directed by as yet uncharacterized factors… Clearly, the occurence of multiple lysogens in a single host [cell] is likely to enhance the evolution and dissemination of bacteriophage-encoded genes throughout bacterial populations, with particular applied relevance for Stx-phages responsible for increasing the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli hosts.”

March 9, 2011

The Culture of Organs


Watch this presentation by Dr. Anthony Atala on growing and printing organs, with an “inkjet” that uses cells!

Midway through the delivery onstage, the doctor appears to remove a newly made kidney from solution but “Reports in the media that Dr. Anthony Atala printed a real kidney at the TED conference in Long Beach, Calif., are completely inaccurate. At the conference, Dr. Atala used a new type of technology to print a kidney-shaped mold and explained how one day – many years from now – the technology might be used to print actual organs.”

The “printed” kidney got Dr. Atala’s audience to its feet, forgetting for the moment perhaps, the already amazing “biomaterials” able to provide structural scaffolding for new cells to grow on. He called them “smart biomaterials” in the first minutes of this show. Take away the Big Finish and Atala’s applications are in substance what the “Cheeseburger In Paradise” article is expressing. This is lab-grown meat with a twist, or I should say, a pulse.
In a reality of Virtual Organs, can Virtual Humans be far behind?
 Curiously Dr. Atala invokes the name of Alexis Carrel, author of The Culture of Organs along with co-author Charles A. Lindbergh who befriended Carrel in 1929 :
“In 1929, the interests of two prominent people intersected. Charles Lindberg’s sister-in-law, Elizabeth Morrow, was left with severe disease of the heart valves after acute rheumatic fever. Lindberg asked her doctor why her heart could not be repaired by surgery. When told that the heart could not be stopped long enough for surgeons to work on it, Lindberg questioned why a mechanical pump could not be used for circulating the blood while the heart was stopped. A physician friend introduced him to Carrel. Lindberg asked to become a volunteer assistant in Carrel’s laboratory and work on the perfusion pump. By 1935, the pump was able to keep the thyroid gland of a cat alive for eighteen days. Cells of that gland were then successfully transferred to tissue culture. Time magazine’s cover of July 1, 1935 pictured Carrel and Lindberg with their ‘mechanical heart’.”
Alexis Carrel is best known for his career (1906-1939) at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research where he gained a reputation as a philosopher-mystic, operating in his darkened experimental surgery lab in long black robes, isolated from the normal interaction of his scientific fellows. The same year that Time put him on the cover, Carrel published Man, The Unknown.
Carrel wrote, “The natural fate of all civilizations is to rise and to decline–and to vanish into dust. Our civilization may perhaps escape the common fate, because it has at its disposal the unlimited resources of science. But science deals exclusively with the forces of intelligence. And intelligence never urges men to action. Only fear, enthusiasm, self-sacrifice, hatred, and love can infuse with life the products of our mind. The youth of Germany and Italy, for example, are driven by faith to sacrifice themselves for an ideal–even if that ideal is false. Perhaps the democracies will also engender men burning with the passion to create. Perhaps, in Europe and in America, there are such men, still young, poor, and unknown. But enthusiasm and faith, if not united to the knowledge of the whole reality, will remain sterile. The Russian revolutionists had the will and the strength to build up a new civilization. They failed because they relied upon the incomplete vision of Karl Marx, instead of a truly scientific concept of man. The renovation of modern society demands, besides a profound spiritual urge, the knowledge of man in his wholeness.” [p1]
  …”None of the dogmas of modern science are immutable. Gigantic factories, office buildings rising to the sky, inhuman cities, industrial morals, faith in mass production, are not indispensable to civilization. Other modes of existence and of thought are possible. Culture without comfort, beauty without luxury, machines without enslaving factories, science without the worship of matter, would restore to man his intelligence, his moral sense, his virility,and lead him to the summit of his development.” [p299]
…”We must be freed from the universe created by scientists with their marvelous intelligence. We stand in awe before the great expanse of the material world, but it is too narrow for mankind… We know that we have a wider expanse that transcends the physical.”
   Alexis Carrel left a legacy that defies casual perusal –he appears in Man, The Unknown to be indoctrinated with the “negative eugenics” of his time, however, as a (very late) latecomer. Three decades earlier, while Cold Spring Harbor’s Eugenics Record Office was launching its family survey program from New York, Carrel, as an inexperienced MD in France,  was witnessing an unexplainable healing at the springs of Lourdes that changed his life. His new enthusiasm for the human soul and life-of-the-spirit soon excluded him from a medical career in his home country. He packed up for Montreal on the invitation of Canadian missionaries and carried on with building a brilliant reputation as a surgeon that led him to Chicago, the Rockefellers’ RIMR, and the winning of a Nobel Prize in 1912. He was different than his colleagues. His wife worked beside him as a surgical assistant. He spoke against war even though he dutifully served. Lindbergh was so impressed with Carrel that he bought a summer house in France so the two couples could spend long vacations together but it is unclear whether or not their camaraderie lasted beyond a summer or two. Lindbergh did not spend the “rest of his life” working with Carrel at the Rockefeller as Atala suggests.
   RIMR’s director, Simon Flexner, personally lobbied Carrel to join the staff (in 1906), but when Flexner retired in 1936, it seems Carrel was no longer welcome. By 1939, his lab was taken away and disassembled. The Carrels departed for France and became caught in wartime circumstances. Alexis Carrel, himself, made at least one more sojourn to New York on wartime medical business in the interests of the Rockefellers and thereafter “collaborated” with the Vichy government for a position leading the Institute for the Study of Human Problems. In 1944, Carrel died of heart failure. It is said that days later the press “mistakenly” reported that Carrel was a Nazi collaborator, an item of information that is prominently mentioned in his biographical sketches today, but referencing only his notable eugenical remarks. Some have even called him the “Father of the Gas Chambers” for penning an endorsement of euthanasia, though he was far from originating the idea. Edwin Black, author of War Against the Weak, would not have missed the opportunity to nail Carrel, as a payrolled Rockefeller employee, if it were true. Black’s treatise is devoted to the American origin of “negative eugenics” .
    So, it’s a curiosity that Dr. Atala should cite Carrel’s The Culture of Organs as his inspiration given the man’s controversial background and the Nazi taint that haunts both his and Lindbergh’s personal history There was so much more to him. A newspaper article from 1935 printed this: “Dr. Anton Julius Carlson, in whose laboratory fame first came to Dr. Alexis Carrel, scoffed today at his former associate’s new theory that [proposes]… [k]eeping a man in suspended animation.. so he can come back to life in the future century of his choice… The Chicago physiologist was even more critical of the Rockefeller Institute scientist’s declaration that ‘we know positively that clairvoyances are capable of perceiving past and future events’ and ‘it is far from being unreasonable to believe that some part of human personality may escape death.’
 “Lindbergh’s work with Carrel was interrupted on March 1, 1932,when his 2-year-old son, Charles, Jr, was kidnapped, and hisdead body was found 10 weeks later in a shallow grave. It took21/2 years for a suspect to be apprehended; Bruno Richard Hauptmannwas arrested on September 19, 1934, and was later was put ontrial. Because of Lindbergh’s celebrity, the events surroundingthe kidnapping, murder, and trial received enormous attentionfrom the press; it was billed as the trial of the century. Hauptmannwas convicted and executed. The United States Congress passeda law in response to the kidnapping, which made kidnapping acrossstate lines a federal crime for the first time. Both Charlesand Anne Lindbergh were intensely private people; therefore,to escape public attention they boarded a ship for Europe in1935, and they remained there until 1939 when they were forcedhome by the start of the war in Europe. Certain eventsduring that time placed Lindbergh on a downward spiral of publiccondemnation, parallel to a similar fall by his colleague, AlexisCarrelWhen the war began, the Lindberghs returnedto America, and in 1941, Lindbergh became a major spokesmanfor the “America First Committee,” an isolationist organizationopposed to the entry of the United States into the war in Europe.The once great man endured widespread condemnation within hisown country… 
    After the liberation of France in 1944,[Carrel] was relieved of all duties related to his institute and wasplaced under surveillance. An investigation began to evaluatethe extent of his collaboration with the Nazis and the Vichygovernment, but no conclusions were reached. Unremitting attacksby the press left Carrel deeply saddened, embittered, and depressed.He was a broken man when he died on November 5, 1944… 
America First Comittee
“Founded in 1940 to fight against U.S. participation in World War II, the AFC initially enjoyed the backing of Henry Ford and the historian Charles A. Beard… the committee was especially active in Chicago. After Charles Lindbergh, an AFC leader, made what was widely considered an anti-Semitic speech in September 1941, the organization began to decline…
   “Peaking at 800,000 members, it was likely the largest anti-war organization in American history… Nothing did more to escalate the tensions than the speech [Lindbergh] delivered to a rally in Des Moines Iowa on September 11,1941. In that speech he identified the forces pulling America into the war as the British, the Roosvelt administration, and the Jews… During its existence it was seen by some on the left, especially Communists, as a Nazi front..”
Once war was declared, however, Lindbergh served the U.S. heroically as a civilian, flying over 32 (or 50) missions for the armed services. . The America First Committee’s beginnings are retrospectively claimed to have a shadowy founding by Lessing J. Rosenwald, the son of Sears Roebuck & Co. magnate Julius Rosenwald. Lessing Rosenwald became a division chieftain of the War Production Board and Sears’ president, Robert Wood, took the leadership of the AFC.
   Maybe it’s glamour, mystique, and the larger-than-life auras of Carrel and Lindbergh that prompts Dr. Atala to cite them as his inspiration. They did not fundamentally contribute to the science for his work but they did provide Big Ideas. The nuts and bolts of virtual organs relies on the intrepid progress made in the culture of cells.


Eastman-Kodak has “longterm plans to sell inkjet printers” , although no statement is made about medical use. Kodak has long participated in medical ‘establishment’ business, from x-ray plates, radiation badges, cigarette filters, vitamins and pharmaceuticals.
The Culture of Cells
‘For the previous sixty years, from the time when cell culture technology began, in the late 1890s or 1900s,’ [Leonard] Hayflick explained, ‘it was believed virtually from day one that all cells put into culture were inherently immortal..’ …Alexis Carrel, a prominent doctor at the Rockefeller Institute, had mesmerized all of biology early in the century with the claim that cells grown in a culture dish would live forever. The French-born Carrel, who received a Nobel Prize in 1912 ..had in that same year placed a smidgen of heart muscle from a chick in a dish, replenished it almost daily with nutrients, and purportedly kept the cells growing and dividing right up to his death in 1944. It wasn’t just Carrel’s results but the theatrics surrounding his technique that created almost a cult of invincibility about the experiments. He insisted that the walls of a cell culture lab had to be painted black, and while performing their manipulations, his technicians donned long black gowns and hoods…[p25] ..everyone assumed that normal cells, whether isolated from chickens or humans, were immortal. Carrel’s mistake, science historian Jan Witkowski suggests, was that in replenishing the cell cultures with nutrients collected from freshly killed chicken embryos, he and his colleagues may inadvertently have supplied fresh new cells to the culture each time they fed them. In other words, they had merely created the illusion of immortality through sloppy laboratory technique. The gerontologist Steven Austad puts it more strongly: ‘It is now clear that the errors and incompetence were Carrel’s own, although a more charitable interpretation is that in his case it was the laboratory assistants who were incompetent or that they spiked the dishes occasionally with fresh cells because they were just too afraid to tell him that the cultures had died.’ .” [p26, Merchants of Immortality, 2003, by Stephen S. Hall]
More from the Merchants of Immortality:
“One day during medical school in Texas, Michael West stared down at an unusual tumor in his dissection pan. The tumor is known as a teratoma or, when malignant, a teratocarcinoma. It is a rare form of cancer that typically develops in a cell of the reproductive organs, appearing adjacent to either an ovary or a testicle, and it is arguably the most bizarre amalgam of run-amok tissue that can occur in human beings. It behaves something like a cancerous embryo, capable of forming any of the body’s two hundred or so tissues, but without any of the embryo’s exquisitely honed biochemical checks and balances that herd cells toward normal development… West was fascinated by the teratoma in his dissection tray that day. ‘I opened it up,’s an incisor and a molar,’ he said… ‘Beautiful pristine teeth. And the first thing I thought is, Can we make that happen in a dish? People need those cells… but what cells form these tissues, and how does it work?…I looked in textbooks and there was hardly anything on it. And I just stumbled across some stuff on mouse embryonic stem cells, which pointed out that if you put a mouse embryonic stem cell in perfect conditions, it’ll form a teratoma. And all of a sudden, it all made sense –that of course these are very primitive cells gone awry… And I thought, if we could just culture human embryonic stem cells, we could potentially make teeth and lots of other things..” [pp92-93]
“About that same time, a researcher at the University of California at San Francisco named Gail Martin isolated a version of the [mouse embryonic stem] cells. But there were intriguing early hints about this same class of regenerative cells in cancers known as embryonal carcinomas during the 1970s and, in a broader sense, in the purely observational annals of nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century medicine. Mark Pittenger, a researcher at Osiris Therapeutics in Baltimore, points out references to “wandering cells” in old medical journals, regenerative cells that appeared to gravitate to wounds and facilitate healing. Some of the first clues, Pittenger notes, were observed by battlefield surgeons… Julius Cohnheim, a famous nineteenth-century German pathologist, was among the first to assert that ‘wandering cells’ seemed to play a role in tissue regeneration….
…What exactly is a stem cell? That is a more controversial question to answer now than it was just a few years ago, following a host of preliminary but intriguing reports suggesting that brain stem cells can form blood, and blood stem cells can form neurons. This degree of developmental versatility has forced scientists to rethink the definition of the term…” [p94]
“In 1995, Alta Charo, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin, received a call out of the blue from a stranger who happened to be a colleague on the university’s science faculty. Jamie Thomson introduced himself… ‘He said he had been working on primates and was considering moving on to human work..” [p158] He applied to the university’s institutional review board, or IRB, shortly after publishing a paper in 1995 reporting the isolation of embryonic stem cells from monkeys…  Thomson..didn’t pave his route with press releases. He declined even to describe his lab’s creation of monkey stem cells at meetings until the experiments were published in August 1995 (although he shared the news with several like-minded researchers, including Roger Pedersen). And he rebuffed potential collaborators like Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, of the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, who approached Thomson’s lab immediately after the 1995 paper.
   But Itskovitz-Eldor was persistent, and he felt a special affinity for the University of Wisconsin. In 1985 he had traveled to Madison to learn micromanipulation techniques from Neal First, an animal scientist..who had been a pioneer in cattle cloning; Itskovitz-Eldor returned to Haifa and was among the first in the world to apply the technology to assisted reproductive medicine for humans. Twelve years later, in 1997, Itskovitz-Eldor organized a scientific meeting in Israel in honor of First and invited Jamie Thomson to speak. It provided another opportunity to lobby Thomson about a possible collaboration. The two scientists spent a couple of days together traveling around Israel, and Thomson finally agreed to work with Itskovitz-Eldor. It was a fateful decision. As a result, the Wisconsin group was able to work with both domestic and overseas sources of human embryonic material… As it turned out, the Israeli embryos generated more stem cell lines than the Wisconsin embryos –an outcome not without legal and scientific ramifications…[p159] For the Wisconsin group, the key to the entire set of experiments may not have had anything to do with the embryos per se but rather with the elixir in which the embryos grew. The Thomson lab received embryos at the cleavage stage, a very early phase of development that is reached a few days after fertilization. As this clutch of identical embryonic cells continues to divide, the primordial clump slowly doubles in roughly geometric progression: next 16 cells, then 32 cells, and so on. About 5 days after fertilization, the embryo contains 200 to 250 cells. At this point, a very primitive segregation of fate begins to unfold, and the first faint architecture begins to emerge in the form of the blastocyst, with about 30 embryonic stem cells. For a fleeting embryonic moment, each of these cells is endowed with a pluripotent genetic cargo: the biological capacity to become any cell type in the organism. That was the goal– to capture those fleeting, changeable cells.” [p161].
    “In May 1998 the NIH held a symposium on embryonic stem cells in Madison [Wisconsin]. Unbeknownst to government officials –indeed, to almost everyone– human ES cells had already been isolated. ‘At that time,’ recalled Itskovitz-Eldor, who had traveled to Madison for the meeting, ‘we never mentioned that there were human ES cells actually growing a few blocks from where the meeting was held.’ [p162] As the Wisconsin researchers began to explore the properties of these unusual cellular dynamos, the stem cell story, perhaps fittingly, converged with the telomere story. Unlike normal human cells, of the sort first grown in a test tube by Leonard Hayflick [at the Wistar Institute, ], embryonic stem cells expressed high levels of telomerase; in other words, these cells had managed to switch on the gene that tells the cell how to make telomerase, and the presence of this normally rare and suppressed enzyme effectively immortalized embryonic stem cells… they seemed never to hit the Hayflick Limit. They are, in a very real sense, immortal, until they receive a signal to specialize… Thomson and his colleagues acknowledged that the ability to produce a ‘potentially limitless source’ of neurons and cardiac cells, for example, had widespread implications for transplantation therapy.” [p163]
“In the summer of 1998, a young South American scientist named Jose Cibelli worked at Advanced Cell Technology [ACT] where [Michael] West had agreed to serve as president. He was due to arrive in Worcester full-time in October, but several months earlier Cibelli was dispatched to Haifa with the express intent of trying to clone human embryonic stem cells –in the same lab as one of [Jamie] Thomson’s collaborators…Itskovitz-Eldor…[p165]
“In the spring of 1998, exiled from Geron and divorced from the stem cell race he had personally organized, Michael West was wandering the world like an entreprenurial nomad, searching for a way to become a player again… West traveled to Scotland specifically to ask [Ian] Wilmut [‘main architect of Dolly, the cloned sheep’] based at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, if he would like to collaborate in an effort to create human stem cells through cloning. [p166]  West continued to talk to anyone who would listen… He became infatuated with ‘nuclear transfer’, or cloning, as a way to obtain stem cells…
   “On the day West met with the Avian Farms delegation.. several [ACT] scientists dropped in to give brief seminars on their work. One of them was Jose Cibelli… He had done graduate studies at the University of Massachusetts in the laboratory of James Robl, one of ACT’s founders and eventually joined the company. As Cibelli spoke, West’s jaw dropped because the Argentine scientist described experiments he had done in Robl’s lab in which he had created a hybrid embryo, albeit short-lived, through the union of a cow egg and an adult human cell.
   “When Cibelli showed a slide of the cow-human embryo, West couldn’t believe his eyes… ‘I mean, he showed me human embryos that had made by cloning. And I had no idea– no one in the world had any idea that it’d been done… and I thought, ‘..this is exactly what I want to be doing..’  …What West probably didn’t know is that the 1994 embryo panel specifically mentioned interspecies cloning as one of those Rubicons of experimentation that should not be crossed.” [p167]
   “James Robl had stepped in to stop Cibelli’s original line of research at U Mass, but West has always given his scientific colleagues very free rein. West joined ACT as president in the fall of 1998 and immediately instructed Cibelli to get the cow-human work going again. West decided.. that he needed to disclose the company’s intention to pursue this line of experimentation, given the burgeoning controversy surrounding cloning and embryo research (he did not feel similarly compelled to mention Cibelli’s efforts in Israel just a few months earlier). And as he has often done, he went shopping for a friendly media outlet to retail his story. [p168]  ‘I was intrigued,’ admitted Alta Charo, who was at the time a member of the Clinton bioethics panel. ‘If it were the case that you could take an enucleated cow egg ad a human cell, and create an entity that functioned like a human that you could get the stem cells, and then it decompensated later on, you would have evaded the problems of human embryo research because you would not have destroyed a viable human embryo.’ ” [p171]
Advanced Cell never set out, of course, to create cow-human embryos… The company first set out to clone barnyard animals, especially cows. Robl wanted.. bovine embryonic stem cells for a simple biological reason: ..[to] pluck these cells out of an embryo, genetically modify them (insert, for example, the gene for a pharmacologically desirable human protein like albumin) and reinsert them into another cow embryo to create..a pharmaceutical factory on hoofs… All of a sudden, Robl’s group had stumbled upon the very techniques.. mentioned as a theoretical route to the creation of human embryos: ‘somatic cell nuclear transfer’, or cloning… Here was a get fetal animal cells for clinical use; the initial interest was the creation and harvest of dopaminergic neurons, the kind of brain cells that steadily disappear in Parkinson’s disease. [p215] Around that time, a..veterinarian from Argentina..arrived in Robl’s lab to pursue a master’s degree. Jose Cibelli..[came] to Amherst in January 1994. [p216]
    ‘We were talking about cells and organ transplants.. and saying ‘Wouldn’t it be great if there were a source of human tissue for transplants? That’s sort of where it started.’ The three scientists –Cibelli, Stice, and Golueke– knew they couldn’t obtain human [ES] cells because of the federal ban on funds for research… But they bandied about the idea of an audacious..experiment: Why not fuse the contents of an adult human cell with a cow egg? …It’s not clear whether anyone..was aware that the precedent had already been set by Philippe Collas’s similar experiments with rabbit eggs in 1990, although Collas [said] ‘Jose knew perfectly well what had gone on…[p217] His first attempt at human cloning began with..some large cells from the inside of his cheeks. Known as epithelial mucosal cells, these provided the adult cells he would use for nuclear transfer. Using the same techniques honed by years of cattle cloning, he vacuumed out the DNA from the cow eggs and then, using a tiny needle, inserted his own cheek cells, one per egg. ‘And after that, if you don’t do anything, the egg’s going to sit there and it’s just going to ..die after a few days,’ Cibelli explained. ‘It’s waiting for the sperm. So what you do is, you fool the egg..that it is fertilized.’ This bit of biochemical chicanery is achieved by dousing the cow egg with a chemical that makes it behave as though it has been impregnated by sperm… ‘He did a bunch of them,’ Robl remembered, ‘..but [it’s] very difficult to get a blastocyst.’ [p218]. When all was said and done, Cibelli had managed to create several short-term cow-human embryos… The biologists never characterized the cells in their hybrid embryo, and never even bothered to submit a scientific paper reportng it… no one can say with any biological certainty what exactly Jose Cibelli had created in the union of his cheek cell and a cow egg…” [p219] But it was also clear, even then, that cow-human embryos were less than ideal as a source of human stem cells. The best source, obviously, would be an intact human embryo…[T]he world would learn in good time, human oocytes were indeed under consideration at ACT. [p224]
“Ali Hemmati Brivanlou..on the seventh floor of a building at Rockefeller University..the morning of November 10, 2000..[p174]..had already made arrangements with Zev Rosenwaks, director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility at New York Weill Cornell, to collaborate. ‘He has already given me eight embryos’…[p176] In the summer of 2000, he had reached a tentative..arrangement with Zev Rosenwaks, an Israeli-born expert in reproductive medicine, who had agreed to supply Brivanlou’s lab with surplus human embryos left over from in vitro Weill Cornell’s IVF center..[p177] In purely pragmatic terms, the earliest moments of human development held the key to tissue regeneration and cellular repair… ‘As you know,’ Brivanlou said that day, ‘nobody can stop scientists from doing the experiments they want to do. Nobody.’ [p178]
1998 Report: Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts
“[Michael] West was pilloried for announcing that ACT was conducting the experiments, but in fact a number of leaders in he field..end[ed] up pursuing variations on the same general theme: create a ‘thing’ that couldn’t techncally be called a human embryo but could be used to harvest immunologically compatible stem cells… Other researchers, in England and Israel and Singapore, where the political constraints on research were not driven by the same religious concerns, were trying to create embryos in IVF clinics… [p172]
   “They never saw it as a way to create copies of animals, or humans for that matter. Rather, they saw it as an immensely powerful biological tool… Following his studies in England, [Douglas] Melton returned to Harvard..[and] began to catalogue the proteins that control the development of organs, especially in the nervous system. They learned that certain of these growth factors, or ‘morphogens’, could basically generate nearly any cellular fate depending on their concentration… [Brivanlou] was astonished to find that when you blocked activin, virtuallyall the cells in [an]..embryo became brain cells…[pp181-182]
   “[I]n the late 1990s, work at the Salk Institute, in the laboratory of Fred Gage,..another of StemCell’s cofounders,..electrified the field of neuroscience when they reported the existence of adult neural progenitor cells in the mammalian brain. Gage deliberately shies away from the term stem cell to describe these adult cells, because he’s still not sure what they are. But they can be recovered from the brain tissue of rats, for example, and possess the capacity to differentiate into either of the two main neural cells, neurons and glial cells… [p238] Gage’s group has shown that neural progenitor cells, when transplanted into an adult nervous system, migrate to the zone in the brain where new neurological cells are formed, and will also migrate to areas of injury…’Not only are new cells born, but they undergo synaptogenesis,’ Gage said..meaning they form the connections, or synapses, that link nerve cells.” [p239]
…and finally, a last composition of excerpts from Merchants of Immortality:
“Bone marrow transplants, first attempted in the early 1960s, achieved a routine success by the 1970s..because patients received..hematopoietic (or blood-forming) stem cells. These are progenitor cells of the blood system and possess the ability to differentiate..into all the cells of a healthy and whole blood system… [T]his spongy matrix of tissue, encased in a sanctuary of bone, is..recognized as the body’s safe-deposit box..for some of the body’s most precious regenerative jewels –namely, cells that can differentiate into many other tissues. In fact, adult stem cells from the marrow have actually been a proven..respectable feature of medicine for about four decades. It’s just one referred to them as stem cells.[p229].  The existence of that marvelously prolific [‘mother’] cell was first proposed in the early 1960s and grew out of medical experiments related to nuclear warfare and radiation exposure. Two Canadian researchers, J.E. Till and E.A. McCulloch, ..subjected mice to lethal doses of radiation that destroyed the rodents’ entire blood-making apparatus in the marrow; then they infused small amounts of blood..sufficient to rebuild the animals’ entire blood and immunological systems. [p230] According to [Bob] Deans, these mesenchymal [marrow] stem cells are conspicuously denuded of typical immunological markings…meaning that they can evade a basic form of scrutiny by immune sentinels known as T cells; they also lack a marker known as B-7 which..revs up an immune response. Deans added that these stem cells may even secrete a factor that actively inhibits a normal immune response…’The cells seem to be totally immunoprivileged and we are currently doing a study where we are injecting cells from one animal into another with no immunosuppression, and we are seeing no rejection.’ The cells, in other words, seem to deploy a biological stealth technology to remain immunologically invisible. This…could open the door to the use of universal donor cells…’It changes the whole ball game in terms of commercialization,’ said Brad Martin. When this immunological invisibility was first observed, Osiris scientists were stunned. ‘In the last year, this all came to light, and we are all just amazed,’ said Martin in May 2001.” [p234].
Info on Dr. Atala
Video (8min) on regenerating organs and tissue; “it’s the future today”
Dr. Atala’s bioengineered “neo-organs”
[2009] “Lab grown penis helps rabbits mate…like rabbits”

“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution… Other applications include making animal organs compatible with humans, a technology known as xenotransplantation. Research is being conducted to produce transplant organs in pigs that may be a source of organs for humans.”
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