Jennifer Lake's Blog

May 11, 2013

Twitter Time in the Gray Box

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 3:37 pm

Posted 2008:

“Most bloggers know about the WordPress timestamp that allows you to publish posts at a later date. This is a very handy feature if you’re going to be away for a few days but would like new posts to keep flowing. The timestamp allows you to write a bunch of posts in advance and then have them go live at a predetermined time. Thanks to a site called Tweet Later, you can now do that with your Twitter tweets. Tweet Later allows you to keep the tweets flowing even if you’re not in front of your computer or iPhone. If you know you’re going to be stuck on an airplane that doesn’t have Net access you can timestamp a tweet that say[s] ‘Stuck on an airplane that doesn’t have Net access’ and have it go live at the time you’re on the plane… Timestamped tweets can go out at a specific time or set to go evenly throughout the day.”     ….in other words, you can approximate a future event and insert the simulation into the real time stream.

In normal reality, “the uniqueness of time dimension is that you can travel only forward in it, not backward. This fact has profound implications. It protects causality, that is the law of cause and effect… cause should precede effect and it should not be the other way round…”


Posted April 24, 2013: “If you followed the Boston Marathon news last week on Twitter, you likely read lots of false information. Many users tweeted the name of one ‘suspect’ who wasn’t and there were endless ‘this is happening now!’ assertions about events that (again) weren’t, from folks listening to scanners. As a result, there [are] a few red faces this week, embarassed they tweeted such things – and kind of angry, it seems, at Twitter .”  Turns out it was the independent journos tweeting information, “wrong” information, from police sources. They asked for Twitter’s help: “…it is in Twitter’s give us the tools to clean things up. Otherwise it risks becoming a cesspool of untruths and rumors. Twitter needs a way to reel bad information back in… an edit button, a correction process.” Apparently, these guys didn’t see the instructions on how to “edit tweets” that I saw.

Twitter on some level agreed. There was a lot of causality showing. Soon, Twitter said, they’ll be rolling out their new security and verification protocols. Until then, like the mild rebuke from “alltwitter” warns, the tweeters should model some better behavior. After that Twitter ought to change their motto too, “Find out what’s happening right now…”, and model some better behavior themselves. But truth-in-advertising is not my problem today.

The same “alltwitter” source has a standing post about timestamps that states “On …time is local time to you, depending on your Twitter timezone settings…  sometimes you’ll want to know exactly when a tweet was posted, certainly if you’re tracing the chain of events of an important story. It can also help you determine who was the first person to break a story on any given day… and who is claiming credit for somebody else’s work… We know that Twitter [] based in San Francisco, which is PDT. PDT is GMT minus 8 hours…”

Timestamps have since all been rationalized to Pacific time no matter what timezone you’re in or when the tweet was posted. When did Twitter do that? Was it between September and December of 2012, after its Emergency drill in Japan? Any tweeters out there taking notice?


Why didn’t Twitter adopt the world standard, Greenwich Mean Time, when it gives out the GMT adjustment which it doesn’t use? I can think of a day in December when a clandestine fix of the timezone feature from Eastern to Pacific would make three hours of time disappear from the East.  Said another way, it would add 3 hours of Twitter time, unnoticed perhaps, if it never happened again. Bear with me and I’ll explain.



“How social media is rewriting the rules of modern warfare”

“Software that tracks people on social media created by defence firm”

…..SocMediaRewritingRulesOfWarfare         TrackingOnSocialMedia

“Will Twitter war become the new norm?”

“Can the US military fight a war with Twitter?”

………………………………TwitterFightingWar,TwitterGuardingTruth “Twitter’s Efficient Role in Guarding the Truth”

…..Military Approves IPhones And IPads  “…a new era!!! US Military approved iPhones and iPads for military networks”

………………………………………………….MayTheCrowdBeWithYou “May the Crowd be With You”


The Gray Box   “…the gray box is the command-and-control device used to direct operations in complex computer-regulated automation. In February of 2011, a code expert named Ralph Langner gave a TED Talk about his discovery of the Stuxnet virus altering the functions of gray boxes and creating a “man in the middle” which can deceive the monitoring operator at the computer console by showing a systems-normal screen image.  The interoperable communications of the mass-notification emergency system use similar gray boxes.”


“Twitter Broke the Story on the Boston Marathon Bombing”


Editing Old Tweets
On December 19, 2012, Twitter blog announced that old tweets can be downloaded. This is the key to “editing old tweets” according to eHow instructions (that are undated), which requires uploading the edits afterwards. Twitter blog doesn’t mention editing tweets, in fact denies the capability as a matter of honest record-keeping. Tweets can be deleted after posting but not edited, says alltwitter.
“Wednesday, December 19, 2012
Today, we’re introducing the ability to download your Twitter archive, so you’ll get all your Tweets (including Retweets) going back to the beginning. Once you have your Twitter archive, you can view your Tweets by month, or search your archive to find Tweets with certain words, phrases, hashtags or @usernames. You can even engage with your old Tweets just as you would with current ones… If you don’t see that option in Settings today, know that it’s on the way! We’re rolling out this feature slowly, starting today with a small percentage of users whose language is set to English. Over the coming weeks and months, we’ll make it available to all users around the world..”
“…you can download your old tweets and then edit their content in a few simple  steps…”

May 7, 2013

The Boston Twitter-run

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 7:02 pm
“Twitter Broke the Story on the Marathon Bombing”
…”Twitter users quickly started disseminating details including number of injuries and even raw video… The tragedy also helped demonstrate the value of the Twitter hashtag. One of these, #BostonMarathon, was the highest trending topic on Twitter much of the day. It started as a hashtag simply used to follow the day’s race news.  Later, it became the main channel for breaking news of the disaster as it happened… Twitter, while sometimes enabling the spread of rumors that inevitably occur immediately after a tragedy, also helped dispel rumors.  For instance, one report held that cell phone networks in Boston had been shut down supposedly to prevent remote detonation of additional bombs.  That report appeared later to be false…  It all serves as a reminder:  in a breaking situation or public tragedy, turn to Twitter and other social media for on-the-scene reports”

………BMB, 556am, BigDay 5:56 am……… Racers Start times [Eastern Daylight]: Mobility Impaired: 9 a.m…   Elite Men & Wave One: 10 a.m…  Wave Two: 10:20 a.m…  Wave Three: 10:40 a.m…

………Marathon Winners announced                               MarathonWinnersAnnounced,746to921

…………………………………………..Boston1039amRunnersAtFinish,SteveSilva10:39 am

. 1151am, BMBreportOfTwoHugeExplosions  11:51 am   BMB,1155amWhatHappened2explosions 11:55

*BMB, 1159am,PolicePouringIn 11:59 am, “Police pouring into Boylston finish line area”


BMB,1200pm,OhGodGiantExplosion 12:00, “Oh my God… A giant explosion just blew the glass out of my building. Someone tell me what is going on!”


BMB,1157to1201,WBZ-TVBoston 11:57 to 12:01     BMB, 1202pm, reportsOfExplosions “Folks in the explosion are being told to stay off their phones as they could trigger more bombs”


…………… BMB, 1203,SawAndFeltExplosion 12:03…”just saw and felt a huge explosion, multiple deaths, legs blown off.”

……………………BMB,1204pm,MediaLockdownHotel 12:04, “We’re apparently on lockdown at the marathon media hotel. No one is allowed to leave”

.BMB, 1212pm,BrunoSaysHorrific 12:12, “I saw people’s legs blown off. Horrific…”

…………………………….BMB,1214,OnTVLooksHorrific 12:14, “Marathon official tells us we’re still in lockdown, no official information…. scene looks pretty horrific on TV”

…………………..BMB,216pmNoNewsReportsAnywhere  12:16, “keep sharing. no news reports anywhere.”

……………………………………………BMB, 1225, ShirtsBlownOff,ToldToRun 12:25, “Spectator..”I saw people with bloody heads, people with their shirts blown off.”

BMB,1238pm,CannotAccessBostonNews 12:38, “Cannot access any Boston News website right now. This is insane….”

“Twitter’s the only thing that works….”

…………………………………………………………..BMB,1241,LenoxHotelEvacuating 12:41, “Lenox Hotel is being evacuated”

*BMB, 1249pm,GlobeWebsitesDown 12:49, “The Globe’s websites are down…”


………………………………………….BMB, 1250pm,ObamaNotifedOfExplosion, “…Obama has been notified…”

…………………………..BMB, 1251,TriageSettingUpOnBoylston,thousandsOfPolice 12:51, “Boston EMS is setting up triage on Boylston, thousands of police and emergency personnel on scene”

BMB, 1254,ControlledExplosion600BlockBoylston 12:54, “Breaking News: Police will have controlled explosion on 600 block on Boylston Street”

…………………………………BMB,1259pm,PhotoFromOurJohn,SecondSite 12:59, “Photo from our John Tlumacki of Explosion on #Boylston”

***** BMB, 102pm150FeetAwaySawInjuries  1:02, “I was 150 feet away when the..#explosion went off. I saw a young girl laying on the ground with multiple injurys.”

……………………BMB,106pm SmallHomemadeBombSaysNBC 1:06, “Small homemade bomb is preliminary cause of explosion…law enforcement officials tell NBC”

…………………………………………..BMB, 109pmFlightRestrictionsTemporary 1:09, “FAA is issuing a temporary flight restriction over Copley Square.”

………………………………BMB, 114pm,RunnersDiverted,ShockedAndBewildered 1:14, “Runners are walking down Comm. Ave…looking shocked and bewildered.”

BMB, 115pm,2dead,22injured  1:15, “..Police reporting 2 dead 22 injured”

BMB, 137pm, PoliceAskingForVideo  1:37, “Boston Police asking for everyone who has taken video of finish line to let them know, could have clues of activity.”

……………………………….. BMB, 145pm,BostonGlobeTollRises 1:45, “…64  wounded…”

………………………..BMB, 157pmNBCsaysRunnersRunToHospitalGiveBlood 1:57, “..Runners that crossed finish line..continued to run to Mass General Hospital to give blood to victims.”

BMB, 202to206,AuthoritiesSaySaudiSuspect  2:02, “Authorities ID suspect as Saudi national…”

…………………………..BMB.203pmJFLLibraryBlastInjury 2:03, “ male w/injuries seen running from JFK library area after blast in trash barrel..”

………………………………………………………….BMB, 205pmCellServiceCancelled 2:05, “..cellphone service has been shut down…”

BMB, 215pm,GovTweetsCopleySecure  2:15, MA Governor, “Copley Square is safe and secured. I am asking everyone to stay away from Copley Square and let the responders do their jobs.”


“The first explosion occurred at 2:50 PM ET, according to

the Boston Police, when an unidentified device detonated on the north

side of Boylston Street…”

***********************************BMB,Shockwave Puffs Base Of Banner1st explosion in full flash; blue fence banner puffs and people start reacting –watch:       Observe a near simultaneous flash next to the scaffolding where the smoke is rising by the streetlight.

*BMB, 250pm,ExplosionVideoCirculating 2:50 pm, “Explosions caught on video by Boston Globe. Amazing.”

Mile26, Boston

BMB, 26 acts of kindness

………………………………BMB,Apr16,WitnessBlastFromStorefront “witness: I initially thought it came from the storefront but a police officer told me it came from a trash can”

…………….BMB, WitnessSaysRunningInOppositeDirection………….BMB,BeforeRace,IncreasedSecurity

“Witness: ‘All of a Sudden Everyone Turned Around and Was Running in the Opposite Direction'”

“Veteran marathon runner noticed increased security before race started”

…………….Apr16,ForceBlewHumansAndBabyCarriagesAcrossStreet “Witness: The force of the bombs ‘blew human beings and baby carriages across the street’ “


…..Boston,IPAWSEffective  “…..IPAWS alerts used effectively in Boston during Manhunt”


JUNE Update: Boston Globe reports that an “eerily similar” Operation Urban Shield exercise was in the planning:

“The scenario had been carefully planned: A terrorist group prepared to hurt vast numbers of people around Boston would leave backpacks filled with explosives at Faneuil Hall, the Seaport District, and in other towns, spreading waves of panic and fear. Detectives would have to catch the culprits. Months of painstaking planning had gone into the exercise, dubbed “Operation Urban Shield,” meant to train dozens of detectives in the Greater Boston area to work together to thwart a terrorist threat. The hypothetical terrorist group was even given a name: Free America Citizens, a home-grown cadre of militiamen whose logo would be a metal skull wearing an Uncle Sam hat and a furious expression, according to a copy of the plans obtained by the Boston Globe…  The planned exercise has eerie similarities to the police investigation that led to the capture of the alleged Boston Marathon bombers…   Officials from a dozen agencies had been meeting for months to plan the scenario. They behaved much like movie producers, recruiting students from Northeastern University and the Boston Police Academy to play the parts of terrorists and witnesses… The basic plot was this: Half a dozen members of Free America Citizens..would plant hoax devices, then stay on the scene to watch and record the bomb squad and detectives as they responded, as a dry run to a larger attack…


Sandy Hook, Boston, where is it leading….

AUDIO podcast, recorded May 1, 2013: thanks to Sofia Smallstorm and Jim Fetzer for letting me sit in

May 1, 2013

Sandy Hook Early Birds

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 4:30 pm

*NewtownBeeShootingWebCaptureOn12-13-12Newtown Bee NewtownBeeShootingReport,12-14                                                  A web crawler timestamped the Bee’s shooting article on December 13, 2012

……………………………………….DawnHochsprungTold theBeeAMaskedManEnteredTheSchool (original) “Sandy Hook School Principal Dawn Hochsprung told the Bee that a masked man entered the school with a rifle and started shooting…”


What Time is it? Eastern or Pacific? Could it be both? For an explanation of Twitter timestamps see “Twitter Time in the Gray Box”; the gray box is the command-and-control device used to direct operations in complex computer-regulated automation. In February of 2011, a code expert named Ralph Langner gave a TED Talk about his discovery of the Stuxnet virus altering the functions of gray boxes and creating a “man in the middle” which can deceive the monitoring operator at the computer console by showing a systems-normal screen image.  The interoperable communications of the mass-notification emergency system use similar gray boxes. A ‘gray box’ alteration is not a necessary ingredient in this story –merely a possibility– if the accomplishment can be achieved simply by deactivating the published timezone feature.


Tweet Tweet!                                          651amJanyTweet   6:51am and 6:56am     702amHartfordCourant, police responding  7:02 ……..709amNBCDahlemOnTheWayToNewtown 7:09

714amSchoolShootingInNewtown 7:14

7:02 (Hartford Courant), “Newtown school officials confirm police are responding to a report of a shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School”

7:09, “Breaking news: On our way to Newtown. State police confirm shooting at Sandy Hook..”

7:14, “Follow *%*%*%..for all the latest info on the school shooting in Newtown!”

2newsTweetsNear730am  7:24, “Breaking: According to the #Newtown Emergency Director, all parents should stay by their phone. Do not go to school.”

………734am,Breaking, two shooters possibly,Unclear injuries 7:34, “Elementary school locked down, two shooters possibly inside. ‘Unclear number of injuries.’ ”

7:37, “state police received call on Newtown shooting at 9:47, numerous shots fired near room #9. 40 troopers now clearing the school.”

3AltimariTweets(first)730am           8amTweet7:46 am

7:40, “State Police SWAT team already on scene, bomb squad also will be called… unclear if shooter is still on the loose.”

7:51, “one shooter is confirmed dead… there may have been two shooters.”

3AltimariTweets730am     828amGunmanDead

*8:22 and 9:11      822amWFSBliveChopperTweet      911amGovOfficeTweet                                               934amMediaSettingUpTweet   9:34 am, “Media’s staging at Treadwell Park…”

Everybody ready?



“At about 9:35 am, using his mother’s Bushmaster XM15-E2S rifle, Lanza shot his way through a locked glass door at the front of the school. He was wearing black clothing, earplugs and an olive green utility vest, carrying magazines for the rifle. Initial reports that he had been wearing body armor were incorrect. Some of those present heard initial shots on the school intercom system, which was being used for morning announcements…”


…………..tweet,police called 9am 10:47 am, “Very brief press conference… They did mention that police were called to the school around 9 am”


“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”
― Edward Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud. Quoted from Bernays’ 1928 book “Propaganda”
The virtual School Shooter scenario above was a test of FEMA’s Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, the media messaging network that uses Common Alerting Protocols (CAP) to set the physical resources of multiple agencies into motion. The combined drill which enacts the full use of resources is called a CAPSTONE event. The participants are required to generate “real documentation” in alignment with their respective roles, hence all the conflicting news reports and “bad actors” in the videos, suggesting improvisation in the scenario.
IPAWS tests Interoperability
“Philadelphia, PA, USA; 1 February 2010 –  The public and private sectors will join to conduct an interoperability standards demonstration at the Technologies for Critical Incident Preparedness (TCIP) conference, 2-4 February in Philadelphia. The event will showcase the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) suite of standards including the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP), Distribution Element (DE), and Hospital Availability Exchange (HAVE) standards. Simulating an incident defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the demo will show how authorities, responders, broadcasters, and other services providers can use EDXL to enact a concerted, coordinated emergency response… The Geo-Targeted Altering System (GTAS) will also play a key role in the interop. GTAS is a joint development effort between NOAA and FEMA’s Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). GTAS allows alerts and warnings to be targeted to geographic areas. The CAP IPAWS Profile message format will be used to demonstrate notification to the Emergency Alert System (EAS). “

“On November 9th, 2011, the first-ever nationwide Emergency Alert System (EAS) Test was conducted across the United States and territories at 2:00 PM Eastern time. The purpose of the test was to assess the readiness and effectiveness of the system for the President to address the public during times of extreme national emergency. Radio and television broadcasters, cable, satellite, and wireline providers across the country (commonly known as EAS participants) participated in the test.

FEMA originated an Emergency Action Notification (EAN) simultaneously to 61 Primary Entry Point (PEP) stations that serve as national-level relay points. These PEP stations rebroadcasted the message in their coverage area to local primary stations and other monitoring stations…   Additional testing of EAS will incrementally integrate other technologies that are Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)-based for a more resilient and effective system…

The test revealed several successes:

All PEP stations were connected during the test and over 90 percent were able to receive and relay the EAS message…

The EAS community took a proactive role in informing a FEMA IPAWS EAS Best Practices Guide…

*Regular and frequent testing of EAS is essential… Improving the EAS..takes time and requires a coordinated effort of diverse participants at multiple levels with varying roles and responsibilities…”


Integrated Capstone Event (ICE):“Integrating multiple courses into a combined event is extremely important because it replicates what will happen in an actual community”

The IPAWS mass-notification system required national technical compliance, enforced through the FCC, by June of 2012. In August 2012 it began testing its “geo-targeting” capabilities in a program called “Reaching the Whole Community”. Newtown’s Sandy Hook prepared for its role in future drilling by hosting Homeland Security training (HSEEP) at the Riverside Rd. Firehouse on Sept.22: “This blended approach will give participants hands-on experience that readily  translates to real-world exercise skills. Activities include creating exercise documentation, conducting exercise planning conferences and briefings, and  practicing exercise evaluation… Additionally, the HSEEP Training Course will briefly cover other DHS initiatives…” –like IPAWS. While no one in authority is claiming that the Sandy Hook Shooting was a CAPSTONE event, it continues to bear the requisite details of just such an expansive drill, including the known priorities of the DoD an DHS.

….DHS, S&Tpriorities published April 17, 2007


–Human, Social, Cultural and Behavioral Modeling

–Clandestine Tagging, Tracking, and Locating

etc., etc.


Kindergarten teacher Janet Vollmer (to CNN’s Anderson Cooper): “..there were noises that didn’t sound correct. So, there was no– anyone telling us it was a drill. We just thought something was not right.”


Sandy Hook and Beyond was the media evaluation held April 22 at Columbia University’s Dart Center for Journaism & Trauma. During this day long program a number of clues in the statements of participants appear indicative of an IPAWS drill:
VanceLearnsFromPress “Lt.Paul Vance: The first call I got about the shooting was from a member of the press…”
LlodraSeesMedia20MinutesAfter [Newtown Mayor] “Llodra: When I arrived at the firehouse, the media was already there…”
The Tweeter of these statements, who was a guest speaker himself at Sandy Hook and Beyond, is an National Public Radio administrator based in New York. NPR is the principal alert originator and disseminator in the IPAWS network.
At 9:53 AM, no more than ten minutes after the reported shooting ceased, the Associated Press published a story, “Official with Knowledge of Connecticut School Shooting Says 27 Dead, Including 18 Children.”  AP and the Washington Post have since removed the story from their websites…”
According to the audio record of the police scanner at 9:53, suspect gunmen were afoot and being pursued on the premises, “reporting one suspect down. The building has not been cleared.” The announcement of any given number of casualties was not stated over the scanner until 10:31. “Roger. One of the places is in the kitchen. There’s a teacher and eighteen kids there.” [transcript]
On December 14, a mother picking up her child at the Sandy Hook firehouse gave a brief interview to  CT Channel 2:
Reporter: How did you find out about this terrible tragedy?
Mother:” We got an automated call from the town that there had been a shooting… Nothing about where the shooting was and that the schools were on lockdown… And then I got another text from, uh, CBS that it was on Dickinson…”
………SHTwitterPrayForNewtown,CreatedNovember2012Twitter account “Pray For Newtown” created November 16, 2012
“As of the time of this writing, if you search on Google for the URL of the United Way Sandy Hook fundraising page (see instructions, below), you will get a Google search result saying the page was created on December 11, 2012… I did some checking around and found that one Google engineer says the date is a “glitch.” That seems odd, since Google’s date property seems to be accurate for everything else I can find… So I’m not sure why Google search results would be correct about seemingly all the others pages it indexes, but somehow wrong by three days on the United Way Sandy Hook fundraising page… Historically speaking, this is all very relevant because we’ve seen this before with 9/11. As the following video shows, in 2001 a BBC news reporter stood on camera and announced that the World Trade Center 7 building had collapsed even while it was still standing directly behind her!… Increasingly, Sandy Hook looks like it might have been staged as well…”

March 13, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, Part III

Part I:

Part II:

Israel Gets The Bomb

Israel was the first of the [‘pariahs’] to..develop a nuclear arsenal… Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David organic chemist..expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany he emigrated to Palestine where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] Bergmann, apparently, did not stay long in Palestine.

    “Bergmann’s father was one of the most eminent rabbis in Berlin and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann..then living in England…  In 1933..Weizmann arranged for young Bergmann to join him on the faculty of Manchester University..[where he] came to the attention of Frederick A. Lindemann, later [dubbed] Lord Cherwell, a German-born Oxford scientist… [The] Zionist movement in Palestine asked Weizmann in 1936 for a chemist to..produce high explosive for..[the] war against the Arabs and the British… Weizmann assigned the mission to Bergmann…” [p25, The Samson Option] Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: ‘He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it…'”[p26, ibid.]
   “..Hebrew University’s Israel Dostrovsky [came to] play a key role in Israel’s..atomic weapons. Born in Russia in 1918, his family emigrated to Palestine the next year. His studies in..chemistry took him to London [where he was] awarded..a doctorate in 1943. After spending the next five years in England, [Dostrovsky] returned to Palestine in 1948 where he founded the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann [renamed from Sieff]. At the same time..[being] a major in the IDF Science Corps, he established Hemed Gemel, a special branch of the corps..[that made]..its first projects..sending geologists into the Negev desert in search of uranium.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb]
   Bergmann used his ‘guest scholar’ status in England to make high-explosives for the Hagannah to use against the British — he left the UK in 1940 for the United States and reconnoitered in New York with his ‘old friends’. Herman Mark, ‘father of polymer science’ who worked closely with Bergmann and became the dean of Brooklyn Polytechnic, had “turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. ‘The whole gang came to America,’ said Mark. [p25, The Samson Option] “ ‘Bergmann was anxious..’ said Mark,’that there shouldn’t be too much talk [about Israel’s bomb]. It was super-secret –just like the Manhattan Project.’ There was at least one early occasion, however, when Bergmann couldn’t resist sharing what he knew. Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy New York businessman and ardent advocate of statehood for Israel, was one of Ben-Gurion’s most important and trusted allies in the United States. By 1947, Feinberg was playing a major –and highly discreet– role in fundraising and White House lobbying [Truman’s admin.] for Israel..[and] the Democratic Party. He would operate at the highest levels between Washington and Jerusalem for the next two decades… One night over dinner, added Feinberg,’Bergmann’s eyes lit up and he said, ‘There’s uranium in the desert’. There was no question about the message –that a path was now cleared for Israel to develop the atomic bomb. Feinberg was astonished at such indiscreet talk: ‘I shushed him up,’” [p27, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh]
   Dostrovsky “joined the Weizmann in 1948, shortly before its dedication. Immediately upon joining the staff of Weizmann, he was appointed director of the isotope research department, a position he held for 17 years…” Over the early course of those responsibilities, Dostrovsky also became “chairman of the desalination committee.”
Bergmann and the French not only got it done in the Negev..but they kept it secret.” [p23, The Samson Option] “No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist [who worked on the Manhattan Project]..and expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction.[p30]…His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family…  Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Bergmann for a memorable meeting with the Negev…[footnote:] ‘We had a long discussion about atomic energy,’ Goldschmidt recalls. ‘Ben-Gurion asked me how long would it take for nuclear desalination to make the Negev desert bloom? –a favorite Ben-Gurion question. I said fifteen years. He started scolding me..we could do it much faster.’” [p31, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh]
   Israeli collaboration with the French appears at the initiation of Francis Perrin: “Perrin was important… A socialist who fled [France] to England in 1940… he became friendly with Bergmann..and traveled to Tel Aviv in 1949. It was after that visit that some Israeli scientists were permitted..[in] Saclay..atomic research center near Versailles.”[p29, The Samson Option] Unmentioned by Hersh is that Francis Perrin was part of the small team attempting an atomic bomb in the Sahara in 1939 with the backing of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. Perrin used his 1940 entree in England as a way station to the US where he resettled in New York with his family, including his father, Jean Baptiste Perrin, a once scientific rival of Pierre Curie. Some years after Curie’s death, Jean Perrin was supported with Rothschild funding to establish the Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the Sorbonne. Friendship with Bergmann was likely to have evolved in New York during the war.
>>>see Part II ‘comments’ for more about the death of Pierre Curie.
   Attaining nuclear weapons in either France or Israel was dependent on removing obstacles as in the US: “The French debate revolved around..Frederic Joliot-Curie [a noted French Communist]..who was opposed to a French role in NATO and any French link to nuclear weapons. In 1950, [Joliot] was the first to sign the Stockholm Appeal, a Soviet-backed petition [issued by the World Peace Council] calling for a ban on all nuclear weapons…  Joliot-Curie was dismissed after signing the Appeal..[and] replaced by Pierre Guillaumat [..French secret intelligence]..and Francis Perrin, [who was] the first to publish a formula for calculating the critical mass of uranium...  A critical decision..came in 1951 when..[Pierre] Guillaumat authorized..a natural uranium-fueled reactor capable of producing..about twenty-two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year… The decision to produce..plutonium would irrevocably propel France down the road to a nuclear bomb, as..the Israelis had to know.” [p29, The Samson Option]
And so it began –an isotope research program for use in water desalination and reclamation.
Kennedy was a third-term congressman in October 1951 when he left for a 7-week junket to Asia with a first stop in Paris “at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)..on October 3” to meet Eisenhower. From there, along with his brother Bobby, sister Pat, and Congressman Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., the party traveled on to Palestine. “The two brothers had never spent such an extended period together, and these weeks defined their relationship for the rest of their lives.” [p284, The Kennedy Men] “In Israel both Jack and Bobby kept extensive diaries, and there is scarcely any overlap in their accounts. Jack stood back from the..hatreds and emotions… As always with Jack, the omnipresent threat in the world lay in the Soviet empire… One evening in Jerusalem, [they] went to the modest home of Prime Minister..Ben-Gurion for dinner… [JFK] was an observer of men, and by the evidence of his diary, he did not impose himself on this evening as much as take the measure of those around him, including the American ambassador, Monnett Bain Davis, several other Israeli ministers, and..Roosevelt Jr… Like his mother, he was considered a friend of Israel. FDR’s namesake was the center of this evening, not Jack… ‘It was almost as if we weren’t there,’ Bobby recalled…  Roosevelt asked the inevitable question: Could there be a real peace between Arab and Jew? ‘It depended..on the peoples wishes,’ the prime minister said. ‘Present government [is] not concerned with peace’… Ambassador Davis boldly told Ben-Gurion that the Arab states were afraid of Israel. ‘How could Egypt with its large population be frightened,’ Ben-Gurion replied with rhetorical flourish. ‘We wouldn’t want to go back to Egypt again. We had enough the first time.” [p286, ibid.]
>>> 1952 –July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
   “In this part of the world,” wrote Kennedy biographer Leamer, “history was written with blood and vengeance, and a man who entered politics knew that he might die…   Four days after Jack and Bobby met with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan, he was assassinated. In his diary Jack noted that ‘assassinations have taken a heavy toll of leaders in Middle and Far East,’ and then made a list of some of the murders. Jack tallied seventeen assassinations in the past four years alone. From Mahatma Gandhi in India to Folke Bernadotte in Palestine, murders..changed history the way few laws or mandates ever could.” [p288, The Kennedy Men]
NOTE: Israel Dostrovsky achieved a succession of appointments in his government’s atomic weapons program including chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) followed by the vice-presidency of the Weizmann Institute under Albert Sabin, creator of the oral (OPV) polio vaccine. Sabin was president of the Weizmann Institute over the course of 1971-1972 when the biology programs there were exploring the uses of SV40 monkey virus as a transgenic (mutation) agent. Dostrovsky succeeded Sabin as Weizmann president in 1972. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists published Dostrovsky’s article describing his water program –an evidently perfect cover for the activities at Dimona to which the Israelis acknowledged (‘desalination’), finally, to the Kennedy administration. “Water For Israel”, which includes ‘cheap water’ from cloud seeding and the total capture of Palestine’s water supply, is an instructive read:
At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents, real and fancied. After a short time [RFK] transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him… He loved what he was doing…” Nevertheless, Robert Kennedy answered the call to “come up and take over” JFK’s campaign for the Senate. ” ‘We couldn’t win relying on the Democratic political machine,’ Robert said later,’so we had to build our own machine.‘ ” [p94, Robert Kennedy and His Times, Schlesinger]
   The Democrats, nationally, were taking the hit for not merely tolerating but employing communist subversives at high levels of  government: “Harry Dexter White [‘a Russian spy!’] assistant secretary of the Treasury under Roosevelt [Morganthau] had died in 1948 while the House Un-American Activities Committee was searching his past for evidence of espionage. According to [Atty. Gen. Herbert] Brownell both Democratic presidents had appointed White..despite warnings from the FBI.” [p149, No Sacrifice Too Great]
    “National politics and national security are always to some extent interrelated, but in the years of the Truman presidency the relationship became problematic. Trust leeched out of the political system, loyalties waned, betrayal became common. Communism..achieved astonishing influence not in its own right, much less on its own behalf, but as an agent for poisoning American politics.” –Daniel Patrick Moynihan,
Machinery of other sorts were rolling onto the battleground. Colonel Boris Pash, formerly “Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast.. [who] spent much of his career hunting communists… considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy.”[p190, American Prometheus] After his ALSOS Europe mission and following attachment to MacArthur in Tokyo, Pash’s next assignment came “In March 1949.. detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination where he oversaw programs in West Germany for three years. Pash then ran special forces Austria from 1952-1953“…
   During this time, Pash organized a special operations unit for the CIA called PB7, said to be an assassination squad. Pash, years later before a congressional committee, denied it conducted assassinations.  Mr. Pash:It was not an assassination unit. In the first place..I was never an employee of the Agency. I was detailed from the Army for a normal tour of duty to the Agency..and then I was assigned and left for Austria in 1952 as Special Forces Unconventional Warfare Planning Officer. In 1954..[to] early ’56 I was in the Presidio of San Francisco as a deputy G-2 in charge of security..” Mr. Baron:“Let me ask you a particular question..brought to our attention by Artie Lazarus… He said that when he first joined you in PB7, you asked him to read the charter of PB7… [He] said it contained some specific language about PB7 being responsible for assassinations, kidnappings and other such functions as may be assigned by higher authority. Now do you recall that part of the charter of PB7?” Mr. Pash:I don’t recall that particular wording…It could have been there without my recalling it…” Mr. Baron: “..were you aware of any assassination plans or attempts?” Mr. Pash:No, I never heard that. There was a small incident..[with a] group of branch chiefs or something like that in Plans and Policy…a discussion with regard to denying the Soviets certain types of individuals…This woman gets out and says why don’t we murder them?…And that’s allMr. Baron: “But it would be your testimony never heard such a plan with such a request?” Mr. Pash: “..No, never….[In 1954] I said that the only time..assassination would be justified was if somebody could categorically state that if it was not done..the safety of the United States was at other words, if you don’t do it the United States is destroyed..and you have no other way to stop [it]..I think it’s all right…”
   Pash seemingly had good recall on when he thought assassination became “all right”. Throughout 1953 he was helping Lewis Strauss and J.Edgar Hoover construct a disloyalty case against Robert Oppenheimer, brought to an AEC tribunal in 1954. During the war, “On June 29,1943, ..Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer be denied a security clearance and fired.” [p233, American Prometheus]. He agitated against Oppenheimer to such an extent that he was given an overseas assignment –AlSOS.
As usual, the Education Forum members have interesting notes about Pash: “Pash’s subordinate, Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa for a number of years”….”Is that Pash [ marked ‘unknown man’ in the photo] standing next to LBJ at Parkland Hospital?”….”I found that Pash, postwar, maintained an office at Oak Ridge”….”There’s a Boris Pash/Sidney Gottlieb connection with the Health Alteration Committee”….etc.
    A further note on Pash to illustrate (and belabor) a previously mentioned point of using medical institutions to cover for weapons development occurred during ALSOS’s decisive 1944 push into the Nazis’ last holdouts. “The rumours.. [about a Nazi A-bomb] continued to circulate until November when the advancing Allied forces took Strasbourg. It was here that they believed a number of eminent physicists, including von Weizacker and Fleischmann, had been working on the bomb…Within hours, Pash and his ‘Strasbourg Task Force’ had located the university’s physics laboratory. It was in the wing of a local hospital and [the] physicists were found there posing as doctors.” [p109, Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds, by Peter Goodchild]
   In the United States, they did not merely “pose” as doctors but practiced.
Strauss’s assistant William T. Golden prepared this memo about Sloan-Kettering in 1950: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius “Dusty”] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants… He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.”
   At some future point on this blog, I hope to write up my thought experiments on the Peaceful Uses of Cancer as a complementary enterprise to the Peaceful Uses of the Atom. In this early ’50s window of time, however, it constitutes future-pacing a problem which was then manisfesting as poliomyelitis.
   The Health Physics field chartered itself in 1947 with the tasks of ”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys… studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains..eaten and metabolized by higher forms… Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods… [concluding that] Large scale biological work is mandatory”
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes [polio] myelitis:  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed…. Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure… When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.”
A Radiation effects source document used by military planners describes damage: “The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage.. has been well documented… [S]peculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system… …hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation… vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS… ….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation… “It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…” .
Some the of materials in the above are cited in the National Security Archives, a project of George Washington University
Listed in are additional entries such as these:
–“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H.. Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904. Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
–“Muller, H.J.. Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science 66:84-87.##”
–“Stern, S.. Report of thirty-one cases of therapeutic abortion induced by roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
Note the years: 1904, 1927, 1928
Hmm….fallout vaccine, anyone?
Stacking the Commission
By the end of Strauss’s [first] term, the other commissioners, many members of the AEC staff, and most scientists regarded him as a tough, obstinate, and tenacious opponent of the free exchange they desired. For these people, Strauss was the symbol of narrow realism; he, on the other hand, had identified J. Robert Oppenheimer as a symbol of those who, whether disloyal or merely naive, did not support the fight against Communism with full enthusiasm.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss stood One-to-Four against his fellow commissioners in the fall of 1949. They were not willing to endorse building H-bombs which were already being touted in the press as 1,000 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The GAC (General Advisory Committee), nine-member body of scientists that counseled the AEC of which Oppenheimer was its de facto spokesman, were nearly unanimous against the Super. Strauss allies, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarez, and Edward Teller, flew in to Washington and launched a counteroffensive of intense lobbying. No one had yet been officially told about the  atomic spy-ring in Los Alamos. According to Moynihan’s essay on ‘Secrecy’, Truman was never told about the Venona radio decrypts.
   “On Sunday, November 7, as the Strausses relaxed in their suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Senator McMahon [on the Joint Congressional Committee for Atomic Energy] telephoned..[and] brought the welcome news that Commissioner Gordon Dean, whom McMahon had placed on the AEC, had been converted into an advocate of the super. Now the AEC was divided three to two… On November 23, when the debate over the superbomb was at its height, the White House announced that Chairman Lilienthal planned to resign… Washington gossip identified Strauss as a possible replacement for Lilienthal.” [pp118-119, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss, too, had already planned to resign. “‘I don’t want you to resign,’ [Truman told Strauss] …[but] did not press Strauss to remain [rather] asked who the new chairman should be; Strauss endorsed Gordon Dean, the first to join him in favor of the super…” [p125, ibid.] Like Lilienthal’s promotion out of the AEC, acquired with the help of Albert Lasker, Strauss himself arranged for Chairman Dean to join Lehman Brothers on his exit (in 1953).
“[W]hen the  time came to seek a replacement for his own seat on the AEC, Strauss remembered  the 45-year old Case president. While some of the Democratic Congressmen involved in the search preferred the appointment of AEC General Counsel Joseph A. Volpe Jr., Strauss used his connections in the White House and the Pentagon to secure Glennan’s appointment…”
   T. Keith Glennan, later, NASA’s first chief, was recruited by Strauss. [Glennan interview:]”Needell: Tell me about Strauss… He’s a rather strong character, I understandGlennan: “Strong and strange… [I was] asked if I would permit my name to be considered for a post as a Commissoner of the AEC. I said, “You must be crazy. I don’t know the first thing about an atom. I don’t know about a reactor. I don’t know anything about nuclear energy…  [AEC used the] building originally built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It was the first one they were in, on Constitution Avenue, right next to the Federal Reserve Board… I got there in 1 October, 1950″…
   “Before Strauss left the AEC, he was offered a place on the Federal Reserve Board, which he turned down as too routine.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Brien McMahon arranged a post on the Atomic Plant Expansion panel and Laurance Rockefeller hired him to manage the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where he co-incorporated The Population Council. At the outbreak of the Korean War, a 3-billion-dollar appropriation was assigned to the AEC for development.
GLENNAN: “ was not a very collegial Commission at that time… I remember Tom Murray calling me names. Things of that kind… We searched for a man to replace [AEC General Manager] Carroll Wilson and finally came up with a Vice President of Esso [Exxon, or Standard Oil of New Jersey]– Marion Boyer– who worked out’s replacement… [The] general manager from then on took part in all of [the] executive sessions…  There was Sumner Pike and [Henry] Smythe and [Gordon] Dean and Tom MurrayEugene Zuckert replaced Sumner Pike…He came I think from the Air Force, Assistant Secretary to Symington over there…  We were concerned with increasing our ability to turn out the weapons grade materials… While I was there, we made the deal with South Africa to take the tailings from the gold cyaniding process, which ultimately provides a lot of uranium… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum.  NEEDELL: Did you meet regularly with people like Lawrence? GLENNAN: Yes. Lawrence saw to it that we did. He was an aggressive person… he came in and lobbied the Commission. He’d spend a lot of time alone with Gordon Dean… NEEDELL: You opposed the MTA. [Materials Testing Accelerator, heart of the Livermore Lab] GLENNAN: Yes, just on an engineering basis… The things we were short of were enrichment plants and raw materials and the rest of the fuel cycle. NEEDELL: Now, the MTA was going to be a production facility… you had to somehow meet the challenge of getting more production facilities. GLENNAN: Exactly… Teller wanted to do it and Lawrence wanted to do it. That was the argument…  I got along well with Ernest. With Teller.. not well. I found myself opposing him… and I finally said, “Balls, Edward–all you want is another chance to have some tests to improve the weapons… We got into arguments…  COLLINS: You indicated that one of your interests as a Commission member was somehow working out that government-industry relationship. GLENNAN:”..I finally reasoned that the people who were really doing the work were industry. The scientists had the General Advisory Committee…The public had the Congress, and industry got.. a lot of complaints. … If, as we all then believed, nuclear power was going to be useful and possible, they ought to be in on the ground floor with it… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum, for just this purpose, at a meeting of the Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, on 25 November, 1952. I proposed it in just the way I’ve been discussing it now, that industry really ought to get in with both feet and play a part in the development of a nuclear power industry, and not simply take what came out of the interests of scientists.
Atomic Industrial Forum: “The AIF was formally incorporated on April 10, 1953 in New York and marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. The first Executive Director of AIF was Charles Robbins… As a nonprofit trade association the AIF advocated the peaceful uses of atomic energy and increasing the role of the private sector in its development. Its first order of business was to advocate revising the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to allow and foster the commercial ownership of non weapons nuclear facilities, such as production of radioactive isotopes and nuclear power plants.”
“Mr. Robbins, who helped found the forum in the late 1940’s, was a former member of the national advertising staff of The New York Times and had been with Bozell & Jacobs, a New York advertising firm.”  [Bozell was a family affair; Leo Bozell Jr., Robbins nephew, married the sister of William F. Buckley];; “Robbins had been the managing editor of the Wall Street Journal and later the president of the Atomic Industrial Forum.”
William F. Buckley, “son..of a Texas oil millionaire..joined the Central Intelligence Agency [in 1951]” and became a writer and publisher. His second “book, coauthored with Bozell, was an unabashed attempt to defend a family friend: Joe McCarthy… In September 1960, Buckley, Douglas Caddy and Marvin Liebman established the far right group Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) [oppose] John F. Kennedy in the forthcoming presidential election.” (sumitted as an example of dot-connecting, typical of Lewis L. Strauss’s relationship hierarchy)
When Strauss, who like other retired commissioners was a consultant to the Joint Committee [the JCAE, with McMahon as chair] saw the report of the panel [General Advisory Committee]..chaired by Oppenheimer in December 1950, he concluded Oppenheimer was working against the United States.. [p131, No Sacrifice Too Great] Whether consciously or not, Oppenheimer was helping the Soviet Union… In the interest of national security, Strauss concluded, he must safeguard the AEC from Oppenheimer’s influence. Strauss started his campaign..[on] Fevruary 9, 1951…his purpose was clear: the AEC must get rid of Oppenheimer.” [132, ibid.]
Brien McMahon and Prescott Bush
James O’Brien McMahon, a Yale educated lawyer,  first came to Washington in 1933 as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General. He resigned Justice in 1939, but stayed in D.C. to practice law until persuaded by fellow Democrats to run for the Senate in 1944 from his home state of Connecticut. Known for his energy and eloquence, McMahon authored the compromise (to the May-Johnson) bill that granted civilian control over atomic weapons and power, adopted as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. “[A] real fight began..when it was suggested that McMahon head the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. It was unheard of to allow a freshman senator to chair a Congressional Committee….   In 1952 Brien McMahon decided to run for President of the United Stateshis main platform was to insure world peace through fear of atomic weapons. The campaign was cut short however when it was discovered in June 1952 that McMahon was terminally ill with cancer. On July 27, 1952, despite that he had withdrawn his candidacy and despite his inablity to attend the Democratic National Convention the delegates from the state of Connecticut unanimously nominated McMahon as their choice for President of the United States. The following morning Brien McMahon fell into a coma and died…” at the age of 48.
Had he lived, McMahon would have been John F. Kennedy’s most formidable Democratic presidential challenger.
“Shortly after” Prescott Bushwon a special Senate election in 1952 (which was called to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Brien McMahon)  …Prescott Bush was not known as a conservative Republican in Washington.”; Bush had been a Greenwich, Connecticut resident since joining W.A.Harriman &Co. in 1926 where he was made the international director of Harriman-controlled U.S. Rubber –along with Philips Electronics, a sponsor of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond, secret intelligence. (see part II).
   In 1928, the Harriman’s bought out Dresser Industries and “installed an old friend, H. Neil Mallon, at the helm.” [p24, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker] Two years after that, they merged with Brown Brothers. Prescott, “At Yale in 1916..had become close friends with his classmate Roland ‘Bunny’ Harriman…Both Harrimans, like Prescott Bush, were initiates of..Skull and Bones.” [p16, ibid.] ..”In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation [from Cleveland] to Dallas which..was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite. Though a virtual unknown on his arrival, Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the nonprofit Council on World Affairs…a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations…  Mallon’s Dallas Council..may have had some kind of sanction at the highest levels. [p29] Following Ike’s decisive victory..the administration was filled with Bush allies, including national security advisor Gordon Gray, a close friend of Prescott’s…” [p30, Family of Secrets] Prescott also pitched his first political campaign for the Senate in 1950 and lost, rejected by Connecticut voters. His appointment to McMahon’s office kept him from having to run again until 1956.
   The fact of Prescott Bush taking McMahon’s seat on the Joint Committee for Atomic Energy, whether or not he also took the power, is being/has been scrubbed off the record. According to Baker, “the extended Bush clan truly represented a kind of private-public business combine. For example, within months of Prescott being named to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, [George Herbert Walker Jr., Poppy’s uncle] formed a partnership to invest in commercial nuclear energy businesses.” [p33, Family of Secrets]
   Another of Poppy’s uncles, brother of G.H. and Dorothy Walker, Dr. John M. Walker, became the President of Sloan Kettering Institute in 1965 (to 1974). Ironically “Walker had a private practice [Greenwich, CT] until he was diagnosed with polio in 1950…he would eventually need a wheelchair.” The Walkers also lost a daughter to polio in 1955.
>>>The vast Harriman fortune, just as a reminder, resulted when “Jacob Schiff joined forces with Harriman to reorganize the Union Pacific” and takeover a number of other railroads.
>>>Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Elisha Walker, if not a close relative of George Herbert Walker, was still in business with him: both Walkers were directors of American International Corp. (est.1915) along with Otto Kahn, Percy Rockefeller, Pierre duPont,; Elisha Walker was also a joint owner of Julius Kayser and Co., later merged (c.1943) and owned by Kennedy campaign fundraiser Abraham Feinberg. (see stock certificate; is that Eugene Meyer listed as the first of five owners?)
Elisha Walker was chairman of Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32 and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32 [founder Amadeo Giannini]; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist at Memorial Hospital [Sloan Kettering], N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)”
Kennedy, in the meantime, was compelled to run the Massachusetts race against Eisenhower’s presidential campaign manager, the ‘very busy’ Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., winning by a 3% margin. “The Massachusetts representatives did tend to emphasize the plight of United Fruit…  the region ‘has made a specialty of Latin America’ and..’over 90% of New England’s foreign investment is in Latin America, a large part being..United Fruit Company… this investment was being threatened by the Communists…[and] Guatemala had developed into a ‘situation of great peril’… Thomas Dudley Cabot..had been..president [1948-49] of United Fruit and its registrar bank, the First National Bank of Boston…” [p117, The CIA in Guatemala, Richard H. Immerman]
>>>Thomas Dudley Cabot (1897-1995), CEO of Cabot Corporation 1922-1960 [chemicals, aerogels, drilling fluids]; worked for Truman’s State Department “in charge of a U.S. program arming allies throughout the world…In 1953, Cabot also served as a consultant on a special development mission in Egypt [coups in Egypt and Iran 1953]… Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.[was] also..a director of United Fruit.”
    With James Forrestal dead, Eisenhower’s Republican rival was Strauss’s old friend from “Hoover’s Relief” days, Robert A. Taft. “Strauss supported his friend Bob Taft..[whose] strong points were similar to Strauss’s…[except that Taft]..clung to an isolationism…more suited to the 1920s’..” [p136, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   As the 83rd Congress convened, Robert Taft led the Majority Republicans and Lyndon Johnson was elected to lead the Democrats. “In 1953, the convergence of unusual circumstances gave the Democrats the plurality of the Senate’s membership while the Senate Republicans maintained their majority party status.”– go figure.; Taft soon relinquished party leadership to California’s William Knowland.
 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was appointed by Eisenhower, on his third day in office, to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (held to Sep. 1960).
   “The day after the election, the Scripps-Howard newspapers interviewed McCarthy [R-Wis.] and were told that he planned ‘an entirely different role’ for himself..[p187, Senator Joe McCarthy, Richard Rovere] In what remained of the Truman years, McCarthy was nothing but an engine of denunciation… he denounced and accused and blamed and insulted and vilified and demeaned. He was a pure delight now..and the Republican organizations were in hot competition to have him come in with a load of documents on anyone who was giving them trouble.” [p179,ibid.] ..”They planned to take advantage of the atmosphere McCarthy had helped so greatly to create and at the same time to control McCarthy by directing his attention… I [Rovere] remember being told exactly this by Senator Taft early in January of 1953… Taft knew that McCarthy was dangerous..,” [p187, ibid.]..[but] felt he had engineered a brilliant coup by bottling McCarthy up in Government Operations, where he would spend his days studying reports…and by letting the furor over Communism expire under the deadening [mediocre] touch of Jenner and Velde. ‘We’ve got McCarthy where he can’t do ant harm,’ [Taft] said. He went on to say that..he himself had never thought that Communists represented half as serious a menace as the Left liberals and welfare-statists.” [p188, Senator Joe McCarthy]
   “Taft was a tall and large-framed man who posessed exceptional physical stamina and good health until April 1953. Family and colleagues were stunned when..a widespread and rapidly advancing cancer..claim[ed] his life by the end of July.”
   “Taft’s bottle for McCarthy had never been corked. McCarthy simply poured himself out.” [p190, Senator Joe McCarty]
   “On February 10, 1953, three weeks after Eisenhower entered office, AEC Chairman Dean submitted his resignation…shortly after Dean announced his resignation, John A. Wheeler, a physicist at Princeton [IAS], who was consultant to the AEC, lost a copy of a highly classified, extensively technical description of..thermonuclear weapons. Obviously, the AEC must tighten up security; who better than Strauss, with his reputation for protecting secrets, to do so. Senators Taft, Byrd, and Hickenlooper all urged Strauss to accept.” [p137, ibid.]
As soon as he took office, Eisenhower searched for some way to bring home the awful realities of the nuclear age to the American people… and in July, when he appointed Lewis Strauss to head the Atomic Energy Commission… on the day that Strauss was sworn in, Eisenhower took him into the Oval Office..and said: ‘Lewis, let us be certain about this; my chief concern and your first assignment is to find some new approach to the disarming of atomic energy… The world simply must not go on living in the fear of the terrible consequences of nuclear war.’…[In] August 1953, [Eisenhower] learned that the Russians had detonated their first hydrogen explosion…” [p111, Eisenhower and the Cold War, by Robert A. Divine]
>>>according to AEC liason Robert LeBaron, the Soviets detonated an H-bomb in 1950 or ’51, prior to the successful Teller-Ulam tests of 1951-52. Teller required the help of his Los Alamos assistant Frederick de Hoffman, later the founder of General Atomics (1957) and longtime president of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
Chairman of the AEC
Strauss brought a new style of management to the Atomic Energy Commission… he replaced the informal, rambling seminars of his predecessors Lilienthal and Dean with crisp, formal sessions designed to produce quick decisions rather than slowly evolving concensus. Forceful, determined, and impatient once he had made up his own mind, Strauss dragged the other commissioners along… Eisenhower’s defense policy rested on the deterrent power of the hydrogen bomb… aggression by threatening to strike the Soviet Union with overwhelming force… called ‘massive retaliation’ or the ‘New Look’…” [p144, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss’s style of management [dictated that] At each meeting Strauss announced what he planned to do, then addressed each commissioner in turn for comments. In this atmosphere, none of them dared oppose Strauss…”  [p175, ibid.]
Whoever mastered a thermonuclear explosion employing a dry isotope of hydrogen [instead of the super-cooled liquid] would have the first deliverable [H]bomb.” [p145, ibid.]
   The return of LLS to the AEC chair was the fulfillment of a three-year campaign: by February of 1951 “he warned [Gordon] Dean that the thermonuclear program was not moving quickly enough. He accused Oppenheimer of ‘sabotaging the project’ and added that ‘something radical’ must be done…[he] did not suggest what, but his purpose was clear.” [p132, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “The Greenhouse test [Marshall Islands, April and May 1951] proved the Teller-Ulam design would work, but considerable technical effort remained… Teller and Strauss hoped the AEC would establish a second laboratory [the Livermore, CA lab] to further work on fusion..[and] remove the hydrogen bomb from Los Alamos where they believed Oppenheimer exercised excessive influence… Among the many influential men who thought so were Strauss, Teller, AEC Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, GAC [advisory panel] member Willard F. Libby and Berkeley Dean Kenneth S. Pitzer. All but Strauss voiced their suspicion of the FBI..” [p133, ibid.]
   The October tests of 1952, Operation Ivy’s ‘Mike’ shot, “Three years plus a month after Strauss first called for a hydrogen bomb, [‘Mike’] transformed the atoll of Elugelab in the Eniwetok chain into a coral crater” by aerosolizing 100 million tons of soil and water. Biographer Pfau wrote, “the process obviously worked… By this time, only five [of nine] members of the GAC that had followed 1949 remained… his two closest..allies, Lee A. DuBridge and James Conant..stepped down… the other two veterans –Isidor I. Rabi and Oliver E. Buckley– backed away from Oppenheimer’s become at least lukewarm supporters of the fusion weapon.” [p134, ibid.]
>>>Buckley was the president (1940-1951) of Bell Laboratories. Isidor Rabi was later sent to Israel’s Dimona plant as a U.S. inspector.
    The significance of the Oppenheimer case, and the way in which Strauss handled it, is an indispensable display of method prior to the JFK assassination. Oppenheimer was proposing in essence the policy of flexible response eventually recommended to, and adopted by Kennedy.  “Strauss would use every resource he could mobilize to win the case.” [p160, No Sacrifice Too Great] and having an appropriate Commander-in-Chief on his side was required.
   “Taft’s opponent was General Dwight D. Eisenhower..[and] the contest was very close, but Eisenhower won..[helped] especially by a group from Texas that Taft was accused of stealing. The contested delegations helped put Eisenhower over the top…” [p136, ibid.]. It was also the refusal of the presidentially ambitious Earl Warren of California, who lost early in the convention polls, to cede his supporters to Robert Taft.
   Eisenhower assumed office, AEC Chairman Dean resigned, John Wheeler lost his H-bomb manual, and Strauss “quietly took control of atomic policy.” [p138, No Sacrifice Too Great] “On March 30, 1953, he presented a set of recommendations to the National Security Council.. [in] the context of the president’s desire to reduce the size of the federal budget [with] proposed savings of half a billion dollars in the atomic energy program by paring away nonessential spending… [He] pointed out that the stockpile of nuclear weapons..[had] potential for great benefit… [T]he fissionable material in the bombs could be converted into fuel for reactors. So, it was a good policy to continue the manufacture of weapons… Strauss recommended major reductions in spending in three areas: the cost of security, to be achieved by declassifying as much data as possible; the cost of weapons tests…and the cancellation of $200 million allocated for a reactor to aircraft carrier. The National Security Council and the president approved all of Strauss’s recommendations. By canceling the large ship reactor..he left [Adm. Hyman] Rickover angry.” [p149, ibid.]
   “Eisenhower nominated Strauss [to the AEC chair]..on June 24..and three days later the full Senate confirmed him without a ripple of dissent. On July 2, surrounded by family and friends in the president’s office, Strauss took the oath of office again. [p141] Strauss had marked the Bible on which he took the oath at a well-known passage… Micah 4:3,And He shall judge between many peoples and shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” [p142]
   “There was a poignant note to the ceremony: Bob Taft was making his last visit to the White House where he had lived as a boy and where he hoped to live as a man… Three separate medical examinations [at Walter Reed, NYU, and Sloan Kettering] confirmed..a fast growing cancer had reached its final stage, but he insisted on attending..limping painfully on crutches. Taft died within the month.” [pp143-144, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Strauss wrote: “Only a few weeks earlier, I had sat with him at his home in Georgetown, where, behind closed doors..I brought him a final and terrible verdict from Dr. Cornelius Rhoads of Memorial Hospital in New York. It was the diagnosis that multiple metastases of a cancer would take his life… After a long silence, he asked if there was anything to be done… I told him..odds were very long against..his case.” [p335, Men and Decisions]
Had he lived, Robert Taft would have challenged Eisenhower’s second term.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and Strauss claimed to have first met each other in the course of picking Japanese targets in mid- 1945.  About this same time, LLS replaced Lessing J. Rosenwald on the Board of Trustees of Princeton IAS, “and when Frank Aydelotte prepared to retire as director, Strauss headed the committee to select his replacement.” [p92, No Sacrifice Too Great] “At first, Strauss and Oppenheimer appeared to get along well..[p93]” but soon “fought over atomic policy, at first secretly and then openly beginning in the summer of 1947. One issue was atomic power. Whereas many people expected atomic energy to lead mankind into a golden age of cheap, plentiful electricity, Oppenheimer..sought to quell such unrealistic hopes…and warned that nuclear power would not provide ‘any considerable portion’ of the world’s electricity for [at least] twenty years.” [p99, ibid.]
On his return to the AEC, “Strauss attached only one condition to his acceptance, he told [Eisenhower]: Oppenheimer could not be ‘connected in any way’ with the AEC.” [p139, No Sacrifice Too Great] “In June of 1953 McCarthy was considering an attack on Oppenheimer. As soon as Strauss learned [of it] he wrote Senator Taft that it would be ‘ill-advised and impolitic’ for McCarthy to proceed. His reasons..were that ‘some of the so-called evidence will not stand up…and the present is not the time.’ FBI Director Hoover and Vice-President..Nixon also helped turn McCarthy away from Oppenheimer…” [p140, ibid.] …”While Strauss..looked for proof of Oppenheimer’s disloyalty, he sponsored an increase in Oppenheimer’s salary...[which] may have been designed to keep Oppenheimer from recognizing the depth of Strauss’s hostility toward him.” [p148, ibid.]
   Oppenheimer was less than right this time on the power issue –it took longer. Even though a commercial plant was opened in Shippingport, PA in 1955, the US taxpayers footed its operations for years while it served as a model for attracting private operators to nuclear power generation. The Shippingport operators sold the electricity and kept the earnings.
   On July 7, 1953, five days after his swearing-in, Strauss “acted quickly to cut off Oppenheimer’s access to the AEC’s secrets… [He] ordered the AEC Security Division to phase out the classified library that Oppenheimer maintained [at Princeton’s IAS] and replace it with a new facility under the commission’s direct charge..and control..” [p145, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss also wrote to the FBI and requested a reinvigoration of the atomic dual-agent program: memos from August indicate that “if the Director felt it advisable, Strauss..had certain programs in mind which would incidentally, if put into effect, require additional appropriation for the FBI.” Director Hoover politely responded to Strauss of the necessity for the AEC to get its own house in order. These were the last memos made available until 1964; the very last memo concerning the fate of the whole dual-agent correspondence.
William T. Golden
    Golden, who was “assistant to Admiral Strauss exclusivelyI was the only assistant; the other commisioners didn’t have assistants“, gave an oral history in 1989 [at age 80] on his recollections: [Question:] “Was Oppenheimer under a cloud yet in 1950?” [Golden:] “No, but yes. Oppenheimer had always been suspectBut Groves used Oppenheimer very effectively. They were a marvelous team…but at any rate, no charges had been the time…” [Question:] Oppenheimer was not in favor of a “new OSRD” [Strauss’s Office of Naval Research]…apparently..very much in favor of a strong grants program in the NSF [National Science Foundation].. [Golden:] Yes… [Question:] You submitted a memorandum to Robert Lovett [Brown Brothers Harriman] Deputy Secretary of Defense about the Research and Development Board…and you recommended George Merck as a new chairman of the RDB and the one to reorganize it… [Golden affirms:]..gradually the feeling has become one of increasing recognition of peaceful uses of atomic energy..and that atomic weapons should never be used again… [Question:] Right. Nuclear energy for electrical power… [Golden:] ..there had been..great enthusiasm for that, and especially for the breeder reactors… It was looked on as a wonderful development for society. And there was not much worry given to the..dangers, and how to avoid them. [Question:] Nuclear waste was not an issue? [Golden]..not a big issue…it was not regarded as the big problem that it has in fact become.”
   Early on, Golden had been a Wall Street securities analyst for ten years before induction into the Navy in 1941. He was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and given the rank of Lt. Commander, the same rank as Strauss — virtually shadowing Strauss on his way up the ladder. Golden was another, along with Robert Taft and Arthur Krock, to give Strauss first council on accepting Truman’s offer of AEC commissioner [in July 1946]. Golden remembered,”I couldn’t think of anything more exciting than the AEC.” He remained Strauss’s shadow with special assignments, returning with him to the AEC “part time”, he said, through 1958.
   There is at least one easy-to-find (lawsuit) record of Golden’s business dealings (1953-54) helpful to Abraham Feinberg and Israel: a stock sale that enabled Feinberg to fold his textile holdings into the larger company which he controlled, Julius Kayser & Co. The transfer brought more centralized control of a base of manufacturing plants in Greensboro, North Carolina; by happenstance a base for the Smith Richardson Foundation– connected to the American Security Council (see part II)– alleged to have trained private paramilitary for sensitive National Security ops . Golden and others in the sale “were directors of..Kayser” who then “resigned as directors” so that Feinberg and friends could be “elected as directors.”
Abraham Feinberg
   Feinberg and his associates were already well known and heavily documented by FBI counterintelligence as smugglers of arms and people. At least 70 people in Los Angeles were in the files.  “Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States… [and] more undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy… Ben-Gurion noted in his diary [in 1958] a conversation ‘he had with Abraham Feinberg’ raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among ‘benedictors’ in the United States… [Feinberg’s] close associate, David Wahl,..among other Feinberg associates, was a longtime undercover Soviet agent (beginning in the 1930s…)”
   Feinberg had initially sought his political influence through Robert Hannegan, FDR’s Commissioner of Internal Revenue, “responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelt’s running mate in 1944.” Hannegan by then was the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee.  Feinberg said, “I realized that it became important for me to know the people around Truman..[e.g.] David Niles… Through him I became friendly with Matt Connelly…  Eddie Jacobson..of the B’nai B’rith.. [who] had been a partner of Truman and a very close friend…  [Jews] around the country..understood that without Truman, Israel would have had very difficult even come into existence… He often said, ‘If not for my friend Abe, I couldn’t have..been elected.’; In 1960 Feinberg founded AIPAC and funded JFK: “I think [Truman] was a better statesman than Kennedy, although you can’t tell because Kennedy had no chance.
By 1953, the scientific team at the Weizmann Institute had developed the improved..mechanism for producing heavy water and a more efficient method for mining uranium. Both concepts were sold to the French..[which] led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research that was signed by the two nations…  Goldschmidt [the Rothschild family plutonium expert] was serving as director of chemistry for France’s Atomic Energy Commission… [p31, The Samson Option] Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam ‘at will’...  [Goldschmidt explained:] ‘We weren’t really helping them [the Israelis]…We were just letting them know what we knew –without knowing where it would lead’… Bergmann had made the..point..’It’s very important to understand that by developing atomic energy energy for peaceful uses, you reach the nuclear option. There are no two atomic energies. [p.26, ibid.] …The intellectual spokesman for the French nuclear program..Pierre Gallois..[said it] came down to this: ‘When two nations are armed with nuclear weapons, even if they are unequally armed, the status quo is unavoidable.’ Gallois was taken very seriously by the Israelis.” [p.40, The Samson Option]
The U-2
Eisenhower came into the presidency in 1953 concerned about the lack of aerial intelligence..and ordered the CIA to do something about it. A Photographic Intelligence Division was promptly set up… Eisenhower’s next major step was to authorize a daring reconnaissance program –primarily targeted at the Soviet Union– and assign the development of [a] revolutionary airplane..jointly to the CIA and the Air Force..[to be] built under cover by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Burbank California, and known as the U-2.” [p.47, The Samson Option]
   When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada (Jan.1951), Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He [Land] knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…”  For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak, in which Strauss not only owned stock but matched to the inventors of Kodachrome, became a significant  collaborator in the U-2; the laboratory that Kuhn Loeb partners Strauss & Wiseman urged George Eastman to provide for Kodachrome development in 1922 may have been the actual premises of Kodak’s Hawkeye Works, the CIA’s photo analysis branch. A proprietary interest is clear. Kodak and Polaroid held each others’ stock.
   [From part I:] …”Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates… In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making..the first 16mm movie camera.” Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.”
   “George Eastman [d.1932, by suicide] funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” ” Flexner then founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study in 1930…and “[Rochester became the] headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides [isotopes] and fluorine.” Among those experiments at Rochester were outdoor night-time hijinks by scientists spraying radioactive liquids around the school and medical campuses.
Fallout and Weather
   Albert Lasker died of stomach cancer in 1952, but his widow Mary carried on the couple’s special interests. This included sponsorhip of Israel’s cloud seeding program, evident in at least 3 boxes of Mary Lasker’s papers at Columbia showing multi-party correspondence from 1953 to 1958.
   A point about weather control from 1952 to 1955 is that many countries, eventually numbering around 50 or so, started cloud seeding operations:
   Due to the British program called ‘Cumulus’, “one of the worst flash floods ever to have occurred in Britain” devastated the town of Lynmouth on August 15, 1952. The discovery of a cloud seeding cause emerged from documents uncovered in a BBC investigation showing that Cumulus ran operations from 1949 to 1955 before it too [the program] disappeared. The UK government denied seeding clouds before 1955. ”The documents also talk of rainmaking having a potential ‘to explode an atomic weapon in a seeded storm system or cloud. This would produce a far wider area of radioactive contamination than in a normal atomic explosion.”
>>>The U.S. program was called ‘Cirrus’ and officially canceled in 1953 although records of ongoing work extend through 1957.
    Rockets and missiles, as they came available, were tools of the trade in cloud seeding– so imagine them carrying small nuclear warheads or clad explosives. Could they be distinguished from lightning and thunder inside a storm? How likely is it that no country ever tested this method of radiological warfare when it stands as a ‘white paper’ by the British? The U.S. and U.K. were staging joint atomic operations from 1952 onwards.
    My first conventional view of radioactive rain, measured widely in the U.S. in 1953, was that cloud seeding reduced detectable atmospheric radiation and hid the extent of  U.S. testing from other countries, though it’s certainly possible that large tests were actually masking localized weather war. Princeton IAS was running a cutting edge weather program during this time with the help of John von Neumann’s supercomputer; Strauss was the IAS chairman and Von Neumann later became an AEC commissioner. Ernest Lawrence, Strauss’s greatest ally for building the Super, was also the loudest proponent among scientists for radiological war.
U.S. cloud seeding technologies were evolved by high-explosive experts.
In June 1946..before Oppenheimer’s arrival at the Institute [IAS], Johnny von Neumann had begun to build a high-speed computer in the boiler room basement of Fuld Hall. Nothing so practical had ever existed [there, or] so expensive. The trustees initially gave von Neumann $100,000…And then, in a rare departure from Institute policy he was allowed to obtain additional funding from the Radio Corporation of America… Oppenheimer and von Neumann formally unveiled the Institute computer in June 1952. At the time it was the fastest electronic brain in the world…” [p376, American Prometheus]…”Von Neumann was unusual…And, like Edward Teller, he was rabidly anti-Soviet. One night at a party..discussion of the..Cold War..von Neumann said quite matter-of-factly that it was obvious: The United States should launch a preventive war and annihilate the Soviet Union… [Von Neumann]wrote to Lewis Strauss in 1951..’the USA-USSR conflict..will very probably lead to an armed ‘total’ collision and maximum rate of armament is therefore imperative.’ [p378, ibid.]
Oppenheimer’s Tribunal
By September of 1953, after the dual-agent FBI/AEC memos fizzle, Strauss initiated the FBI’s active surveillance of Oppenheimer–he was followed, bugged and wiretapped, and by December, the bugs extended to his home and lawyers’ offices. “Strauss elevated his scheme to end Oppenheimer’s influence… He told the AEC’s..counsel..that ‘if this case is lost, the atomic energy program..will fall into the hands of left-wingers… it will mean another Pearl Harbor… if Oppenheimer is cleared, then ‘anyone’ can be cleared…” [p.491, American Prometheus] “Strauss [then] turned his attention to selecting the judges. He needed three men…[and] settled on Gordon Gray to chair the board. Gray was..president of the University of North Carolina..whose family money came from the R.J.R. Tobacco Company…[he was also a close friend of Prescott Bush]… Strauss [next] selected..Thomas Morgan, chairman of the Sperry Corporation… For the third member, Strauss chose..Dr. Ward Evans, whose..qualifications his unblemished record of voting to deny clearances on previous AEC hearing boards… From Strauss’s point of view, they were the perfect empty vessels.” [p.492, ibid.]
   Before the proceedings against Oppenheimer were to begin in April, the AEC had scheduled a  major thermonuclear test series in the Marshall Islands –Operation Castle– six high-yield H-bombs tested with the intention of seeking “radsafe” levels of exposure.
At 6:45 on the morning of 1 March 1954, eight years after the testing in the Marshall Islands began, the US detonated a bomb codenamed ‘Bravo’ on the island of Bikini..equivalent to 17 megatons of TNT, 1,300 times the destructive force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima… That morning the wind was blowing in the direction of two inhabited atolls, Rongelap and Utrik, roughly 100 and 300 miles from Bikini. During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin] “Bravo was an unecessarily dirty bomb– it delivered huge quantities of fallout… it detonated low off the ground and the fireball scooped up..Bikini’s coral reef…”[p.59, ibid.] “[D]octors on the ground didn’t even keep records… When the Rongelapese were taken to Kwajalein their urine samples were analyzed only as a pool sample instead of individually…The Atomic Energy Commission averaged the values of radionuclides found in land, fish, and fruits..thus concealing the expected effect individual…[p54]

   “Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said]‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’ [p61, Day of Two Suns]
   “[A] magistrate on Rongelap..tells what happened… ‘The next day..we noticed the water turned to yellow. I warned the people not to drink from..water catchments, and told them to drink only [coconut milk]. The people began to get sick with vomiting, aches all over..and fatigue…’ [p25] It was two days before the Navy arrived to pick up the Rongelap islanders and US personnel– two days in which they breathed, slept and ate the fallout. [p26] ‘After two fingernails came off and my fingers bled. We all had burns..and our hair began to fall out’..[p27, ibid.]
   Strauss was there— Castle was the only test series he was known to attend. The next day, “March 2, 1954, [Oppenheimer lawyers] Garrison and Marks themselves appeared in Strauss’ office and confirmed that Oppenheimer was willing to accept [submitting his resignation]… Strauss, confident of victory, dismissed ‘out of the question’.” [p.496, American Prometheus]. According to Strauss’s own memoir, he was still in the Pacific: “On my return from Eniwetok on March 29, 1954, I reported to President Eisenhower on the Castle..series. The President had been greatly concerned over the reports of..fall-out..on the atolls of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Uterik and on a Japanese fishing vessel… The next morning..the President..asked me to tell the press substantially what I reported to him… The shot was fired, the wind failed to follow the predictions, shifting south..and the little islands..were in the path of the fall-out.” [pp410-411, Men and Decisions]
>>>Operation Castle lasted from March 1  to May 14: two shots in each of the three months (6 shots)
The Polio Shots
one shot in each of the three months (three shots)
Small-scale human testing of the new Salk “inactivated” polio vaccine (IPV) began in 1953, overlapping Dr. Hammon’s G.G. program in Iowa and Texas. Author Jane S. Smith wrote that “during the summer of 1953..the mass distribution of gamma globulin [G.G.] became a rehearsal for the polio vaccine field trials expected for the following year. [The NTS was running Operation Upshot-Knothole from March to June of 1953, all kiloton range]. The National Foundation [for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP, or ‘March of Dimes’] had developed valuable experience in mass purchasing and distribution, the public had been introduced to the idea that you cured polio by lining up for injections at schools or other public areas, and the administrators of the Public Health Service had realized that they had to step in or let [the NFIP] effect, a shadow network of health services.” [p.250, Patenting the Sun] “Tom Rivers..put it squarely; ‘The Public Health Service would eventually have to license the vaccine,’ he said, ‘and nobody in the Public Health Service knew anything about polio… we had an awful time teaching them about polio.’ ” [p.251, ibid.] “In November [1953], Basil O’Connor..announced that the trial would begin no later than the first week in February [1954]. By February they were hoping for early March.” [p.253] “…the journalistic blitz was on. The New York Times Magazine had featured Salk in January… Life..made the vaccine its cover story on February 22. Time featured..Salk surrounded by..crutches, leg braces and syringes on the cover of its March 29 issue… Better Homes and Gardens, victim of an early deadline..featured a story in its March though the trial had actually started in February, complete with fabricated quotations from children... [p255, ibid] …By this time, the start of the field trial had been postponed yet again, to April 26.” [p.258, Patenting the Sun] The vaccine trial, postponed even further, did not begin until late May. The Castle tests ended on May 14.
>>>Thomas Milton Rivers, “Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute” spent his entire adult life working for the Rockefellers. “Between 1922 and 1955, Rivers molded Rockefeller into the preeminent laboratory for research on viruses“. In 1945 he was assigned to oversee the Atomic Bomb Casulaty Commission. There is no indication that oversight of the ABCC (or its successor) was temporary: “studies..suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years.”  Rivers’ work for the Salk vaccine trial put him in close contact with the man who ran the program, Dr. Thomas Francis. Dr. Francis, who was Jonas Salk’s mentor and Rockefeller Hospital alumnus, was hired to reorganize the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after completion of the polio vaccine trials in April of 1955. The ABCC project became the “Lifespan Study” of Japan’s atomic survivors who lived past 1950 and had no leukemia (solid tumors only). Following that, Francis undertook “large population surveys” gathering health data from his base at the University of Michigan, just as the Health Physics mandate recommended. The Ford Foundation built him a “peaceful uses” nuclear reactor in 1957: “The reactor operated from September 1957 until July 3, 2003
So, the Salk polio vaccine trials were supposed to be timed for coordination with Operation Castle (March to May of 1954) –as the Provo G.G. trials coordinated with Nevada’s Buster-Jangle (Oct-Nov 1951)– but, perhaps the exceptionally dirty Bravo test caused the delay and put fear into the designers, since no amount of additional time was going to improve the vaccine.
   “What had made the bomb so dirty? The answer was discovered by K. Kimura, one of the Japanese scientists who analyzed the fallout on the Lucky Dragon’s deck. In this debris from the bomb he found a substantial amount of a rare isotope of uranium –uranium 237. It happened that Dr. Kimura himself was the original discoverer of this isotope; he had created it in the laboratory 14 years before [as].. a product of the bombardment of the common uranium isotope 238 by neutrons… The bomb must have had a thick blanket of uranium 238 surrounding its fission-fusion core; fast neutrons from the fusion reactions fissioned the U-238 blanket and thus multiplied the force of the bomb –and also the output of fission products. In short the weapon builders had found a way to use the neutrons that would otherwise have gone to waste: they had made a fission-fusion-fission bomb in which common uranium 238 was added to the fuel… One can immediately see a great gain in economy over the ‘primitive’ Hiroshima bomb. To produce a 20 megaton explosion with only the original fuel, uranium 235, would require 11,000 pounds..of this rare isotope, separated so laboriously from U-238, and cost about a hundred million dollars. Using U-238 as fuel, however, we can get our 20 megatons at the bargain-basement price of a quarter of a million dollars. (The same size of explosion with TNT would cost ten billion dollars!)
The Salk IPV trials, which took place across the U.S., Canada, and Helsinki Finland, dodged a major bullet by waiting. (The city of Helsinki still thinks of itself as the former “spy capital of the world”).  With less tweaking than was probably anticipated, the delayed trial data proved a success. Controversial as the subject must be, the radiation vaccine got the go-ahead and postponed its reckoning to the next year during 1955’s Operation Teapot –Nevada’s first full-scale thermonuclear series. In areas where fallout was intensified by weather, post-vaccine polio increased as much as 700% from the previous year –oops– blamed on faulty vaccine preparation.
Private Ownership of nuclear fuels and energy facilities was amended to the atomic charter in August of 1954: “the Commission may issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, import, or ex-port under the terms of an agreement for cooperation..” Strauss continued to exert expanded authority over this trade in his one-year pro-tem office as Secretary of Commerce (June 1958-June 1959)
Oasis in Israel
   Before 1954 was through, Strauss proposed his diplomatic agenda as the spokesman of Atoms-for-Peace: “he recommended a solution for the Arab-Israeli dilemma built around the use of atomic power to operate desalinization plants along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. All Countries in the Middle East could share the fresh water..[and] replace tension with amity. By this time, Strauss..supported the nation of Israel.” [p.223, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss and Eisenhower called it The Oasis Plan. Of course, Strauss always supported Israel– the Zionist v. non-Zionist debate among Jews in the U.S. was based primarily on U.S. immigration policy, a holdover from the WWI era when non-Zionists, like Jacob Schiff, sought restraint from incoming Russian Jews.  U.S. Zionists favored unrestricted immigration.  By WWII, and in Palestine particularly, the situation reversed; Zionists, like Weizmann, wanted tight immigration controls and non-Zionists, like Feinberg, wanted free entry.
The first Soviet two-stage hydrogen bomb was successfully tested in 1955… The first U-2 flights [1956] over the Soviet Union provided dramatic evidence that the Soviets were not nearly as advanced in conventional arms as the Pentagon assumed. There was no “bomber gap” or “missile gap”… The administration’s truth-teller continued to be the U-2, whose pilots, including Gary Francis Powers, later to be shot down, were usually assigned to overfly the Soviet Union. But there were other standing U-2 targets in sensitive areas…and that description fit the Middle East in 1958… Gary Powers and his colleagues, who had continued intermittently to overfly the Middle East, were now steadily back at work in the area. The CIA’s photo interpreters were suddenly seeing a lot of activity at an Israeli Air Force..range south of Beersheba…” [pp.50-51, The Samson Option]
   “The U-2 went operational from a secret base in West Germany on July 4, 1956… It was a spectacular asset… [p.48, ibid]… Among the inevitable by-products of the [nuclear] manufacturing process are radioactive gases which are vented into the atmosphere. The analysts of the early U-2 photography learned to look for..distinctive chimneys…” [p.52, The Samson Option] The U-2 planes also carried particle filters mounted in air scoops as earlier detection flights had done.  By the time Dimona started taking shape (1957-58), “the U-2 continued to overfly the Negev. Lundahl [chief of photo analysis] also relayed the findings on Dimona to Lewis L. Strauss..who [was]..cleared for U-2 intelligence.” [p.54, ibid.]
[apologetics from Seymour Hersh:]
Strauss certainly knew as much about Dimona as as anybody in the intelligence community… There is no evidence, however, that he raised questions about the Israeli weapons progam while in government; nor was he known to have ever discussed Dimona after leaving office. Strauss chose not to talk..because, as a Jew with deep feelings about the Holocaust, he approved of it… He was insistent on continued nuclear testing… At the same time, he championed Atoms for Peace..[on] the assumption, which turned out to be dreadfully wrong, ..that smaller nations once supplied with.. a nuclear power plant, would have no incentive or desire to develop nuclear weapons… Strauss’s activities on behalf of a Jewish homeland apparently were not known… At some point in his AEC career [believed to be the 1955 Geneva meeting on the Peaceful Uses of the Atom] Strauss met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann…Neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis..knew that the two had met [but].. in the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get a visiting fellow at the..Institute for Advanced Study… rules were bent for Strauss. [The IAS’s new director at the time said] ‘It became clear that [Bergmann] and Strauss were close, and also clear that he was working on [the Israeli nuclear] weapons program.’ …Strauss..did not tell anyone..about Dimona. Fair or not, the issue of ‘dual loyalty’ –exemplified by Strauss’s actions– has been a very real concern…”
   Hersh’s writing career, as noted in the JFK Conspiracy Con, was underwritten by Julius Rosenwald’s grandson, Philip Stern, from a family centrally tied to the creation of Lee Harvey Oswald’s “legend” and secretly invested in nuclear technology.  It is the Sterns’s business partner, Zalman Shapiro, who appears as the object of Hersh’s exoneration in the The Samson Option, and yet it’s Strauss’s legend that gets the most fortification from Hersh. “Holocaust guilt”, or guilt of any kind, is a wash. Strauss exuded neo-Maccabean pride, built agencies in service to it, and regretted only that he could not do more– an expression easily twisted into holocaust guilt. Without a Holocaust there would have been no Bomb.
    The problem is not ‘dual loyalty’ but loyalty to the mental poison of duality and absolutism.  Hersh and others, continually hiding Strauss’s early medical background in Rothschild employ and his lifelong association to biological warfare, dissemble on the real nature of the game –the self-canceling schism of rival degeneracy. Very gnostic and very “Protocols”. The exceptionalism in it, and the place where Strauss assumed his power and profit, was in the middle of it all where the ends are bent to form an apex –the node of dialectical form: summit of a pyramid.
…to be continued: epilogue, story timeline and JFK assassination events…

January 23, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, part II

The second installment of this piece is aimed to faithfully carry on the rough chronology of part I –all of it being supplemental to the JFK Conspiracy Con which posits nuclear trafficking, legal and not, on top of the list of motives for Kennedy’s assassination. It’s well-known that by the middle of his term, Kennedy was expressing persistent concern over the dangers of radioactive fallout. That fact alone made his “natural enemy” the former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Lewis Strauss, the No.1 nuclear dissembler, who dismissed the fallout hazard as no more dangerous than sunshine and less threatening than an X-ray. Strauss’s friend and ally physicist Edward Teller famously attempted to inform JFK in 1961 that radiation is healthful (and was rebuffed). It’s also possible that Kennedy sons, John Jr. and Patrick, were afflicted with radiation-induced disease and the parents became aware of it. In addition, it’s my personal operating belief that JFK was chosen as early as 1952 for the inevitable nuclear showdown-to-come, as long as the candidate didn’t self-destruct. He seemed always on the verge– Phil Graham of the Washington Post said during the 1960 campaign, when consulted on a choice of vice-president, that whomever Jack Kennedy took for a running mate would soon be President.

                    Eugene Meyer, owner Washington Post, P.G.’s father-in-law (d.1959)

Phil Graham killed himself with a shotgun on August 3, 1963.

*                                                                                  Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1895-1974)

The contributions to JFK assassination research about the participant groups, either with foreknowledge or working relationships, point to common threads in the nuclear industry; what we must think of as a gateway to more advanced technologies coming from the same contractor pool (General Dynamics under the ownership of Henry Crown is a good example) and their corporate heirs. By 1960, as Hans Bethe claimed, the weaponolgy of H-bombs had reached its peak. There wasn’t much more to be done developmentally to improve on bombs for military use. Even Teller left his statement that bombs over 10 megatons (10 million tons of TNT force) lost their excess energy to space. Tests of these behemoths, done through the 1950s and onward, amounted to mass terror and biological warfare in the hands of what Pierre Curie called “the great criminals” (Nobel Prize speech of 1903). Ernest Rutherford added a rejoinder in 1904: his wish to have nuclear experimentation postponed to some enlightened future time (in other words, probably never). Rutherford was an obstacle. Both men died prematurely from radiation-related disease.

Lewis Strauss remained a stalwart for testing to the very end. In 1964 he was back on Capitol Hill stumping for a reversal of the Limited Test Ban, working the dialectic, publishing articles and assembling pressure groups. He had been making public claims about fallout-free weapons since 1954, ironically when the levels of radioactivity began skyrocketing. As his biographer Richard Pfau noted, “more than any other individual, Lewis Strauss shaped the atomic energy policy of the United States…[p219]…It would not be exaggeration to call Strauss the father of the nuclear power industry…  Strauss’s position on weapons tests had been consistent.”[p220, No Sacrifice Too Great] Consistency, fortunately, has been good currency in this case, rewarding the investigation with solid information, sense and plausibility when there was little to go on. Unfortunately, the ramifications are dire: radiological warfare on ourselves, and presently getting worse. Dr. Rosalie Bertell called it our “death crisis”. Lewis Strauss had something to say about death “four months before [dying]..Strauss wrote ..[that] good and evil struggled incessantly, and..everyone was ‘enjoined to choose between good and evil, between life and death’ ” [p252, No Sacrifice Too Great]  For his  part, Strauss was autocratically consistent in his righteousness. His wife told the biographer “in a rare written comment, Strauss had developed an emotional attachment to the power he wielded over policy.” [p216, ibid.] In effect, it was obvious from the time that his activities became a matter of public record during World War II. Strauss thought of his war duty as “public service” and called his Pentagon period under Forrestal “these days of grace.” He not only lobbied for the Office of Naval Research, he shaped its operations and recruited staff. “The ONR proceeded to work out a program by which contracts were made with universities for basic research… Men who had vowed..[to] never do any work after the war for either Armed Service found themselves doing so” [p148, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962]

Wartime extended Strauss’s influence further to leadership at Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study [IAS] and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research [SKI]. He became a lifetime trustee of the American Cancer Society under Lasker control. He was still an active leader of Kuhn Loeb &Co., a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and its subsidiary-like Business Advisory Committee, an executive of the American Jewish Committee and “the Jews’ War President”. The next step for Strauss on the Atomic Energy Commission forbade him by law to engage in “any other business” –he was required to resign his partnership in Kuhn Loeb– to which he readily acceded. The initial contentiousness that flourished on the original Commission chaired by David Lilienthal evaporated under the chairmanship of Lewis Strauss:  “Strauss was to have unlimited power… there would be lavish funds and inordinate publicity…  great gifts Strauss was able to channel to his friends after he remade the Atomic Energy Commission in 1953-54.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, by Nuel Pharr Davis, 1968]

On his comeback as AEC Chairman in 1953, Strauss also began to forge a relationship on-the-record with J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. The men planned to cultivate special secret agents paid by the FBI but answerable to the AEC chairman. Since 1947 occasional high-profile security breaches had threatened the civilian AEC with military intervention. Little had changed with respect to missing materials. The new approach with joint FBI/AEC agents to spy on operations as embedded employees was intended to preserve the AEC’s autonomy. The joint special agent program is made to look like a flop, even after two years of activity (1953-54), but is one of the most intriguing elements bearing on Lee Harvey Oswald’s profile. The FBI/AEC recruits were specifically of his type. Oswald was getting paid by the FBI. Was he working for Strauss? Whatever the answer might be, the joint special agent program fizzled or disappeared at an interesting time in 1954, the year that Strauss infamously went on a vindictive campaign to oust Robert Oppenheimer from the nuclear establishment. With full cooperation from J.E. Hoover and the FBI, Strauss erected an unlawful net of wiretaps and had the agents tailing Oppenheimer’s every move. Many of the people involved thought Strauss was exploiting McCarthy’s Red Scare but he appears to have planned it following the triumphant approval of the ‘Super’ (H-bomb) crash program by President Truman in January of 1950. Oppenheimer was deeply opposed to the Super. Strauss and Oppenheimer in the meantime still had to work together as administrative colleagues at Princeton’s IAS; Strauss, as IAS board president, had in fact hired Oppenheimer to direct the Institute in 1946. He laid in wait at least 4 years, if not longer, to bring the man to ruin.

Strauss’s one respite from pursuing Oppenheimer in early ’54 was a trip to the Marshall Islands to witness the thermonuclear  ‘Bravo’ test (Castle series), the only test he ever attended. Castle-Bravo is possibly the most controversial of all U.S. nuke tests; Japanese fishermen died and local Marshallese were irradiated and displaced. It was not an accident. “During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin, 1988]…”“Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said] ‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’” [p61, Day of Two Suns]    Strauss wrote, “It was the first time, so far as I am aware, that public attention had been called to the subject of fallout…” [p410, Men and Decisions] “people began to worry about the risks from radiation that followed such tests. So well did the resulting outcry fit Soviet objectives to eliminate nuclear weapons that Strauss suspected the Japanese fishermen might have been Soviet agents.” [p190, No Sacrifice Too Great] He enlisted the CIA to investigate.

As far as I know, the plight of the Marshalls or the responsibility of the AEC chairman was not included in the charges against Strauss during the  1959 Senate hearings for his confirmation as Secretary of Commerce. Fallout, however, was an issue. “According to [Clinton] Anderson, the administration actually was augmenting the fallout content of bombs in the existing stockpile.” [p217, No Sacrifice Too Great] The biographer wrote, “He probably should have turned down the president’s offer to join the cabinet…” [p242, ibid.] To the contrary, Strauss held out for the post and rejected a series of offers that included “permanent chairman” of the AEC and White House Chief of Staff. “When Strauss declined this offer, the president asked whether he might like to replace Secretary Dulles… Finally, Eisenhower suggested..secretary of commerce… Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it… Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War..” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]

After the vote-down from Congress,  “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued his parting statement…[p240, No Sacrifice Too Great] He soon followed up with his semi-autobiographical Men and Decisions —perhaps the real parting statement which closes with these words: “Now, we are told, we stand at the threshold of an era when it will be possible for man to abdicate both the right and responsibility of free decision and to delegate it to the machine… thereupon decisions will emerge which are to send us to war or lull us to sleep. They will be decisions for which no man will bear responsibility –decisions as coldly impersonal as..the device… For what machine can ever apply the considerations of compassion and justice..that affect his future in the world and in the universe?” [p430, Men and Decisions]


I wonder how Strauss’s readers in 1962 perceived his enigmatic closer. Taking liberties with the last paragraph, I edited out the specific references to hardware (“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”) because they are not definitions of a machine, although his allusion to electronics is very interesting and significant to his meaning.  No pile of hardware, obviously, makes decisions or ever will. Our government is a machine. But Strauss was fighting “tomorrow’s war today”. His machine, the device of his devising that he spent all his life energy on, was “coldly impersonal” and he remained its decider, or so one assumes. There’s not much in the memoirs to suggest exactly how Strauss fit into the hierarchy of the greater machine in which he was part, but in the largest measure that’s the point here; to discern what part of “decisions for which no man will bear responsibilty” can be ascribed to him.  Part II chronology picks the details back up with the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. who died from a mishap with electronic remote control.

                                        Harry Byrd Sr.


Joe Kennedy Jr.
Joe Jr. graduated from Choate in the spring of 1933..the exemplar of what a Choate graduate should be… [He] might have headed to Harvard in the fall, but his father had a different idea…[JPK Sr.] enrolled Joe at the London School of Economics, a fervidly intellectual atmosphere full of Socialists and others who fancied themselves on the cutting edge of economic and political theory.” [p81, The Kennedy Men, by Laurence Leamer, 2001] “[Harold] Laski saw that young Joe had character and an incomparable zest for life… ‘He had set his heart on a political career,’ Laski recalled. ‘He..often sat in my study and submitted..his determination to be nothing less than President of the United States.’ “[p82, ibid.] Joe Jr. stayed the year in London, finished his courses and set off in the summer of 1934 for a tour of Europe.
   Back in Washington D.C., Joe Kennedy Sr. was assuming his duties as chairman of the new Securities and Exchange Commission, the circumstance which brought him under the scrutiny of Arthur Krock of the New York Times. “I had encountered Joseph P. Kennedy several times in the entourage that accompanied Governor Franklin D. 1932..But not until 1934, when President Roosevelt appointed Kennedy to the..[SEC]..did I become really acquainted with him.” [p330, Memoirs, Arthur Krock, 1968] Krock described meeting Joe Sr. “to take the measure of the man” on the recommendation of “two friends..Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.” [p331, ibid.] The Wall Streeters were worried about Kennedy. By 1935 Krock “began to be an intimate of the family under the sponsorship of the patriarch, Joseph Patrick himself… In their feudal family structure the eldest son..was designed by the patriarch to be the first Roman Catholic President of the United States, and it was only because of his fatal valor in the Second World War that the quest descended to the second son.” [p328-329, ibid.]
   The ‘Anvil’ mission that killed Joe Jr. and his copilot on August 12, 1944 was the seventh in a series (of 15) operations under the Army Air Force called ‘Aphrodite’, but the first to be run by the Navy. .
Kennedy’s bomber malfunction had a unique outcome; it was the only one to “prematurely detonate”.  According to the oral history of Emanuel Piore who worked for the office of Chief of Naval Operations, “we were the group that killed Joe Kennedy.” Piore, who worked over a decade prior in the labs of CBS and RCA, never mentioned any other personal involvement.
   Joe had the opportunity to leave England and go home the previous May. He wrote to his parents on May 8, “I have finished my missions…but volunteered to stay another month…” Biographer Leamer adds “Joe Jr..wanted to be there for D-Day…And so, on June 6, he flew as part of a massive grid protecting the invading forces from German submarines… not one ship..was lost to the German sub[s]… back home everyone expected his imminent arrival in time for his [30th] birthday on July 25… [but] Joe..knew that he would not be returning a hero…” [pp209-210, The Kennedy Men] It had been nearly a year since JFK stole the honors of War Hero in the PT-109 episode. In that ensuing year, the U.S. navy pilots at Dunkeswell grew accustomed to daily danger. “When he opened his letters from home, [Joe] discovered inevitably that Jack was the big news –Jack’s sickness, Jack’s appearances, Jack’s publicity, Jack’s future…” [p206]…”All that Joe Jr. wanted in family life was to be first…’In their long brotherly..rivalry, I expect this was the first time Jack had won such an ‘advantage’ by such a clear margin,’ Rose wrote in her autobiography.” [p196, ibid.] Sometime around the third week in July, “Joe..was..packing up his gear when he was called into the squadron office and told about an extraordinary secret mission code-named ‘Anvil’…[He] volunteered immediately… He figured that he had a fifty-fifty chance of surviving and those odds were good enough… the base at Fersfield…”  Things went wrong from the start. “Training flights had gone astray. The project was raked with silly bureaucratic ineptitude. Serious warnings about the faulty electrical system had been smothered by the command. The whole project reeked… On the evening before the mission, one of the men..tried to warn Joe..that the arming panel..might blow up the plane… Joe Jr. admitted to another officer that he was sorry he had volunteered, but he believed that it was too late to do anything but go on.”  [p211-214, The Kennedy Men]  Twenty planes escorted the bomber from the Fersfield runways;  one of them carried FDR’s son Elliot Roosevelt, sent to capture the event on film. It was over in just a few minutes, as soon as the PB4Y reached travelling altitude. The flash shredded and blew the plane’s remains over the Suffolk countryside and “Then the light was gone.”
   “[T]hose who saw Joe [Sr.] said they had never seen a man suffer more and feel more deeply… ‘Joe’s death has shocked me beyond belief,’ Joe wrote James Forrestal, the secretary of the navy..” [p220, The Kennedy Men] As of July 1944, with the Anvil program going forward, Lewis Strauss took up daily residence in Forrestal’s office. “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946. The secretary assigned him specific projects, one after anotherStrauss..preferred this sort of work to the routine of managing subordinates.” [p76, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss was not only positioned to know the details of Anvil, but he was required to know  –the Chief of Naval Operations was a deputy office under the Secretary of the Navy. If Anvil was one of the projects Strauss worked on, it was still classified Top Secret information when he published Men and Decisions in 1962. Were he delivering a threat to the Kennedys, any reference to Anvil would have to have been oblique yet specific enough to arouse their attention –“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”; the machine that impersonally took the life of Joe Kennedy.
The Kennedys’ tragedy was retrospectively compounded by the failure of Operation Aphrodite/Anvil. Joe’s mission was to strike the V-3 supergun site under construction at Mimoyecques, already successfully hit by the RAF five weeks earlier in June. The site never became operational. The few completed V-3 sites that did fire their fixed-position guns in 1945 were strategically useless and quickly abandoned. Strauss left one suggestive statement in his memoir forecasting Anvil and hinting at his participation: “Early in 1943..British intelligence..had heard of a project called ‘Athodyd’ reported to be a..pilotless aircraft to bomb Britain… Admiral Blandy read the message at a staff meeting..and it was the concensus opinion that this was most likely more of the ‘secret weapon’ propaganda…Captain Sam Shumaker and I, however, felt that there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
   The Athodyd program was real; these were the V-1 flying bombs against which the Navy’s VT proximity fuse-equipped missiles proved so indispensible –all about the same time period, just prior to Anvil. “The fuze was especially effective in destoying the V-1 bombs that Germany began to use against London on June 12, 1944…Approximately 500 heavy antiaircraft guns were moved to the Channel coast where they could engage the bombs before they reached..England…” [p349 (Navy Bureau of Ordnance document)] Strauss was proud of his role in developing the VT fuse. “Next to the atom bomb, the proximity fuze represented in many respects the outstanding new weapon development of World War II… A tremendous amount of research and exploratory work was done [beginning in 1940]… Early in the war a number of high level scientists, including Dr. Albert Einstein, were employed by the Bureau under personal service contracts.[p326, Ordnance doc]…Information was furnished [to] the Bureau and the NDRC [National Defense Research Council] by the British technical mission, headed by Sir Henry Tizard which visited the United States in 1940 as to the status of proximity fuzes in Great Britain.” [p346, ibid.] Tizard also brought news of the MAUD committee, Britain’s prospectus on building a nuclear bomb. It’s generally believed that Tizard did not then know how far the American effort toward atomic weapons had already come but he was soon to learn about it while unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a supply of uranium oxide for the British project; ore from the Congo that was sitting on a dock by the Bayonne Bridge in New York. As far as the military was concerned, the attention of weapons development was mandated to war-winning munitions like the fuze and the all-important implementation of radar. The basic uncertainty of the ‘uranium problem’ was cause for marginal consideration. The massive VT-fuse program then became a bridge to next-generation armaments by establishing the fundamental nexus that eventually created guided-missile nuclear warheads.
   By 1940 radiological warfare was a promising reality even if the explosive potential of nukes could never be achieved. “Neutron and gamma radiation, radioactive dust scattered into the air could be as deadly as blast and heat… The MAUD group had known about these factors from the first..” [p156-157, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel]
Protocol No.1
[article 3]   It must be noted that men with bad instincts are more in number than the good and therefore the best results in governing them are attained by violence and terrorization…
[article 7]   In our day the power which has replaced that of the the power of Gold… The despotism of entirely in our hands…
[article 24]…by the doctrine of severity..we shall triumph and bring all governments into subjection to our super-government. It is enough for them to know that we are too merciless…
Protocol No.7
[article 5]…we shall show our strength to one of them.. and to all, if we allow..a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America or China or Japan.
The Guns of Japan
   Going back to the money trail of the 1904 Russo-Japanese war: “The primary mover was Jacob Schiff..whose firm was brought into the consortium of Parr’s Bank and the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank by Lord Revelstoke and the shadowy Ernest Cassel… [A]fter the war had ended..the Rothschilds finally enter[ed] center stage… Lord Rothschild insisted that he replace Cecil Parr as head of the consortium… [Lord Rothschild wrote:] ‘The Japanese are a remarkable nation, they have proven themselves on land and sea… We have always had great faith in Japan, faith in their military and naval prowess… faith in the resources of their country and still greater faith in the..rulers’…”
   A big winner in the conflict was Bethlehem Steel, later to become a Kuhn Loeb client under Strauss.  “In the..Russo-Japanese War, it was Bethlehem steel against Bethlehem steel with the company supplying guns and armor plate for warships to both Russia and Japan.”  The Japanese also “contracted with [Bethlehem’s] Fore River shipyard to build five small submarines, a weapon..just coming into its own.” By WWI, Bethlehem was positioned  to become the  world’s largest munitions maker. “It made 65 percent of the..artillery..of the allied nations.,0,360664.story  Incidently, Joe Kennedy Sr. was hired by the Fore River (Quincy, MA) shipyard as assistant general manager just as the new ships slid off the docks and onto the surplus ledger, sold for pennies on the dollar by Albert Lasker. Kennedy likely had his first meeting at Fore River with the Asst. Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
   As an allied combatant in World War I, Japan’s navy roamed the Pacific and Indian oceans seizing territory from the Germans. “On August 7, 1914, the British government officially asked Japan for assistance …Japan..formally declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914..[and] quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East… [then]sought further to consolidate its position in China… [In] July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty whereby each pledged not to make a separate peace with Germany, and agreed to..common action should the threatened by an outside third party. This treaty helped further secure Japan’s hegemony in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.”
Among Japan’s new possessions, bestowed by the Paris Peace accords, were the South Sea Islands once known as the Spice Islands, including the Marshalls that were recaptured by the U.S. in 1944 and became the Pacific Proving Ground.
The isolationist period of Japan ended in 1853 when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry sailed four warships into Tokyo Bay and threatened to fire on the shore unless the Japanese agreed to a trade treaty. He returned in the winter of 1854 for his treaty with eight ships. Two prior attempts at opening Japan by Americans had failed; in 1846 and 1849, prompting a show of force.
    The Meiji government then “gave significant priority to naval construction… The Imperial Japanese Navy was modeled after the British Royal Navy… British advisors were sent to Japan..while students were in turn sent to the United Kingdom…”  Japan’s first dozen gunships were made in Britain and France.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920..”
>>>Matthew Perry’s daughter Caroline married Rothschild banker August Belmont (Schonberg); Belmont’s sons were Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont,  Perry Belmont, and August Belmont Jr ;  August Belmont Jr, as an older widower, married stage actress Eleanor Robson in 1910, the first serious love interest of Strauss’s friend ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan (OSS). “Eleanor, also devoted much time to raising funds in aid of Belgian relief efforts and for the Red Cross, she made a number of trans-Atlantic trips as an inspector of United States Army camps.”,_Jr
“..Kuhn Loeb..financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power, dominant over Korea and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great] As the heir to Jacob Schiff’s mission, Strauss wrote that “in 1926, I had retraced his steps, as told earlier. The then Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Baron Takahashi, and other gentlemen of Japan..had been very hospitable. I..continued a correspondence with most of these men…” [p122, Men and Decisions] “In consequence, my wife and I received a princely welcome… I had an audience with [the Prince Regent] at which the interpreter was a young naval officer, Commander Isoroku Yamamoto, who fifteen years later as admiral..ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor.” [p83, Men and Decisions]
   “The highlight of the trip was Strauss’s audience with the prince regent, Hirohito… soon to become emperor of Japan… Hirohito was about the same age as Strauss..[who] found Hirohito extremely well informed politics and even the special relationship between Japan and Kuhn Loeb.” [p37, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss listed his contacts with the Imperial government who were in power at the start of WWII: “Mr. Yamagata, Ministry of Foreign Affairs…Tadeo Wikawa [alternately spelled Ikawa] Japanese Financial High Commissioner in New York…Juichi Tsushima, Bank of Japan… Baron [Takaharu] Mitsui… Eigo Fukai, H. Kashiwagi“..[bankers] and T. Okuboson-in-law- of my old friend Baron Takahashi who had been assassinated [by nationalists] 1936.” The names mean virtually nothing to American schoolchildren, but to the veterans alive in the 60s, some of them were synonymous with Japan’s worst war crimes.
   Takaharu Mitsui (b.1900–d.1983), for example, owned “Japan’s oldest and largest trading company [that] transported and used the greatest number of Allied POWs as slave laborers. Their mines, factories, and docks were considered among the most hellish… former POWs identified many Mitsui employees as sadists, torturers and murderers.” Mitsui had personally overseen much of the abuse and was never prosecuted. The “old friend” Takahashi (assassinated in 1936) was the foremost modern economist, “Japan’s Keynes”, who put the nation’s currency on the gold standard and its war bonds on the market. Fukai and Okubo were his successive representatives. Yamamoto, the main planner of Pearl Harbor who was shot down in combat in 1943, had gone to Harvard as a younger man to study the oil industry. Yamamoto was newly installed as a military diplomat in Washington D.C. at the time of Strauss’s trip, perhaps accompanying the Strausses as an escort as well as interpreter. He returned for a two-year duty in the U.S. (1926-1928).  All of these men were directed to receive the Maryknoll priests, Father Drought and Bishop Walsh, on their peace mission.
Yamashita’s Treasure
   Japan’s emergence as a modern economic and military nation, as yet, had no history in peacemaking. The invasion of Korea in 1895 marked the beginning of a campaign to overrun and control its Asian neighbors as a hedge against the Chinese. Throughout this period, 1895-1945, according to authors Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (The Yamoto Dynasty and Gold Warriors), the concerted power bases of the Imperial Japanese launched merciless attacks of systematic looting and genocide to steal the wealth of Asia and hide it on the home islands. As WWII encircled the operations called ‘Golden Lily’ and choked off the transfers, hordes of gold and gems were buried in place or sunk into the sea. Most of the known caches, say the Seagraves, were left in the Philippines by General Tomoyuki Yamashita who was battling for territory against time. “Yamashita’s Treasure”, as it were, had been revealed to Douglas MacArthur through army intelligence from his aide Willoughby and Col. Edward Lansdale, and MacArthur came ashore expecting to find it. Accordingly, the recovered loot was worth a contemporary billion and  believed to be only a fraction of what remained. It was turned over as a private reparation that became the Black Eagle Trust: “..the [Seagraves state that] architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to..Roosevelt’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson: John J. McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense) and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury)… [in Sterling Seagraves’ words:]”..a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington… This fund remains in existence today… [T]he vast treasures..were acquire newspapers, magazines, radio and later television throughout the world… [O]nce the..war loot was in the pipeline, drugs and the laundering of drug money replaced gold…”
John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy (1895-1989) earned the “nickname of ‘Chairman of the Establishment’. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“…In 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.”
   “Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… Two younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..”[p60, The Chairman, by Kai Bird, 1992]..At Cravath’s firm, “McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads.” [p62, ibid.]
As a consequence [in the mid-1920s] with Brown Brothers, McCloy met Robert Abercrombie Lovett..[whose] father [was] chairman of the Union Pacific [and] neighbor of..Cravath’s on Long Island… At Yale, one of [Lovett’s] best friends was F. Trubee Davison, the son of Henry Davison, the J.P.Morgan & Co. partner… Another ruch young man in this charmed circle was W. Averell Harriman..[who] inherited Union Pacific from his father, the legendary robber baron Edward H. Harriman [financed by Kuhn Loeb]. ” [p68, The Chairman]
   McCloy had an impressive list of job titles: Asst. Secretary of War (WWII), President of the World Bank (1947-49), High Commissioner of Germany (1949-52), Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1950-53), Chairman of the Ford Foundation (and Trustee, 1953-1965), Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-1970), Chairman of the Salk Institute (subrosa) and appointment to the Warren Commission (1964). Strauss and McCloy both formally resigned their business relationship with Kuhn Loeb at the same time, in 1946.
A version of the Black Eagle Trust story goes like this:

Gold bullion confiscated from the Reich..was the original source of funding for this trust… [and] would be known by several names: Black Eagle Trust, the Marcos gold, Yamashita’s Gold, the Golden Lily Treasure, the Durham Trust or Project Hammer… The significance of the Nazi gold would pale in comparison to the confiscated  Japanese treasure…  Heidner presents..evidence to support his thesis that one of the main reasons for the [9-11] attacks was to cover up the laundering of
$240 billion dollars in covert and allegedly illegal  bonds, which appear to have been replaced with Treasury notes backed by U.S.  taxpayers in the aftermath of September 11
   “Lansdale’s operation in the Philippines gave birth to most of the common  features of modern covert operations for U.S. Intelligence: bribery, theft,  torture, and false flag operations. It would be Lansdale who would initiate a  bond between the US intelligence organizations and Israeli intelligence. It  would be Lansdale that would set precedents for the Intelligence community to retain the services of organized crime on U.S. soil. Lansdale would hire  American Mafia family heads Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky,  and Lucky Luciano in the U.S. war against Fidel Castro in 1961.”
[edited from:] Um…this second paragraph smacks of misdirection but I do believe any number of somebodies got the mafia involved in moving weapons, cash and drugs. As far as retaining the Mob, the Office of Naval Intelligence enlisted the NY-NJ mobsters to guard the docks of New York Harbor after the USS Normandie incident in 1942. The Navy was abiding a common tradition in business already practiced for decades in America– hiring gang enforcer-protectors.
   The “old money” societies of Asia, Mid-East, Mediterranean and Europe were masterfully adept at integrating and insulating their hierarchies of organized crime and the process became distinctively visible in America during Prohibition. The mafia turf wars of 1933-34 appear to have favored the well-connected collaborators.
   “…what’s striking about the [Seagraves’] meticulous Gold Warriors is the way the authors singlemindedly pursue the trail of Japan’s pillaged loot from those caves in the Philippines to financing of military endeavors in the Middle East.”
    “Concerned that President Harry Truman was wobbly in his support for creating a new nation of Israel, [Meyer] Lansky reached out to the Kansas City underworld and they used their connections in the White House to persuade Truman, whose home state was Missouri…”
At War’s End
Bill Donovan, head of OSS, was in Kunming China north of Vietnam “when news came of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Donovan turned philosophical… there would be a ‘peaceful interlude’, but sooner or later America would have a showdown with the communist world…  Two months later, Donovan phoned Jackson [Justice Robert Jackson, organizer of the Nuremberg trials] and told him U.S. Intelligence had ‘incontestable proof’ the Soviets were ‘in complete possession of the secret of the atomic bomb’... The OSS would be needed in Europe to spy on the Russians..and in Asia to police the Japanese...” [p332, Wild Bill Donovan, by Douglas Waller, 2011]
   The ALSOS mission which had been sent into Europe to gather important scientists and documents in advance of occupation forces had a smaller counterpart organized for Japan. Unlike the multi-agency European Alsos made of intelligence delegations, led by Col. Boris Pash and physicist Samuel Goudsmit,  Alsos Japan dispatched a geologist to MacArthur in Manila in July of 1945. Don Leet was was no ordinary geologist but a Manhattan Project veteran and explosives expert.
   “There were 175 ‘imperial treasure sites hidden throughout the Philippines… According to Ray Cline [CIA] and others, between 1945 and 1947 the gold bullion..was moved discreetly to 172 accounts at banks in 42 countries… Washington had to insist, starting in 1945, that Japan never stole anything, and was flat broke and bankrupt when the war ended… [But] If American conservatives and Japanese conservatives were to ally effectively against communism, they had to begin by enlarging their financial resources for the Cold War.”  [the Seagraves]
Pictures of ‘Yamashita’ gold and bank documents
Alsos Japan
Berkeley-trained physicist Philip Morrison was on Japan’s Alsos team sent to Tokyo after the surrender. Morrison had been part of the Chicago MED (Metallurgical Lab) working with particle accelerators and reactors: “..we were making plutonium, which is only a step to the bomb… I speak of it always as being a neutron engineer… [We had] plutonium made in the piles [reactors] by irradiating uranium with neutrons to turn U-238s into plutonium 239, which was a long-lived [25,000 year half-life], charge-rich nucleus with a very low fission threshold, so that slow neutrons could make it divide… [Anyway] I had acquired some intelligence interests..[and] when the time came for the project to break up..I was in Japan on the government’s business measuring..the site. [the site:Hiroshima/Nagasaki, along with ‘seismic prospector’ L. Don Leet]. We from Los Alamos were already out in Tinian they took whoever was nearby and said, ‘You go into Japan.’ The best we could do, you know. I couldn’t speak any Japanese but they gave me..a language officer..named John Congleton… he was our entire communication medium..and an ensign called Barney O’Keefe..[who] was our watcher and bodyguard... [A] week or two..I spent waiting in the hotels in Tokyo..before we were allowed to move out of the city by talking to the local scientists… A radiologist from the University of Tokyo..began to talk to me..that he knew of the radiation damage because he had worked in Pennsylvania hospitals five years..doing whole body irradiation [on animals]…[He]said ‘I know about radiation but you Americans carried it further.. You have done the human experiment.’ ..I had to agree with him…you know, to the murder..[of]making bombs against a whole city… [My] entire tour through Japan [lasted] for a month after the war.”

   “The Joint Chiefs..ordered on October 30..‘No research..on atomic energy shall be permitted in Japan.’…[In] November..American military teams proceeded to hack Japan’s five [known] pieces. The remains were dumped into the sea.”
   “In the immediate aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, an organizational unit to study atomic-bomb effects began taking shape, coalescing into the Committee on Atomic Casualties, led by Thomas Rivers.. bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute…   A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years…  ‘The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed.’ ”
“Before the CIA, there was the Pond”
Unknown to the public after WWII was an officially sanctioned intelligence agency created by the War Department in 1942 called The Pond. It “existed for 13 years and was shrouded in secrecy for more than 50 years..operated under the cover of multinational corporations, including American Express, Chase National Bank and Philips, the Dutch-based electronic giant… [T]ens of thousands of once-secret documents found in locked safes and filing cabinets in a barn near Culpeper Virginia in 2001..portray a sophisticated organization obsessed with secrecy that operated a 32 countries… The organization counted among its effort to enlist..’Lucky’ assassinate..Mussolini; identifying..heavy water plants doing atomic research in Norway; and providing advance information on Russia’s first atomic bomb… The head of the Pond was Col. John  [Jean, “Frenchy”]V. Grombach..[whose] father the French Consulate in New Orleans. The War Department had tapped Grombach to create the secret a foundation for a permanent spy service… Grombach wrote that the idea..was to use ‘observers’ who would build..relationships..[rather] than spies who bought secrets… In 1955 The Pond went off the books… [It had] laid the integrate its activities into the U.S. Rubber Co.’s business operations in 93 countries… The Pond also worked with..Remington Rand… [In time] Grombach began furnishing names to McCarthy on supposed security risks…[and] It wasn’t long before the..organization largely ceased to exist.”
   Files belonging to The Pond, when picked up in 2001, were in the possession of the Freedom Studies Center of the American Security Council Foundation (ASCF, est.1958), a private non-profit lobby group for the private American Security Council founded by John Morris Fisher in 1955. Mr. Fisher, then a resident of the town of Culpeper, was the Director for National Security of  Sears Roebuck & Co., the Rosenwalds vast holding, and just up the road from the town of Culpeper lay Brandy Rock Farm, Strauss’s 1600-acre estate bought in 1933. Fisher’s obituary reveals his proudest activity: president of the Culpeper Regional Hospital Foundation that also was organized in 1955 to build a medical center of which “Admiral Strauss [was] one of the founders.” .
   Even without a personal connection, The Pond and the ASCF, beneficiary of its documents, bear the imprint of Strauss and his Kuhn Loeb/American Jewish Committee associates. The 1958 founding members of the ASCF include: Ray Cline (CIA, quoted by the Seagraves above), Thomas J. Dodd, Averell Harriman, Henry ‘Scoop’ Jackson, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Sam Rayburn, Nelson Rockefeller, Eugene Rostow, and others.
   Origins of the Pond within Military Intelligence (Army G-2) began with the authorization given by General George Strong to Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner to establish “a perpetual, a far-seeing, a far-distant, continuing intelligence service…Kroner selected Grombach..’particularly because [he] could take such instructions..under the terms of the highest secrecy’… Kroner testified after the war that..’only those in the War Department and the State and the President’s office..[and] President himself..knew it existed… A few people at FBI headquarters were also in on the secret… the whole thing was well known to Mickey [D. Milton] Ladd, chief of the FBI’s Domestic Intelligence Division, an ally of Grombach.”   The FBI’s Mickey Ladd, naturally, was later to be a prime conduit for the crosstalk in the Atomic Energy Double Agent Program.
   “..Convinced the OSS was infiltrated by the British, French and Russians, Strong set up..his own small espionage unit..secret from Donovan…’the Pond’..began infiltrating spies overseas under State Department and commercial cover…[p117, Wild Bill Donovan]…No one in the OSS could determine exactly what the Pond’s band of spies was doing for the Army’s G-2, but Grombach..kept popping up on Donovan’s radar screen… As near as Donovan’s officers could tell,  Grombach had operatives roaming Portugal, Sweden, Hungary and Romania..[and] was also trying to recruit former OSS officers with experience in Turkey and Greece… [He] also collected dossiers on hundreds of OSS officers. [p290, ibid.] Major General Clayton Bissell..replaced early 1944..[and was just] as hostile to Donovan.” [p307, ibid.]
“Two and a half weeks after President Truman declared victory, Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to the RCMP [Canadians]… On November 7th, Elizabeth Bently visited the FBI’s New York office and began to recount her role as a courier for two espionage rings in Washington D.C…. She identified as Soviet agents persons in the White House, the State Department, the War Department, [and] the OSS…”
   Elizabeth Bentley made her first approach to the FBI in August of 1945. Then on September 5, Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Embassy cipher clerk in Ottawa, Ontario, defected with documents concerning atomic weapons espionage. What Bentley and Gouzenko had in common was later to be ‘proved’ by decrypted radio intelligence (sigint) that was collected in Finland and brought to Stockholm in an operation known as Stella Polaris (Pole Star). “Stella Polaris was an evacuation of all the Finnish Intelligence officers and their Sweden..[in] September 1944…at least 750 people and 500 pack[ing] boxes of equipment..and documents [were] carried over..on four cargo vessels” in the middle of the night. But “Stella Polaris is also known as a process about the burnt archives from 1946 until the 1950s… it was [not until] the 90s in the U.S. when the NSA started publishing secret spy telegrams which had been part of the..system VENONA during the Cold War. Much of the material was..sold in 1944 and 1945 in Stockholm… The Americans became unpleasantly surprised when the Finns revealed that they could read [U.S.] communications all the time.”
   A reminder from the first part of this article is: ”war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this.” [Men and Decisions]
   The British, who trained and virtually ran the neophyte OSS, “would oversee operations in India, the Balkans, the Middle East, and [until1943] Western Europe. Donovan got control of mostly table scraps, such as China and Finland. But he would also run..North Africa.” [p130, Wild Bill Donovan]
   According to historian R. Harris Smith the “OSS had made its first Scandinavian Finland. Since the Russian November 1939, the Finns had considered their a separate war.  After the German attack on Russia in July 1941, Finland became a ‘co-belligerent’..[with] Berlin in battling the Red Army. In December [’41], under pressure from Moscow, Churchill reluctantly declared war on Finland… Early 1942 saw the Nazis using Finnish territory as a base of operations against Russia.” [p198, OSS, R. Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press]
   Finland, as it turned out, became a great crossroads of mixed-purpose espionage and the OSS Stockholm duty evolved into an important listening post for Soviet activity.  A number of discussion threads on JFK assassination deal with the relationships generated around the Stockholm base and Stella Polaris operation; even the reasoned expectation that “OSS station [Stockholm] was in large part controlled by [Military] Secret Intelligence Grombach… Olsen was a member of OSS Stockholm [and]identified as a member of Grombach’s Pond group… A suggestion could also be made that Richard Helms was a Grombach man.”  ; this next link, for example, includes Lee H. Oswald
American Security Council
   Originally called the Midwest Research Library of Chicago, the few 1954 founding ASC incorporators included General Robert E. Wood of Sears Roebuck who notified J. Edgar Hoover with this note: “As you know, the Mid-American Research Library was organized by patriotic businessmen to preserve and expand the Harry A. Jung files. The name..has now been changed to the American Security Council…  Its primary mission is the gathering, correlation and dissemination of factual information on Communist strategy and tactics to its members… The Council has the largest and most complete private files on Communism in the country at its main office in Chicago..containing the names of over 1,ooo,ooo individuals and organizations provid[ing] information which the FBI cannot supply since its files are secret. ”
   The Jung files were held at the Chicago Tribune Tower where they took up the entire 26th floor of Robert McCormick’s newspaper offices. Jung was a former editor of The American Gentile, published by The Gentile Front, and is known for being “one of the first” distributors of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and founder of the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation.
   Hoover’s interest in the ASC was two-fold: as a rightwing organization under surveillance and as a pool for retired FBI agents, including D.Milton (Mickey) Ladd, Lee R. Pennington (associated to Watergate), W. Cleon Skousen, John Fisher, Kenneth Piper (VP of Motorola), etc.
>>>Pennington-Watergate connection:”Pennington went to [James] McCord’s house [and].. destroyed..documents linked to the Watergate break-in.”
   The American Security Council adopted the motto “Peace Through Strength” and organized a Coalition for Peace Through Strength (CPTS) and a National Strategy for Peace Through Strength (NSPTS) by which it lobbied officers of government and business. “The ASC has a complex structure with many subsidiaries… Its boards of advisors and directors have..generous representation from military contractor firms [e.g. Lockheed, Boeing, General Dynamics]..defense intellectuals and rightest retirees of the military and intelligence establishment..including James Angleton (CIA), John Singlaub (USA)..Lyman Lemnitzer (USA), Albert Wedemeyer..[etc] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, ASC gained some notoriety when it was revealed that one of its affiliates, the Institute for American Strategy (IAS) has been used by the National Security Council as the vehicle for training military personnel..with help from the right-wing Richardson Foundation…  [A] veteran analyst of right-wing organizations has stated that ASC is ‘not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.’,_extract_from_The%22Terrorism%22_Industry
>>>The Richardson Foundation (Smith Richardson), established 1935 by H. Smith Richardson, is a family-controlled trust endowed by the fortune from ‘Vick’s’ pharmaceuticals. Headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. the western point of the ‘Triad’ of central counties making up greater Raleigh-Durham.
To Summarize…
Briefly to this point, World War II enabled Lewis Strauss and his associates to gain control of the largest known stocks of gold treasure, private ‘vigilante’ intelligence, and super-weapons expertise. For the next ten years (1945-1955) a slow motion coup d’etat rumbled beneath the American establishment, ending, arguably, in the last grab for resources –human resources– by way of a medical debacle in 1955 called Salk polio vaccine. The roots of the polio vaccine and its Cold War “success” is integral to the growth of nuclear weapons.
Atomic Energy Commission
   Before the Manhattan Project was turned over to the incoming Atomic Energy Commission, the military staged the first nuclear combat-era tests in the Marshall Islands: Operation Crossroads (July 1946). Strauss’s former boss from the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance, Admiral Blandy, led the proceedings as the head of the Joint Task Force. Strauss declined Blandy’s offer to join the staff and witness Crossroads up close, writing in his memoir, “I declined regretfully in order to..return to private business” which included a Bohemian Grove holiday with ex-Pres. Herbert Hoover “during the same week that the underwater, or ‘Baker’, test was scheduled at Bikini atoll..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Interrupted at the Grove, Strauss was handily summoned to Washington and offered the first slot on the AEC. Truman said, “As to why I have selected you,  I will tell you. I asked a number of give me a slate of names of possible Commissioners and your name did not appear at the top of any list. But you were a common denominator– that is to say..on all of the lists.” [p212, ibid.]

   Only recently had Strauss acquired non-remunerative status as Lifetime Trustee of the American Cancer Society and an executive governorship over New York’s Sloan Kettering Institute along with a number of MED chiefs.  He was well on his way to being a common denominator in the fully expressed military-medical complex. The AEC counted its earliest successes in the radioactive isotope program, the industrial-scale byproducts made in the reactor “piles” of the weapons labs.
   “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies and clinics…  the AEC was, first and foremeost, a production agency itself… As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business’…In 1947..Congress earmarked $5million for AEC’s efforts in combatting cancer… the cancer program accounted for over 2,000 shipments [that year]… In addition, clinical cancer research hospitals were built at Argonne and Oak Ridge… By August 1949, three years after the first shipment..the AEC assembled a bibliography of 1,850 papers reporting scientific findings made with AEC isotopes –over 38% were in biology and medicine and were equally divided between human uses..and non-human… In 1950 alone, the AEC sent out more than 6,000 shipments of radioisotopes..[of which] three quarters..were used in biology and medicine…  Thus..[radioisotope use] no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding…particularly through the National Institutes of Health.”
   Over a decade of pre-war isotope research, thanks to Ernest O. Lawrence’s Berkeley cyclotrons, had enabled Americans to develop a small nuclear business that helped set a firmament for U.S. weapons and boost the physics curricula to run apace with Europeans. Isotopes and particle accelerators were clearly generators of nuclear weapons and Strauss capitalized on those facts in his stance as the sometimes “lone dissenter” on the AEC. Prohibitive radioisotope distribution was a forerunner to his later term at Commerce described by Richard Pfau “as a base from which to fight the Cold War.” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “This program..was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from..outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate..between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism… [R]adioisotopes..became political instruments in struggles over the control of the atom.”
   Atomic monopoly was a concept largely nurtured in the mind of Harry Truman who also thought the atomic bomb, prior to dropping, was “just a bigger bomb”.  Advisors had been telling Truman that the United States had a minimum two-to-five year headstart on bombs of the fission type and perhaps a ten year advantage on the ‘Super’.  Isotopes, on the other hand, were already outside the domain of US control, the surest means of proliferation, and the stickiest issue for hastening an international treaty and buttoning down the National Security State.
One week after the Crossroads-Baker test at Bikini,  with Lewis Strauss on board as the first AEC Commissioner, Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 on August 1. The bill (known as the McMahon Bill for its sponsor, CT Senator Brien McMahon) declared “Government ownership of all fissionable material… No person shall have any title in or to any fissionable material… It shall be possess or transfer..export or import to..or directly or indirectly engage in the production of any fissionable material outside of the United States. [p6]… The Commission is authorized to purchase or otherwise acquire any fissionable material or any interest therein outside the United the interest of the common defense and security… except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source materials which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant… Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate..any provision..with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon punished by death or imprisonment for life…[p20]”
An example of radioisotope developments in the 1930s outside the United States was given by historian Simon Turchetti who noted that Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his business partner Gabriello Giannini had patented 60 isotopes by 1936 “in various countries“, intended for research. Giannini was “responsible for trading the patents“.  Successful contracts were made with Philips Fabriken in Amsterdam, Sharp & Dohme, and the US corporations General Electric and Westinghouse. According to Turchetti, Giannini “partnered with the Dutch firm Philips..and..with L.V. Graner, a Philips engineer who lived and worked in New York.” By that time Giannini himself lived in the U.S. –he set up a business office at 30 Rockefeller Center and later found contractual wartime employment with Lockheed.  A potentially interesting aspect of the Giannini-Philips relationship is the primary sponsorship by Philips of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond intelligence.
   Whatever the case regarding the patents or any buy-back effort from the AEC,  U.S. weapons programs benefitted from cooperation with Philips, Giannini and Fermi. In December of 1938, Enrico Fermi took permanent leave of Italy on the occasion of receiving a Nobel Prize in Stockholm. From there he emigrated to New York and signed on to the Manhattan Engineer District. His assignments took him to Chicago, where he co-assembled the first nuclear reactor, and then to Los Alamos. Sometime in 1943, while contemplating the technical difficulties of bomb-making with Robert Oppenheimer, “Fermi took Oppenheimer aside..and suggested another way to kill large numbers of Germans. Perhaps, he said, radioactive fission products could be used to poison Germany’s food supply.” [p221, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin]
   Strauss wrote in his memoir, “In 1946 the Soviet delegate to the United Nations let it be known that in..Communist Russia the facts about atomic energy were ‘very well understood’. But atomic energy was being employed by his country for peaceful purposes only…  Not everyone, however, accepted Soviet assurance… The first Atomic Energy Commissioners did not. The several Commissioners were confirmed by the Senate in April 1947.  At a meeting shortly thereafter we discussed a memorandum I had [prepared] to whether the intelligence arrangements of the Manhattan Project had made provision..for continuous monitoring of radioactivity in the atmosphere… [p201, Men and Decisions]…[The memo read] ‘If there is no such monitoring system in effect, it is incumbent upon initiate it ourselves at once.’ There was unanimous agreement. [p202, ibid.] …It was important that the tests which the Atomic Energy Commission was planning..[at] Eniwetok in the spring of 1948 should be monitored in order that..reliable detection might be perfected. [p204] …By the time of our test 1948 [Operation Sandstone] the system was ready to demonstrate and by the summer of 1949, vigilance was rewardedI was completely convinced that a [Soviet] weapon or an explosive device had been tested purposefully on or about August 29 [1949, and] that it might not have been the first such test by the Soviets.” [p216]
   The USSR, it appeared, became the third nation after the U.S.(1945) and U.K.(1947) to attain the bomb. The detection event, as it turned out, took weeks to confirm and was not without lasting controversy over the reliability of data –fallout analysis collected by aerial filters on a US military plane. Strauss reported it as “One of our planes operating in the Long Range Detection System collected a sample that was decidedly radioactive…“[p276, caption, Men and Decisions]. The Soviets, were it they, had a knack for timing. Secretary of Defense Forrestal, replaced earlier in March, fell to his death on May 22. Skirmishes over radioisotope shipments, lax security, missing plutonium and other AEC program flaws had reached a peak of rhetoric by summer. “..concerns about shipments of isotopes to Norway and Finland resulted in allegations that the Atomic Energy Commission’s distribution policy was undermining national security… Just a few months later, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb shattered any illusions..[about] nuclear monopoly. In addition, the governments of Britain and Canada began selling radioisotopes to foreign purchasers, with fewer restrictions…” Less than four months hence (Jan.1950), the government was informed that atomic-spy penetration during the war had fully compromised its most guarded secrets and a chorus of H-bomb boosters moved the administration to immediately authorize a crash program to build ‘Supers’. On January 31, 1950, Lewis Strauss, jubilantly celebrating a birthday-to-remember, submitted his resignation.
>>>Strauss’s first post as AEC Commissioner covered July 1946 to April 1950. He returned as Chairman in 1953, appointed by Eisenhower.
Timeline NOTES: In 1946
–January 22, President Truman issues a Directive forming the Central Intelligence Group (CIG, renamed CIA in July of 1947 at the signing of the National Security Act)
–April, John F. Kennedy launches his campaign for congress and handily wins the June primary
–July 1, 1946—The cancer control program was established at the National Cancer Institute ( on the same day as Crossroads first test, “Able”
The NIH participated in Operation Crossroads providing experimental pharmaceuticals (‘sun’screen and vaccines) and personnel. –July 3, NIH lobbyists (Laskers, Mahoney, succeeded in enacting the Mental Health Act
–August 1, signing of the Atomic Energy Act
— Austrian physicist Hans Thirring published a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb (2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict]
–G.M. Giannini and Philips Electronics filed lawsuits for the restoration of their patents and earnings; Giannini sued for $10 million and Philips for $20 million (suits were dropped in the ’50s)
–October 7, W. Averell Harriman appointed Truman’s Secretary of Commerce (Oct-7-46 to Apr-22-48)
January 29, 1947, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics program for the government was convened..[for] the Manhattan Project. The status of their mandate was stated: “No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter… the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined”
–March, John J. McCloy becomes second president of the World Bank (until June 1949), after Eugene Meyer
–April,  AEC Commissioners assume their offices.
–July, creation of the Division of Security and Intelligence of the Atomic Energy Commission
–Aug, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, former aide to Secretary Forrestal, is appointed Director of the Division of Security
Particle Accelerators, Isotopes and Plutonium
   The isotope theory was first proposed by Englishman Frederick Soddy in 1912. An isotope is a variant of a particular element based on the mass of its nucleus. Before the concept of the neutron, the proton-containing nucleus of an atom was thought to have additional particles that altered its mass and produced isotopes, some of which are unstable and radioactive though chemically identical to each other. Isotope theory led to the discovery of the neutron, proposed by Ernest Rutherford and others as early as 1918. Existence of the neutron was experimentally confirmed by several physicists between 1928 and 1932, credited to another Englishman in 1932, James Chadwick, who worked at the Cavendish (Cambridge, UK) Lab with Rutherford and later joined the Manhattan Project.
   Between 1938 and 1940, two scientists at the Cavendish, Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher, used particle accelerators made by Philips to bombard uranium-238 with neutrons [“neutron capture” method] to cause fission and make plutonium-239.  Feather left an oral history of his work: “ had been least 18 months before January 1939 [the announcement of fission] that there was something very odd happening in these interactions of neutrons with the heavy elements…and it was quite clear that one could now produce trans-uranic people were bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons and they were collecting radioactive great abundance. That was beginning to be known in ’37-’38..before the whole thing fell into place by the realization that what was happening was fission… very shortly afterwards Bretscher and I..identified iodine and hellurium amongst the fission products… Incidently the experiment..was done on the 1 MeV Phillips set… [In] December 1940..[we] put in a report..that if uranium-235 had the characteristics..suitable for a bomb..we believed 239 plutonium would have it..[and] might be less difficult than separating..235 uranium.”
>>>uranium-235, a rare isotope in u-238, was made for the MED by the gaseous diffusion method at the enormous Oak Ridge Tennessee facility. Oak Ridge became the center for postwar isotope production using reactors. Making plutonium for bomb cores with accelerators, however, was one of Ernest O. Lawrence’s most driven projects. The first US-made plutonium came from his Rad Lab in Berkeley. The “plutonium breakthrough” by Cambridge-Cavendish meant that any skilled operator with a sufficiently high-voltage accelerator and enough naturally-occuring uranium-238 and a separating method could produce their own bomb cores. Potentially, select hospital labs in virtually all modern nations had the equipment for the job.
>>>particle accelerators for medical use is covered in a 1974 Janeway Lecture given by Dr. Milford Schulz, published as “The Supervoltage Story”
R. Gordon Arneson, secretary to the Interim Committee on atomic energy, said during an oral history interview that he was present at the Pentagon “shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki..[when] a message to be transmitted immediately to General MacArthur..[came with] the approval of General Groves. It called for the destruction of all the Japanese cyclotrons… They were destroyed in a matter of hours. We saved all the bits and pieces we could use and the rest was dumped in the ocean. Now..we’ve learned in recent years that the Japanese had a bit more of a program going than we thought… [Question: Was it true that you could hide the manufacture of a bomb behind the walls of another type of factory, that it was fairly easy to conceal the actual production of a bomb?] Maybe you could use smaller facilities..and eventually you might get enough… [Question: When you said ‘dangerous facilities’ did you mean facilities producing atomic bombs?] Producing nuclear fuel. [Question: Okay..which could be used for either weapons or peaceful applications?] Yes. [Question: There was no agreement on nuclear limitations, armament limitations, until 1963, I guess…That was the first time..?] Yes. The only one that made any difference… Over the years, I was persona non grata to Admiral Strauss. He considered himself a ‘majority of one’ on the Commission.”
Atomic Security
Of the five members of the AEC, only Strauss possessed experience in decisions on national security..on which the survival of the United States might depend.  Strauss saw the Cold War with single-minded clarity… None of the other Commissioners shared his concern… He assigned his capable assisstant, William T. follow up. When the Central Intelligence Group..estimated ‘that approximately two years will be required to locate, install, and operate the complete network of stations and facilities’ [needed for radiation monitoring] Strauss protested. ‘We cannot regard a two-year period as acceptable,’ he said…[p95, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss fought as hard to safeguard classified information as he did for long-range detection. He knew there was no ‘secret’ to the bomb. The American advantage lay in its lead..and its access to supplies of..uranium. Often he took his case outside the Commission…even to newspapers… The first issue was security…”  [p97, ibid.]
*                                                      Col. Boris Pash
Boris Pash
No single individual in the United States had more experience in atomic intelligence than the Chief of Security of the Manhattan Project, Colonel Boris T. Pash. “Pash..was director of security..[and] also the lead officer in the Alsos Mission which scoured Europe searching for German nuclear scientists…charged with finding..atomic and bacteriological weapons…” [Pash obit.]
   Boris ‘Pash’ Pashkovsky was a White Russian born in San Francisco (1901) while his parents were on an extended assignment for the Russian Orthodox Church. They took him back to Moscow as a child and years later “When the Bolsheviks seized power, Pash joined the counterrevolutionary White Army and fought in the 1918-20 civil war. He returned to America after marrying a Russian aristocrat. During the 1920s and ’30s, while employed as a highschool football coach, Pash spent his summers as a reserve US Army Intelligence officer… [During WWII] he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast and then was assigned [to] the Manhattan Project… Pash had little patience for bureaucracy [and] considered himself a man of action. While his admirers described him as ‘cunning and shrewd’, others regarded him as a ‘crazy Russian’. Pash considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy…” [p.190, American Prometheus]   …”On June 29, 1943..Col. Boris Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer [suspected of Communist sympathies] be denied a security clearance and fired… Groves’ new security aide, Lt.Col. John Lansdale, a smart thirty-one-year-old lawyer from Cleveland..did not recommend firing Oppenheimer…[p.233]…General Groves agreed with..Lansdale…[and] Pash..seethed at this decision.” [p.336, ibid.]…Pash had antagonistic toward Oppenheimer as to finally lead Groves to conclude that Pash was wasting the Army’s time and resources… Groves decided that Pash’s talents could be put to better use elsewhere.” [p249, American Prometheus] He was assigned to Alsos.
   The first part of Alsos’ mission was to accompany the advance troops into Italy. “Four outstanding scientists were picked by Dr. [Vannevar] Bush at OSRD. Dr. James Fisk of Bell Telephone Company was in charge of the scientists. Only he and Pash would know about the atomic bomb part of their mission… They were flown to Algiers to report to Gen. Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Gen. [Walter] Bedell Smith. Only these two men were to know the details…”
   As a young man of 17, Jim Fisk (1910-1981) “enrolled in [M.I.T] the new pursuits of aeronautical engineering… [In] 1932, he went to Cambridge University where he worked with those who were probing the [atomic] nucleus [in the Cavendish lab]… After working on particle accelerators..he accepted a job on the faculty of physics at the University of North Carolina. In 1939..Fisk accept[ed] the join Bell… He collaborated with William Shockley in the independent derivation of conditions for the critical mass and sustained chain reaction of an atomic pile… He was, in 1947, appointed the first director of research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission… He retired as chairman of Bell Laboratories in 1974, having served as executive vice-president from 1955 and president from 1959..thus directly responsible for all..programs pursued by Bell..for A.T.&T [which] included support of the national Apollo lunar exploration and close affiliation with the Sandia Laboratories in nuclear systems… [He] was uniquely prepared to work with President the formation of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House..[which he] served from 1973.” Fisk did not return to Alsos after the Italy assignment. The next mission was Alsos’ campaign into France and Germany on the heels of D-Day –their science director, picked by the OSRD, was Samuel Goudsmit. “Over..22 months they succeeded in seizing top German and Italian nuclear scientists and 70,000 tons of uranium and radium products that would be shipped to the U.S. for use in its own nuclear development… After the war..beginning in 1946 [Pash was posted] as the Chief of the Foreign Liason for MacArthur in Tokyo. In March 1949 he was detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination…” [the OPC]
The Atomic Energy Act charter tasked the FBI with the AEC’s security needs and consequently the official memoranda traffic was routed through the FBI, notwithstanding the significant stakeholding already in process by other agencies. Strauss wrote, “if any security whatever is to exist, there must be a recognized authority and a rule to which all must adhere.” [p248, Men and Decisions]
In August 1947, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich was appointed Director of the newly created Division of Security and Intelligence. Declassified FBI files on Gringrich show that at the time of his [AEC] appointment he was working closely with the Central Intelligence Group.”  The memoranda reveal Gingrich’s troubled tenure.
   July 1947, D.M. Ladd: Gingrich’s “principal job will be to cooperate with the FBI… The decision by the Commission to establish a combined security and intelligence division was based on security studies made over..five Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers.. former Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence and..first head of the Central Intelligence Group…  the AEC program will head up in the unified office of Admiral Gingrich…”
   To D.M. Ladd from Victor P. Keay, Sep.9,1947:”[One] of our best [FBI] confidential contacts stated that Admiral Gingrich is very unpopular with the employees of the Security Division and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction and grumbling among them. He stated that Gingrich uses very high-handed methods…[and] that the Admiral has been giving [security] clearance for employment to persons who were recommended against by the Review Board..the General Manager and others… The Admiral in conversations with Special Agent [blank] has indicated that he doesn’t put much faith in the ability of his personnel, particularly [blank] of the Security Division… The Admiral also indicated..that he intended to rely heavily upon the Bureau rather than his own Security Division.”
   April 19, 1949, Gingrich handed in his resignation, effective May 1, and “pointed out that there was no centralized control and when he issued instructions..had no assurance that they would be carried out… He has had numerous problems and his division has been beset by many difficulties.”
Atomic Energy Dual (FBI) Agent
   The FBI stepped into the fray “To further discharge our responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act” and initiated discussion of “placing Bureau Agents in vital installations in undercover capacities.”  According to Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.” The Communist informant program appears to have endured while the dual-agent program fizzled: three Special Agent candidates were selected: “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by  AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to reconsider initiating the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”
   “During the Commission’s first three years there were occasions upon which I found myself at odds with a majority of  my colleagues… in the main..I was inclined to go along..if I could not bring them to see justice in my point of view.” –Lewis Strauss, p215, Men and Decisions.
One of his fellow AEC commissioners said of him, “If you disagree with Lewis about anything, he assumes you’re just a fool at first. But if you go on disagreeing with him, he concludes you must be a traitor.” [p362, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin]


Was Lee Harvey Oswald a “dual” atomic agent?

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Timeline NOTEs
1947 – “That spring, reports surfaced in the press that ‘secret files’ had been lost or stolen from the AEC’s laboratories. Critics of the AEC called for a military takeover of the agency on account of its ineptitude in managing security…”
uranium goes missing from the Argonne National Lab
–“the FBI was ex-soldier who had been found in possession of highly classified photographs stolen from the atomic facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico..[he] had also Brookhaven… As he was being arraigned in federal court, it was noted that he’d been picked up just as he was about to flee the country.”
July— [Albuquerque Journal] “The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers… A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the result of government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’…Officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments..[and] one of them added,’All we know is what we read in the papers.’…”
— In Socorro Dr. Irving Langmuir was initiating the first large-scale weather modification experiments;  Edward Teller wrote, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
April/May, Operation Sandstone in the Marshalls; first tests conducted by the AEC
May 14, Israel is founded, Palestine partitioned
–May 17, security breach reported, plutonium missing from Argonne. Bourke Hickenlooper calls for David Lilienthal’s resignation.
— Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine
— American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
— Sloan-Kettering opens for business
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes”
–CIA initiates Project Bluebird, drug and psychology-based mind control
– April 4, signing of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–May, Communist spy trials begin
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from 16th floor of Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets detonate first A-bomb; determined to already have the H-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–”November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium
–Jan, Klaus Fuchs “confessed on 23rd January 1950” that he passed atomic secrets to the Soviets; Fuchs’ courier Harry Gold led the investigators to David Greenglass and his sister Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg
— Jan 31, authorization of the ‘Super’ thermonuclear fusion H-bomb
— Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss resigned the AEC, effective April 15
The H Bomb
Excerpt from the book Fallout, published in 1960:
…”The complications of the fusion [hydrogen] bomb arise from the fact that it takes a vast amount of energy to start the fusion reaction. To make deuterium nuclei fuse..they must be heated to about 100 million degrees Fahrenheit. Such energy can be provided by the explosion of a fission bomb, which can therefore serve as a trigger for a fusion bomb. But then comes the problem of how to pack enough hydrogen fuel into the bomb and how to hold it together long enough to allow it to fuse.
   “In the first attempt..the hydrogen was condensed to its liquid form. This meant that it had to be reduced to a very low-temperature –not far from absolute zero– and so our first hydrogen ‘bomb’ was a gigantic refrigerator, weighing some 65 tons. Its fuel was tritium (the hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons), which fuses more readily than deuterium. This was the device detonated on the island of Elugelab in the Marshalls on November 1, 1952. It yielded the equivalent of about three million tons of TNT –150 times the Hiroshima bomb– and obliterated the little island…  Having proved that a fission-fusion device would work, the AEC scientists attacked the problem of reducing it to something portable enough to be used as a bomb. Several scientists..suggested that the need for liquefying the hydrogen might be avoided by combining it with the light metal litium in solid form; e.g. in the compound lithium deuteride, composed of one atom of lithium and one of deuterium.”
Congressman John F. Kennedy
   “Truman talked of ‘free peoples who are resiting attempted subjugation’… In this darkening world, an enemy of the Soviet Union was a friend of the United States… The public mood was shifting..and Jack was entering a Congress in which politicians of both parties had begun to flay away at Communists… of all the newly elected members..[Kennedy] was the first to berate publicly a putative Communist..[Russell Nixon of United Electrical Workers]before the House Labor Committee.
   …Joe remained as isolationist as he had ever been..[and] opposed the Marshall Plan as a massive giveaway of American wealth. He was all for letting the tired peoples of Europe have their desperate fling with Communism if they chose… Jack was making a different sound. Congressman Kennedy was a lowly freshman..But that spring [of 1947]..he stated that he was in favor of aid to Europe… Jack supported whatever measures were necessary to contain a Soviet Union that he believed pushed relentlessly outward, driven..and fortified by Communist ideology… [Kennedy] envisioned..a possible nuclear Armageddon..’some twenty-five or thirty-five years from now.‘ [pp244-246, The Kennedy Men] …Jack thought the veterans should lead the nation with concern for policies that would maintain the peace and build a strong and prosperous nation… [He] was pleading for America’s veterans not to retreat into private life, leaving the public arena to the predators, the self-interested, and the narrow parochial interests…[p235]…Jack carried with him the bitter memories of a wartime capital full of what he considered the self-serving and the self-seeking… [W]hen he returned to Washington..[he] saw only the endless compromise… As the months went by, Jack became less and less a forceful advocate and more of an ironic, disinterested bystander. He brought the same emotional distance that he kept from everyone in his life to the world of politics. [p248] …[Kennedy] did not like confrontation. He found the endless battles between Democrats and Republicans not a real war but a wearisome and tedious routine. He had one of the worst attendence records in the House of Representatives… Only some [of the absences] could be attributed to his many illnesses. [p280, ibid.]
   “Jack needed these [cortisone] injections to live..[p253]…”Jack was crippled and he couldn’t walk well,’ [George]Smathers remembered…‘[and it]was a long walk [to the House floor] for a guy who had a bad hip and a bad back…So he would lean on me..[to] get over..[and] vote. So that’s really how we became very close friends…‘ [The] two bachelors had been relegated to the distant reaches of the House Office Building… Smathers’ office was just down the hall from Jack’s. [p249-250] ‘He had leukemia at one point,’ Rose told Robert Coughlin in an unpublished..autobiography. ‘I remember..there was one doctor who could cure it…[People] don’t get over that..very often.’ Jack’s..leukemia..was yet another secret that had to be carefully contained. No record of this adult illness exists… [p282] His great creation, then, was..a man of apparently endless vigor and health. He let no one stand close enough to his pain to betray his illusion. [p253] Joe..had taught his children that time was the rarest commodity in life…’Time is man’s dominant foe,’ he said. ‘All man has on earth is the present moment…‘ [p260]
   “Jack’s anticommunism was tempered by the terrible realities of well as his own..ever-growing awareness of the complexities of the modern world…[p283] He and his colleagues had helped create an image of a Soviet monolith ready to strike, but now [1950] he had grasped the truths of nuclear detente. ‘Why should they [the Russians] take the risk of starting a war when the best they could get would be a stalemate during which they would be subjected to atomic bombing?’ he asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in February 1951. ‘Why should they throw everything into the game..[and] take risks they don’t have to –especially when things are going well in the Far East?’…’Stalin is an old man, and old men are traditionally cautious.’ ...[JFK] wanted to touch the world with his own mind…[p284]…Jack was attempting to understand the complex.. uncertain world of 1951. This was not easy in an America that adored simplicity. A dangerous new world was opening up... [p285, The Kennedy Men]
                                                            McMahon                Golden
Private Citizen Strauss did not leave the AEC program:  The Chairman of Congress’ Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), Senator [James O’]Brien McMahon of Connenticut, appointed Strauss Chairman of the Atomic Plant Expansion Advisory Panel. [ref. p378, Men and Decisions]. Strauss assistant, William T. Golden concurrently promoted the creation of a Presidential scientific advisory to Truman ( the later-named PSAC in 1957).
William T. Golden, who died Oct. 7, 2007, a few weeks short of his 98th birthday, was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science…In 1946, he became an assistant to Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss and helped organize that federal agency… His first Truman on December 18, 1950, under the title, “Mobilizing Science for War,” was the establishment of the position of scientific advisor to the president…Golden searched among the first NSF director candidates for someone..[and] found the right candidate in Alan T. Waterman, a physicist who was then chief scientist for the Office of Naval Research  … After ending his service to President Truman, Golden embarked on a life of stewardship and philanthropy. He was a trustee, board member or officer of nearly 100 scientific, educational and non-profit organizations. Waterman was also the brother-in-law of H. Neil Mallon (1895-d.1983) of Dresser Industries (acquired by Halliburton in 1998) and a close friend of Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-d.1972).
The Sea Change
By 1950, the Sandia base at Kirtland field in New Mexico, operated by Bell Laboratories of A.T.&T, advertized its ability to turn out two nuclear weapons per day. Pressing a fear that escalating hostility in Asia would cause the military to temporarily lose its Pacific Proving Ground in the Marshalls, it was decided run tests in Nevada. The Nevada Proving Ground had been authorized in 1943 with atomic munitions in mind. Operation Ranger, scheduled for Jan-Feb., became the first series at the NTS.  Up in Michigan, where the Public Health Service maintained one of its signal laboratories, radioactive snow was collected and measured that February.
   “In the twentieth century, the soldier and citizen have become interchangeable…[p9] …The atom bomb completes the evolution. It consecrates the use of any means against the entire population… By a logic that is paradoxical only in appearance, the country least warlike in its tastes and philosophy has thus played a decisive part in the advent of unlimited war… The United States will one day, according to certain experts, be more vulnerable to atomic attack than that of any other country.” [p155, The Century of Total War, by Raymond Aron, 1955] The Korean War, declared in June of 1950 was the first conflagration expected to go nuclear. On those grounds, an unprecedented series of three atomic operations were planned for 1951; Operation Ranger in Nevada (Jan-Feb), Operation Greenhouse in the Pacific (Apr-May), and Operation Buster-Jangle back at the NTS (Oct-Nov). The planners were preparing for “nuclear battlefield” simulations.
Top Secret — Soviet H-bomb
“[T]he evidence is convincing that the Russians achieved not only the first experimental nuclear fusion on earth, but also produced the first deliverable hydrogen bomb.” –p263, Energy and Conflict, 1976, Blumberg and Owens, who wrote “our first solid evidence came from Major Theodore F. Walkowicz…[who told us] there was something chilly and strange in the debris samples… [More] evidence comes from Robert LeBaron who, in 1951, was chairman of the [AEC] Military Liason Committee, the link between the Pentagon and the AEC. LeBaron..confirmed Walkowicz’s statement that there was a hydrogen component in a Russian test in late 1950… He was asked, ‘Was the AEC, the GAC, Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller aware of this intelligence?’ LeBaron’s reply was rather astounding: ‘No, they were not notified. It was top secret..’ ” [pp269-270, Energy and Conflict]
1951 – Operation RANGER – Jan27-Feb06 – [activated] Nevada Test Site : 5 shots   …Science magazine published an article by W.W. Meinke on the radioactive snow observed in Ann Arbor, Michigan  —
1951 – Operation GREENHOUSE – Apr08-May25 – Marshall Islands, Pacific : 4 shots
1951 – Operation BUSTER-JANGLE – Oct22-Nov29 – Nevada Test Site : 7 shots : operation Desert Rock, 6,500 troops on the ground
      ………W.McD. Hammon tests gamma-globulin on Provo Utah children, Sept -Dec.1
Polio Vaccine and Fallout
The gamma globulin “polio” vaccine trial run by William McDowell Hammon out of Provo Utah during Buster-Jangle was the first major response to fallout involving the Public Health Service and the March of Dimes. As both an acute and latent byproduct of radiation injury, polio (brain infection) has gone unappreciated as a fallout hazard –part of our hidden nuclear history. It is a significant factor, however, in the transformation of soldier-citizens. Hammon’s field work in Utah, and later in Texas and Iowa, was an opportunity to harvest gamma globulin (immune-cell rich blood serum) from the radiation-exposed public. Interestingly, enough children were registered in these vaccine trials to provide serum for the Nevada test participants through 1953, when the gamma globulin trial ended and the Salk vaccine began.
    Lewis Strauss, as noted in part I, began his career in medicine as the president of the Rothschilds’ polio hospital –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases. Polio, the ‘disease’ entity, was being managed by the Rockefeller establishment for whom Strauss went to work between his posts with the Atomic Energy Commission. Hired by Laurance Rockefeller to be financier to the Rockeller Brothers Fund, Strauss became a founding incorporator in some of its many projects –among them, the Population Council.
                                Lasker           Mahoney    
Birth control was a special interest of Albert and Mary Lasker. “[A]lmost from the moment they met, he and Mary addressed themselves to medical problems, and their long..struggle..still goes on productively today [1960]… The laskers worked..on at least four different fronts: (1) birth control; (2) medical research..;(3) the American Cancer Society; and (4) the Lasker Foundation. Mary, who admired Margaret Sanger greatly, had been active in the birth control movement… Overpopulation was, she thought, a major world problem… ‘Birth control,’ [Albert] said, was too negative a phrase; it connoted self-denial. He chose ‘Planned Parenthood’..[and] gave it $75,000…” [p315, Taken At The Flood, by John Gunther]
   Florence Mahoney, Mary Lasker’s lobbying companion-in-arms after the death of Albert (1952), remembered “‘The first time that I got interested in birth control was when I volunteered to work in the Crippled and Disabled Hospital in New York’…[S]he was asked to test the muscles of children who had polio… Mahoney did not actively participate in Sanger’s organization..but became an avid fan..using her political contacts to spread the Planned Parenthood word. [p29, Noble Conspirator]…Mental health reforms too, occupied her attention. [p31] ‘I was willing to suggest anything at anytime that I thought was going to help anybody,’ she said.” [p32, Noble Conspirator, by Judith Robinson, 2001]
   Albert Lasker also “never ceased doing things for people…[p300] One of his major preoccupations for a time was a proposal for converting the Federal Security Agency into full-scale Department of Welfare with cabinet status… He was almost as..interested in health matters as Mary, [writing] ‘I am certain..Congress..will pass a very big bill for aid to hospital building.’ Meantime, he kept his eye on events…” [p299, Taken At The Flood] Lasker was right. Congress turned the FSA into HEW (Health, Education and Welfare) and Nelson Rockefeller became its Asst. Secretary, credited to him as acting Secretary.
   Lasker, a longtime friend, colleague, and ‘elder’ to Strauss, pitched in when things needed changing at the Atomic Energy Commission. David Lilienthal, who had been Chairman from the AEC’s beginning, did not support the Super. “One of Lasker’s last friendships was with David Lilienthal, for many years chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and then of the [AEC]. They met toward the end of the decade, at Mary’s suggestion, when Lilienthal was on the point of leaving government. Lasker was his devotion to the public good..and the constructive brilliance of his mind. Albert knew, too, that he..wanted to go into some private business. So Lasker approached Andre Meyer [of Lazard Freres] pointing out that Lilienthal..was..a good man to have around. Meyer..proceeded to create a position for Lilienthal and a company was formed to work out projects..[in] long-range regional planning –irrigation, reclamation, et cetera– all over the world. So Lilienthal set out on a new career in Colombia, the Punjab, and particularly Iran.” [p291, Taken At The Flood]
 Timeline NOTEs: 1951-1953
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture”; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–”Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill”,9171,1983970,00.html (‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS; Operation Buster-Jangle
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
–Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations with atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Nov, Kamchatka Earthquake and tsunami, magnitude 9.0
–most cases of US polio ever on record, approx. 60,000 (diagnosis criteria begin changing, polio cases drop)
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the ‘Project Sunshine’ PR campaign begins (1953-1957, to alleviate fear of fallout) for the Atomic Energy Commission under Chairman Lewis L. Strauss
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar05, Joseph Stalin is murdered; watch Juri Lina’s film In The Shadow of Hermes
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS); later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (the marginalized HEW Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed becomes a republic
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mosaddegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax); installation of the Shah Pahlavi
Between 1950 and 1953 a Uranium Boom was taking place in the American Southwest.
to be continued in Part III: Israel gets the bomb; more on Pash, Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower,  nuclear testing, Oppenheimer case, relations with Israel, etc.

November 23, 2012

Lewis Strauss and JFK

                                                                 LewisStraussSmile Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss
Last year I posted a five-part series called the JFK Conspiracy Con introducing my way in to the subject of the JFK assassination. For me, it was a long outgrowth on the theme of militarized medicine– an intriguing and unexpected turn-of-events in pursuit of the biological hazards of radioactive fallout.
   Merging of JFK assassination events with all-things-nuclear, in retrospect, is as natural as the convergence of rivers on their way to the sea. Thanks to intrepid research across a broad range of topics, I’ve been able to navigate into the main current with the certainty of being carried on the strongest course. It takes no special talent to ride with a torrent –merely a skill to maintain position and allow the flow to work for you. While this describes my experience with the assassination it also, keenly, describes the career of the subject of this post, Lewis L. Strauss, who mastered his gratuitous position atop the military complex, or the military-industrial-medical complex as I’m obliged to say. To the best of my present knowledge, there is no record of any direct personal interaction between John F. Kennedy and Lewis L. Strauss. What does exist is a dazzling set of facts that fit a context of qualifiers demonstrating that Strauss had the capacity to plan, execute, and cover-up the assassination of our president as an ultimate sort of inside man.
   There are many published investigators into the JFK assassination who suppose we will never know the names of the shadowy perpetrators; that they are shielded in a hierarchy of structure that seals them forever beyond the reach of inquiry and evidence. A fascinating observation of concealed power is the fact that Strauss’s job as the Atomic Energy Commission chairman, his long years prior as a Kuhn Loeb & Co. banker, Naval Intelligence officer and admiral, and a man of great wealth and international influence has resulted in but one (one!) biography sanctioned by the Strauss family. James B. Conant, a Manhattan Project leader of the highest rank, called the AEC chair “the most important job in the world” and expected it to be offered to himself. It never was. Eisenhower wished to designate Lewis Strauss the “permanent chairman” of the AEC, according to biographer Richard Pfau. Strauss declined the offer in favor of his next appointment as Secretary of Commerce, a pro-tem assignment for which Congress rejected him a year later: “He never got over it.” Officially, Commerce was his last public service with a government paycheck and Strauss went on to wrap his career as a pro-nuclear ambassador and political activist until dead in 1974.
    I find it a stunning testament to Fear and Loathing that an apologist’s screed, written to offset the ridiculously “blameless life” of Strauss’s own autobiographical memoir, stands for commentary on his most interesting contribution to history. The very lack of accessible narrative makes these recordings more acutely incisive for the bareness of cutting edges. References to Strauss are virtually everywhere touched by the Cold War. He dominates the long-stewing events of the JFK assassination with the charm and presence of the Elephant in the Room –malodorous and darkening, with the potential to bring down the house. 
Protocol 15
[article 4 and 5]
“The class of people who most willingly enter into secret societies are..careerists, and in general people mostly light-minded, with whom we shall have no difficulty in dealing and in using to wind up the mechanism of the machine devised by us. If this world grows agitated, the meaning of that will be that we have had to stir [it] up in order to break up its too great solidarity. But if there should arise in its midst a plot, then at the head of that plot will be no other than one of our most trusted servants.
[article 9]
Death is the inevitable end for all. It is better to bring that end nearer to those who hinder our affairs than to ourselves, the founders of this affair…
Protocol 18
[article 2] It must be remembered that the prestige of authority is lessened if it frequently discovers conspiracies against itself… we have broken the prestige of the Goy kings by frequent attempts upon their lives through our agents…
[article 8]
With the establishment of official defense, the mystical prestige of authority disappears…

The Maccabee

Rosa Lichtenstein’s first child, born in 1896, was the “apple of her eye“. In that same year, Theodor Herzl wrote, “I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again.
   Twenty-two years later, returned from Europe on a junket to the Paris Peace convention as a newly minted banker with Kuhn Loeb Company, Lewis Strauss wrote a poem “For Mother” saying, “the blood of Maccabees runs in my veins and courses hot past throbbing temples calling me to rise and smite the foes of God and Righteousness” [p49, No Sacrifice Too Great]…”Strauss always believed that his life embodied some plan of God’s…[p22] As he grew toward that ministry in the ’30s, New York’s Temple Emanu-El made him their president, a member scriving “The Jews of the world are in a state of war. Lewis Strauss is our wartime president.” [p55, ibid.]
Temple Emanu-El: “Its landmark building on Fifth Avenue is the largest Jewish house of worship in the world… The congregation was founded by 33 mainly German Jews who assembled for services in April 1845”
   Rosa L. Strauss from Richmond, VA, may have been by her son’s side as he fulfilled her great ambition for him. The historical record is clear that she died of cancer in 1935, yet in one of Edward Teller’s possibly famous indiscretions, Teller told a pair of his own biographers about meeting Strauss’s mother after a speech at the Temple Emanu-El in 1948, the year Strauss resigned his 10-year wartime presidency there. The recollection was vividly made by Teller in the 1976 book Energy and Conflict who seemed amused by the incident. Mrs. Strauss wanted so much to introduce the physicist to her son, the president. Teller and Strauss had already become great allies in the battle to build H-bombs. Was Teller grossly indiscreet in the wake of Lewis Strauss’s passing (’74), or does the record of Rosa Strauss’s 1935 cancer death provide the crucially public motive for her son’s indefatigable activity as a cancer fighter? The motive was to impel the transfer and import of pre-weapons technology, radioactive substances like radium, and the scientists themselves. In one of the most obscure references to Strauss, he was also tersely noted as a member of a secretive medical research group called the Maccabee Club, presumably unrelated to any other known or traceable group by that name. The medical Maccabees remain a mystery.
Rosa Strauss expected Lewis to earn a fortune and then devote himself to public service…[p6]…She criticized his father’s lack of drive so often that..Strauss would recall that, ‘Father was totally devoid of ambition’…[p7]…Her husband was, in her words, ‘still a child’, satisfied with his limited world. She hoped her eldest son would escape his father’, and [Herbert] Hoover would be a superb role model, if only she could attach her son to him. Strauss shared his mother’s twin motives. ‘My idea,’ he wrote at the time [c.1917], ‘is to serve under this great man’s methods.’ ” [p10, No Sacrifice Too Great] Hoover had recently gained fame in the United States for first aiding the safe passage home of thousands of Americans stranded in Europe by the war, and secondly, for leading a war-zone food distribution known as the Commission for the Relief of Belgium (CRB). When the U.S. entered the war in April of 1917, Hoover was called away from his business in London by President Wilson to head a new agency, the U.S. Food Administration. Rosa Strauss hung Hoover’s portrait in the family living room and urged her son to go and meet him in Washington.
To keep Germany in the war, Paul Warburg, head of the Federal Reserve System, hastily arranged for credits to be routed to his brother, Max Warburg, through Stockholm to M.M. Warburg Co. Hamburg. Food presented a more difficult problem. It was finally decided to ship it directly to Belgium as “relief for the starving Belgians”. The supplies could then be shipped over Rothschild railway lines into Germany. As director for this “relief” operation, the Rothschilds chose Herbert Hoover. His partner in the Belgian Relief Commission was Emile Francqui, chosen by Baron Lambert, head of the Belgian Rothschild family.  The plan was so successful that it kept World War I going for an additional two years,  allowing the U.S. to get into the “war to end wars”. ” —Eustace Mullins
What no memoir (yet found) records about Lewis Strauss at this time is his apparently simultaneous acceptance of a post as the president of the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD). The hospital was originally set up in 1905 inside a Rothschild family residence at 588 Lexington Avenue (Manhattan) New York as a drug dispensary, run by the brothers (in-laws) Henry and Herman Frauenthal. Henry Frauenthal later published the most extensive medical manual on the crippling disease of polio up to its time, in 1914. . Henry Frauenthal, who survived the fated sinking of the Titanic in 1912 with his family, was married to Clara Heinsheimer, sibling of Kuhn Loeb & Co. partners, niece and nephews of the founding Loebs, related by marriage to Schiffs, Warburgs, and Seligmans.
   Young Strauss held his hospital presidency for 8 years or longer (1917-1925), but his experience on the job is no more than a dot in an historical document issued by the Montefiore-NYU medical complex that came to absorb the hospital. Were it not for a minor notation,  Strauss’s years at the HJD would be rendered invisible.  And those were boomtimes. The Frauenthals’ orthopedic business increased so greatly that a new 8-story building was needed with an entire floor (at the top) dedicated to X-ray/radiology. Strauss was the documented leader during this expansion. Not bad for a young man whose personal interests were “physics and photography”.
   Polio too was undergoing a great expansion: 1916 New York endured the highest case rate of concentrated polio in its history– 9,000 cases, nearly a third of them fatal. The epidemic erupted in August just days after a major explosion rocked the NY Harbor railhead known as Black Tom Island off the Jersey shore. News reports told of more than 50 deaths on the New Jersey side. The shipping goods, all European-bound materiels for the Allies, were completely incinerated– Black Tom Island burned for 2 weeks and was determined to have been German sabotage. Prosecution was delayed more than a decade and became part of the additional reparations demanded from Germany before WWII. The case also made the reputation of an up-and-coming lawyer named John J. McCloy, who, among other things, helped establish and serve the Salk Institute and the Warren Commission.
   In 1917, director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR), Simon Flexner, had procured the first experimental polioviruses from dead post-Black Tom polio victims. The virus type was dubbed “mixed virus” (MV, ‘mixed’ in the brains of living monkeys), a dangerous neurotrope that frightened many of the lab workers who came in contact with it. HJD personnel were accustomed to sharing the labs at the RIMR, which today bills its founding mission as the study of poliomyelitis and the pasteurization of milk. HJD became a renown polio center, perhaps the only polio hospital in the world at the time; Strauss was part of it, and they were well placed to know of polio’s significance as a radiation-induced disease that can emerge months or years after irradiation. The poliovirus made in labs has been called “the perfect human off-switch” and a “guided missile headed straight for the brain”.
   If I had to guess about the medical Maccabees, who they were and what interested them, I wouldn’t need to look further than the HJD and RIMR, a force combination of Rothschilds and Rockefellers. A last note on the Hospital for Joint Diseases here concerns the resident polio expert Henry Frauenthal after this WWI timeframe.  Not long after Lewis Strauss resigned in 1925 and signed up for Naval Intelligence, on March 11, 1927, Henry Frauenthal plunged to his death from the top of the hospital and Clara Heinsheimer Frauenthal was commited to an asylum for the rest of her life.

Hoover’s Relief

“..Less than a month after he first reported to the Food Administration [May 1917], Lewis Strauss became the private secretary to Herbert Hoover –‘the Chief’ as his closest subordinates called him,” ascending in a subterfuge that got the former secretary fired, “thus opening the job Strauss wanted.” [p13, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Hoover had parlayed his successes with Belgian Relief, run from the offices of Societe Generale Bank by his mining partner Emile Franqui, into an invitation to direct the U.S. Food Administration, which did not exist until the Food and Fuel Control Act passed on August 10. “The task assigned to the USFA was to regulate the supply, distribution, and conservation of foods… The USFA bought and sold..through two subsidiaries: the Food Administration Grain Corporation (U.S. Grain Corporation) and the U.S. Sugar Equalization Board, Inc.” [note in this link the Food Administration art poster with a caption that reads “designed in 1915 or 1916”]
   “Two of Hoover’s principal assistants were a former lumber shipping clerk from the West Coast, Prentiss Gray, and Julius H. Barnes, a grain salesman from Duluth. Both men became partners in J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation in New York after the war, and amassed large fortunes, principally in grain and sugar… Another J. Henry Schroder partner, G. A. Zabriskie, was named head of the U.S. Sugar Equalization Board. Thus the London Connection controlled all food in the United States through its grain and sugar “Czars” during the First World War… After the war, the partners of J. Henry Schroder company found that they now owned most of Cuba’s sugar industry.” –Eustace Mullins
   As for Hoover, “little of the man himself was known. Long periods of his life were utterly blank… His business career and operations were carefully guarded and elaborately obscured.”
   These were not the only methods studied and adopted by Strauss. “Two years with Hoover not only led smoothly to Strauss’s job with Kuhn Loeb but left their mark on Strauss’s personality as well. A loner since his shoe-selling days [after highschool], Strauss now hid himself further behind a shield of coldly polite formality very much like Hoover’s own…. Strauss also found in Hoover a model of impatient leadership, unwilling to compromise, who bossed rather than led. Like him, Strauss assumed that once he had thought a question through to a conclusion..others must follow simply because he was right. This..would carry him ahead quickly in banking.” [p27, No Sacrifice Too Great] But earlier, before he had congealed in his Chief’s style, and about to leave for Britain on the first mission of the USFA, “Felix Warburg called on him… Warburg told Strauss..Hoover’s private secretary could perform a great service to his people… Strauss leapt at the opportunity…[p16, ibid.]..and he also saw that if he did his work well, he could not fail to impress Warburg…[p17] Strauss had agreed to serve the JDC [Joint Jewish Distribution Committee]..before he left New York. He became administrative coordinator, trouble shooter, and financial agent for a network of JDC workers who fanned out into the cities of Warsaw, Prague, Vienna, and the surrounding countryside…[p23] All cables from the JDC headquarters in New York passed through his office, as did reports from JDC agents in the field. Strauss located surpluses in the depot of the U.S. Army, organized transportation, and arranged for payment… In addition, under the auspices of the JDC, Strauss..fought against overt anti-Semitism...[p24]…Strauss’s work for the Joint Distribution Committee led directly to his next career. Felix Warburg..and Harriet Loewenstein, the head of the JDC’s team in Europe, saw a bright future for the intelligent, ambitious young man. They thought about bringing him into their firm, Kuhn Loeb & Co, where Warburg was a partner and Loewenstein an accountant.” [p26, No Sacrifice Too Great]. Mortimer Schiff, on Red Cross business in Paris during the 1919 Versailles negotiations, delivered the offer.
   At the time, Lewis Strauss was living with his “uncle” Oscar Straus and “aunt” Sarah in their Paris mansion, rescued from the “elegant Hotel Crillon” where the lesser staff legations were housed along with the 200-person entourage of Colonel Edward Mandell House. “Oscar and Sarah..took care of him like blood relatives… They treated him like a son, and he relished the relationship. [p21] The Strauses took him to museums, horse races, and the opera, showing him the rewards enjoyed by those who could afford them, and they stimulated his ambition for money. [p22, No Sacrifice Too Great] Meanwhile, “Europe was desperate.
   On this second and long leg of the mission in Paris, while Strauss was flexing his cultural muscles with the Strauses and running the operations of the JDC, his daily tasks were focused on the post-war work of the American Relief Administration (ARA) which recast the wartime USFA into a reconstruction project. The USFA ceased to exist upon the signing of the armistice, November 11, 1918. “Hoover established the ARA, like the Food Administration, without organization charts or ponderous bureaucracies. He..found a way to staff the ARA cheaply by using American soldiers..who could not return..because of the shortage of ships. He took on 2,500 men..paid by the army and navy and hence cost the ARA nothing. Hoover organized them..with a simple mandate: ‘Set up the machinery of economic rehabilitation.’…The ARA rebuilt and managed a railroad system…cleared and opened ports, canals, and the Danube River; and..stepped in to operate the mines on a supranational basis. When typhus began to spread..killing 100,000 people a week, the ARA set up a containment line, stopped movement..across it, and then sent delousing stamp out the epidemic… Strauss worked at the center of the ARA. From the original two rooms at the Hotel Elysee-Palace the headquarters grew to fifty offices… As in Washington, Strauss controlled access to the Chief, drafted letters, and supervised execution of the Chief’s orders.” [pp 18-19, No Sacrifice Too Great] He even participated in high-level doings: “Strauss spent some time in conferences with President Wilson and other key officials” [p21]. “Strauss served as intermediary for a diplomat from Finland, Rudolf Holsti…Strauss became Hoslti’s benefactor and Finland’s champion.” [p20] “.. the country of Finland, which he..helped establish in 1919.” [p60, ibid.] Are Finnish schoolchildren taught that Lewis L. Strauss is a founding father of their country? It may have an unappreciated significance to Americans that many of the anti-communist Russians who banded together in Dallas Texas and extended their friendship to Lee and Marina Oswald had originally been funneled through Finland on their flight to the United States.
   The match with Hoover, Strauss wrote himself [published 1962], “has endured. There has scarcely been a month in the half a thousand months which have elapsed that I have not visited him.” [Forward, Men and Decisions] Hoover endorsed Strauss’s decision to turn down the job of Controller of the League of Nations. Strauss recalled, “my friend Justice Brandeis..had [written] to say that he had hopes of a career in public service for me…[but]Now more than ever, I was dedicated to the idea of making my way in the world of business… I returned ahead of Mr. report for work at the offices of Kuhn Loeb.. and sailed..on the S.S. Finland… We landed in New York on September 19 (1919).” [p51, Men and Decisions]
   “Strauss joined Kuhn Loeb at the perfect time to make a fortune quickly.” [p29, No Sacrifice Too Great] And “before the end of 1919 Herbert Hoover began a run for the Presidency.”[p30, ibid.]
World War I,  NOTES: “The JDC‘s resources came from funds collected by the American Jewish Relief Committee (est.) 25 October, 1914 and headed by wealthy Reform Jews of German origin, including Louis Marshall (who served as president), Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg… By the end of 1917, the JDC had transferred $2,532,000 to Russia, $3 million to German occupied Poland and Lithuania..[etc.]…During the emergency relief period of 1919-1920, the JDC expended more than $22 million..abroad… The Society for Safeguarding the Health of the Jewish Population formed in 1921.”
“..midsummer of 1914…The beginning of the European hostilities..found J.P. Morgan & Co. fortuitously appointed fiscal agent in the United States for the British and French governments. As such it took charge of the vast war purchases of the Allies…[and] crisis for the banking house was averted…. Most of the war’s cost was financed by pledging the government’s credit, i.e. the people’s credit, and this pledge at the end of the war amounted to nearly $30 billion, or more than 30 times the prewar national debt.”
“The First World War helped transform the American Red Cross into a powerful social force. At the outset of the war, the ARC had 562 chapters and about 500,000 members… by the end of the war, there were 3,724 chapters, 17,000 branches, and over 31 million members… The main tasks of the [ARC] War Council were to raise great sums of run the Red Cross..transforming it into an efficient arm of the government.”; “The chairman of its Central Committee was Wilson’s presidential predecessor William Howard Taft...” [p128, The Great Influenza, by John M. Barry] Spanish Flu, the pandemic begun in February of 1918, ravaged the American delegation at Versailles; Colonel House sickened with it 3 times and Pres. Wilson’s bout caused him to “lose his fire”. Wilson suffered a major stroke later in 1919 to the detriment of his policies such as Prohibition, which he opposed.
   The American Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Adolphus Simeon Solomons, agent of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and chartered by the Swiss headquarters in 1892. Clara Barton became the chapter’s president and Solomons served as vice-president. Barton and Solomons attended the 1894 Geneva Convention in which Solomons was elected to the vice-presidency of the International Red Cross.
The two relationships of greatest publicly claimed importance to Strauss from USFA experience were with Hoover and Robert A. Taft, the son of William Howard Taft and grandson of Alphonso Taft (1810-1891), co-founder of Yale’s Shull & Bones who was a Cincinnati judge and cabinet member under U.S.Grant as Atty.Gen and Secretary of War.
By the 1950s, Senator Robert Taft “was widely regarded as the most powerful man in Congress.” He opposed sending Americans to fight in Indo-China. In his last speech before dying of cancer in 1953 he said, ‘I have never felt that we should send American soldiers to the Continent of Asia’…In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of their greatest Senate predecessors… Kennedy would profile him in his book Profiles In Courage.”
Kuhn Loeb & Co.
Kuhn, Loeb & Co. started out in Indiana as a dry goods merchant, trader, pawn, and promissary note exchange, establlished in 1867 as the firm of Kuhn, Netter, Loeb and Wolff. In 1885 Solomon Loeb’s son-in-law, Jacob Henry Schiff, bought out Abraham Kuhn for proprietary control and became president.
   “In its early years, intermarriage among the German-Jewish elite was common. Consequently, the partners..were closely related by blood and marriage to the partners of J.& W. Seligman, Speyer & Co., Goldman Sachs & Co., Lehman Brothers, and other..German-Jewish firms… a particularly close relationship existed between the partners of Kuhn Loeb and M.M. Warburg & Co. of Hamburg Germany, through Paul and Felix.”
Kuhn Loeb put the big money on railroads; e.g. Chicago and Northwestern, Pennsylvania, Chicago Milwaukie & St, Paul.
   In 1901, with Kuhn Loeb funding, Edward H. Harriman “famously battled James Jerome Hill and J.P. Morgan to acquire control control” of the Union Pacific Railroad. Kuhn Loeb “also joined a partnership with Rockefeller in 1911 to gain control of [Morgan’s] Equitable Trust Company which was later to merge and become Chase Bank.” Incidently, in 1911, the Equitable Building in New York had a fire that burned the Union Pacific’s records.
   But turning the clock back to Kuhn Loeb’s financial rise reveals its central role in the founding of Marxist Communism: “Jacob Schiff even in 1890 organized and financed training for Jewish revolutionaries from Russia. It was B’nai B’rith..that planned the instruction for those training courses.” [p141, Under the Sign of the Scorpion, by Juri Lina] “From 1890, the First of May..[became] the date when communists and socialists across the world celebrate under Rothschild’s red flag, which symbolizes the permanent revolution.. [p86]…On the 31st of October, Vladimir Ulynov [Lenin] arrived in the capital St. Petersburg, where he began his subversive activity… In March 1898, the leading Jewish social democrats gathered in Minsk..and propagated the founding of a Zionist state. [p100] …Jacob Schiff…a minion of the Rothschilds, took care of the contacts between the revolutionary movement in Russia and the B’nai B’rith. (ref. Gerald B. Winrod..) [p136] The [Jewish] war began with a Japanese attack on Port Arthur (now Lushun) on the 9th of February 1904… All possibility of credit was shut off to Russia while Japan had unlimited credit. The most important Jewish loanshark, Jacob Henry Schiff in the United States..supported the Japanese military forces with a loan of $200 million dollars. [p139] …In December 1911, the American president William Howard Taft nullified the Russo-American trade agreement. [p149] In the archives of the State Department there is a document, No. 861.00/5339, which reveals how Jacob Schiff, who was very influential..within..B’nai B’rith, and his companions Felix Warburg, Otto Kahn, Mortimer Schiff, Isaac Seligman, [Jerome Hanauer] and others had made plans as early as 1916 to overthrow the Russian Tsar. [p151] …During the First World War…Trotsky lived in France…[then] was deported to Spain..[and] sent away to the United States of America. He landed in New York on January 13, 1917. [p150]…Some powerful forces had exactly the same interest in using the revolutionaries. It was primarily the American International Corporation, with John Pierpont Morgan Jr. (1867-1943) at the head, who tried to gain control of those international..adventurers… It was above all Jacob and Mortimer Schiff, Felix Warburg, Otto H. Kahn, Max Warburg, Jerome J. Hanauer, Alfred Milner and the copper family Guggenheim who financed the Bolsheviks…Two further names are mentioned in [the State Dept.] document: Max Breitung and Isaac Seligman. All those people were Jews and freemasons.” [p182, Under the Sign of the Scorpion]
   “The rabbi Isaac Wise (1819-1900), chairman of the B’nai B’rith Lodge in Cincinnati, has explained: ‘Freemasonry is a Jewish institution whose history, degrees, charges, passwords and explanantions are Jewish from beginning to end.’…[p204]…It has been calculated that the international financial elite made a total of 208 billion dollars on the war.” [p215] Mr. Lina suggests multiplying by 100 for a current valuation. The revolution “cost a lot of money, which mostly came from the United States. Jacob Schiff declared publicly in April 1917 that it was through his financial support that the revolution in Russia had succeeded. The freemasons exploited the food shortage.” [p189, ibid.]
“The pace of banking then was slow. Each deal tooks weeks to complete…and Strauss found many long days with little to do but write a single letter that moved a developing negotition forward a small step… Luckily, he could spend the slow time learning..from two of the masters. Partners Otto H. Kahn and Jerome J. Hanauer carried the load for Kuhn Loeb in the twenties, and Strauss was..apprenticed to them. Kahn was flamboyant… [p29, No Sacrifice Too Great] Hanauer, on the other hand, was quiet, patient, and generally unnoticed; everything about him was carefully in place, and..he looked after the details of the business.” [p30, ibid]
   “As one of the most eligible Jewish bachelors in New York, Strauss found no end of social life. He centered his activities on ‘Uncle’ Oscar and ‘Aunt’ Sarah Straus, his hosts in Paris, and their circle of friends.” [p33, ibid]
Other Strauses
The Strauss family tree is another area in which privacy (obfuscation or blankness) prevailed. Lewis Strauss named no other family than his parents, brother, and son. He mentioned a “rich uncle in New York”. The biographer included his grandparents and acknowledgement to LLS’s descendents. Going further is a matter of guesswork, however, if records of correspondence are any guide, Lewis Strauss had made significant contact with the extended Straus clan (alternately spelled with two ‘s’s) as a teenager, several years before his meeting Oscar and Sarah in Paris. The families had much in common with both patriarchs arriving as latecoming “48”ers, fleeing the Marx-inspired Revolutions of 1848. They came from the same region south of Frankfurt (between Darmstadt and Karlsruhe) and started out as dry-goods peddlers with “horse, buggy, and benefactor” in the rural countryside until they each afforded purchasing a store. Leopold Strauss (Lewis’s grandfather) settled in Culpeper Virginia. Lazarus Straus (Oscar’s father) settled in Talbotton Georgia, coming to the U.S. under slightly different circimstances –at an older age than Leopold, with a wife and five children. Leopold was about 18 years old and unattached; he married his benefactor’s daughter, Caroline Lowenthal, and raised 11 children.
   Oscar Solomon Straus (1850-1926) was 46 years older than Lewis Strauss, the youngest of his four siblings, with 3 older brothers. Two of them made their indelible marks on history; Isidor (1846-1912) and Nathan (1848-1931), who co-owned R.H. Macy’s and  Abraham & Straus department stores.; ; Isidor and his wife, Ida Blun Straus, were killed with the sinking Titanic, leaving the stores largely to their sons. Nathan, who retired after Isidor’s death, achieved renown for his Zionism and worldly effort to pasteurize milk. Nathan’s laboratory in Palestine became the manifest anchor establishment of the Weizmann Institute for Scientific Research. The two brothers had owned their Abraham & Straus property jointly with Simon F. Rothschild, whose older brother Louis Frank Rothschild (married to Cora Guggenheim) was the lifetime executive treasurer of the Hospital for Joint Diseases.
   It’s a plausible theory  that Leopold and Lazarus were brothers, descended from large merchant families of traveling salesmen who sent their offspring into the countryside to stake out territories for themselves and their own families. The greater Strausses from southwest Germany, relocated to the U.S. between 1840 and 1860 would have been “cousins” and second cousins. They are still painstakingly rediscovering each other today from meager stories of the past. Back then, some would have fled the revolutions as armed combatants deliberately veiling their origins –perhaps, especially, Leopold Strauss.
    Lewis Strauss may have been expected to court a suitable “cousin” when he came of age–  he certainly appeared to be “courted” by the Strauses. His mother, of course, was not a Strauss. She held a high ambition for the “right” marriage for her son, a dynastic marriage, fulfilled to her pleasure when Lewis L. Strauss married Alice Hanauer in March of 1923. Nonetheless, important alliances were forged among them. For example, Nathan Strauss collaborated with Lewis Strauss, Samuel Untermeyer, and journalist Herman Bernstein to bring a high-profile defamation/libel suit against Henry Ford; Ford’s crime– publishing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in the Dearborn Independent. In Bolshevik Russia, possession of the Protocols meant getting shot on sight. The acceptable Soviet reading material, it seems, was a copy of Colonel E.M. House’s “Philip Dru, Administrator.”
“During 1915 and 1916, Wilson kept faith with the bankers who had purchased the White House for him, by continuing to make loans to the Allies. His Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, protested constantly, stating that “Money is the worst of all contraband.” By 1917, the Morgans and Kuhn, Loeb Company had floated a billion and a half dollars in loans to the Allies. The bankers also financed a host of “peace’ organizations which worked to get us involved in the World War. The Commission for Relief in Belgium manufactured atrocity stories against the Germans, while a Carnegie organization, The League to Enforce Peace, agitated in Washington for our entry into war. This later became the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, which during the 1940s was headed by Alger Hiss. One writer* claimed that he had never seen any “peace movement” which did not end in war.” –Eustace Mullins
Oscar S. Straus became president of the New York Peace Society, creator of the League To Enforce Peace, organized under the rubric of the Lake Mohonk conferences on International Arbitration.
Rising Star
   The training days of Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss in which he did his job well, to summarize, began in 1917 with dual appointments; the hidden executive of a Rothschild medical enterprise and their special envoy in war organization. Alliances forged through these experiences became the significant relationships of his professional life. Proof of Strauss’s mettle as a prince of Maccabees was rewarded with riches and marriage. He then acceded to numerous high-ranking offices such as the executive of the American Jewish Committee and the Jewish Agricultural Society. Next step was an officer’s commission in military intelligence as a Lieutenant Commander in the Naval Reserve, assigned to the New York district under the command of Paul Foster.  Foster and Strauss became “close friends”.
   Of greatest import was the role he was being groomed to fill, following in the footsteps of Jacob Schiff. Certainly, in time, he would have been expected to exercise the same audacious kind of authority if not by the same means.  “Jacob Schiff declared publicly in April 1917 that it was through his financial support that the revolution in Russia succeeded….[p189, Under the Sign of the Scorpion]….The order to murder the Tsar and his family actually came from New York…Yakov Sverdlov..had received orders from Schiff to liquidate the Tsar and his entire family.” [p276, ibid.]
Only thirty years old in 1926, Strauss was well on his way to the top of Kuhn Loeb… Each time the partners increased Strauss’s responsibility, he responded superbly. This rising star was thus the obvious choice to represent Kuhn Loeb on a trip to Japan. The firm had served as bankers to the Japanese government for decades. Most significant was the $200 million loan that financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power..and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria. In 1907..Jacob Schiff had made a tour of Japan…[and] In 1926, Strauss set out to renew the personal ties on which Kuhn Loeb’s special relationship with Japan depended.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   He was, by now, a most trusted servant. “A promotion greeted Strauss in his return from Japan. As of December 31, 1926, he held sole power of attorney. His signature alone on a contract or check could commit Kuhn Loeb…His compensation for 1927 exceeded $120,000… enhanced authority meant that he negotiated on his own… [H]e began to make contacts among the managers of [steel producers] Youngstown, Bethlehem, Cleveland Cliffs, Inland and National…. Strauss was clearly a young man to watch…” [p37] And “when Herbert Hoover made another bid for the presidency, Strauss threw himself into the campaign… He took charge of..the South…then moved quickly to mobilize support for Hoover among southern bankers” [p38, ibid], resulting in a “great victory” celebrated at the Hoover home in Palo Alto.
   “After the election Strauss learned that another promotion awaited him, and on January 1, 1929, he became..a full member of the inner circle. In only ten years, and at an incredibly young age, he had become one of the leaders in the world of banking, marked out to carry on the future of Kuhn Loeb.” [p40, No Sacrifice Too Great]
Autobiographical Notes
 from Men and Decisions (published 1962):
[p53] “During Mr. Hoover’s service in the cabinets of Harding and Coolidge [as Secretary of Commerce], my contacts with him were less frequent. The banking business absorbed my interest and my time. I was succeeded as his assistant by Christian A. Herter, [from Hoover’s USFA staff] who had been secretary of the U.S. Peace Commission in Paris in 1918-19, where he had impressed everyone… He served Mr. Hoover with distinction during the period when the Department of Commerce was raised to a degree of usefulness to the economy which it had never before attained. Mr. Herter later entered politics, served..the House of Representatives, as Governor of..Massachusetts and was appointed Under Secretary of State, and later Secretary [of State, 1959] by President Eisenhower.”
[p55]..”Mr. Hoover did not settle in Washington, but established his headquarters at 42 Broadway in New York, where his overseas relief activities were centered… my office was at the corner of William and Pine streets, only a few blocks distant…
>>>Christian Archibald Herter was a descendent of “48”-ers (named Hagerlocher) who immigrated to New York’s Lower East Side and established an exclusive furniture business catering to industrial nouveau riche. Christian’s uncle, also named Christain A. Herter, was an experimental biologist who inspired J.D.Rockefeller Jr. to an interest in medicine. Uncle C.A. Herter died in 1910 at age 45 of a neurological wasting disease, thereafter bearing his name (Gee-Herter disease). As Eisenhower’s second Secretary of State, C.A. Herter provided the crucial ‘nuclear briefing’ to president-elect John F. Kennedy.
[p83] “The twenty-seven years with Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were fortunate ones for me, as I came under the tutelage of men who were among the wisest..experts of their day…”
[p85] “The aggregate..financing in which I was involved totals many hundreds of millions of dollars and included adventurous projects such as building a steel plant in Detroit… the laying of a new transatlantic cable…financing the ideas of inventors and other enterprises that were off the beaten course of banking…”
[p85] “[During the 1920s] I came to know Leopold and Philip Block of Chicago, Ernest Weir of Pittsburgh, George Humphrey, George Fink, Tom Girdler, Frank Purnell, and other powerful figures in the world of steelmaking. Eventually I handled the banking for their companies; Inland, National, Great Lakes, Youngstown, Republic and other steel companies. At one point, all but two of the large independent steel manufacturers were my clients.”
[p94] “.. during a visit to October and November of 1933 [where] on November 1 I had lunch at New Court, the impressive and venerable Rothschild banking establishment… At the table, with my Rothschild hosts Anthony and Lionel, were Sir Robert Waley Cohen, Lord Melchett and other figures… Mr. Lionel..said, ‘Mr. Strauss, I suppose you know.. your government has been buying gold and this morning your President Roosevelt has set a price of $32.28 for it. Can you tell us why the President would suddenly jump the price to that particular figure?’ To this I replied, ‘Maybe he just pulled the figure out of a hat.’…It might as well have been drawn out of a hat, as I so lightly advised the Rothschilds and their friends.”
[p97] “As a boy, photography had been a major interest…”
[p98] “In 1922, Everett Somers [military aide]..introduced two young musicians, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky… [They conceived a method of making photographs in color with one exposure on a single film..using an ordinary camera…  I arranged for the necessary money to pay for patent applications and attorney fees and to rent and staff a small laboratory. The Eastman Kodak Company co-operated by furnishing required sensitizers, dyes, and other materials, but brushed the process itself aside… [until] I decided to go over the head of [Kodak] officers.. and traveled to Rochester with Sir William Wiseman [of British Intelligence], one of my associates, George Eastman himself.. which resulted in marketing the product called Kodachrome. Annually it earns many millions for the Kodak Company and until the patents finally expired in 1952, was highly profitable to the young inventors and to all concerned.”
>>>George Eastman (1854-1932) committed suicide by a gunshot to the heart on March 14, 1932
…”Another decision was to back a young inventor, Edwin H. Land, who was introduced to his camp counselor, Julius Silver… Land impressed me at once, a fact of which I am proud… Land has many inventions to his credit.. some of them of a classified character… He is best known perhaps for the Polaroid Land Camera.”
Eastman Kodak was one of the great corporate success stories of the 20th century and George Eastman was in the top 25 of richest Americans by WWI. Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates. In 1912, Dr. C.E. Kenneth Mees, “acquired” through merger with a British firm and made vice-president, established the Kodak Research Laboratories. Mees was a pioneer in aerial photography technology, and by his efforts Kodak participated in defense work using a Rochester lab on the Genesee River called “Hawkeye“. In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making the Barnes camera (developed by plant manager F.W.Barnes), the first 16mm movie camera. Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.
   Two years before Strauss met Godowsky and Mannes (1920) George Eastman funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “one of the most astute medical statesmen and administrators the United States has ever produced–Dr. Abraham Flexner, at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.”  Abraham Flexner was not a doctor though his older brother Simon Flexner had earned the title through a one-year medical course in Louisville Kentucky, the very kind of school that the Flexners sought to shut down. Abraham, the educator, wrote a national medical school survey report called the “Flexner Report” (1910), used by the AMA, Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations to leverage compliance to ‘standards’ in exchange for funds. The new Rochester school was to be a model of Flexnerian innovation emphasizing research. During WWII, Rochester M & D and Strong Memorial were the headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides and fluorine.
>>>Grand Rapids, Michigan was the first U.S. city to institute fluoridation…Gerald R. Ford was Grand Rapids’ congressional representative from 1949 to 1973 ..(and also on the Warren Commission)…[read more about fluoride]; a third Flexner brother, Bernard Flexner, lawyer and protege to Kuhn Loeb lawyer Louis Brandeis, was a leader of the 1917 Red Cross Mission to Russia and Roumania and 1922 founder of the Palestine Economic Corporation.
The Strange Career of Hoover
Herbert Hoover’s “famed mining career began in the goldfields of western Australia (‘Sons of Gwalia’ gold mine) in 1897 where he also co-founded the Zinc Corporation (Rio-Tinto-Zinc Ltd) in 1905” –so begins a blurb on Hoover written two years ago in a post called “Atomic Power, No Contest” about the early preparations made in the 1920s for World War II and the coming atomic bombs. At the time, I knew little about the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Commerce, but it was still clear to me that Hoover was constantly operating outside of his jurisdiction, focused on local and regional power utilities, for example. Within his jurisdiction, however, were unique opportunites relating to trade and traffic. He took office during an agricultural depression brought on by WWI, bearing directly on the Food and Relief Administration programs of overproduction, capitalization, and fixed pricing.  Hoover’s time as Sec. of Commerce and then President also ranged over nearly the entire period of Prohibition, and some of this activity was taken note of by journalists as Hoover’s unpopular presidential policies in the deepening Great Depression stirred national discontent. [reference this essay on Hoover’s presidency]
   “During Hoover’s presidency Strauss played an important role in the illegal use of naval intelligence for a partisan political purpose… On May 21, 1930, Strauss received Commanders Paul Foster and Glenn Howell in his office at the Kuhn Loeb building. Foster, Strauss’s first chief at the Naval Intelligence District, had become a close friend, and Howell was the incumbent chief.” [p41, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss told the men that a man named O’Brien was collecting documents about “unsavory episodes” in Hoover’s past and intended to have them published. ” ‘Strauss is authorized by the President to utilize the services of any of our various secret services,’ Howell believed [and wrote in his personal diary]… Using as a cover story the premise that foreign agents threatened the United States, Howell enlisted the aid of the man whose office adjoined O’Brien’s… obtained an impression of [O’Brien’s] lock…made a key, and early on a Monday morning quietly entered O’Brien’s office, only to find..O’Brien had moved out with all his furniture and, of course, the documents...” O’Brien was collaborating with Mr. John Hamill, and they did indeed give Strauss the slip and published a book called The Strange Career of Herbert Hoover Under Two Flags. The biographer Richard Pfau continued,”What this incident showed about Strauss was his willingness to employ the clandestine skills of counterintelligence for a political purpose. He probably justified the illegal activity on the ground that it necessary to protect the presidency. Like Watergate…this was a wanton abuse of power. It shows that for sacrifice was too great, even though it violated the law, if he could convince himself it was necessary for the nations’s security.” [p42, ibid.] The 1930 break-in on James J. O’Brien by the NYC ONI is described here: “Hoovergate”…”Glenn Howell was no stranger to break-ins and espionage against his fellow citizens. In his 1930 diary he speaks confidently of infiltrating and spying on Communist cells and then arranging for break-ins…”
   But there were others: “This post discusses how Herbert Hoover misused the..powers of his harass a group of authors, including distinguished muckraker Walter Liggett, who were preparing anti-Hoover biographies… Howell relates the harmless subterfuge used to gain access…[but] Liggett was murdered in a gang-land killing [in front of his wife and daughter] in Minneapolis in 1935… Shortly after the [American Commission for Russian Famine Relief] was launched, Mr. Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce, FBI investigation of Walter W. Liggett… Liggett made his reputation..describing the catastrophic impact of Prohibition on the integrity of law enforcement and local governments… Liggett’s successful newspaper and magazine writing provided the opportunity to publish a book on a long-time interest of his –Herbert Hoover…The prospective book was a hot property… Walter either did not realize or did not care that..detectives were investigating and reporting on him while he worked… Liggett was lured to a hotel with the promise of information and then savagely beaten led by gangster Kid Cann… Finally, on December 9, 1935, Walter Liggett was gunned down by five fatal shots [from] none other than Kid Cann.”
Kid Cann (Isadore Blumenfeld) ” was convicted of violating the Mann Act in 1959 and, after a short prison term, retired to Miami Beach, Florida, where he and Meyer Lansky operated a real estate empire. He was involved in organized crime in Miami Beach and Havana, Cuba, until his death.”
   “Hoover’s agricultural program –the showpiece of his 1929 initiatives– ended in fiasco. The Grain Stabilization Corporation stopped buying surpluses..driving the price of wheat catastrophically lower… The farming sector faced ruin…. one-fourth of American farmers lost their holdings –their fields, their stock, their barns and their homes– many of which had been in one family for generations
   “In the summer of 1933…Strauss decided to buy a farm in Virginia… At the severely depreciated prices produced by the Depression, large estates were available for small sums… Strauss also thought he might accept a post in Washington one day… a home within easy reach of the capital would be useful… In July 1933 he bought 1,600 acres near Brandy Station, between Warrenton and Culpeper… In addition, a corner of the land had been a battleground in the Civil War.” [p47, No Sacrifice Too Great]
>>>”Brandy Rock Farm..was..designated as a ‘conservation’ property…The heirs of L.L. Strauss have been paid $30-50,000 annually in government funds …the third largest farm subsidy in the state of Virginia.”
The Byrd Machine
“Strauss..bought an historic estate at Brandywine, Virginia during the 1930′s, from which he ran the notorious Byrd machine for many years, a totalitarian control of Virginia politics which had begun at the turn of the century… [Harry F.] Byrd, with Strauss’ money behind him, became Governor of Virginia… He continued his long association with Byrd during their years together in Washington. When Byrd retired, Strauss became his son’s campaign manager.” –Eustace Mullins
Harry Byrd’s cousin, Texas oilman D.H. Byrd, was the owner of the Texas Schoolbook Depository building and according to Russ Baker’s book (Family of Secrets), D.H.Byrd had formerly employed Oswald’s handler, George DeMohrenschildt. DeMohrenschildt is noted to have been a dealer in uranium.
The Radium Trade
Lewis Strauss was born (Jan.1896) just weeks after the news of Wilhelm Roentgen’s first medical x-ray (Dec.1895), taken of his wife’s hand, flashed with excitement throughout the scientific world. Photosensitive glass plates were key to proving the existence of radioactivity and the intrinsic properties of energetic materials. The dogged persistence of Marie Sklodowska Curie in procuring radium, helped by her husband Pierre and friend Henri Becquerel fueled the industrial emergence of a radium trade by 1903. Parallel developments  in radium treatment between the French and Americans was carried on in the U.S. by a New York surgeon named Robert Abbe who brought a supply over from the Curies lab. In that year, 1903, “Hans Zinsser, who became an American bacteriologist of high academic achievement..wrote his first paper..on the effects of radium on bacteria… The Zinsser family chemical business [dealing in commercial lacquer and paint] was run by Hans’s brother whose daughters, Margaret and Ellen, married Lewis Douglas [Phelps-Dodge] and  John J. McCloy [Black Tom Island lawyer], respectively.”
   Marie Curie’s radium was made from a stock of pitchblende found in the uranium waste of the Joachimstal mines. Little is known or said about her sponsors motives, however uranium pitchblende ore was already in use in the U.K as a steel-hardening alloy, shipped to London in 1872 by a British mining agent Robert Pearce who sold his 3-ton cache for $7,500. Pearce found the pitchblende in Gilpin County, Colorado and soon pockets around the Colorado Plateau were yielding high grade ore. By 1911, Colorado ores bearing radium were sent to Pittsburgh for processing and reduction by the Standard Chemical Company, the largest supplier of its time. Radium came on the market in those days at a cost of $150,000 per gram.
   Across the pond in Belgium, a legendary gathering of European physicists was convened for the first Solvay conference, a colloqium of the brightest minds, including Emil Warburg, Albert Einstein, Mme Curie, Paul Langevin and Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford, considered the father of the atom, “had made a classic discovery: The core of the hydrogen atom was blasted from the core of nitrogen. Rutherford had achieved the old dream of alchemy; this was the first time man had accomplished transmutation… In 1904 he had glimpsed a possible way atomic energy might be released… He told [a London lecture] audience, ‘A mere pound of uranium, on the scale we see possible, might liberate the same energy as burning 100 million pounds of coal. Scientists are working hard to find a way to release this energy at will. Personally I hope they do not succeed until man has learned how to live with his neighbors in peace.” [p52, The Deadly Element, by Lennard Bickel]
   It does not take a detective’s eye to follow the early development of atomic energy. Rutherford’s 1904 statement is a clear indicator of the groundbreaking path, known to his fellow conferees. Radium marketed as a medical miracle generated capital, industriousness, and intense scientific interest. It was a like substance and stand-in for all uranium products, including plutonium which didn’t yet exist. Under the auspices of Belgian Relief and the U.S. Food Administration, the assumed contacts were made to corner the radium market with ore from the Belgian Congo: …”We had both [Sengier, president of Union Miniere du Haute Katanga, and Strauss] been connected with Hoover’s Commission for Relief of Belgium in World War I, and our friendship dated from those days” —Lewis Strauss [p317, Men and Decisions] The Union Miniere built an exclusive facility and put its radium on the market in 1922 at lower cost (roughly S100,000-120,000). In the prior year, another assumed advance occurred in which a demonstration of fission was offered to Albert Einstein while visiting Prague (assumed that Einstein accepted and the offer came from Leo Szilard). Einstein was scheduled to travel to the United States with Chaim Weizmann on a Zionist fundraising tour –which he did– and then returned to Prague straight away to arrange a special laboratory where he began working with Szilard.  Fission was made possible by the advent of particle accelerators.
   Pennsylvania’s Standard Chemical Co., domestic radium supplier, was out of business by 1926 and the Belgians remained unchallenged in the field of radium distribution until the Canadians discovered the Great Bear Lake region in northern Saskatchewan.
“..the Canadians..brought in their mines from the distant Northwest Territories in 1931 thanks to ‘flying wheelbarrows’ and bush pilots… [Boris]Pregel said, “The monopoly of radium which Union Miniere had went on for many years till the Canadians came in with their own material [and] their refinery, Port Hope… they began to sell, to compete with the Belgians. They did it because they didn’t have the necessary distribution channels… practically nobody…”. (Part III) And practically noboby left records of how the Canadians managed to compete, but the prices dropped according to statements, for the first time below $100,000 per gram.
   North of Rochester New York, across the open water of Lake Ontario, “Port Hope.. is known for having the largest volume of historic low-level radioactive wastes in Canada. These wastes were created by Eldorado Mining and Refining Co. and its private sector predecessors.,_Ontario
   Most importantly in this period of the early 1930s, is the continuation of nuclear technology developments in settings of medical research. Hospital labs became fundamental proving grounds for isotopes and particle accelerators, and radium was still the most expensive drug on the market.
Lewis Strauss  wrote, “Following the deaths of both my parents (in 1935 [not?] and 1937), I became aware of the inadequate supply of radium for the treatment of cancer… the demand was so great that the stock was divided into milligrams. Dr. James Ewing, then director of Memorial Cancer Hospital in New York, told me that if he had enough radium he would construct a ‘bomb’ holding several grams, which he felt might be the answer to the treatment of deeply located cancers.” [p163, Men and Decisions] To this end, Strauss claims to have struck up a relationship with physicists Leo Szilard and his colleague Arno Brasch. From Strauss’s own correspondence records, the exchange with Szilard began in 1934 –significantly the year in which Szilard patented the first known nuclear reactor. Strauss privately arranged to buy a particle accelerator from Brasch through his relative, Isbert Adam, a business broker in Havana Cuba. The ‘surge generator’ and the scientist were both slated for a destination at the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory , part of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
   Caltech, under the direction of Strauss’s professed ‘idol’ Robert Millikan whose textbook inspired his devotion to physics, was then the center of advanced U.S. study in genetics and aeronautics, ( Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory at Cal. Inst. of Tech.(GALCIT) and the new Jet Propulsion Laboratory) headed by Theodore von Karman. Von Karman, himself an Hungarian immigrant, was ‘spiritual father’ to the small group of four Hungarian scientists who were nicknamed the Martians –they were, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann and Leo Szilard. Wigner and von Neumann were secured in resident lifetime fellowships in 1930, not long after the Guggenheim Aeronautics lab was created, at a new East Coast counterpart at Princeton, the Institute of Advanced Study [IAS]. Albert Einstein had also been contracted to the IAS in 1930, coming later in 1933.
    Princeton’s IAS was founded  by “Dr.” Abraham Flexner (same as Rochester Medical) with funding from the Bamberger department store fortune –Lewis Strauss joined its board of directors during WWII and became its chair concurrent to his executive with the Atomic Energy Commission.
   The first nuclear technologies then, X-rays and radium, were delivered into the world at the very time of Lewis Strauss’s birth –he may have taken great meaning from it as a talismanic guide in “God’s purpose” for him. Eisenhower’s offer of “permanent chairman” (1958) for atomic energy was merely acknowledgement of what had already been. Virtully every step of this man’s life was in furtherance of achieving the most powerful weapons ever created on behalf of an ancient cult of racist assassins to whom he owed his glory. It is the most salient fact of his existence, and he stopped at nothing for its gain.
Radium Notes: “In the fall of 1901, the Belgian Companie Internationale d’Orient..appointed Emile Franqui (1863-1935) [as] the Belgian consul in Shanghai…The company belonged to Emperor Leopold II of Belgium. Edgar Sengier (1879-1963)..was sent in 1907 to Shanghai to direct this company. Both Franqui and Sengier became later directors of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga.”
The Congo can best be understood as the private preserve and reservation of Societe Generale [bank]… its influence over the financial houses of Europe was said to have equaled that of the Rothschild family or the J.P.Morgan banking empire” [p44 of the book text of ‘Uranium’; ]…”A substantial amount of uranium has been smuggled out of the Congo in the last decade [since 2000] and the source is almost certainly Shinkolobwe [mine].”  [p10 ibid.]
Author Joseph Conrad wrote about the genocidal atrocities in the Congo committed by the Belgians in his ‘novella’ Heart of Darkness: “in 1902, Heart of Darkness was included in the book “Youth: a Narrative, and Two Other Stories” (published November 13, 1902, by William Blackwood).[republished in 1917]”
When Emile Francqui died (1935)..”the New York Times memorialized him as the ‘copper king of the Congo’…In 1891 he led an expedition into the Congo and gained it for King Leopold…While [earlier] consul general at Shanghai, he secured valuable concessions, notably the Kaiping coal mines and the railway concession…”
Joseph “Conrad had himself gone to Congo in 1890 at the time [Leon] Rom was committing his atrocities.”
“The agent of C.R.B. [food relief] in Belgium, the Comité National de Secours et d’Alimentation with Ernest Solvay as Chairman and Emile Francqui as President organized food distribution in occupied Belgium through Provincial Committees.”
Lewis Strauss thought to write in his 1962 memoir that after he started his new banking career (9-19-19) and took his relief activities to a higher level, in April of 1920, “about that time, I was reading Joseph Conrad and suffered from troubled dreams of leaky ships, overcrowded with men and foundering in tropic seas.” [p74, Men and Decisions] It was the only instance in the memoir that Strauss mentioned his personal reading material.
Radium, and its daughter gas radon, were added to public drinking water beginning in 1903 according to whistleblower Dr. Albert Schatz, the discoverer of streptomycin.  Radium and its mine waste was later packaged and sold as fertilizer by the Standard Chemical Company, starting in 1911. p
Joe Kennedy
Joseph P. Kennedy was a ‘friend’ to Lewis Strauss by some accounts although no such relationship is claimed by either camp or demonstrated by any record known to this researcher. Kennedy’s career actions, however, reveal an astute and enterprising sense of sharing in the ‘friendly’ interests among Strauss’s associates. He certainly had their attention from his stellar foray into the movie business through the buy-out of the Film Booking Office (FBO). The movie business, and not bootlegging as the myth persists, made Kennedy’s fortune: “Hollywood studio chiefs in the mid-20s were almost all immigrants, men such as Carl Laemmle of Universal, Louis B. Mayer and Marcus Loew of MGM, and Adolph Zukor of Paramount, men who had started with arcades, nickelodeons, or small theaters…
   JPK’s closest partners in the FBO venture included Louis Kirstein and Guy Currier. Kirstein, who ran the Filene’s department store in Boston, was “a man of many interests” and “one of the outstanding leaders of American Jewry..[as] chairman of the General Committee of the American Jewish Committee… national chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, the leading fundraising agency for..Palestine…[and] he acquired a role similar to that of Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg…striving [for] cooperation of all sections within the Jewish community for one common purpose.” Strauss was then, and continued to be, on the executive of the American Jewish Committee.
   Acquisition of the FBO, a prolific producer of films itself, poised Kennedy and his partners for a strategic consolidation during a period of great technological change in the business– the sound revolution. They exploited a leadership power vacuum among the companies that made up the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer network and made a new entity, RKO, with Kennedy’s silent partner, RCA/NBC’s president David Sarnoff. According to Cari Beauchamp, author of the Vanity Fair article and book, in October of 1927 Kennedy met Sarnoff “at the Oyster Bar in New York’s Grand Central Terminal… Kennedy had a studio; Sarnoff had the technical equipment..[and] Telling no one else, they put their heads together and came up with a plan.”
   The first approach was an overture from Kennedy to Frank J. Godsol, the president of Goldwyn Pictures. Sometime between 1921 and 1922, Godsol had engineered the ousting of Samuel Goldwyn from his own company –Godsol had a colorful past. He was the son of Russian jewelry dealer in Cleveland who made an undisclosed fortune “in the West” as a very young man, and then expatriated himself to Paris France where he first sold imitation pearls (called Tecla pearls) through exclusive shops and then became a war armaments dealer to the French government.
>>>Tecla pearls are a ‘trade-marked name for both solid and wax-filled imitation pearls’ made of glass. ; “[Godsol] went West while still a boy and amassed a fortune in a few years in Montana. Then he established the Saretecora and Brazilian diamond business that had an amazing success. Later he invaded Europe and launched the Tecla pearl..which enabled the possessors of priceless..pearls to put their treasures in safety deposit boxes and at the same time appear properly jewelled…” [New York Tribune, April 1, 1919  Godsol had only recently survived a scandal and jailing over charges of fraud, profiteering, and special favoritism in a suit involving his brokerage of trucks during World War I where he made at least $1.5 million each year of the war, possibly from the sale of Pierce Arrow vehicles alone. Godsol represented multiple auto companies. It also came out in his trial that Godsol had  war-era connections to film-making; accused by prosecutor Alfred J. Decker of employing Benjamin Blumenthal who “was president of..Germanic Official War Films Inc.” and used his station for generating pro-German propaganda. Blumenthal denied “that pictures..were shown in the interests of Germany.”
   Shortly after Godsol tookover Goldwyn Pictures, it was bought in 1924 by Marcus Loew of Loew’s Incorporated, perhaps the largest theater corporation anywhere.
   Marcus Loew was a pioneer in grassroots fundraising for Jewish War Relief  (run by Warburgs) through the agency of his theaters. The model was carried through even after Loew’s passing in 1927 (year of the RKO deal) –Loew’s became a staple collections field in the March of Dimes when the funds were dedicated to polio. Joe Kennedy was touching a lot of nerves. His successes in making the movie industry a legitimate and profitable target of investment and his ‘reorganization’ at Goldwyn with the resulting creation of RKO put him on the radar as a man to watch. He played their banking game with undaunted brilliance. Beauchamp wrote,”Kennedy..personally exited the RKO deal with more than $5 million… In 1937, Fortune magazine ran a cover-story profile of Kennedy and credited his time in Hollywood as a major source of his personal fortune.”
   Legend has it that Kennedy enriched himself as a rumrunner in the 1920s, though often disputed and demonstrably out-of-character. Kennedy may have walked close to the line, but there’s no evidence that he personally crossed it or encouraged it for his own benefit. He creditably took his movie earnings after selling out to RKO, allegedly before the crash of ’29, and leveraged them into legal distributorships of distilled spirits, positioned to claim an ample market share at the end of Prohibition. These maneuverings for liquor rights brought him into direct competition with Samuel Bronfman, who expected those very same licenses to be his. Bronfman’s venom for Joe Kennedy overflows from the Bronfman family history up to the present.
David Sarnoff, in Lewis Strauss’s own words, was a “steadfast friend”. Sarnoff (1891-1971), born near Minsk Russia, emigrated as a boy and landed a job with Marconi Wireless at the age of 15 (1906) and worked his way up. In 1919, General Electric created the Radio Corporation of America in order to acquire Marconi which was a British company, and remained its largest shareholder during the years of radio development. Sarnoff took the helm of RCA in the mid-20s and launched the company on a great expansion through stock swaps to acquire patents. G.E. held 30% of RCA, Westinghouse held 20% and AT&T held 10%. Strauss was an individual stockholder. In 1926, RCA created NBC; the next year RKO, and by the end of 1920s, RCA entered into a leaseholder deal to occupy the new site of the soon-to-be-built Rockefeller Center. Rockefeller archives record the event as a reflection of ‘Junior’s’ interest in radio: “One can safely say that quite suddenly in the late 1920s, the radio industry became one of the defining features of Junior’s life… Rockefeller Center..came to focus Junior’s attention on..the business of radio… he was approached by a group that was consolidate its operations and build up-to-date facilities. This was the Radio Corporation of America that..brought together the assets and patents of General Electric, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Westinghouse, and the United Fruit Company.”
   The Rockefeller family themselves had just recently completed (in 1927) a merger between their own Standard Oil and the Warburgs’ I.G.Farben to create the largest industrial chemical combine in the world.  This timeframe also saw Strauss join the Office of Naval Intelligence, renew the ties of Kuhn Loeb with Japan and receive the full-fledge of the company, followed by the fatal plunge of polio doctor Frauenthal from the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases.
   RCA was to roar out of the 1920s with a near monopoly in telecommunications. It became an indispensable asset to the military-complex for engineer training in advanced electronics and high-energy physics. Another Russian emigre, Dr. Emanuel Piore, did extensive work on television at RCA, enabling such weapons as the “t.v.-guided bomb” –“In April 1942, a TV-controlled drone was successfully guided into a target ship from a control aircraft 50 km (30 mi.) away.”   Piore, working for the Chief of Naval Operations in World War Two, left his statement that “we were the group that supervised the operation that killed Joe Kennedy [Jr.]”
Joe Kennedy Jr. “volunteered for a dangerous mission that required him to fly a navy PB4Y Liberator bomber containing 22,000 pounds of explosives to a German launch site on the Belgian coast. Joe and a copilot were supposed to eject themselves from the plane after activating the remote control guidance and arming system. But their plane exploded before they even reached the English Channel… In 2001, a new theory emerged regarding the cause of Joe’s death…  the radar signals interfered with the radio controls of Joe’s plane and caused the explosion.”
   In his memoir extolling involvement in the creation of the radio-activated “proximity fuse”, the nearest thing the U.S. had in WWII to guided missiles, Strauss made a point of saying that “I felt there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel, riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
>>>Parent company General Electric divested from RCA in 1932 over the controversy of federal monopoly hearings and repurchased RCA in the 1980s. G.E. faced its own controversy over products when 90,000 color televisions were recalled in 1967 for dangerous X-ray emissions. [ref. p42, The Zapping of America, Paul Brodeur]
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., of course, came to national attention as FDR’s first chief of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Arthur Krock lauded Kennedy’s government service in his Memoirs as “unmatched for competence, imagination, and courage in the areas of fiscal and monetary economics.“[p167] Krock prefaced his praise by writing, “The New Deal began, I suppose, on a negative basis…But the positive side was initiated very promptly by the adoption of..Hoover measures…” [ p161, Memoirs; Sixty Years on the Firing Line, Arthur Krock, 1968] Although credited to Roosevelt, the SEC was a Hoover proposition. Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard was generous to accountability: “Throughout the Depression, Hoover gave vent to his standing dislike of speculation and the stockmarket. In the fall of 1930, Hoover threatened federal regulation of the New York Stock Exchange..[and] went on to propose what later came to pass as the New Deal’s SEC, a regulation that Hoover applauded.” In fact, as Rothbard explained, “Herbert Hoover’s entire program of activities as Secretary of Commerce was designed to advance the subsidization of industry and the interpenetration of government and business“, restoring to peacetime what had been gained by “war collectivism“, described as “a totally planned economy run largely by big-business interests..for the purpose of providing a network of subsidies and monopolistic privileges to business.”
   In Hoover’s record it’s possible to pick up the threads of continuity of government that generated the permanent conditions of the rising military-industrial-medical complex: Rothbard wrote that “As soon as the war was over Hoover set out to ‘reconstruct America’..[as] peacetime cooperation. He urged national planning..under the ‘central direction’ of the government..[for] the cartelization of industry through trade raise prices, restrict production and..impose standardization and ‘simplification’ of materials and products… [Historian] Grosvenor Clarkson hailed the fact that: ‘The ideas conceived and applied by the War Industries Board in war are being applied in peace by the Department of Commerce’…no one could have been as ideally suited as..Hoover to be President at the onset of a Great Depression and to react with a radical program of statism… Hoover began his ‘gigantic’ program as soon as the stock market crashed on October 24, 1929… The most important call for the compulsory cartelization of a corporate state was sounded by Gerard Swope, the veteran corporate liberal who headed General Electric… men like..Swope were in effect urging [President Hoover] to throw off the voluntarist [policy] cloak and adopt the naked economy of fascism… In short, a general clamor arose for an economy of fascism.” Rothbard complained, “that Herbert Hoover, far from being an advocate of laissez-faire, was in every way the precursor of Roosevelt and the New Deal..[as] one of the major leaders of the twentieth-century the modern corporate state.” [ref.essays, New History of Leviathan, pp 66-145]
    The intimate and lifelong relationship of Lewis Strauss to Herbert Hoover appears at its most obscure in these years given the high profile of the Chief. General history is peppered with odd facts drawn from his narrow but deep well of support: “Hoover was very much in the news in 1927. His was the image first sent by television… Hoover displayed an extraordinary talent for publicity through extensive newspaper, magazine and film contacts. When Will Irwin in 1928 pieced together the campaign film ‘The Master of Emergencies’, he had some ten miles of films showing Hoover..since 1914 from which to select… Popular demand made Hoover the nominee and carried him into the White House… None of the major Republican machines favored Hoover… A leading business journal reported: ‘Business stood the campaign well…And the time may come when business will not shiver at any proposal of politics, knowing and realizing that trade makes its own laws no matter which party is in power’… Hoover should be made a dictator: Let Congress pass one bill giving certain necessary powers to President Hoover as did the Democratic Congress of 1914.” [pp29-50, p117, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression, Harris G. Warren, 1959]
   The Stockmarket Crash of October 1929 was not investigated until the Pecora Committee was authorized in mid-1932 and Hoover was clearly on his way out of office. Counselor Pecora reported “The testimony had brought to light a shocking corruption in our banking system, a widespread repudiation of old fashioned standards of honesty and fair dealing in the creation and sale of securities, and a merciless exploitation of the vicious possibilities of intricate corporate chicanery.”
   Strauss’s biographer added, “The fundamental ground rules of investment banking changed as a result… the integrity of the banker lost most of its importance in the new climate, where the government interposed itself to watch over the honesty of representations made to the investor. The slow pace of the past..disappeared… [Strauss] won some new clients for Kuhn Loeb, especially in the steel industry [one of the most cartelized] and his personal fortune continued to grow, but the profession had lost much of its appeal.” [pp46-47, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss took a nearly wistful posture in his own memoir, reflecting on his ascent: “There were then fewer great houses and far fewer partners in those firms. The rewards were large, taxes were low, and the difficulties which brought the Securities and Exchange Commission into existence were not then in the lexicon… The men engaged in it generally commanded large personal fortunes..and conducted themselves like princes… This aspect of investment banking has almost disappeared with the institution of competitive bidding for..financing, a competition which severed the traditionally close and mutually beneficial relationship between the borrower and the banker.” Ironically, big banking was forced into competition as big business turned anti-competitive, yet it prevented the system from toppling in on itself and staved off the march into fascism for another war. Still, the bitterness in Strauss comes through. He took it personally, Bronfmanesque, as if Joe Kennedy was touching his nerves. Just as physically close, perhaps, was FDR’s next assignment for JPK as head of the Maritime Commission, originally incarnated as the WWI Shipping Board and led by another Strauss intimate, Albert D. Lasker.
Albert D. Lasker
“Albert Lasker’s life was an example of every immigrant’s dream come true… In 1912 he became the president of Lord & Thomas, one of America’s leading advertising agencies… Albert Lasker loved to sell…”
   “The gist of the shipping problem, and Lasker’s job, was that the United States had built an immense amount of merchant tonnage during World War I…but, with the war over, such weight was not only useless but a colossal expense. Some 2,200 ships were..rotting away..[at the] cost of..$500,000,000 a year…  [In] all it was Lasker’s job to liquidate an investment valued at $3,500,000,000 and buikd a new merchant marine out of what could be salvaged… Lasker got rid of useless an average price of $30 a ton…of course, much less than they had cost, and he was severely criticized in Congress..for ‘throwing our ships away’… Before his first year at the Shipping Board was up Lasker realized that…[t]he government itself would have to operate the American merchant fleet or the private owners would have to be assisted by a large government subsidy… Lasker chose..subsidy [as] the only solution…[and] fought for his solution –a subsidy–in and out of Congress…[but] was beaten by one vote in the Senate… He took the defeat in an acutely personal manner and from that day [on]..had a subconscious resentment against Washington
   “The best-known episode connected with Lasker’s tenure on the Shipping Board [1921-1923] was a trial run of the S.S. Leviathan…the old German Vaterland [taken] as an item in war reparations. Lasker reconditioned it..[into] the finest and largest ship afloat..and [gave] his friends a ride. The party was strictly stag..[with] some six hundred male guests…sail[ing] to the West Indies..for several days… This trip..[became] the foundation of his long friendship with David Sarnoff… Lasker, rapt in admiration for this man who could apparently harness the secret forces of the universe, decided that he must be a friend for life. Anyway, the trip was a grand success.” [pp128-134, Taken At The Flood, John Gunther, 1960] “Admiral Lewis L. Strauss..had been a good friend of Lasker’s since the Shipping Board days.” And when Strauss put himself behind the ‘surge generator’ project of Brasch and Szilard in the mid-30s, “Albert became vehemently interested and offered to contribute $100,000… Then came the war and the Manhattan Project, and do with..nuclear energy became ultra-top secret. Lasker repeatedly called Strauss asking him to report on what was going on and to call on his money but Strauss could not, of course, say a word.” [p292, ibid.]
   Lasker was Strauss’s senior in age, wealth and status; a member and executive officer of the American Jewish Committee (1917–) alongside Jacob H. Schiff and notable war organizer Julius Rosenwald, owner of Sears Roebuck &Co. Lasker’s AJC position is noted in the famous book created by the AJC in 1920 denouncing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion titled “The ‘Protocols’, Bolshevism and the Jews”  His collaboration with Strauss was a key function in what became Strauss’s most self-important investment –his image as a great cancer-fighter and medical research philanthropist.
Julius Rosenwald
Julius Rosenwald, in turn, was close to the Flexner brothers –Simon, Abraham and Bernard– swapping a voluminous amount of correspondence in particular with Abraham Flexner, “the educator” who authored the medical school survey report of 1910, co-founded Rochester’s School of Medicine and Dentistry and Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study. The elder Simon was the first Director-President of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR), and the younger Bernard was a protege of Louis Brandeis and leader in the Zionist movement. Rosenwald’s closest lifelong friends were banker Henry Goldman and Henry Morgenthau Sr.
   Henry Goldman financed his friend Rosenwald’s rise at Sears Roebuck, making $10 million for Goldman Sachs at the first public stock offering in 1906 and helping to turn Sears into the “largest store in the world”. Two points of singular interest emerged from this friendship: Goldman’s cash support of the physicists Max Born and Albert Einstein in Germany (who made his first ‘fundraising visit to the U.S. in 1921 with Chaim Weizmann) and Rosenwald’s preparation for the coming ultimate weapon.
   “Largely unknown to the public is the many and varied sites that made up the Manhattan Project.  The University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Lab (Met Lab) included a location inside the Museum of Science and Industry, created at the urging of Rosenwald patriarch, Julius Rosenwald, who proposed the museum project in 1921 and provided $7 million for its development. The MSI took over the standing Fine Arts building in Chicago: ‘Vacant since 1920, the building required extensive renovation, which began in 1929.’  The public was invited to tour the new MSI in 1933 during the ‘Century of Progress Exposition’ world’s fair when 10% of its space was available for exhibits, but delays and unprofitability plagued the MSI until ‘A turning point came in 1940, when the board of directors lured Major Lenox R. Lohr (1891-1968), the head of the National Broadcasting its presidency.’; Lohr earned his stripes in the Army Corps of Engineers, edited the ACE journal ‘The Military Engineer’ until 1929, resigned the Army and joined the Naval Reserves as a Lt. Commander (1929-1941). Lohr was NBC president from 1934 to 1940, under RCA parent David Sarnoff…  ‘During his twenty-eight years as head of the Museum, Lohr also organized.. the Military-Industry Conferences in 1955-1957.’  Rosenwald’s museum, and its subsequent use for the Manhattan Project, is one more enterprise that gives evidence of early atomic weapons development covertly played out in the 1920s and ’30s.” It is assumed until definitively proven that the contract extended to Einstein for Princeton IAS residency was the result of the Goldman-Rosenwald-Flexner connection.
   The senior Rosenwald, along with Jacob Schiff, was preeminent among American Jews for his patronage in areas of Jewish colonization and agriculture: i.e. “Most of the wealthy Jews who funded projects in Palestine were not Zionists… The Technikum (now Technion)..was launched [c.1912] with two large gifts: one..from..a Moscow millionaire, and one hundred thousand dollars from Jacob Schiff.”[ p137, Mostly Morgenthaus]… As a fitting climax for [Ambassador] Morgenthau’s Palestine excursion, [Rabbi] Wise arranged a visit with the fabled..agronomist Aaron Aaronsohn…[who had]..some of the United States’ most powerful Jews support for his agricultural experiment station at Athlit, outside Haifa. Morgenthau was impressed by its all-star board of directors, which included Julius Rosenwald as president, and Paul Warburg, Henrietta Szold [Hadassah], Louis Marshall and Judge Julian Mack.” [p146, Mostly Morgenthaus, by Henry Morgenthau III] Rosenwald was promoting contemporaneous ‘scientific’ agriculture in the U.S. as well, which placed a new emphasis on the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers among other practices.
   “While the nature of ‘classical’ colonization is primarily to exploit, Zionist colonization displaces and expels..proceed[ing] under three basic slogans. The first of these is Kibush Hakarka (Conquest of the Land)…This means that the to be made the patrimony of the Jewish people. Jews must work the land…” [ref. Akiva Orr, The Other Israel]
   Julius Rosenwald died in 1932, the “miracle year in physics” and the expanding legacy passed to his five children. The eldest sibling, Lessing J. Rosenwald (1891-1979), tookover the business of Sears. William watched over the philanthropies which included special funds for ‘rescue’ and relocation beginning in the spring of 1933 and both sons joined the executive board of the American Jewish Committee. Lessing and Lewis Strauss were later co-trustees of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study together after WWII: noted in the 1945-46 IAS Bulletin with Strauss serving as vice-chairman of the board. Strauss first offered the directorship of the IAS to Robert Oppenheimer in this capacity. Sister Edith Rosenwald married cotton merchant Edgar Bloom Stern of New Orleans where the pair founded radio station WDSU in partnership with their older son who expanded into television. WDSU, for a long time New Orleans only tv station, gave legendary airtime to Lee Harvey Oswald for the construction of his image as a Marxist. The Sterns have been identified as silent partners in Pennsylvania’s Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, a company charged with diverting and smuggling radioactive fuels to Israel, and with using its workforce as human lab rats for “fallout studies”.
Princeton Institute of Advanced Study
   Among the IAS’s most famous resident scholars were those in the small group known as the ‘Martians’, formerly Hungarians from Budapest who kept close ties throughout their careers. The group included ‘old friends’ such as Theodor von Karman who headed Caltech’s Guggenheim Aeronautical Lab in Pasadena, Dennis Gabor (high-voltage physics), Edward Teller and Leo Szilard who both went to Chicago’s  Metallurgical Lab for the MED (Manhattan Project).  John von Neumann and Eugene Wigner were the first of the group to settle in Princeton. Albert Einstein, more as their spiritual father and long committed to Zionism, established himself there over the course of 1933-34, coming to the U.S. as a “refugee” by way of the British Bahamas. In 1933, the British were “saving science”: through the leadership of the London School of Economics, Leo Szilard was “rescued” from Vienna and appointed administrative secretary of the Academic Assistance Council, England’s premier placement agency for the exodus.
   Einstein and Szilard had an enduring partnership that began in 1919 Berlin, according to journalist William Lanouette. “Szilard was a shadowy figure in the history of nuclear science –essential to its progress, yet now mostly forgotten. Szilard preferred to work behind the scenes…”
Some of Szilard’s most valuable behind-the-scenes activities were done in concert with Lewis L. Strauss but the extent of those activities is still unknown to the public today. “Through Szilard’s letters Strauss was able to keep track of the furious pace of discovery” [p54, No Sacrifice Too Great]. The official record of letters begins in 1934, perhaps containing the seeds of the surge generator project with Arno Brasch, but also Szilard’s own technical and experimental accomplishments which in 1934 meant a patent for a nuclear reactor –the world’s first. Szilard evidently looked to Strauss as his banker-benefactor in the way Born and Einstein engaged Henry Goldman. “…during the 1920s, Szilard and Einstein shared 20 joint patents..for..refrigerators… [T]heir concept became essential in the run another Szilard invention, the breeder reactor…[refrigeration was crucial to the first ultra-low temperature ‘thermo’ nuclear H-bombs]…”After World War II, Szilard shifted from physics to arms control and biology… Szilard actually became a Princetonian for a few years in the early 1950s when he moved into Drumthwacket [mansion]..then the home of Abram Spanel..[who] headed the International Laytex Corporation… [then] he helped found the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, CA, where he was a fellow until his death in 1964.” –W. Lanouette.
   But in the ’30s, when people generally had no idea about atomic or high-energy developments, the IAS was a special haven. Von Neumann’s war work was focused on the creation of a super-computer and solving calculation problems for the MED and other projects. His fame came about through developing economic Game Theory.
   Eugene Wigner “designed the very large plutonium producing reactors constructed at Hanford Washington” making plutonium for the ‘Trinity test’ and ‘Fat Man’ bombs, and uses thereafter http://web.gc.cuny/edu/sciart/0405/transcript.htm; and took charge of the radioactive isotope program at Oak Ridge Tennessee.
   IAS was not merely centered on math and physics. Cultural “social” sciences, psychology, and active foreign exchange programs were part of the roster; many of those scientists stayed in the U.S. and found placement in government and industry.
    Right after WWII, a major institute effort went into developing von Neumann’s computer for use in meteorology and weather prediction, co-sponsored by the (new) Office of Naval Research (established by Strauss), Radio Corporation of America (Sarnoff again), and the U.S. Weather Bureau, a gov’t agency in the Department of Commerce. Head of the Meteorological Research Group at IAS was another son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Jule G. Charney. Charney bio: The chief of the US Weather Bureau, Francis Reichelderfer, was a Navy careerist who “made many influential friends” developing an aviation weather service for Harry Guggenheim. His tenure at the National Weather Service was called “Reich’s reign” (1938-1963) and “after the war, Reich continued pressing forward..[the] advances in radar meteorology, the introduction of computerized numerical weather prediction [the IAS project in theoretical meteorology], seeding, severe storms, and patterns of radioactive material dispersal all..throughout the 1950s… Perhaps the greatest of..innovations, the meteorological satellite, was also introduced..with the launch of TIROS 1 on April 1, 1960.
   TIROS stands for Television Infrared Observation Satellite and “was the first satellite..capable of remote sensing of the Earth… Participants in this satellite project included [NASA], US Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory, Radio Corporation of America, the U.S. Weather Bureau and the United States Naval Photographic Interpretation Center” [] which processed its classified photography through the Kodak Hawkeye Works.
Leo Szilard
   In the name of cancer research, Strauss recorded his meeting with Szilard: “Toward the end of 1937 two young nuclear physicists, Dr. Arno Brasch and Dr. Leo Szilard..approached me through Francis Rosenbaum, a mutual friend. They asked me to finance them in the construction of a ‘surge generator’ with explore nuclear phenomena in high-energy ranges… Brasch and Szilard believed that it would be possible to produce radioactive isotopes of many elements by bombarding [them] with subatomic particles accelerated by surges of current at very high voltages. An isotope of cobalt thus produced..would emit gamma rays similar to radium… Radioactive cobalt could be a cost of a few dollars per gram. Radium was then priced at about fifty thousand dollars per gram… I foresaw the possibility of producing this isotope in quantity and of giving it to hospitals as a memorial to my parents.” [p164, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962] Not only is cobalt cheap, but cobalt in  nuclear bomb cores, it turns out, is a life-ending scenario on planet Earth, “intended to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The concept of a cobalt bomb was originally described on February 26, 1950 by physicist Leó Szilárd, who suggested on a radio program that an arsenal of cobalt bombs would be capable of destroying all human life on Earth.”
    A letter sent to Strauss from Szilard on January 25 of 1939 ensured that the news of fission (chain reaction) brought by Niels Bohr from Copenhagen put Strauss on-the-record: “The letter made Lewis Strauss the first public figure in America to be alerted to the nuclear future.” [ref.p171, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel, 1979]
Six months later, in July of ’39, Strauss was on his way to London again, lobbying British support for creation of the United States of Africa. He wrote, in defense of his effort on behalf of war refugees, “I had received certain assurances from Bernard Baruch, Henry Ittleson, Albert Lasker, Mr. Rosenwald, and a number of other men of considerable means..that if the British Government could be persuaded to devote a sufficiently large area in Kenya, Tanganyika, or Northern Rhodesia for settlement by refugees from European countries..these men were willing to tithe their capital to assist it… Ex-President Hoover was..willing to..organize its communications, its transport, and the development of its resources.” [p113, Men and Decisions] Convenient to them all, the suggested areas for occupation bordered the uranium rich site in Katanga.  Strauss reported, “Mr. Baruch gave me a letter which I carried to London. In it he had written: “That a large part of Africa…be converted into one country…  The country can be cleaned up with modern equipment… Panama and Cuba were cleaned up, and Africa can be cleaned up too… [In] this new land there would be a place for tens of millions and they would be the best, the strongest and the most courageous people because they are anxious to get away from these over-regulated, goose-stepping civilians of Russia, Germany, and Italy. It will cost a lot of money, yes, but the money is to be raised principally by the Jews of the world by assessing themselves at least 10% of their total capital…” Hoover also prepared a letter writing, “It has long seemed to me that there is but one unoccupied area in the world upon which a new and sound civilization could be builded. That is the uplands of Central-East Africa, embracing parts of Northern Rhodesia, Tanganyika, Kenya, and Belgian Congo… from reports available it does seem to have the soil, climate, and resources upon which 10 to 20 millions of white civilization could be builded.” [pp115-116, ibid.] The British, however, “had a resettlement area of its own which it favored. This was the British Guiana project…a land of swamp and the interest of finding a new home for the Assyrians of Iraq…One month to the day after the war had begun, Mr. [Anthony] de Rothschild found it necessary to cable me: ‘Committee cannot continue Giuana’ .” [p117, ibid.] “Before leaving London for Paris, I talked with Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy. He said that he thought there was sufficient intelligence in Germany to avoid a mistake which would be as terrible as a second World War, and that he allowed himself the optimistic belief that it would not occur… To the same question, Ambassador Bullitt [in France] said that..war was inevitable but not imminent…M. Paul Reynaud..took a much less optimistic view… [He] asked, ‘When are you planning to leave?..I said that we had reservations on both the  Ile de France and on the Normandie. ‘If I were you..I would take the earlier sailing. There may be a scramble to leave in late August.’ Hitler invaded Poland on September 1.” [p118, Men and Decisions]
   This note in the memoir is Strauss’s only personalized account of contact with a Kennedy. Did Strauss also meet Joe Jr. or Jack in the summer of ’39? Ambassador Kennedy made official assistants of his older boys: “At the instance of Felix Frankfurter, who reminded him that an earlier Bostonian, John Adams, had done the same in London, Kennedy arranged for sons Joe and Jack to spend terms as staff assistants in the embassy.  An immersion in international politics would be an invaluable aid to the career in public affairs the father anticipated especially for the eldest son.” [p160, Kennedy and Rossevelt, Michael Beschloss, 1980] Earlier, on the stump for FDR’s first reelection, Kennedy denied to the public that he held ambitions of high office for his sons, but by the time of his third post under FDR, the situation apparently was changing.  Kennedy had been a keenly successful advisor to the New Deal. The Baltimore Sun’s Frank Kent wrote, “No man ever held an important post in Washington who has had more praise and less abuse than Mr. Kennedy.” [p152, ibid.]  Beschloss called him Roosevelt’s “showcase businessman“. Joe Kennedy told American business, “You can’t tell the public to go to hell anymore. Fifty men have run America –and that’s a high figure. The rest of America is demanding a share in the game and they’ll get it.” [p125, ibid.]
Rescue from the Nazis
Strauss described his own efforts at rescue, beginning in 1933, as “having crossed the ocean and negotiated again and again, but to no effect.” [p104, Men and Decisions] His first ‘negotiation’ in this effort was as special envoy of the AJC: “The American Jewish Committee..concluded that it should be represented at the meeting in London and I was asked to attend for that puepose. I was loath to leave by business affairs, but Dr. Cyrus Adler, Judge Joseph Proskauer, Felix Warburg, Albert Lasker, Sol Strook and other men who were my seniors..represented it to me as a duty. I sailed on October 20, 1933 and reached London six days later. On arrival I met with Dr. Chaim Weizmann to whom I had been introduced by Justice Brandeis sixteen years before… By arrangement with the British authorities, the Jewish Agency for Palestine, which Weizmann directed, controlled the issue of permits to enter Palestine… Otto Schiff complained to see that ‘Weizmann is allotting his scant allowance of entry permits for months ahead to people who are Zionists but..under no pressure of any sort’… For [Weizmann] it was not a question limited to compassion. He was founding a state… [footnote:]But many..refugees did finally reach sanctuary in Israel without benefit of permit. The figure has been estimated as high as six hundred thousand. [p107, ibid.] The conference broke up with a series of resolutions and all eyes were turned to the United States…” [p109, ibid]
   On this same trip Strauss reported (as above in Autobiographical Notes)) “.. during a visit to October and November of 1933 [where] on November 1 I had lunch at New Court, the..Rothschild banking establishment… Mr. Lionel..said, ‘Mr. Strauss, I suppose you know.. your government has been buying gold and this morning your President Roosevelt has set a price of $32.28 for it. Can you tell us why the President would suddenly jump the price to that particular figure?’ To this I replied, ‘Maybe he just pulled the figure out of a hat.’…Many years later, I learned..a series of morning meetings with the President for the purpose of setting the gold price for the day..were held in the President’s bedroom… On one occasion the President decided that the rise..would be twenty-one cents. ‘It’s a lucky number,’ the President said with a laugh… It might as well have been drawn out of a hat… Kuhn, Loeb & Co. occasionally imported gold from England..and sold it to the Treasury Department.” [pp94-95, Men and Decisions] Henry Morgenthau Jr, Sec. of Treasury, was the evident source of Strauss’s intelligence, and without naming him, it was known that Kennedy was a White House “bedroom adviser”:  Krock wrote that FDR “consults Mr. Kennedy on everything“. Beschloss included, “there were morning visits to the presidential bedroom and, on occasion, to the presidential bathroom.” [p106, Kennedy and Roosevelt] But Strauss had other means of inside information  —Samuel I. Rosenman, for example, was a cousin to his wife Alice Hanauer Strauss. “Rosenman..proposed and organized the ‘Brain Trust’..”
   The biographer Pfau stated Strauss’s opinion of Franklin D. Roosevelt: “In 1918 Strauss and Hoover had met Roosevelt in Europe but they dismissed him as a spoiled dilettante of little ability and nothing in the interim had changed their minds.” [p44, No Sacrifice Too Great] On the subject of the Oct-Nov trip to London, Pfau writes, “Strauss recalled that ‘the entire conference was an idea of the Zionists.’ Strauss’s main goal, as representative of the American Jewish Committee, was to prevent the Zionists from dominating… he proudly reported to the [AJC] at the end of the conference ‘our autonomy is unimpaired.‘” [pp 50-51, ibid.] Despite the rhetoric and power struggles, relief and rescue united the contentious factions of Zionists and Anti-Zionists, displaying the methods in division of labor.
   The next rescue effort mentioned was the creation of the 1939 Anglo-American Corporation which produced the Coordinating Foundation to raise a bounty for German-Jewish “ransom”. Strauss commented, “It was apparent that the [‘transfer agreement’] plan was an enormous and sadistic hoax, a moneyed traffic in lives… I was shocked by its malevolence..[p 111, Men and Decisions]…to payment of outrageous blackmail..” As it appears, no ransom was ever paid. “The capital of the foundation, which had been subscribed primarily in the United States, was returned to the subscribers when the foundation was liquidated in the early war years.” [p113, ibid.] The United States of Africa was the last rescue in the notes for Strauss. He lamented, “But I might have done so much more than I did…and it is to my eternal regret.” [p104, ibid.]
   “Bankers’ Choices” would describe Strauss’s activity in these times: getting the best returns on investment. There were, perhaps, many hundreds of rescue organizations and those in which he was an officer were oriented to colonization. Some appear in this list such as the American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation and the American Society for Jewish Farm Settlements in Russia Inc.   Leo Szilard proved out to be one of Strauss’s best investments.
   Szilard attended the October 1933 conference. According to Strauss: “Among the committees..was one of ‘academicians’ (scientists, educators, philosophers, mathematicians) and on that committee was a young Hungarian physicist, Dr. Leo Szilard, whom I did not meet but whose name I remembered some years later when we met under far different circumstances.” [p108, Men and Decisions]  For Strauss not to meet Szilard, Einstein’s close colleague, at the conference is implausible in the extreme. Szilard was not only a great physicist, of deep personal interest to Strauss, but he attended in the capacity of co-founder and executive administrator of Britain’s Academic Assistance Council, it’s premier refugee agency for ‘saving science’. At the time, Szilard was ensconced with a day job in the St. Bartholomew’s Hospital London laboratory experimenting with isotopes, remembering the period as his nuclear epiphany– a day he stood at a traffic light and had a revelation about chain-reaction.  In his AAC work, Szilard was uniquely placed to distribute scientific talent around the world and help to achieve weapons parity in a future arms race. His best friends in science were already working under contract at the Institute of Advanced Study. It’s only a short time after the London conference when the documentation of correspondence begins between Szilard and Strauss.
   Edward Teller wrote this remembrance: “I was surprised by how seriously the scientific community of Great Britain took the threat of Nazism. By April 1933, the British had begun a rescue operation on behalf of the scientists.. financed by the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), the British analog of I.G. Farben. Every scientist..who had ability..was being welcomed...” [p88, Memoirs, Edward Teller, 2001] ..”They accepted many more scientists than Britain could possibly use.” [p120, ibid.] Teller was sponsored to London after a year in Copenhagen with Niels Bohr. “I had met Szilard in Budapest… But at the time..I did not know him well. Szilard, like me, was a refugee, but his was an unusual case. He was influential… Szilard..also possessed a talent for anticipating the future. At Lindemann’s [Lord Cherwell] invitation, Szilard had gone to Oxford; there he was conducting..experiments with neutrons, the particles discovered..a few years earlier. Szilard had the idea that neutron bombardment..could produce..more and more neutrons and energy..resulting in a powerful explosion… Rutherford denounced Szilard’s ideas..[but] Szilard just became more determined to prove [it]…[p110] “His clash with Rutherford was neither the first nor the last time that his surprising and absolute pronouncements provoked a strong negative reaction. He even acquired a nickname, The General, among his friends… [Szilard] was never boring, and he always remained a friend.” [p111, Memoirs, Edward Teller] Teller himself arranged to emigrate from Britain to the United States at the end of 1934 where a tenured teaching position opened for him in Washington D.C. at GWU. He rejected an offer from “Princeton”(IAS) for lesser pay. Later, Teller and Strauss became formidable allies after WWII for building H-bombs along with the Berkeley Rad Lab leaders, Ernest O. Lawrence and Luis Alvarez.
Early Atomic Development
   Edward Teller did not repeat his remarks about Rosa Strauss being alive in 1948 in his Memoirs, though he gave ample suggestions about the early development of atomic energy. “As far as I was concerned, what happened in physics between 1920 and 1933 was so magnificent that it was a privilege to work even on minor details.” [p79] “During my [spring 1932] stay in Rome, Fermi and his group..were just starting to bombard every element in the periodic table with neutrons…[p80]… When [Fermi] bombarded [the uranium] nucleus..he observed scores of radioactive substances instead of one or two… Soon after..he received a letter from a German chemist, Ida Tacke Noddack..[who] suggested that the effect he had observed..was a split of the uranium nucleus… He discarded Dr. Noddack’s suggestion… Had he [accepted it], the hunt for chain reactions would have started sooner.” [p81] …”Paul Scherrer in Zurich had an even closer encounter with the discovery [of fission]. He bombarded thorium (another of Szilard’s favorite substances) with neutrons and saw the fission fragments… But Scherrer wouldn’t believe his eyes. He thought his Geiger counter was malfunctioning… In 1939, I did not realize how fortunate it was that those slight changes in an experiment in Rome or Zurich did not occur. If fission had been discovered in 1933..the United States probably would not have been the first nation to possess nuclear explosives. Fermi, Scherrer, and Szilard, in their different ways, had a profound..influence on history.” [p141, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
   Strauss helped to regroup the physicists again and again in a variety of settings, including his ‘subsidized farm’ estate in Virginia. The ‘magnificent’ period that Teller mentions (1920-1933) was coincident to Hoover’s public service –the transition of war collectivism into peacetime cooperation— and brought about the prophetic accomplishment necessary to build atom bombs, stated by Niels Bohr: “You would need to turn the entire country into a factory.” [p143, Memoirs, E.T.] When Bohr joined the Los Alamos MED early in 1943, Teller recalled him exclaiming, “didn’t I tell you that you could not make a nuclear explosive without turning the whole country into a huge factory? Now you have gone ahead and done it.” Teller reported, “from that day on [Bohr] participated diligently..” [p186, ibid.]
Demonstrations of Power
   Although ignoring the subject of nuclear development, the very thin stream of information given by Lewis Strauss in his so-called autobiography, Men and Decisions, is a record appropos of timing by its 1962 publication. Washingtonians in the capital, and JFK’s administration in particular, were the intended audience for Strauss’s work. He wrote in the Forward, “In the main, this is..a book about other men..” The biographer, who published in 1984, continued the theme in his Preface, “This is not a ‘life and times’ biography… Neither is it the story of the private man…” In the last chapter of No Sacrifice Too Great, entitiled ‘Retired’, Richard Pfau wrote that “From retirement Strauss..tried to settle old political scores.” [p242], and apparently with meager but potent additions such as the ONI break-in on the anti-Hoover action, Pfau is extending Strauss’s reach beyond the grave.  He reminds readers on the last pages that “Strauss the government servant..was austere, aloof..and calculating. Like Herbert Hoover..his model, Strauss maintained a facade for the public.” [p251, No Sacrifice Too Great] Both Strauss and Pfau played on a balancing act to reveal power and still maintain the facade. In the politically and historically astute milieu of Washington D.C., however, the hastily produced Strauss edition was a selective show of dangerous alliances which, I have no doubt, was meant and delivered as a threat.
   Far from a fate headed for the dustbin of history, Men and Decisions sold enough copies “to place it on the New York Times list of bestsellers” though Strauss indeed had the personal wealth to make that a reality (whether he did or not). How many readers, I wonder, might have perceived a dire reckoning in the making? To whom was it meaningful in 1962 that Strauss was heir to Jacob Schiff and the Warburgs; that he was the Jews’ War President; sponsor of “father of the bomb” Leo Szilard and Polaroid’s Edwin Land; that he was chosen as the “permanent chairman” of nuclear affairs and was still its leading global dignitary? Not lost on this group, the Kennedys, nor students of history, was the continuing chronology of Strauss’s Decisions.
Father Coughlin and Father Drought
   As a financier during the Great Depression, Strauss made a brief note about taking on a new client at this time –the Catholic Maryknoll mission, in the person of Father James Drought, its administrative officer. Strauss assisted the Maryknoll to recover and prosper and Drought became a “close friend”. By the mid-30s, Drought was aiding Strauss behind the scenes in unspecified ways to silence the famed Father Coughlin. Michael Beschloss describes “the weekly discourse of the Reverend Charles Coughlin” as an “indignant crescendo against the money changers, the Bolsheviks, the international bankers and, increasingly, Franklin Delano Rossevelt. The priest of the Shrine of the Little Flower posed, with Huey Long, the most serious single threat to [FDR]‘s reelection, or so [it was] believed.” Roosevelt “charged Joseph Kennedy with the responsibility of keeping the good priest on the reservation.” [pp 113-114, Kennedy and Roosevelt] Coughlin had become a formidable political force: “Sixty-six congressmen signed a petition asking Roosevelt to make Coughlin an economic adviserKennedy befriended the priest‘Joe was fascinated by Coughlin’s talent on the radio,’ James Roosevelt remembered. ‘He recognized it as demogoguery but revelled in what the priest could accomplish. He was intrigued by Coughlin’s use of power.’…By the end of 1934 Coughlin was poised to challenge Franklin Roosevelt. He formed his own political organization, the National Union for Social Justice… he informed his audience that..Roosevelt had ‘out-Hoovered Hoover’, protected plutocrats and comforted Communists… [A]betted by William Randolph Hearst and other isolationists, Coughlin led the fight against the president’s bill to bring the United States into the World Court.” [p117, ibid.] By 1936 “Kennedy urged the president to keep trying to mend fences with..Hearst and Father Coughlin… Coughlin announced to his radio audience that he and the president were now unalterably opposed.” [p122] After that, censure came quickly to Coughlin via the Vatican –he was ordered off the air. “..[Y]ears later, Father Coughlin in retirement, confided..that a deal had been struck” through the Pope’s emissary, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, that included a new office of the U.S. “presidential representative” to the Vatican. Two years later, Pacelli was invested as Pope Pius XII. No document known to this researcher describes the internal diplomacy or the involvement of Father Drought but Strauss treated his readers to this cryptic footnote: “there is a message from [Drought] to me [with] an excerpt from a letter to the Catholic clergy in America from [Pacelli] Pope Pius XII. The reference to Father Coughlin is oblique but Father Drought suggested that I note that results would follow, as indeed they did.” [121, Men and Decisions] Many people have been given the impression that Joe Kennedy arranged the censure of Coughlin, inducing the Vatican to exert influence on U.S. political affairs.
   Father Drought, under the guidance of Lewis Strauss and Herbert Hoover, later found himself in the center of one of the most tragic and lamentable events in modern times, attempting to secure a peace agreement between the U.S. and Japan in the year before Pearl Harbor. Strauss’s report on Father Drought, including a letter from the priest, is listed in the comments of the JFK Conspiracy Con (part II); Drought died in 1943 from fatal injuries suffered in a plane crash.
   During the year in which Father Coughlin was dealt with and FDR was reelected, Strauss built a stone fortress on his Virginia estate and took an avid interest in developing advanced technology. In 1937, while shopping the Brasch-Szilard particle accelerator (of approx. 5-million-volt capacity) to his friends Irving Langmuir and W.D. Coolidge at General Electric, the men arranged an “opportunity to meet Ernest Orlando Lawrence” who was then building a hundred-million-volt cyclotron (circular accelerator). Strauss expressed his new “friendship” with Lawrence as “one of the finest experiences of my life” to last until Lawrence’s death. [p165, Men and Decisions]. The year prior, young physicist Luis Alvarez, brother of Lawrence’s secretary, came to the Berkeley Rad Lab and soon became the lab’s associate director. In a decade hence, after the Manhattan Project became the Atomic Energy Commission, Alvarez would design the largest particle accelerator ever built, the Materials Testing Accelerator (MTA), around which the Lawrence Livermore laboratory was constructed (1950-52). The MTA was conceived to convert uranium into plutonium for nuclear weapons and produce other “metamaterials” for experimental uses. Alvarez patented a much smaller version of this accelerator type in the months before John F. Kennedy’s assassination, and the Warren Commission made Luis Alvarez its key consultant in erecting a physicist’s proof of a lone gunman’s shot-from-behind in accord with the Zapruder film.
   Also in 1937, Lewis Strauss joined a small pool of investors to establish the Polaroid Corporation under its creator Edwin Land, the future “father” of the U2 spyplane. Alvarez,too, was a significant contributor to the U2’s optics, as he had been vital in the “lens” trigger of the plutonium bombs.
   In 1938, Temple Emanu-El elected Strauss war president, Hitler annexed Austria, and Germany had its 9-11, the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938, written 9-11-38 and numerologically identical to 9-11-2001). Over the course of 1938, the rest of the essential assembly of physicists, including the traveling Szilard and Enrico Fermi, claimed their permanent residence in the U.S.
   By 1939, Strauss, Hoover and Bernard Baruch had organized their US of Africa scheme for the very Heart of Darkness where the president of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga, Edgar Sengier, began sending surreptitious shiploads of uranium yellowcake steaming to New York Harbor where they languished on the docks of Archer Daniels Grain Corp. Meanwhile, Sengier was aiding the French atomic bomb project in the Sahara and Strauss was visiting London, Paris, Joe Kennedy, and the “fragile and beautiful” sights of the Continent– he left Europe with his family on August 7 of 1939.
   Richard Pfau wrote that “war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “Without..warning..Stalin invaded Finland on November 30, 1939…[p65, Men and Decisions]…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… Later that day I sought the advice of an old friend. Ben Cohen was high in the councils of [FDR’s] Administration… He came up with the idea [of] a corporation…[p66]…The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this. [Klein]..had served as chief of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce [under Hoover as Secretary]…There were contributions from foreigners as well… Dr. Niels Bohr, the great Danish physicist, had already given the gold medal received with his Nobel Prize..for the relief of Finnish refugees in Denmark… The Franklin Institute had just announced..its gold medal..[was Bohr’s]..and Bohr said..he would like to contribute that medal to the fund… Years later..Bohr came to my office and retrieved his gold medal.” [pp68-69, Men and Decisions]  The result of Finnish resistance was that “The flower of the Finnish Army had been sacrificed in the early weeks of the war. On March 12, 1940, the Finns asked for terms of peace. These were severe– a large part of their best land had to be ceded to Russia, and..half a million people were dispossessed of their homes… The war that had been called ‘phony’ had become very real indeed.” [p70, ibid.]
   Pfau picked it up: “The war then exploded in the west. Hitler seized Denmark and Norway in April 1940… six weeks after the attack began [on France], the French surrendered… Because..Japan was a nation [Strauss] remembered fondly, he wanted the United States peace with Japan. He therefore helped..mediate the struggle for mastery of the Pacific… Father James Drought..and Bishop James Walsh..called on Strauss for letters of introduction to important men in Japan… The priests sailed on November 11, 1940.” [pp61-62, No Sacrifice Too Great]; 13 months before Pearl Harbor.
   “Ambassador Grew had reported to Washington, ten months before the fact, that he had heard rumors of plans for a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor… Grew also noted in his diary, ‘I rather guess that the boys in Pearl Harbor are not precisely asleep.’ …The volunteer intermediaries, Bishop Walsh and Father Drought [have] now passed from the picture [Walsh was captured by the Chinese and never heard from again], but the negotiations they had begun..continued up to the last hours… [T]he efforts of men of good will were completely thwarted.” [p128. Men and Decisions]
Months earlier “The Navy had arranged for the first approach to the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga..[in] June 1940.. at [Admiral] Bowen’s request [Alexander] Sachs made a contact with the company…Edgar Sengier..had concluded with extraordinary prescience that uranium..would become important..and had managed to divert..about twelve hundred tons of ore...” [p181, Men and Decisions]
>>>Sachs previously gave mail delivery service to FDR on behalf of the famous Einstein letter, penned by Szilard, signed by A.E. on August 2, 1939 and delivered in October.
    Also in June of 1940, Albert Lasker married his third wife, Mary Woodard, in a civil ceremony performed by Judge Samuel I. Rosenman. In April of 1939 when they met, Albert and Mary were introduced three times on the same occasion before it stuck. Together over lunch at ‘Twenty One”, were friends William Donovan (of the OSS), Lewis Strauss, and Max Epstein who each took a turn at the match. Within a few years, the Laskers focused their combined acumen on the health industry, took control of the American Cancer Society, and rewrote the book on Washington’s medical lobby.
Bureau of Ordnance
   “I had held a commission in the Naval Reserve since 1925, and in March 1941 orders had arrived to report for duty. This was nearly ten months before Pearl Harbor, and I seriously considered asking to be released… I was placed in charge of ordnance inspection with the astonishing designation General Inspector of Ordnance… As we had only a handful of qualified men, the first step was to train more immediately. I arranged for a school..and by dragooning civilian friends and acquaintances, recruited some hundreds of men of all ages… At dinner one evening at the home of Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Knox..I expounded on the value of consolidating all naval inspection… The Secretary was impressed… Navy material inspection was duly consolidated.. [with] the blessing of James Forrestal, Under Secretary of the Navy..[and] my assignment was assistant to the chief [of ordnance] –Admiral Blandy. We soon became friends.” [pp132-134, Men and Decisions]
   As Strauss metered toward indispensability in weapons procurement and a place in the Pentagon’s hierarchy (then being built with a groundbreaking on 9-11-41), his colleagues in business and the AJC were taking the lead in war material management. Donald Marr Nelson and Lessing Rosenwald of Sears Roebuck led the War Production Board while a second enterprise with Sears’ Robert E. Wood and the silent participation of Rosenwald fizzled out– the isolationist America First committee.
   Strauss: “Before we were at war, many manufacturers were reluctant to take ordnance contracts from the Navy… Secretary Knox asked me to devise a project which would overcome this reluctance… I incentive system… the right to paint an ‘E’ [for Efficiency and Excellence] on the turret of a ship… In the following year the project became the Army and Navy ‘E’ Award…generally..regarded as a model for successful industrial and public relations campaigns.” [pp149-150, Men and Decisions]
   Polaroid, for example, as a research-based upstart with Strauss on its board, suffered a net income “loss of about $100,000 in 1940. Nothing told [Edwin] Land and [Julius] Silver that they had  yet built a business that could survive, let alone grow… At the Polaroid Christmas party in 1940, Land called the [staff] together..[and] climbed up on a chair… The world was engulfed in war. The United States was not in it yet but –he spoke with chilling authority– it would be within a year. The Navy had offered Polaroid a..contract… Polaroid would devote its principal energies to defense work.” [pp67-69, Land’s Polaroid, Peter C. Wensberg] Strauss’s program “brought Polaroid the first of three Navy ‘E’ pennants for excellence in 1941, several months before the Pearl Harbor attack. The company had sales of a million dollars in 1941… In 1942, a fourth Army-Navy E was run up the flagpole.” [pp73-74, ibid.]
   Strauss’s brand of dispersal for war contracts, however, was not going entirely unnoticed: “During the hot summer months in 1941, a subcommittee of the House Naval Affairs Committee had begun an investigation of the procurement policies of the Navy. Counsel..was a man named Toland… Someone had informed him that I had been instrumental in placing large orders for aircraft with companies in which I had a substantial financial interest… I had nothing to do with the letting of contracts… Instead of inquiring, Toland undertook to obtain evidence by subpoena. Late one afternoon two young [Army] men with credentials identifying them as attaches of the Toland Committee arrived at my office… Under protest, I surrendered what the subpoena called for… The following morning I walked into the office of the Under Secretary of War and expressed my indignation. Judge Patterson agreed that it was outrageous to have officers of one service used to police the other… Captain Noble..sent me a note.’You should have called me at my home,’ he wrote. ‘I would have gotten a few Marines and chucked those fellows out of the window.’ ” [p151, Men and Decisions]
   Strauss: “There was a variety of assignments during [my] tour of duty… Once Forrestal asked me to follow the Navy’s interest in a biological warfare project…[I went] on a visit to a laboratory operated by Dr. Merck and his associates… I [co-wrote a report for the Secretaries of War and Navy..establishing proceedures for unified purchase of materials..The reforms..were at once institutedAppointed as Navy member of the Munitions Board in 1944, I served..a year… Secretary Knox died suddenly in 1944 and was succeeded by James Forrestal.” [p155] “
James V. Forrestal
   “In private life, Forrestal and I..had not been close friends. Indeed, as bankers we had been brisk competitors.” [p155] Forrestal “first saw me in uniform..during one of the monthly inspection visits [and] the next orders..for ‘Additional duty as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of the Navy.’…[W]hen he became Secretary of the Navy, my office was moved at Forrestal’s order to one connecting with his. We saw each other several times daily… By 1944 he was recognized as the most influential man in the Cabinet. Stimson was the more venerated..but..Forrestal was on his way up politically and there was no comparable rival… Had Forrestal lived, there is a possibility that he might have been General Eisenhower’s opponent in 1952.” [pp156-157, Men and Decisions]
   Strauss set up a condition of pique in the memoir linking the “Toland affair” with Forrestal, whose ‘leap’ out a high-floor window in Bethesda Naval Hospital in May of 1949 was a widely suspect murder. It was Forrestal originally that assigned Strauss to a counter-investigation on behalf of the Navy to track the source of information flowing to Congress and into the hands of its legal counsel Toland. Strauss produced a denigrating ‘anonymous letter’ about Toland for his Navy superiors, which Pfau relates was the object of Toland’s search. Afterward “Strauss demanded retribution. He anyone who would listen… the Navy did not want a feud. The vendetta subsided when Forrestal terminated Strauss’s work with the [Navy’s information] Clearing Office…but the under secretary did not want to waste time listening to Strauss’s complaint… Strauss turned in ten..pages [to Forrestal and] concluded, ‘You and the Navy,’ he wrote,’will have cause to regret any appeasement of Mr. Toland and I greatly fear it and hate to see you head into it.’ ” [pp 68-69, ibid.] Pearl Harbor had not yet occurred and “Strauss requested release from active duty..” so that he could return to full-time banking with Kuhn Loeb. The Navy was considering it until December 7, 1941.  Strauss’s complaint with the Navy by then was its failure to promote his rank above Lt. Commander.
   As Forrestal rose in authority, his office “had become a nexus for weapons research since efforts to establish a federal science agency were languishing.” [p310, James B. Conant; Harvard to Hiroshima, James Hershberg, 1993] In due time, Strauss’s position with Forrestal proved satisfying: “Strauss..accompanied Blandy..Forrestal and others on a tour around the..Pacific… Strauss linked the scientists with the Bureau of Ordnance… [He] prepared blistering letters that Blandy used to drive [production] work forward… Strauss..coordinated the development of the proximity [self-guided radar] fuse which began as [a] secret antiaircraft weapon… The proximity fuse project was Strauss’s first [military] experience with research under..secrecy… Strauss saw that research and production could proceed in an atmosphere of secrecy to yield a new and terrible weapon… Forrestal liked Strauss’s plan[s] so well he assigned Strauss to implement [them] and he promised Strauss a promotion to rear admiral Forrestal insisted [and] Strauss agreed to organize… With his unusual skill, he..assembled a team..established..proceedures, and promulgated..policies” [pp 72-74, No Sacrifice Too Great] “Forrestal also assigned Strauss to protect the navy’s interest in scientific research..after the war… Strauss worked closely with Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia to keep military research out of the hands of the National Academy of Sciences. The result..was..the Office of Naval Research…” [p77, ibid.]
   Full Pentagon access had significant benefits. “Strauss, while at the navy [James Conant recalled] ‘kept poking his unauthorized nose into things we were doing about atomic matters (at OSRD)…We told him off; in fact Van [Dr. Vannevar Bush] and I didn’t speak to him after that. We didn’t trust him and never did.‘….[later] business friends strongly counseled [Conant] to avoid one person in particular: Lewis L. Strauss..whom they said was out to make a name for himself by whatever means were necessary.” [p272, James B. Conant, Hershberg]
   Strauss: “The fact that Russian espionage had penetrated out atomic weapons project at several points was not then known. Likewise unknown was the degree of Soviet interest in rocket development… Had Forrestal’s good health continued [after the war], the history of Communist primacy in rocketry and satellites might..have had a different outcome… But Forrestal’s tough image was deceptive… He temporized and tried persuasion and forbearance. The word went about that he was intimidated.” [p159, Men and Decisions]  “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946…[p76, No Sacrifice Too Great…[and] knew immediately about the success of the [Trinity] test. As Forrestal’s assistant, no secrets were hidden from him.” [p77, ibid.] On a personal note, Strauss remarked that “The friendship between us was marked by candor in discussion of his plans for the..Navy and, after the war was clearly won, of his own future.” [p156, Men and Decisions]
   The two men crossed swords, however, after Forrestal became Truman’s Secretary of Defense and Strauss was a commissioner on the Atomic Energy Commission. The issue at hand was atomic security under the civilian AEC; serious breaches of AEC facilities were occurring that included missing plutonium –not mentioned by Strauss. He did report that Forrestal informed him that he was recommending the military takeover of the guardianship of atomic weapons. Strauss urged, “Don’t do it, Jim, the President will decide against you.” [p160] It was the beginning of Forrestal’s decline. Truman responded, “that ‘the custody of atomic weapons is a proper function of the civil authorities’. The occasion may have been a turning point..[in] Forrestal’s failing health… [Months later] on March 8, 1949 [Forrestal] asked me to lunch in his dining room in the Pentagon for what was to be the last time.” [p160, Men and Decisions] In the James B. Conant biographical chronology, just days after their Pentagon lunch, author Hershberg noted that “On March 12, 1949 the New York Times reported..on its front page, Secretary Forrestal ‘broke an official three-year military silence..on the use or discussion of the term ‘biological warfare’…” Hershberg was enumerating the complexities of disarmament and control that Conant was facing; he was hearing that “ ‘Biological warfare renders the atomic bomb childplay’…Another project that Conant tenaciously resisted..was radiological warfare, an idea championed by the air force and by Ernest Lawrence.” [p356, James B. Conant, James Hershberg]
   The death of James Forrestal, according to Arthur Krock, began with a fall from favor “with [Truman] for two reasons in particular. The first was his the partition of Palestine..on military grounds –that the creation of..Israel would threaten the supply of Middle East oil to the West, especially to the..Navy. And with rare foresight he considered it a dangerous political create a state surrounded by enemies and give it a guarantee of protection… The second reason..grew out of [Forrestal’s]..patriotic desire to assure a smooth..transition of government power if Dewey should win the 1948..election, as was widely expected… [but] his balking at the Palestine policy..made him powerful enemies in the Administration… [F]riends..detected a steady decline..from that time…” [pp 252-253, Memoirs, Arthur Krock]
   Krock revealed a source he called only ‘Z’ for details that followed: “It had long been Z’s habit to lunch with Forrestal when in Washington and on March 29, 1949, he usual. An aide informed him..he could not lunch with him but would like Z to phone him [at home]..” Z arranged to see Forrestal at once. “[T]he butler said that his boss seemed to be very sick.” [p254] “Z told Forrestal he would have to leave the house promptly; that he was going to send him to Hobe Sound [Forrestal home in Florida] by plane and bring a doctor there… Z then flew to New York and inquired of Howard A. Rusk for the..’best psychiatrist in the country’…Z and Dr. William C. Menninger flew to Hobe Sound on Friday morning [p255]..and an agreement was reached that Forrestal should be taken to Bethesda… Z and Forrestal’s former aide, Rear Admiral John Gingrich, watched him through the night… That day Forrestal went willingly with Z and the two doctors by plane to Washington… He was not violent at any time. But he did have delusions and he had lost his health and his power to make decisions… Forrestal said..that his intestinal functions had not been normal for more than six weeks… In his mental agony Forrestal saw Zionist spies and assassins lurking..near his residence bent on revenge for his attitude toward the Palestine partition. And after..he entered the Naval Hospital, he never left it until he jumped..from a tower window.” [p 257, Memoirs, Arthur Krock]
Dr. Howard A. Rusk had since joined forces with the Laskers’ D.C. medical lobby and would soon count Joe Kennedy Sr. and JFK among his patients. Within weeks after JFK’s assassination, Rusk was invited to set up a new polio hospital in Taiwan; six months later the Chinese detonated their first atomic bomb.
Atomic Energy
   Richard Pfau reported that Strauss was “already involved in atomic policy before he left the navy…[and] it was clear that Congress would establish a civilian Atomic Energy Commission… By July..1946, Strauss expected the president to offer him one of the five places on the..Commission.” [pp 85-88, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss had no official role in the Manhattan Project although as a prior Munitions Board executive it seems he was placed in the line-up for a spot on the Target Committee. Strauss replaced Ralph Bard and suggested that the first atomic bomb be dropped on Nikko Japan, the near-perfect physical center of the main island (Honshu) which had over a thousand years of sacred history. Strauss was quite well-informed that Japan knew the war was lost and had been seeking terms of surrender since May of 1945. “[Strauss] recommended to Secretary Forrestal that the United States should demonstrate the power of the bomb…From his trip to Japan he remembered ‘a grove of cryptomeria trees near the little village of Nikko’..[that] held great symbolic significance… If an atomic bomb laid the trees out in concentric rows, the demonstration of American power would lead, Strauss believed, to Japan’s surrender.” [p80, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   The disturbing selection of Nikko for targeting by Strauss is an ominous insight into his real nature. In every way, the “little village”, as he called it, was/is the spiritual heart of the Japanese, set among the most precious and preserved natural landscapes of their domain. Once the seat of power, home of its ancient culture, and destination of pilgrims, Strauss set his desire against them as one who carves out the heart of his defeated enemy and obliterates its spirit from the earth. Nasty man.
   While he was alive, Franklin Roosevelt refused to approve Strauss for a Navy promotion stemming from a personal offense, but “the new president, Truman, bore no ill will toward Strauss…” He received his rank of Rear Admiral and “used the title proudly for the rest of his life.” [p82, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   The U.S. began its postwar atomic tests in the summer of 1946 in the new Pacific Proving Grounds –ceded territory previously occupied by the Japanese in the Polynesian Marshall Islands. Operation Crossroads staged two detonations with elaborate assemblies of ‘experimental’ ships and materiel called ‘Able’ and ‘Baker’. “Admiral Blandy was put in command… My friends Dr. John von Neumann and Dr. Karl T. Compton were present as observers… During the same week that the underwater ‘Baker’ test was scheduled at Bikini atoll, I went to California to be the guest of ex-President Hoover at the..Bohemian Club… Mr. Hoover and a few of his friends maintain a camp there..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Strauss was interrupted on his holiday to answer a summons from Truman to come to Washington immediately. “Back in his office, the President came directly to the point and asked whether I would be willing to serve..’the most important branch of the Government to be created in a hundred years.'” Strauss told Truman he would consider becoming the first of the five new Atomic Energy Commissioners. “When I left the White House, I called my Virginia. I also consulted two friends. I called Robert A. Salt Lake City at the time…[and] the other friend was Arthur Krock, the dean of American journalism. I went to his home and talked it over with him. His advice was, ‘Accept it.’  That afternoon I sent word to the President. A message came say nothing of it to anyone.” [p213, ibid.]
Krock wrote of meeting Joe P. Kennedy Sr. in 1934 on appointment to the the SEC “to take the measure of the man” at the initiation of two friends. “These two friends were Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.”–journalist brother of G.E. president Gerard Swope. Krock went on to describe Joe Kennedy ”as a news source and later as an intimate companion.” [pp330-331, Memoirs]
WWII notes, pertaining to Strauss: In 1943 the Navy began a consolidation of its research and development projects that became the Office of Research and Inventions, rechartered as the war-end Office of Naval Research. Lewis Strauss wrote “Admiral Bowen, first Chief of Naval Research, has too generously ascribed its establishment to me.” [p147, Men and Decisions] “In early 1944, I proposed to Forrestal that we should obtain a sizable appropriation from the Congress… We should request a billion dollars..[to] enable long-range research… The result was that when the Office of Scientific Research and Development [OSRD, under Vannevar Bush] began to liquidate at the end of the war, the Office of Naval Research [ONR] filled the breach… The Atomic Energy Commission has shared many projects in nuclear physics with ONR.” [p148, ibid.]
Physicist Allan T. Waterman became the ONR’s chief science director until replaced by Emanuel Piore.; Waterman was married to Mary Mallon, sister of H.Neil Mallon of Dresser (Halliburton) Industries and business partner of D.H.Byrd (and George deMohrenschilt). H. Neil Mallon was “a close friend and business partner of Prescott Bush.”(wikipedia)
   The Navy additionally established its own counterpart to “ALSOS”, the Allied occupation vanguard to capture and recruit technical and scientific assets (i.e.Project Paperclip). “Accordingly,” wrote Strauss, “I proposed the..task force… It..turned up an astonishingly large and heterogenous variety of scientific information, material and people..located cunningly in concealed laboratories and..installations… It took possession of tons of documents and reports… Fleet Admiral King was proud…[and] not the only one who had pride in the mission. Among the officers..was my son and I was more than pleased.” [p149, Men and Decisions]
   One of the German Paperclip scientists recruited by the Navy task force in Frankfurt was Herman P. Schwan who set the electronic radiation exposure levels (for radar) that became the Navy’s “recommended” limit, arguably 10,000 times higher than biologists endorse as safe:
Meanwhile, in Medicine…
   Consolidation in “public health” took several forms. Under the wartime Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, a comprehensive Influenza surveillance and reporting system was initiated. The AFEB was stuffed with Rockefeller personnel who became officers and had their military salaries augmented by private funds. In 1943 Thomas Francis (formerly of Rockefeller Hospital) and Jonas Salk tested new flu vaccines from their base at the University of Michigan. According to Army records, the worst global pandemic spread of flu on record occurred in 1943, far outdoing the 1918-19 Spanish Flu by case volume. The pair later led the polio vaccine effort.
   The Laskers, “almost from the moment they met [in 1939]..addressed themselves to medical problems.” [p315, Taken At The Flood]. “Back in 1942 the Laskers set up the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation…and went to Dr. Alan Gregg of the Rockefeller Foundation for counselAlbert said frankly he wanted ‘bargains’Gregg suggested a variety of leads…[and] the [Lasker] awards were launched.” [pp324-326, ibid.] But “[Albert] Lasker was a revolutionary among philanthropists, because he was the first to suggest putting federal money to work in a big way…[p331]…figures tell the story…In 1945 the total research budget of the U.S. Public Health Service was a scant $2.4 million; by 1952 it had risen to $56 million, and in 1958..$211 million, a hundred-fold increase in thirteen years. For was doubled…so..the increase from 1945 [was] 2,000 per cent.” [p332, Taken At The Flood]
  The Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Research Institute [SKI] was chartered in 1945 with Lewis Strauss and MED [Manhattan Proj.] luminaries on its board. “Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in..with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius “Dusty”] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants because of the uncertainties of the Institute’s sources of income. He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.” [1950 memo written by William T. Golden]
  on the AEC monopoly, presidential gatekeeping, atomic secret agents of the FBI, Robert Oppenheimer, etc.

November 6, 2012

MPG on The Road Not Taken

Filed under: Modern History — jenniferlake @ 4:24 pm
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When I see news about the price of gas or commercials for new cars and trucks touting twenty-or-thirty-something miles per gallon (or particularly during a shortage, outage, energy disaster or smog test!), it makes me think of Tom Ogle and his vapor-fuel system. I read about Tom a few years ago and his story becomes ever more poignant for its place in geopolitics and time.  

Ron Laytner wrote, “In 1978 I first interviewed Tom Ogle who created a device replacing the carburetor [that] allowed his 4,000 pound car to get 100 miles per gallon… Four years later Tom, at age 24, was in his grave and his invention, buried.” So Laytner is asking, “Did the world not go green because of a murder?…Tom said the 100mpg..was only the beginning of his newfound fuel efficiency.”

   “Tom felt confident that on the smaller, lighter cars..he could get nines times as much. That means..900 miles per gallon… ‘This is no hoax’, said Dr. Hawkins [Texas A&M engineer PhD, who approved and supported Tom’s system], ‘Ogle eliminated the carburetor and achieved what the gasoline internal combustion engine was supposed to do all along –to operate off fumes’… Seventy years ago Canadian Charles Nelson Pogue made headlines long before Tom Ogle when he drove a 1932 Ford 200 miles on a single gallon of gas… a test for The Ford Motor Company in Winnipeg…” ; Pogue’s story: 

   If Henry Ford was impressed in 1932, it was a complement by design when he unveiled his “Soybean Car”, made with soy-based plastic panels, “on August 13, 1941 at Dearborn festival… The car weighed 2000 lbs [1,000 less than his other models]… The exact ingredients of the plastic..are unknown because no record of the formula exists today… [Ford] also claimed that the plastic panels made the car safer than traditional steel cars; and that the car could even roll over without being crushed.” . Ford’s early cars were designed to run on alcohol.

   Then there’s Rudolf Diesel who invented his motor to run on peanut oil. Diesel disappeared from a train ride and was found dead 10 days later.

Laytner points out that that another young American inventor who designed a dune buggy to run on water died at the height of his expectant success: “Stanley Allen Meyer..had twenty patents on many water-fueled inventions.”

In the ’70s 

  “As the environmental movement began to take shape in the early 1970s, a nationwide panic ensued in 1973 when the Arab members of OPEC cut off exports to the United States and other nations supporting Israel… This was a bold attempt to coerce Israeli forces to leave occupied Arab lands. Much to the relief of those traumatized by rising gas prices and oil shortages..a clever [young] mechanic from El Paso, Texas named Thomas Ogle made headlines when he claimed his invention would allow any V-8 engine to get 160 miles to the gallon… [He] revealed the results of an independent exhaust emissions test, which showed that his system operates nearly pollution-free… Although Ogle was eventually granted his patent, Patent Office examiners..indicated that a patent may already have been issued..similar to Ogle’s… [to] General Motors… One of their patents included a vaporized system that eliminated the carburetor, obtained by GM in 1972.”

   “Scientists were convinced his invention, dubbed the ‘Oglemobile’, would soon reach world markets… corporate engineers and the US government..were astounded to discover the invention actually worked…  A few months after my first interview [Tom’s] backer C.F. Ramsay sold out to Advance Fuel Systems Inc, [of Seattle]… Advance Fuel’s own engineers would develop the ‘Oglemobile’..[and] Ogle was told he’d get no royalties because AFS was working on a device that got similar results but wasn’t his invention… [T]hirty years later I can still hear Tom’s voice from our recorded interviews promising the world a better future… He believed his system was the answer to the world’s pollution problems… Everyone predicted he would become a billionaire… and perhaps one of America’s greatest inventors.” [Ron Laytner, 2011]


October 24, 2012


Morgification is something I’ve been thinking about for months. In part, as the involuntary and evil twin of Borgification, and in breadth as a process that derives “morg” from its original word-root as a condition of death. It only so happens that All Hallows Eve is on our doorstep and this haphazard piece turns out to be timely. The inspiration didn’t come from philosophy or religion, but from polymer science; specifically, the activities of the (defunct) Polaroid Corporation and the men who were dipping their probes into the mysteries of organic stereochemistry to make “interesting” plastics. And then there’s the overall driver which is a psychic hologram of scientific tyranny. Pardon my negativity but there’s a problem Houston! We’re losing the Race for Space –and I mean losing control of those engineered aliens ( the “race” for space).   So, I guess what I want to say is: get jiggy with it science guys or get morgued for a comeback as zombie pumpkins.

“Morg”, of course, is taken from Morgellon’s, a name on overdrive, standing in for the range of disorders manifesting as recurrent lesions, extruding fibers, films, crystals, technological objects and insects oozing and tearing out of people’s skin. Prognosis unknown. Morgellon’s suggests these are medical problems. Morgification, I’m suggesting, is conquest.

   No one can yet tell me if it’s killing people because so far what I’ve heard is that ‘morgs’ are killing themselves. I have too little to offer in the face of this tragedy, but recent exposure to advanced cases of morgification support a conviction that the issue needs to be, and must be, defined. It was Edwin (“call me Din”) Land, the founder and genius of Polaroid, who was fond of telling people that a problem defined opened the way to its solution.


The following description and accompanying photos (in the link) fits some of the morg specimens I’ve seen: “In this work, we discovered that.. PVP could self-assemble to form a macroscopic matrix made of a branched hollow polymer nanofibers… The self-assembled fibrous PVP structure formed in the aqueous solution was a jellyfish-like three-dimensional aggregate with a centimeter scale… Based on the..analysis of the early stage during the formation of the jellyfish-like PVP aggregate, the aggregate formation process can be divided into two steps: formation and fusion of PVP microspheres into pearl-necklace-like chains and growth of hollow fibers from the chains… The branched fibers produced in this work may serve as new templates for the synthesis of fibers or tubes of other materials… We discovered that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) could self-assemble into branched hollow fibers in an aqueous solution after aging the PVP solution for about two weeks. Based on this finding, we demonstrated two approaches by which the self-assembly of PVP into branched hollow fibers could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers.” [i.e. silica and gold nanoparticles]

 PVP powder, sold widely as a food additive, binding and thickening agent for foods, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, medical devices and blood plasma substitute. Mixed with iodine it’s called povidone, able to make light-polarizing film — it could have been among the many thousands of polymer compounds prepared by Polaroid.

Edwin Land, c1947 

For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized  “Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy  [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… and clearly demonstrated what they were investing in by granting Land control of a voting trust of the stock… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]   Din Land had shown them miracles, including a 3-D movie, which they restaged multiple times for scientists, capitalists, and the press. For the 1939 “World of Tomorrow” Fair in New York, Chrysler presented a 3-D Polaroid film of a car self-assembling as the animated parts danced before the audience. Still, Polaroid had little to sell and fewer customers, but 1940, World War II, new premises near M.I.T. and a flow of contracts from the US Navy changed everything. Near the end of the war, Polaroid took on a team of crack chemists and set out to make the products that Edwin Land had dreamed of.

One of the chemists who signed on to Polaroid in 1943 was Elkan Rogers Blout, newly promoted out of Columbia University with a chemical PhD and accommodated as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. Blout managed to keep his parallel life going between Polaroid and Harvard –Polaroid gave him wealth and Harvard gave him prestige– until 1962 and the fruition of Polaroid’s great commercial one-trick-pony: the instant color camera. Blout “led the team of chemists that synthesized more than 5,000 compounds in search of the key ingredients of the Polaroid color process.” By leaving the lab at Polaroid, Blout was to have time to make his mark in medicine. Since 1950, he’d had private lab space at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, sponsored by the Children’s Cancer Research Foundation under Sidney Farber: “Elkan established a spectroscopy laboratory at Children’ study biophysics of peptides and proteins… Indicative of his stature in the field of biopolymers, Elkan was a founding editor of the journal Biopolymers…”  At the top of his Harvard career, Elkan Blout was the Dean of academics at the Harvard School of Public Health, treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences responsible for a five-fold increase in monetary holdings and lastly, in retirement after having won the highest national awards, senior science advisor to the FDA.  But, from his first days at Polaroid during WWII, Blout (who was 24 at the time) had joined in the ‘classified’ culture of military secrets. It may have taught him much about networking and discretion, as doubtlessly as hobnobbing with financiers did with money. Perhaps it suited him as it suited Edwin Land.

When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada, Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…  From the first flight on July 4, 1956, to the day Gary Powers was shot down on May 1, 1960, the U-2 changed the course of history… suddenly a hidden world was totally revealed. It quickly became apparent that the bomber gap and the missile gap [promoted as falling behind the Soviets] were misapprehensions… the Western powers had overestimated Soviet strength… Subsequent flights totally revised American and NATO thinking about Russian capabilities.” [pp111-112, Land’s Polaroid]

The essential telling of U-2 surveillance and the involvement of Land is in the timing of its early flights a full year before the United States blew off the longest and dirtiest series of nuclear bombs over the heads of its citizens.  The Nevada tests known as Operation Plumbob in the summer and fall of 1957 initiated the period of peak atmospheric fallout that, according to epidemiological data, has never really abated due to the growth of nuclear industries, accidents, re-pollution and bioaccumulation. For some time now, even the public knows that the ‘testing’ excess was militarily unnecessary by any standard.  In the field of synthetic and biopolymers, however, fallout is magic.


Got a minute?

All polymers are made of linked units called monomers.
A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature.  Starch, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars [polysaccharides], amino acids [polypeptides], and nuceic acids [polynucleotides]. The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the polymer’s primary structure. Many biopolymers spontaneously “fold” into characteristic shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the shapes of biopolymers.”
“Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation…also known as 3D chemistry because the prefix “stereo-” means “three-dimensionality”.
The term ‘plastics’ includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Plastics typically have high molecular weight, meaning each molecule can have thousands of atoms bound together… Most plastics are based on the carbon atom. Silicones, which are based on the silicon atom, are an exception. The carbon atom can link to other atoms with up to four chemical bonds .. When we combine monomers, we generate polymers or plastics… The raw material formation may begin by separating the hydrocarbon chemicals from natural gas, petroleum, or coal into pure streams of chemicals. Some are then processed in a “cracking process.” Here, in the presence of a catalyst, raw materials molecules are converted into monomers such as ethylene (ethene) C2H4, propylene (propene) C3H6, and butene C4H8 and others….  Each monomer yields a plastic resin with specific properties and characteristics. Combinations of monomers produce copolymers with further property variations. So, within each polymer type, such as nylons, polyesters, polyethylenes, etc, manufacturers can custom make plastics that have specific features.”
“A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure. Covalent [shared electron] bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.”
“Most plastics are dielectrics or insulators…and resist the flow of a current… [but] Not all polymers behave the same when subjected to voltage and plastics can be classified as ‘polar’ or ‘nonpolar’…The polar plastics do not have a fully covalent bond and there is a slight imbalance in the electronic charge of the molecule… This ‘dipole’ will move in the presence of an electric field and attempt to line up with the electric field.”
Molecular self-assembly is mediated by weak, noncovalent bonds –notably hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds (electrostatic interactions), hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions and water-mediated hydrogen bonds. Although these bonds are relatively insignificant in isolation, when combined together as a whole, they govern the structural conformation of..macromolecules…”
Polymer fabrication techniques often use free radicals: Free radical polymerization is a which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks. Free radicals can be formed via a number of different mechanisms… The relatively nonspecific nature of free radical chemical interactions makes this one of the most versatile forms of polymerization available.. In 2001, 40 billion of the 110 billion pounds of polymers produced in the United States were produced by free radical polymerization.”
High-energy ionizing radiation produces free radicals for chemically cross-linking polymers: “..[a] polymer may be crosslinked using..electron beam (or e-beam), gamma, or x-ray. Gamma irradiation is usually most economical at lower doses..and for large, high-density parts…Irradiation creates free radicals which will often chemically react in various ways… The free radicals can recombine forming the crosslinks. The degree of crosslinking depends upon the polymer and radiation dose… Another oxidation during irradiation. Furthermore, oxidation can continue after irradiation causing changes in properties with time… A competing process, called scissioning occurs when polymers are irradiated. In this case, the polymer chains are broken…”
Plasma polymerization: …”as early as the 1870s ‘polymers’ formed by this process were known, but these polymers were initially thought of as undesirable…It was not until the 1960s that the properties of these polymers where found to be useful… Glow discharge is a technique in polymerization which forms free electrons which gain energy from an electric field, and then lose energy through collisions with neutral molecules in the gas phase. This leads to many chemically reactive species, which then lead to a plasma polymerization reaction… These plasmas are formed by a direct current, alternating current or radio frequency generator.
“This review describes recent developments in the emerging field of biomimetic polymeric biomaterials, which signal to cells via biologically active entities.  …The next topics are then the basic design rules for the creation of biomimetic materials. Here, the major emphasis is on polymers that are assembled in separate building blocks, meaning that the biologically active entity is attached to the polymer in a separate chemical reaction.”
“Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach…by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte [red blood cell] membranes..for long-circulating [drug or gene] cargo delivery…”
“Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap)…”
“Conductive polymers are expected to play an important role in the emerging science of molecular computers…”
Indeed… polymers are smart materials. If you knew nothing about plastics before reading this, I hope this random selection of quotes does a ‘Polaroid’–  gives you the picture in a minute.
   I have one last addition about the “pyrroles” :
“Polypyrroles are conducting polymers of the, all basically derivatives of polyacetylene. Polypyrrole was the first polyacetylene derivative to show high conductivity. In a series of papers in 1963, D.E.Weiss and coworkers reported high conductivity in iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole… In 2006, scientists from Brown University published work on a fast-charging and discharging battery chemistry based on polypyrroles. There are current studies into the medical applications… Polypyrrole..has been actively studied as a material for ‘artificial muscles’… Polypyrrole is used in the microwave fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, a new method that allows to obtain CNTs in a matter of seconds.”
….now there’s a real Polaroid moment.
In 1940, equal to Polaroid’s up-and-coming status as a think tank floating on Navy contracts, Edwin Land adopted Robert Burns Woodward as a special science advisor and chief “problem solver” to the company. Woodward was a Boston area native, PhD graduate of MIT, and soon to become the resident wizard of organic chemistry at Harvard. He was “considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century… During the..1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex..products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, and by meticulous plannng…  it was thought by some..that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab… Woodward was a pioneer in showing how, with exhaustive and rational planning, one could conduct reactions that were stereoselective. Many..syntheses involved forcing a molecule into a certain configuration by installing rigid structural elements in it, [a] tactic that has become standard today.”
   “In 1944, Land brought together two brilliant young chemists who had worked for Polaroid… twenty-seven..[and]..William E. Doering..[who] was twenty-six. Land provided them with a Polaroid laboratory and assistants, his own insistent energy and ideas, and a challenge to solve the classical problem… Synthetic quinine…” [p76, Land’s Polaroid] It was through Woodward, who had also been serving the War Production Board, that Elkan Blout came to Polaroid too. Woodward was to stay in the family –in 1946 he divorced his first wife and married Eudoxia ‘Doxie’ Muller, one of Polaroid’s first hires, described as a “humorous, cynical, blonde sprite” who was recruited to learn science on-the-job. “Doxie had been assigned by Land to begin the first chemical experiments on his instant photography project, given the code name SX-70, under Land’s daily guidance.” [p9, ibid.]
   Woodward’s “new era” in chemistry was to bear his name. “In the early 1950s, Woodward, along with the British chemist Geoffrey Wilkinson then at Harvard, postulated a novel structure for ferrocene, a compound consisting of a combination of an organic molecule with iron. This marked the beginning of the field of transition metal organometallic chemistry…  In the early 1960s, Woodward began work on what was the most complex natural product synthesized to date– vitamin B12… The synthesis included almost a hundred steps…  This [work] convinced organic chemists that the synthesis of any complex substance was possible given enough time and planning.” [wiki, above]
   Blout wrote of his friend, “Theoretically, interesting molecules always intrigued Woodward… He concluded that electronic effects had to be at work…”
“Recently the mixtures of collagen with synthetic polymers..are becoming more and more interesting for scientists and technologists… Since collagen alone does not show interesting enough mechanical properties, the idea to develop collagen based composite materials by adding a selected synthetic polymer is interesting. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is an interesting water-soluble synthetic… used for..plasmas (substitute of blood plasma), for hydrogel production by radiation methods and..hydrophilic gels…  Collagen and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)..are also well known for their interesting biological properties. The blending of collagen with PVP makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur.”
“…surgically induced fibrocollagenous tunnels induces angiogenesis in ischemic rat hindlimb model… collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone plus heparin induced significant vascularization…”
“Vascular tube formation and angiogenesis induced by polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles” [abstract title]
   Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, was a term first coined in 1900 but made-over in 1960s medical literature as a feature of cancer by the effort of a Boston [Children’s Hospital/Harvard] colleague, Moses Judah Folkman. Dr. “Folkman is widely known as a pioneer in the sudy of angiogenesis… Today [2008] there are more than 1,000 laboratories worldwide engaged in the study of angiogenesis, the field he founded.” In measurable practical value, however, Folkman may be better known for creating plasticized implants, including an early pacemaker: “While doing blood research for the Navy [Bethesda], Folkman had noticed that plastic tubing will gradually leak oil-based fluids… That led to a new drug-delivery system– implantable plastic capsules..[and] directly to the development of Norplant, the long-term contraceptive… Folkman gave the original the Population Council.”
…”Judah Folkman has taken us enormously close to converting cancer into a manageable chronic disease…”
   Without digressing here on the utility of cancer, this last comment fairly captures my perception of the goals of establishment medicine and brings up another haunting concept I’ve been thinking about as a result of this research: autoincarceration –for now, one to keep rolling. There are endless interesting citations about PVP.
   Polyvinylpyrrolidone was first made in a BASF laboratory, the company that advertizes “We don’t just create chemicals, we create chemistry” : “Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a genuine ‘multi-talent’ among BASF products because polyvinylpyrrolidones are good at (almost) everything… It all began around the end of Ludwigshafen. Walter Reppe, the inventor of acetylene chemistry, used acetylene and pyrrolidone to produce a new monomer called vinylpyrrolidone… PVP started its career as a substitute for blood plasma in the Second World War. Known as Periston, it saved the lives of thousands of people… Half of the polyvinylpyrrolidones produced by BASF are destined for the pharmaceutical sector…  Today, BASF is the biggest producer of PVP in Europe –and an end to this success story is nowhere in sight.”–PVP+and+more+Versatile+specialty+polymers+for+technical+applications-English.pdf
“When dry, it is a light flaky powder which readily absorbs up to 40% of its weight in atmospheric water. In solution it has excellent wetting properties and readily forms films…”
[1953]”This work..may serve as a basis for later investigations..on the combining of PVP for certain physiologic products with which it comes into intimate contact when used as a plasma expander…”
“Pulsed electron beam irradiation at high repitition rate generates several carbon-centered free radicals along the polymeric chain simultaneously and enhances the intra-crosslinking radical reactions. Smaller nano-gel particles..were attained at higher pulse repitition rate (300 pulses per second)…the nano-gel structure was synthesized using relatively low dose-rate radiation…”
“The microemulsion was..subjected to either electron-beam or UV-radiation to induce free-radical crosslinking of PVP at low temperature… E-beams produced orderly grids and UV produced a tangled mess…”
“Recently studies have shown that infection can occur in the presence of neutralizing antibodies…if the virus is first subjected to polymer encapsulation… By substituting polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for PVA [polyvinyl alcohol], gene transfer increased seven-fold…”
Naturally existing pyrroles, incidently, come from tobacco, and as part of its intriguing history as the first confirmed isolation of  any virus (published 1892), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) turns out to “exhibit fascinating structural features… TMV-based materials have already shown great potential in nanoelectronics.”
–now, I can only speculate what kind of story Big Tobacco might have to contribute here. Tobacco keeps coming up in my radiation biology studies; as a source of desirable chemicals such as nicotinic acid and pyrrole, as a crop target of early “radium fertilizer” and as a factor in the cancer of Henrietta Lacks, whose tumor cells were designated the immortal HeLa line in 1951 (beginning of US domestic atomic fallout), then to become the most ubiquitous of laboratory creatures (i.e., the basis of polio vaccines) –and now this too, ready nanoelectronics.
   Americans should know from history that the burgeoning economy of the Atlantic colonies was built on the slave labor of tobacco plantations. By the 1700s, excluding J.J. Astor, great fortunes were in tobacco, exemplified by Pierre Lorillard: “Lorillard is the oldest tobacco company in the world.; In 1968, Lorillard was acquired by Loews Corporation, controlled by the Tisch family. If you like, take the rabbit hole:; or jump in and follow the money
BASF, creator of the chemistry, was the 1925 founding corporation of I.G. Farbenunder the leadership of Carl Bosch…all shares were exchanged for BASF shares prior to the merger. Rubber, fuels and coatings were added to the product range“.

In 1927, prior to the Wall Street Crash and the construction of Rockefeller Center,  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben formalized a joint partnnership that created the world’s largest chemical consortium. Howard Ambruster published a critical work in 1947 on the interwar history of the Standard-Farben venture: “Treason’s Peace, German Dyes and American Dupes”.  Ambruster wrote, “ is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which..operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest and a world super-state directed by Farben.”…”

“Under the direction of Walter Reppe (1892 – 1969, chemist and member of the  Board of Executive Directors from 1952 to 1957), research begins in 1928 on the catalytic reactions of acetylene under pressure… Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius receive the Nobel Prize for the development of  high-pressure technology for ammonia synthesis and coal hydrogenation…Researchers in Ludwigshafen develop a groundbreaking new invention – magnetic  tape…  Ten years of intensive research into synthetic rubber culminate in success… A patent is filed in 1939 for one of the most interesting  derivatves of acetylene chemistry: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)… Times of war, 1940…The first 20 tons of caprolactam-based polyamide are produced in  Ludwigshafen. This opens up new ways of manufacturing fibers (nylon and Perlon)  and engineering plastics… ”

“I.G. Farben had a holding company in the United States… Paul M. Warburg, first director of the Federal  Reserve Bank of New York and chairman of the Bank of Manhattan, was a Farben director and in Germany his brother Max Warburg was also a director of I.G,  Farben. H. A. Metz of I.G. Farben was also a director of the Warburg’s Bank of  Manhattan. Finally, Carl Bosch of American I.G. Farben was also a director of  Ford Motor Company A-G in Germany… Another elusive case of reported financing to Hitler is that of Fritz Thyssen, the German steel magnate…[whose]..personal banking operation was affiliated with W.A. Harriman interests in New York..”  “Virtually all members of the German Warburg family fled to the United States or Great Britain by 1938.”  “The I.G.Farben cartel was created by loans from Wall Street in what has been called the Dawes Plan. Carroll Quigley calls the Dawes Plan ‘largely a J.P. Morgan production.’ The J.P. Morgan Group set up the loan to I.G. Farben, which created Hitler… Do you see what happened? A Rothschild agent [Morgan & Co.] set up a cartel that was directly involved in the horrible persecution of the Jews. Still the family maintains the illusion of being totally supportive of their race. At first Germany had a significant disadvantage… The nation had a fuel shortage…[but] were able to fight WWII through the use of synthetic fuels that were created by the hydrogenation process (turning coal into gasoline)… Standard Oil..was able to complete the research, facilitating the war…” [from Bloodlines of the Illuminati, by Fritz Springmeier,]

While the processes for producing gaseous and liquid fuels by conventional techniques were being developed, exploratory experiments to investigate the rapid pyrolysis of coal to gaseous products were in progress… The results of these studies show that the rapid pyrolysis of coal produces a gaseous mixture of which acetylene is the principal hydrocarbon constituent…”

The US Government’s sample of PVP came to the military in 1943 as captured German medical supplies: “At the 28 July 1943 [Subcommittee on Blood Substitutes] Conference..a bottle of Periston [polyvinylpyrrolidone]..that had been captured in Tunisia..was exhibited and arrangements were made for various studies to be conducted on it… [T]oxicity experiments revealed gross pathologic changes in the spleen..described as the type to be expected in severe bone marrow damage… Autopsy also revealed changes in the liver that were apparently progressive…”  Despite this, blood substitute science was unable to find suitable materials and Periston was bypassed because of adequate supplies of donated blood from the Red Cross program. The military dropped its inquiry at the end of the war, but in 1950 the Korean War revived their interest: “Periston was..[next] considered in the Subcommittee on Shock on 14 October 1950. Although it had been widely used in Germany during WWII and about half a million cases had since been followed up, not much was known… Apparently it caused no lasting damage to the tissues… At the 11 was learned that the Schenley [Distillers] Corp. could then import 5,000 to 10,000 bottles of Periston a month from Germany and by July 1951 expected to import an intermediate form that could be processed further in the United States… A research project had been approved in principle… The Food and Drug Administration was prepared to clear Periston…” [pp788-790] So Schenley Corp. became the government’s PVP contractor until late 1953 when Periston was dropped again in favor of another blood substitute called dextran –also provided by Schenley.

“Schenley had been owned by one Danny Weiskopf, formerly the right-hand man of Julius Kessler, the whiskey king of pre-Prohibition America. Weiskopf had sold out to Lew Rosenstiel..[who] managed to build up considerable stocks of ‘prescription whiskey’..[p95, The Bronfmans]… Before Repeal Rosenstiel had acquired..the important firm of Schenley with the help of..the totally respectable banking firm of Lehman Brothers… Rosenstiel was a true monster… He was a workaholic, needing only two hours of sleep, working seven days a week, impetuous.. a control freak who treated his employees like dirt, sacking them at a moment’s notice..[expecting] them to compromise themselves by talking in his absence, unaware that he had installed bugging devices in his offices… Rosenstiel was married four times and was bisexual…revealed from evidence given in a bitter divorce his fourth wife. If, as is possible, her evidence is true, it guarantees him a place in history as organizer of the parties at which J. Edgar Hoover could frolic in his favorite frocks, parties that featured boy prostitutes for the enjoyment of..guests like Roy Cohn. According to the fourth Mrs. Rosenstiel, at one party she attended Hoover ‘was wearing a fluffy black dress..with..lace stockings and high false eyelashes.’ Indeed it was the blackmail potential of the conversations recorded on the microphones Rosenstiel had thoughtfully installed throughout the house that allegedly explained Hoover’s refusal to pursue the Mafia. For it was at Lew’s place that Hoover met some of Rosenstiel’s business Frank Costello, Sam Giancana…Santo Trafficante..Angelo Bruno..and Meyer Lansky…” [p66, The Bronfmans, by Nicholas Faith] Sam Bronfman bought a 20% stake in Schenley. “Mr. Sam..–and above all Edgar– had been introduced to what would now be called ‘insider’ stock market dealings by the Loebs and the Gunzbergs… In France the Gunzberg connection with the Rothschilds enabled the Bronfmans to get in on the ground floor of..the innovative holiday group Club Mediterranee. In the United States the investments included a highly successful speculation into Polaroid..” [p175, ibid.]


This story, as you might surmise, has more places to go than tunneling nanotubes, and at some point I just have to leave-off and mention that the early medical research on PVP by the government was mixed at best. They sanctioned ’emergency use’ of PVP blood substitute and called for more study. The only moderately favorable clinical trial done in 1950 was submitted by Dr. Robert M. Zollinger of Ohio State U, the beloved mentor of Judah Folkman who got him into Harvard Medial School. Polaroid eventually filed a number of PVP-containing patents, some of which appear near the end of Edwin Land’s life in 1983. “Paradoxically, a man who spent much of his life developing devices and systems for recording history didn’t leave much of his own. He didn’t keep a journal and his personal papers were destroyed upon death.”



PVP in RESidence
Polyvinylpyrrolidone stores in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), currently called the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), “part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells..accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are..part of the MPS… The mononuclear phagocyte system is part of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity..[with] an important role in defense against microorganisms… [In] the liver, Kupffer cells store excess iron [coming] from the breakdown of red blood cells. In bone marrow and spleen, iron is stored in RES cells mostly as ferritin… The functions of the MPS..[are] formation of Red and White blood cells [RBCs and WBCs], destruction of old RBCs and WBCs, formation of antibody, formation of plasma proteins, formation of bile pigments [and] storage of iron.”
“When administered in very large amounts or over long periods (either as a plasma replacement or as a dryg carrier) deposits identified as PVP have been found in RES cells of various organs and in the lung, kidney and intestines… For example, PVP storage was apparent in 28 of 29 autopsies of patients who received intravenous injection over 2-81 days at total doses of 4 g[grams]. Microscopic examination revealed slight structural changes… Slight adverse effects to the function of lungs, kidneys, liver and intestines..have been described… Other reports have also noted..granulomatous or inflammatory reactions in association with PVP deposits in..the liver and lymph nodes… PVP deposits in a wide range of tissues..when examined up to 15 years later…”[noted here also at 20 years]
Edwin Herbert Land, “As a member of PSAC [the President’s Scientific Advisory Committee], Land co-authored a study that led to the establishment of the highly secretive National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), participated..and promoted the development of satellites..[and] also served on the special committee..that laid the foundations for the transformation of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into NASA…”; EHL would certainly have been aware of the research objectives expressed by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 :

Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space…”

September 19, 2012

The Moscow Signal

 photo 1959

The Moscow Signal was the name given by intelligence insiders to the low-power microwave beams claimed to have been broadcast into the US embassy for more than two decades, from 1953 until 1976. No members of the public were to hear of it until 1976, not even the staff of the US embassy in Moscow. Journalist Paul Brodeur, longtime writer for The New Yorker, recounted the events in his 1977 book The Zapping of America: “According to the first report of the affair, which appeared in the Los Angeles Times on February 7 [1976], Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel Jr had told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were using microwave beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and that such radiation could be harmful to their health…”[p95]

As it happens, the signal went undiscovered until 1962 when a security sweep for listening devices revealed the presence of an unusual pulsed series of microwaves. The Department of Defense had only recently terminated its Tri-Service Program, a microwave studies “health and safety” evaluation operated from 1957 to 1961, for reasons that Brodeur makes clear. What followed in the wake of the Moscow Signal discovery was a rapid withdrawal of related, defense-funded radio/radar research among independent non-military contractors. In 1966, the government classified its continuing effort as Project Pandora, a three year investigation that maintained complete official silence until the story of the Moscow Signal broke in the papers –most of Pandora’s experiments, it seems, have never been declassified.

   The focus of Brodeur’s whistleblowing in Zapping was the power density exposure, arbitrarily set and voluntarily adopted at the limit of ten-milliwatts per centimeter squared (10mW/cm2). The Russians, he states, set their upper limit 1,000 times lower, measured in microwatts. Even one milliwatt was a figure much too high for Russian workplace safety . During the mid-60s period of contentious debate among knowing Americans, a one-milliwatt (1mW/cm2) limit had been suggested by the deputy director of the Bureau of Radiological Health (Robert L. Elder) who then reversed himself to defend a five-milliwatt limit for industry. Not without irony, the Moscow Signal was said to be at four-milliwatts per square centimeter.
In Chapter 3 (The Cover-up Begins), Brodeur wrote,”By the late 1950s, virtually all the investigations into the biological effects of microwaves were being either conducted or financed by the Department of Defense, which had assigned the Air Force the responsibility of developing a program of coordinated research in the three [armed] branches…known as the Tri-Service Program…Therefore the task..was validating the ten-milliwatt level that had already been a theoretically safe level of continuous whole-body exposure to microwaves…[p32]…As for nonthernal, or low-level, effects upon human was virtually ignored during the Tri-Service Program. was treated as a joke…[p33] One was a the Naval Medical Research Institute [that] reported..testicular damage resulting in temporary test animals exposed to power densities of only five milliwatts per square centimeter. Another was an animal study by Russell L. Carpenter..whose findings not only suggested that pulsed microwaves, such as those used in radar, might have a nonthermal effect in producing cataracts, but also..that cataracts might occur through the cumulative effect of repeated exposures to low-level microwave[s].

   “By the time of the fourth and final Tri-Service conference which was held in New York in August 1960, it was apparent that the military-industrial complex had developed almost complete immunity to any information that might place the ten milliwatt level in question. By then, it was known that the power of microwave-radiating equipment, which had risen within the previous twenty years from average outputs of ten watts to almost a million watts, would soon be increased to meet the demands of the space age.”[p34]
   Wow –before World War II was over, the electrical output of radar zoomed from ten watts to a million. Then, along came the microwave ovens, source of the contentious and equally arbitrary 5mW/cm2 limit. One of Paul Brodeur’s driving points was that leakage from electronics –radar and broadcast anntennas to home appliances– was commonplace and in excess of the too-high recommedations anyway.
   “Over the next few years [after 1962] became apparent that the Russians had based their standard primariliy on the effects of low-level microwave radiation on the central nervous system, which they had observed in the course of many large-scale, long-term clinical investigations of workers… [It] turned out that the Russians had recognized unusual effects of radio-frequency energy on the human central nervous system as early as 1933 and had been studying the problem ever since. [p35]
…”Concerning the genetic effects of microwaves…[they were] first discovered [by an American] back in 1959 by Dr. John H. Heller and some associates..who observed gross chromosomal abnormalities in garlic root tips..irradiated with microwaves at power levels far below those necessary to produce heat. By 1963, Heller and his colleagues had demonstrated that low-power microwave radiation could produce in mammalian cells and insects mutations similar to those caused by gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays. Ironically, when the findings of Heller []..were published, they received more recognition in the Soviet Union than in the United States...[p90]
   “At first, it was believed [the embassy discovery]..had something to do with normal eavesdropping operations…[but it] was soon realized, however, that the Russians were using multiple frequencies and widely fluctuating microwave beams with irregular patterns which did not appear to be applicable to intelligence gathering… [The] motive for the Soviet microwave bombardment..became the subject of intense scrutiny by..intelligence agencies, including the CIA whose officials had become belatedly aware of the vast amount of research that the Russians had conducted..on human behavior…  In the autumn of 1965, the Institute for Defense Analyses..convened a special task force to assess the problem and..duplicate some of the Russian experiments… In addition, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)..set up a special laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where..rhesus monkeys were power densities..similar to the Moscow Signal. [p41]
   By May of 1976, as new rounds of disclosure made their way to print, “an Associated Press report by Barton Reppert quoted Richard S. Cesaro, who was in charge of Project Pandora, as conceding that some of the scientists connected with the study felt that low-intensity microwave radiation had produced signs of aberrant behavior in monkeys. [p101]…another Associated Press story by Reppert stated that recent tests..showed radiation levels in the Moscow embassy to be considerably higher than..earlier tests…and that an outside telephone line had actually been found to be carrying radiation directly into the office (and, presumably into the ear) of Ambassador Stoessel…[who]was ‘beside himself’ with this latest development…” [p103]
   “Two weeks later, the..indefatigable Reppert..revealed that over an eighteen-month period in 1967 and 1968 the State Department had conducted special tests to detect genetic damage in employees returning from Moscow, and..done so without notifying the employees about the purpose of the testing but had deliberately misled them into thinking..the tests were..for another reason… Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson, of the George Washington University Medical School..described the showing ‘funny results– lots of chromosome breaks.’ [p104]…[Dr. Thomas H. Gresinger]..recalled..[that] the technicians..had been instructed to take buccal smears from the Moscow employees as part of their routine homecoming physical examinations and to tell them that they were being checked for..bacteria. When I heard the words ‘buccal smears’, my ears picked up. Buccal smears are never used to culture bacteria; they’re a scraping taken from inside the mouth and they’re designed solely for the purpose of detecting chromosomal abnormalities.'”[p105]
   Fourteen documents from Project Pandora were released to Barton Reppert through a Freedom of Information request: “The remaining documents in the declassifeid Pandora file pertain mostly to meetings held in 1968 and 1969..[p118] ..”The April..meeting ended with the science advisory committee’s emphasizing ‘the need for information on humans in addition to the accelerated animal studies at Walter Reed.’ The committee urged ‘the Walter Reed facility to develop a human program…six to eight months and that they could be obtained from Ft. Dietrich [sic]… On May 12..the committee..met at the Institute of Defense Analysis to discuss just how to design and conduct the human studies. Among other things, they agreed that the strength of the signal used in the studies should be between four and five milliwatts per square centimeter…'[p119]…on June 18…the science advisory committee..reached the following conclusions about the human studies: ‘It was the concensus that the aim should be to duplicate or simulate the Moscow environment..over an eight-to-ten hour period’… Cesaro went on to tell the committee that there was evidence that low-level radiation could penetrate the central nervous system of monkeys..[and] who went on to say that the effects could be physiological, behavioral and genetic. As things turned out, the..clear direction for future research that was the spring of 1969 soon became clouded with uncertainty. Indeed, during the next few months, a mysteriuos change of heart and mind seems to have taken place in..Project Pandora…[p120]
   …[H]uman studies..after all, threatened to produce some embarassing data. [p121]…Project Pandora came to a rather abrupt end on January 12, 1970 after a final meeting… As for the planned human experiments, the committee decided that ‘based on existing information, there is no evidence that any permanent deleterious effects are to be expected.‘” [p124]
   In amongst the noise of the 1977 newspaper accounts was the quietly circulated notice that “..sources within the [State] department admitted privately that excessive radiation was emanating from the telephone of former Ambassador Stoessel. It was caused by a high-frequency one-thousand watt radio transmitter located on the roof of the embassy above Stoessel’s office. When this transmitter was operating, it induced high-frequency signals in the tens of milliwatts in phone lines running to the Ambassador’s desk, as well as in phone other offices in the embassy’s political section. Another State Department source..[claimed] that the..transmitter was never turned on…” [pp125-126] The State Department, Brodeur says, had no authority over the embassy’s transmitter, nor could they know or reveal any details about the equipment. It was classified. And so, the Moscow Signal ends as a sort of cliffhanger with the spooky insinuation that the  Americans in Moscow were irradiated by their own. Brodeur wrote, “conveniently..all of the blame for the irradiation of the embassy upon the Russians. However, there are..reasons for supposing that [the reports] may not be trueWhatever the legal resolutions,..since the Pandora meetings, the government and the military have systematically suppressed information about the genetic effects of microwaves in human beings…” [p134]
NOTE: current “safe” exposure is set by W.H.O. at 1 mW/cm2 (one milliwatt per square centimeter)
                  H.P. Schwan             Boris Rajewsky
   The original 10 mW/cm2 was adopted in 1955 following the recommendation of Herman P. Schwan , a “Paper Clip” biophysicist who had also worked for Siemens and Telefunken, recruited by the Navy in 1945 from the occupied Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Frankfurt.
>>>”Frankfurt-am-Main was designated as headquarters for the United States Navy for the occupation of Germany” [ref. p120,
   Schwan’s NIH obituary (b.1915-d.2005): “..His letter to the U.S. Navy in 1953 propos[ed] a safe limit for human exposure to microwave energy of 100 W/m2 [100 Watts per square meter, or converted by the formula  1 W/m2=0.1mW/cm2 —a recommendation of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter]
Here’s a piece of Herman Schwan’s story:
Schwan: …”In March 1944 we experienced..[a] series of bombings that essentially wiped out Frankfurt. The damage was very very heavy… Curiously enough my apartment house did not suffer. I rented near I.G.Farben administrative headquarters… It was completely preserved.”
Q: “You’re saying the Allied forces purposely avoided bombing that?
Schwan: “Yes. Absolutely. It was clear… [Later, in the US] An executive with DuPont and General Motors offered me [an] interpretation… I was dating a friend of his daughter,[so] he invited me to [his] estate and offered to help me. He also invited the president of Sperry get me a job with Sperry. He told me that I.G. Farben and DuPont were heavily intertwined… DuPont owned fifty-one percent of the stock of I.G.Farben, and vice versa. He said to me, ‘We never had any intention to ruin our own headquarters in Germany. That’s our stuff.’ ..So, I don’t know. Anyhow, I didn’t suffer much..[but] just two blocks away there was unbelievable damage.
>>>In 1945 to 1947, the I.G.Farben building was the Supreme Headquarters for Allies Europe: the Frankfurt I.G. Farben building “was the largest office building in Europe…housing the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG)…[and]was also the headquarters of the CIA in Germany.”
Q: “Was it possible to continue doing research…?
Schwan: “Our work suffered [toward the end of the war. After the Allied invasion]..I stayed at the institute a was occupied by American soldiers…[Director, Boris] Rajewsky was gone so I had to take care of the institute… I rapidly received active support from the [US] military government. That proved to be important later… I succeeded in getting protection for the institute…
Q: “How did things go after that?
Schwan: “The university started functioning a year later… Rajewsky returned. He used his influence to introduce me to..some important heads of some banks in Frankfurt. He appointed me acting Director..since he was a [Nazi] Party Member, he could not act as..Director until..cleared… During that time, I received many visits from..scientists and technicians..[who] were primarily American, but also some British… they were very concerned about what was going on [at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics]..since [it] was known for its..expertise in ionizing radiation fields…
Q: “It had been targeted because it was thought that it was a part of an atom bomb project?
Schwan: “Yes. I believe so… Rajewsky got major equipment installed. For example..a huge accelerator in a rather tall, new structure in Frankfurt….They [the Allies] must have noticed..and knew what expertise was there… Clearly that building was marked. It was hit and destroyed… I offered the Allies information about the high-frequency work, and the [submarine anti-radar material].
Q: “You wanted to cooperate fully?
Schwan: “Oh absolutely. Yes, I had been waiting for the Americans for a long time now… The anti-Nazis, of course, fully cooperated… As time advanced, other people came with biophysical backgrounds. For example, a lieutenant in the Navy, David Goldman..visited several times, and I talked with him. Some months later, perhaps as a consequence of those visits, I was offered the opportunity to come to [the US] under unusually favorable circumstances… so I accepted. That was in ’47. I came in late the Naval Medical [Aeromedical] Equipment Laboratory in Philadelphia… Then to my surprise, several good things happened…The Navy informed me they would like me to work on some projects only part of the time..[and] I would have the privilege of..projects of my choice… I proposed to start a sweeping study of electric and acoustic properties of biological materials..[hoping] to extend the range of frequencies to much higher and much lower frequencies than ever used before… they promised me the opportunity to set up a long-range research program…. Well, I mentioned the Americans made me an offer with almost unbelievably favorable circumstances… As it turned out, I could practically write my own ticket…  The majority..who came over under the so-called ‘Paper Clip Program’ were military scientists…most were technically oriented. So, the more basic scientists like myself were in a minority… I was [technically] on leave from the University of Frankfurt as a faculty member from 1947 to 1955”
Schwan’s oral history
   The value of ‘gleaning’ from Schwan’s career work and recollections has a lot to offer in context; a couple of decades before WWII, another Goldman was facilitating high-energy pioneers –banker Henry Goldman, of Goldman Sachs, who was paying the physicist pair of friends, Max Born and Albert Einstein, out-of-pocket on his visits to Germany. Schwan was trained by Russians in Frankfurt– Boris Rajewsky having ultimately attained the directorship of the Biophysics Institute through a form of placement initiated by his communist friends, Alexander Janitsky and the Joliot-Curies in Paris. The Nazis imprisoned Rajewsky’s predecessor and promoted Rajewsky in his place –go figure– and Rajewsky then enfolded the institute into the Kaiser Wilhelm (KWG) network.
   By the time Schwan wrote his microwave dosage recommendations in 1953 for the US Navy, the government had coincidently sanctioned “secret human experimentation” through the Secretary of Defense, Charles E. Wilson [the ‘Wilson Memorandum’], CEO of General Electric. Nelson Rockefeller had just become acting Secretary of Health [HEW], the weapons were going thermonuclear,  and it was in this milieu that the Moscow Signal ostensibly  began –unquestionably when it was most in the ideological interest of Americans to study biological effects.
   Schwan said for himself, “When I was first approached about biophysics, I thought that you couldn’t mix physics with biological material. As I became aware of what was happening in electrophysiology and the ionizing radiation field, my ideas changed. I began to believe that we were now at the threshold of more to come… I wanted to do physics of biological objects. This seemed revolutionary to me. In other words, I was not..motivated to study effects of x-rays… I was not questions raised by medical people or biologists. I wanted to look.. with a physicist’s eye…  Some of my early colleagues at the medical school at Pennsylvania claimed it to be heresy.”
It is well known that electromagnetic fields cause mechanical forces. If one applies an electrical field to a suspension of microscopic particles [i.e. metal colloids, metallorganic compounds, biological cell contents], these particles realign themselves along the direction of the field and form pearl-chain-like aggregates. These chains are mostly single stranded but they are frequently multistranded. This phenomenon has been investigated by a number of groups. Here we discuss the dependence of threshold field strength on particle size and frequency. Also, pulsed fields have been thought to be more effective than continuous fields of the same average power in evoking biological effects.”
   “Molecular rotation occurs in materials containing polar molecules having an electrical dipole moment, with the consequence that they will align themselves in an electromagnetic field. If the field is oscillating, as it is in an electromagnetic wave or in a rapidly-oscillating electric field, these molecules rotate continuously aligning with it. This is called dipole rotation. As the field alternates, the molecules reverse direction. Rotating molecules push, pull, and collide with other molecules…”
   “Dielectrophoresis (or DEP) is a phenomenon in which a force is exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a non-uniform electric field… ”; Dielectric materials are those which polarize in the presence of an electric field.
“…fields of a particular frequency can manipulate particles with great selectivity. This has allowed, for example, the separation of cells or the orientation and manipulation of nanoparticles…  Although the phenomenon we now call dielectrophoresis was described in passing as far back as the early 20th century, it was only subject to serious study, named and first understood by Herbert Pohl in the 1950s…   biological cells have dielectric properties…”
                                                 watts in a name?
                                                 “Now swift the days of manhood haste away
                                                 And misery’s pressure turns the temples gray
                                                 The woman’s hands an ample casket bear–she lifts the lid–
                                        she scatters ills in air” (Hesiod. 2nd century)
 In Greek myth, Pandora was the “first woman”, made and sent by the gods to the brother of Prometheus, creator of mankind. Prometheus and his brothers were the Titans of legend, punished for rebelling and endowing humans with knowledge and technology. The infamous Box, held in safekeeping by Epimetheus, contained all the undesired and unused commodities available on earth –plague, pestilence, vanity, greed, etc.  It was Epimetheus’s beguiling and curious new companion who freed them from their jar, all except Hope which remained; the last undesirable left sequestered by the ancients.

   Appreciation for Promethean tales goes a long way in describing the interaction of modern titans and weapons systems, both physical and psychological. It was the Rockefellers, after all, who centered their first premier building project around “Radio City” and erected a golden Prometheus to rule over it.
   At the end of Pandora’s operational years, a symposium was held in Richmond VA at the Virginia Medical College, an institution largely owing its existence to Robert E. Lee’s chief surgeon, Simon Baruch, father of the financier Bernard Baruch.  The September 1969 meeting “marked a long overdue turning point in the general attitutde of American scientists” according to Paul Brodeur –the ‘turning point’ resulting in a general call for research and funding– but it was also an enduring demarcation of “battle lines”.  A notable quote in Zapping states, “At the Richmond symposium, Dr. [Lawrence] Sher objected strongly to the use of the term ‘flaccid paralysis’ to describe the limp and unmoving condition of rats that had been exposed to four and six-tenths [4.6] milliwatts per square centimeter” [p121] Lawrence Sher was a Project Pandora advisory member and ‘flaccid paralysis’ had already been assigned as a new designation for polio. (It’s still the same today ; associated with encephalitis, meningitis, West Nile, “a severe asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells and/or their axons” Battle lines had everything to do with preserving tenuous victories. Not even Paul Brodeur ventured beyond the designated language.
                                                          Egyptian auditorium, Richmond, built 1845
            Baruch Auditorium: “The building has been compared to the Temple of Horus at Edfu…  At Founders’ Day exercises held at the Egyptian Building, 5 December 1940, historian Dr. Wyndham Blanton commented to alumni and guests:”What old Nassau Hall is to Princeton, what the Wren Building is to William and Mary, what the Rotunda is to the University of Virginia, the Egyptian Building is to the Medical College of Virginia. It is a shrine, a sanctuary of tradition, the physical embodiment of our genius. It is a spiritual heritage.”
Interior image of the wall sconces:
…And so, the Richmond symposium can join the roster of services as another high mass in the temples of science, which symbolically precludes a military conquest. Incidently, Admiral Lewis Strauss (formerly of Kuhn Loeb &Co) and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission was a major fundraiser for the Medical College of Virginia, as well as a board trustee.
   Had Paul Brodeur made the essential connection for his readers that flaccid paralysis was polioby another name, the public might have paid better attention to his arguments and learned that polio is a radiation disease. Possibly he didn’t know it himself, but the familiar and near-recent campaign of the Salk vaccine, funded by the March of Dimes, that had repurposed its mission to birth defects, was foreshadowing the shape of things to come.

   He wrote, “Anxiety about the genetic effects of microwaves first came out into the open in December 1971, when the Electromagnetic Radiation Management Advisory Council..warned that ‘the consequences of undervaluing or misjudging the biological effects..could become a critical problem for the public health, especially if genetic effects are involved.’” [p132] The Council “knew from data presented at the Richmond symposium of 1969 that microwave radiation had induced chromosomal abnormalities in kangaroo-rat cell cultures, and that the researchers who conducted these studies had found that ‘the types of chromosome aberrations observed..are the same as those induced by ionizing radiation in other organisms including humans.’ At least one of its members [Herbert Pollack] knew about the secret tests for genetic damge that the State Department had been running on its Moscow employees. As for the genetic problem, the official minutes of the Project Pandora meeting of April 21, 1969 are revealing. For one thing, they clearly show that..DARPA was aware of the implications of the five-year-old findings of Dr. [Abraham] Lilienfeld –that ’18 out of 25 mongoloid children had fathers who had been exposed to radar’…it is the following paragraph, from the minutes of the April 1969 meeting, which consitutes the ‘smoking gun’ of the State Department’s genetic cover-up: ‘Dr. Pollack reported the studies of Dr. Jacobson at George Washington University who has studied young women returning from [the] embassy in Moscow… [of]One hundred and forty blood samples..examined over a four-year period…Four of them reportedly showed serious chromosomal abnormalities.’ “ [p133]
   The women victims of the Moscow Signal were having their blood taken by Dr. Cecil Bryan Jacobson, a reproductive geneticist who later opened an infertility clinic in Vienna Virginia. Pandora’s Dr. Jacobson ascended to national infamy in 1992 when he was convicted of 52 charges of mail fraud, wire fraud and perjury, conducted through his business.
                                                           Dr. Jacobson
Most people will remember Jacobson for claiming to have fathered 75 children among his clinical patients. “Blood work” was obviously not his specialty, and all we can really know about the Project is that it didn’t end in 1969.
   “Dr. Jacobson..used hormone injections to create symptoms resembling pregnancy. With many patients he pointed out an insignificant image on a sonogram and told the patient that it was the image of a fetus. When he finally had to tell the women they were not pregnant, he told them their babies were dead and that the fetuses would “resorb” back into the bodies. Then he could begin a new round of hormone injections and pregnancy tests… Dr. Jacobson had mailed fraudulent insurance claims and bills… Jacobson also had committed wire fraud by phoning his patients to schedule appointments for fraudulent treatments.”; this while he “operated a fertility clinic in Vienna, Va., from 1976 to 1988” just as news of the Moscow Signal went public.
Project Pandora, 1962-1966 source document from Johns Hopkins notes the use of 2.4 GHz (then standard for radar and current for microwave ovens and tag-reader devices) in irradiation experiments on rabbits. Other signal descriptions offer the range of frequencies beween 2 and 4 GHz and FM (modulated) dual signals. An historical note is added that “The term Project Bizarre is not a separate project but was a code name for a special access category within the Pandora Project.”

June 21, 2012

EMF Killing Fields

I’m not fond of grim titles. In spite of it, they’re racking up on my blog index. I’ve been told that to make a point on the internet, I should say whatever I’m saying in “five words or less” and make it catchy. ‘Catchy’ sounds cute, like a song: Catchy tunes, repetition in your head. That really is what’s going on here and this post is about the biological and psychological cost of the contagion.  It’s also about precious commodities, government intrusion, UFOs, mental health, life, death, and God-like powers. I could spend the rest of the summer amending this post and maybe I will (in the comments), but what I hope to do is make it a smooth read for you and say more about the speculative things I think on the subject. First though, I’ll explain the title.

   EMF stands for “electromagnetic field” which can be found everywhere in some manner of degree. It’s the ‘free energy’ swirling around in toroid-like curvilinear space. If scientists are ever able to articulate the full activity of EMFs they would be describing the Mind of God as many people conceive it –nothing in existence operates outside the influence of EMFs. They present the conditions in which all things behave, or “have being“. In different words, radiation, radio-frequency (RF), microwaves (MW) and the entire vibratory spectrum of energy called Light is referencing EMFs. “[E]nergy is clearly the fundamental concept. By energy, we mean an action principle, that which causes things to happen.” –Michael Mannion, ufologist (Mindshift, p106); “I, and many of us, take the view that the only real energy that we know about is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. That vibration and movement and energy are all interrelated. We are probably not dealing with strange types of energies..” –Edwin Mitchell, astronaut (ibid.)
   Conscious Evolution (see Thrive or Threat), for all its semantic permutations, is the attainment of knowledge about EMFs. To you and me, it’s about coexisting with technology that is altering the electromagnetic conditions in which we autonomically have being.  Autonomy, the power of self-governance, is a benefit of optimizing design; in a society, a system, or a cell. By definition autonomy is independent of outside control. The present applications of artificial EMFs erase all previous notions of autonomy.
   Killing fields are the physical places bearing our grimmest reminders of war; collective impressions of slaughtered innocence; permanent losses for political, abstract and temporal objectives. Ground zeroes all, in the killing fields where Cosmic Order is punctured and replaced by manmade voids, mortification should hold us back and allow the forces that humans abandoned to refill the vacuum –God, nature, love, respect, generational time– if we were wise enough to hallow them and humble enough to accept the utter failure of understanding they represent.
   Other people long before me have called artificial EMFs the killing fields: Arthur Firstenberg wrote, “In 1982 I was in my final year of medical school… One day I collapsed and was unable to get up… It wasn’t a heart attack, but it was six months before I could walk up a flight of stairs without becoming short of breath… I gradually found that I was being effectively disabled by my society. Having stumbled upon an obviously well-kept secret, I researched the world literature on bioelectromagnetics… together with other members of a support group I had found how best to live with my disability… But in July 1996, to my dismay, I learned that an innovation was coming to my city which threatened to make it impossible to avoid exposure any more… [On] November 14, 1996, Omnipoint, New York City’s first digital[ed] for business… According to health authorities, an early flu hit New York City –but not Boston and not Philadelphia– on about 15 November… I learned that in February 1996, Congress had passed a law prohibiting local governments from denying permits for cell phone antennae because of environmental concerns… I also learned that the FCC had just issued regulations setting public exposure limits for microwave radiation at levels..ten thousand times higher than levels..causing reports of illness from all over the world.”
Omnipoint, est.1987; “before Omnipoint, the use of encryption technology was mostly limited to  military communications. Omnipoint is the first and only company in the New York metropolitan area to use GSM – Global System for Mobile communications.”; Dec.1997–“In wireless, it is often said, coverage is king. Omnipoint has had its fair share of cell siting hassles. To get over objections, the carrier has placed its transceivers inside gargoyles on the facades of landmark buildings in Manhattan..
                                                            …and it was not long afterwards that unusual numbers of dead birds starting falling on city sidewalks: “ I first suspected a poisoning event, especially since someone had been poisoning pigeons in Central Park just previous to the finding of dead crows. The state pathologist’s lab, however, got some of the dead crows and tested them for a number of things, but found no indication of pesticide poisoning. Instead, the symptoms were consistent with a viral infection… At the same time the outbreak of “St. Louis encephalitis” was being reported in much the same areas where crows were being found dead. It seemed odd to me that crows would be dying from that disease, as most birds that are exposed to it get mildly sick, but do not die..On 23 September [1999], the State of New York Department of Health released the information that several bird specimens from the NYC area had been diagnosed as being infected with a virus that most closely resembled West Nile virus The 17 Dec 1999 issue of Science.. described the strain found in North America as matching a strain isolated from the brain of a dead “goose” in Israel in 1998 …The authors state “The WN virus could have entered the Western Hemisphere through a number of mechanisms…”
   There is enough circumstantial evidence to suggest that Omnipoint’s Global System for Mobile (GSM) signal operations could be among the mechanisms spreading West Nile.
   “The GSM standard was accepted in the United States in 1995. GSM-1900 cellular systems have been operating in the US since 1996.”
   Omnipoint’s “Personal Communications Systems, PCS..[was] a newer class of by the FCC [which] use a different radio frequency, the 1.9 GHz band, than cellular phones and generally use all-digital technology for transmission and reception… In 1994, the FCC announced it was allocating spectrum specifically for PCS..”
“PCS differs from existing cellular and SMR in three basic ways: frequency, spectrum and geographic division. PCS networks operates in a higher-frequency bank (1850-1990 MHz) compared to the cellular and SMR frequency (800-900 MHz). The higher frequency band for PCS networks requires a greater number of total cell sites to cover the same geographic area as existing cellular networks…
“The 1.9 GHz frequency is set aside for cordless phones in the United States; the  2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz frequencies also allow phone communication…Other radio bands are set aside specifically for international uses. For  instance, the 1.9 GHz (1880 to 1900 MHz) frequency band is used by the DECT  standard for international calls.”
We used the pulsed RF fields at a frequency of 2.45 GHz that is commonly used in telecommunications to expose cultured human HL-60 cells… We observed that 221 genes altered their expression after a 2-h [hour] exposure. The number of affected genes increased to 759 after a six-h exposure… These results indicate that the RF fields at 2.45 GHz can alter gene expression..through non-thermal mechanism.”
then again, New York’s Office of Emergency Management (OEM) system could also be to blame:

New York’s OEM frequencies transmit in a narrow range at 147 MHz.
…human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to electromagnetic radiation at 147 MHz, amplitude-modulated (AM) at 16 Hz… Enhanced efflux at 0.05 W/kg peaked at the 13-16 Hz and at the 57.5-60 Hz modulation ranges…These results confirm that..radiofrequency radiation can induce responses in cells of nervous tissue origin from widely different animal species, including humans…”
“Dr [Ross] Adey demonstrated how a 147-megahertz (MHz) field, which at tissue level had  an intensity of 0.8 milliwatts per square centimetre, caused an efflux or  release of calcium ions from the irradiated brain tissue…”
Devra Davis, a celebrated US Public Health policy official renown for cancer expertise, has said, We are, in fact, conducting an experiment right now on all of you… with 5.5 billion cell phones… you can see [on graphs] the exposure gets..through the brain [of a child]… they will readily absorb microwave energy…” (minutes 14-18) Davis then describes the results of emf-pulse radiation at cell phone frequencies on the prenatal brains of rats and rabbits: “during embryonic development in the hippocampus…So, the results were pretty stunning; significantly decreased hippocampal granular cell number…parametal cell loss…significantly fewer brain cells… you’re getting fewer cells forming.” (minutes 22-24) “Increased DNA base modifications and free radical formation in brain tissues of adult rabbits and newborns… gliosis in the brain, epithelial degeneration… In the long run if we’re having an effect on ‘brain reserve’..I think it’s a very worrisome indication.” (minutes 30-31)…”It’s very important we get better science underlying our understanding of the potential biological impact that these devices may be having on our lives. Now, certainly the United States  is unique in the world today by encouraging infants and toddlers to use cell phones. And…in fact, people are using phones somewhat like pacifiers. And on the case for the Baby iPhone rattle it says,’Protect your phone from drool and dribble.’ …So this is the future work…” (minutes 37-38) “Researchers want better resources for more study… We need a massive program of monitoring and measurement…” (minute 52) “The country that is doing the best job on this is Israel, whatever you may think about Israel today, they understand radar, they understand microwaves, and they understand cell phones… We would do well to take some advice.” (minute 55)
Devra Davisalso served as Lead Author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC, of the U.N.]– the group awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 with..Al Gore.”; what might this have to do with radar-driven weather? More to the point, the question is begging about radar-driven pandemics and “climate-dependent epidemic diseases” [see last note on post]
   The most remarkable thing about Devra Davis’s presentation is not her deference to Israeli leadership. It is not the professing of her own ignorance and arrogance (“I just did not believe it“..min.4…”I thought there was nothing to itreally“..min.14… “The Telecommunications Act of 1996..was passed during my administration* because we didn’t know any better. I had no idea“..min.53). It is not the call for funding or time (..”things will become clearer when..more resources are applied to studying this problem. We really need more resources“..min.37). The most remarkable thing is the statement and restatement that among the generation of children today “there will be no controls.”  In medical jargon controls are the experiment contrast population meant to simulate an average, or normal, biological response versus the test subjects. Artificial EMFs erase all previous notions of normal.
*>>>”my administration” refers to Davis’s Senior Advisor appointment as a deputy assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Health (HHS), as of July 1993, the Assistant Secretary was Dr. Philip R. Lee of University of California, San Francisco and USAID; as a medical supervisor for San Francisco General Hosp., Dr.Lee oversaw the largest concentration of AIDS patients in the U.S.–following a previously epic concentration of historic polio at that institution (both diseases of radiation and chemical poisoning). Lee held the same post (Asst. Sec. Dept of HEW) under LBJ and was known as an insider of the Lasker Syndicate (controllers of the American Cancer Society and NIH); Dr. Lee was the Director of the Institute of Health Policy Studies from approx.1971 to 1993;  A note here about the campaign against tobacco is suggestive in the role of nicotine as a potent ‘agonist’ in the protection of nerve cell membranes against depolarization– in other words, nicotine (nicotinic acid) is radioprotective and highly sought after in pharmaceuticals todayRead more here: . The Laskers made a considerable fortune with tobacco and I suspect ‘radium fertilizer’ was used on tobacco since the fertilizer’s popularization (c.1915). Radium fertilizer ‘disappeared’ as a commercial product some time after the hazards of radium became well known, but who’s to know that a dying tobacco farmer named Henrietta Lacks had her cancer cells taken (HeLa cells), in February of 1951, for intensive experimental vaccine research precisely for this reason. The HeLa specimen was taken just as the first domestic nuclear bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site were concluding. The synchronicity of these events and the subsequent use of HeLa cells as the “seedstock” medium for polio vaccine virus leads me to contend that the mass polio vaccinations were marketed to the government as an anti-cancer “fallout” vaccine.
                                                                                    Devra Davis
And thenOn December 5, 1994 the FCC, in an attempt to help national development of evolving telecommunication, began to auction national licenses for narrowband PCS, a family of mobile or portable radio services that later evolved into voice paging and data services that could be integrated with a variety of competing networks.” 
The breaking story that had just preceeded the new telecommunications expansion was the revelation of Human Radiation Experiments by Albuquerque journalist Eileen Welsome (The Plutonium File) that caused a scramble in Washington and led to the creation of the president’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) and the Department of Energy’s “Openness Project” . This was to include disclosures  that as many as 200 or more previously uncounted nuclear tests were performed over the heads of North Americans, estimated (in bombs only) to be worth its weight in fallout to 40,000 Hiroshima bombs.
Leaving Normal…
“The hippocampal formation is a compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain…The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory… The medial temporal lobe consists of structures that are vital for explicit memory. The link between the medial temporal lobe and memory was first hypothesized a century ago. Explicit or declarative memory is the conscious memory of facts and events. Explicit memory is further sub-divided into semantic memory and episodic memory. The structures contained within the medial temporal lobe include the hippocampal regions and the parahippocampal gyrus…”
“The dentate gyrus consists of three layers of neurons: molecular, granular, and polymorphic. The middle layer is most prominent and contains granule cells that project to the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. These granule cells project mostly to interneurons, but also to pyramidal cells and are the principal excitatory neurons of the dentate gyrus… The granule cells in the dentate gyrus are distinguished by their late time of formation during brain development. In rats, approximately 85% of the granule cells are generated after birth. In humans, it is estimated that granule cells begin to be generated during gestation weeks 10.5 to 11, and continue being generated during the second and third trimesters, after birth and all the way into adulthood…”
“Although neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus persists into adulthood, and appears to be under environmental control, modern stereological studies have shown that the total number of granule cells does not vary in adult animals (Rapp and Gallagher, 1996). This implies that there is a steady state turnover of granule cells rather than a continuous accretion.”
                                   temporal lobes (in red) 

Birth control for brain cells:

There are lots of ways that radiation injures brain cells but to prevent them from forming really takes the cake! Small wonder that cell phones come equipped with cameras, video, voice recognition, GPS locators, gigabyte storage, organization apps, clocks, docks, bells and strap-ons.  These are functions of the temporal lobes. Adult users may have the luxury of renting spare lobes (paying their cellphone bills), just as Public Health officials have the luxury of characterizing them as addicts —“…preoccupation with a substance or behavior, followed by an increased tolerance… the “high” produced by those substances replaces the function of brain chemicals…” –but new Generation Xers wont have that luxury. They’ll need implants. Conveniently, memory holes are becoming actual places. Forward-thinking entrepreneurs are probably already  offering implant options in less centrally located areas (than your head). This is underway in the creation of SMART environments. Until now, I hadn’t quite gotten ahold of the tangible concept that coordinating SMART technologies are exteriorized brain implants.  Besides carrying vital details about our life history, foreseeably near future phones could mediate all kinds of essential interactions like locking and unlocking doors, starting our cars, accessing bank accounts and broadcasting biometric data. Cell phones could become mandatory. Unsurprising, then, that nobody in policy-making suggests withdrawing phone technologies or allowing citizens to decide by democratic process whether antenna radiation is appropriate. It must be happening…

>>> news story, “Phones Gain Ability to Learn By Touching”…”known as Near-Field Communications, comes from companies that see the phone as the wallet of the future. When touched to payment terminals, NFC-equipped phones can act as credit or debit cards.”–finance.html More impressive is the NFC-capable phones of exchanging data: “Near field communication..and similar devices..establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimetres.” Imagine someone bumping into you and accessing all the data in your phone. Follow the links for wikipedia’s NFC and you’ll find the Biometric Passport: “The currently standardized biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition, fingerprint recognition, and iris recognition…” Bump. Contact would actually be theatrical at this stage of the game. The technology already exists to harvest all this data remotely, including the scanning of iPhone images for medical diagnosis. See comment 3 ‘Future phones’ for more info on biometrics. There is no logical reason to think that Near Field Communication couldn’t employ Smart Meters for in-house phone taps.

Expanding cell service also now includes Wireless Emergency Alerts: “..starting April 2012. Wireless providers representing nearly 97 percent of subscribers are participating in distributing wireless emergency alerts.” These text-like (but not) messages are of 3 types: Presidential Alerts, Imminent Threat Alerts, and AMBER Alerts. “Mobile users will not be charged for receiving these..and are automatically enrolled… Users will have the ability to opt-out of the AMBER..and/or Imminent Threat Alerts but not the Presidential Alerts.”  –say what?–a spin on “Greetings, take us to your leader”??



The NIH (1992) says the hippocampus is “necessary for the normal development in the child of language syntax, semantics and pragmatics; the capacity for language and behavior..; integration of motivational states with experience and learning; and for the construction of a complex, useful and flexible structure of meaning.”

Hippocampal atrophy = Alzheimers

“Inward calcium leakage in the neurons of the brain stimulates hyperactivity..resulting in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…When this happens in the brains of unborn babies and young children, it..can cause autism.” (Goldsworthy) In adults, it can cause electromagnetic intolerance, also called electro-hypersensitivity or in severe manifestations, Radio Frequency Sickness Syndrome. “The inward leakage of calcium ions..also opens the various tight junction barriers in our bodies that normally protect us from allergens and toxins in the environment and prevent toxic materials from entering sensitive parts of the body such as the brain. The opening of the blood brain barrier has been shown to cause the death of neurons and can be expected to result in early dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The opening of the barrier in our respiratory epithelia..has been shown to increase the risk of asthma in children and the opening of the blood-liver barrier may be partially responsible for the current outbreak of liver disease. The opening of other barriers, such as the gut barrier, allows foreign materials from the gut to enter the bloodstream…and has been linked to autoimmune diseases.” (Goldsworthy, 2012)
American Students (middle and highschool) are now subject to student locator RFID tags in a pilot program underway in Texas:  the students “were required to obtain badges containing a radiofrequency identification tracker chip… Unlike chips used by retailers..these chips contain batteries and actively broadcast a continuous signal. On October 1 [2012] the schools went live…”
                                                             locator badge for public school students
This snip out of the timeline is beginning to tell a story:
–Mad Cow disease is identified, caused by ‘prions’, farmer/scientist Mark Purdey files suit in the UK; originally called “bovine AIDS”
–Feb., US Congress passes the Telecommunications Act of 1996; prohibits local gov’ts and citizens from siting cell towers based on health and environment concerns
–May, Alzheimer’s world expert, Dr. Tsunao Saitoh, is murdered in La Jolla, California during broad daylight by ‘men in black’
–May-Oct, largest outbreak of E.coli in history; Japan; 17,877 cases, 12 deaths (peak in July)
WAR in the Congo (initiated as ‘first Congo war’), ongoing… Hostilities estimated to have killed 10 million
–July, The US Dept. of Defense issues the Joint Non Lethal Weapons Directive featuring Active Denial acoustic frequency systems
–US Food and Drug Administration “revised 50-year-old regulations to allow medical researchers to enroll patients.. without their consent” [see Jay Katz obit]
–Aug., U.S. Air Force reveals techniques on “Owning the Weather”…………..
And let’s not forget:

“New York City’s Office of Emergency Management (OEM) was created in 1996 by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani to manage the city’s response to catastrophes, including terrorist attacks (see 1996). In the years preceding 9/11, it holds regular interagency training exercises… One exercise, which takes place in May 2001, is based on terrorists attacking New York with bubonic plague (see May 11, 2001)… OEM will be preparing for a bioterrorism exercise the morning of 9/11… ( a blog about the anthrax attacks)

Part of that story is told in “Blood Coltan…the precious metal in the heart of every mobile [phone] from the Congo”
   Another part of the story has roots in the late 60s with the development of genetic recombination and the successful achievements of Paul Berg combining E.coli with the SV40 monkey virus “transgene”. SV40, an ingredient in mass-produced vaccines of the 50s and 60s along with HeLa cells, readily ‘expresses’ its genes under the influence of radiofrequency. The rapidly proliferating, gene-swapping E.coli are the most natural bacteria vector in the mammalian life-cycle.
   In 1974, the Director of the NIH was one of the top “health physicists” in the country, Dr. Robert S. Stone of UCLA. Stone participated in the secret human plutonium injection experiments for the Manhattan Project (Atomic Energy Commission). In the early 70s, as the mobile-phone/cellular rollout was underway, NIH Director Stone penned this official note to a colleague: “…a year ago [1973] our concern was limited to only a few [genetically recombined] agents of importance to man, such as the infectious adenovirus 2-SV40 hybrids. In the past year, the technology for the production of autonomously replicating DNA recombinants has burgeoned, and we will have to be concerned not only with possible pathogens of human beings, but also..agents of agricultural and industrial importance…”
Back in the 1940s, brain damage from radiation became a major military concern because of fallout. Biology research quickly expanded into a new set of disciplines called “health physics” and took on the task of predicting  human “performance deficits” under conditions of the Nuclear Battlefield. Military planners were preparing to harden and foolproof their systems against the acutely disabling, if temporary, effects from fallout. These next few italicized quotes are from military documents published in the 1950s and 60s, additions in brackets are mine:  
“It may be that certain populations of proliferating neurons in the adult can be damaged or destroyed by relatively low doses of radiationchanges in brain metabolism were reported after very low doses of ionizing radiation..measuring local cerebral glucose utilization.
Lower rates of glucose use [dementia, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s,] were found..after irradiation….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present. [hippocampus damage: depression and/or hyperactivity, amnesia, memory loss, schizophrenia]
…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation.”
“The radiosensitivity of certain types of [brain] glial cells (beta astrocyte) is well recognized…”
Clinical evidence also suggests that radiogenic demyelination may occur…”
 “…delayed damage of capillary..cells may occur leading to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. This would result in vasogenic edema..and eventually neuronal and myelin degeneration. “
Myelin is not just fatty stuff that coats your nerves. Devra Davis writes in her book Disconnect, “Myelin is believed to confer judgement, wisdom, impulse control, and many other properties we associate with maturity and a good life.” Kindle sample text of Disconnect:
   Without healthy myelin, one ends up with polio-like disease.;  due to a surge in West Nile, the CDC has posted an answer page on West Nile poliomyelitis:
What becomes clearer is that EMFs and fallout produce identical types of damage to cells and tissues and that our governments have known it for many decades. Fallout injuries, in fact, were studied with X-rays and may or may not have included additional chemicals (as the category of ‘combined’ injury).
The first proposed military application of atomic energy was not nuclear weaponry but radiological warfare (RW)– the use of radioactive materials to cause radiological injury. A May 1941 report by the National Academy of Sciences listed the first option as the ‘production of violently radioactive be scattered as bombs over enemy territory… Some..concluded that radiological poisons could be–strategic weapons against cities and their food supplies. Once absorbed into the body, radioactive materials would cause slow, progressive injuries. Others proposed that RW could be a more humane form of warfare…”
   The more sophisticated approach to radiological warfare in our time makes a harvest of energy and frequencies without the telltale tracks of radioactive substances (though currently barium and strontium are widely dispersed in chemtrails). The most infamous early example was the microwaving of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow by the Soviets which began in 1953 and ostensibly ended in the 1970s.
   A 1985 news feature from CNN reports on radiofrequency weapons in which [minute 6] an anonymous government scientist says, “Certain kinds of weak electromagnetic signals work exactly like drugs, so the promise [of RF weapons] is anything you can do with drugs you can do with the right electromagnetic signals.” (1); (2)
   Even basic standard current at 60 Hz poses risks: “Human Tumor Cells Thrive in ELF Magnetic Fields…and are more immune to attack when exposed to power line fields, according to Dr. Jerry San Antonio, TX. Because the field effects persist for months after exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation, Philips argues that 60 Hz fields ‘are capable of producing significant permanent changes in cellular structure and function’..[and] may be the first step in explaining the abnormally high cancer rates..among people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs).”
“In 1948, the same year that Shockley invented the transistor, Claude Shannon invented the information theory that underlies most modern communications and computer science… In defining how much information can be sent down a noisy channel, Shannon showed that engineers can choose between narrowband high-powered solutions and broadband low-powered solutions… Engineers..have pursued a strategy of long and strong: longwavelengths and powerful transmissions…They have used power as a substitute for bandwidth… Telecosmic companies such as Qualcomm use Shannon’s bandwidth as a replacement for power..[p85]… Faster and better than the wireline mean, these new wireless systems are largely fruits of a new concept..that has been developed and a company in San Diego named Qualcomm that few people had heard of until 1999, when its shares rose in value by 2,619 percent and it became the leading star of the globe’s stock markets. Qualcomm could defy the world…” [p84] ..”As the only way to reach the entire surface of the globe at once, satellites play a key role in the Telecosm paradigm.. fiber [optics] is sparse in the last mile.“[p102] ..”LEOs [low earth orbits] fit the low-power paradigm…Decentralization of service coverage also favors LEOs [p105]..General Atomics and others have proposed to launch dirigibles and circling automated airplanes to cover urban areas. But satellite service becomes paradoxically more valuable as populations thin out.” [p106, Telecosm, by George Gilder, 2000 Simon and Schuster]
   The comprehensive view on biological impacts from EMF radiation takes into account that in 2006 Qualcomm CEO Irwin Jacobs took the seat of Chairman on the board of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, our paragon of “metabiology” since the 1960s. One of the Salk’s longest and most beloved Directors, Frederick de Hoffman who died in 1988 of AIDs, was a Manhattan Project veteran as assistant to Edward Teller and the founder of General Atomics, the subsidiary of General Dynamics. Without de Hoffman, nuclear historians say, the hydrogen bomb would have taken much longer to figure out. The Salk Institute has always been a scientific refuge for leading stars of the globe from its business chiefs to associate intstitutions; working partnerships with Scripps, Rockefeller U., Cold Spring Harbor Lab, the Weizmann and Pasteur Institutes in particular. This constellation of private laboratories, of which the Salk is newest, are the biological faces of advanced weapons in the west.  The model parent, Pasteur, could fairly be called the “mothership of metabiology”. It’s westernmost counterparts became integral proving grounds for the University of California feeder system. Some of the most prodigious academic work on EMFs has been generated out of the UC schools (i.e. Berkeley, UCLA, UCSD).
   For example: Dr. W. Ross Adey (1922-2004) was both a pioneer and leader in the field of electromagnetic effects on the brain. Adey came from his native Australia by way of Oxford University to the U.S. to join the faculty at UCLA in 1957… In October of 2000 he wrote, “Wherever we go, we will be immersed in a sea of low-level, pulsed microwave signals… It is not a good thing to proceed toward a world of ubiquitous wireless communication in a totally uncontrolled fashion…”    In his 2002 interview [for the UCLA record], Adey recalled the question that led to the first studies with amplitude-modulated radio-frequency fields: ‘If we made a radio signal look like a brainwave, would it influence behavior?’”
   Dr. Adey’s $64,000 Question landed him a place with the CIA’s Project Pandora, according to researcher Tim Rifat.  “Adey found that by using 0.75mW/cm2 intensity of pulse modulated microwave at a frequency of 450 MHz it was discovered that an ELF [Extremely Low Frequency] modulation could be used to control all aspects of human behaviour… By use of my microwave detector, I have found that mobile phones of the newer type give off a pulse..signal of around 0.75mW/cm2 at the earpiece. This may be coincidence, theory..[it means] a precise behavioural pattern [is being beamed] into every mobile phone user in the UK.”
>>>The U.S. PAVE PAWS North American radar system, initiated in 1980, uses the 450MHz range in the 70 cm wavelength band:
   If Tim Rifat is giving us good information, it certainly isn’t the first time an everyday microwave appliance for the public matched a known range for experiment use: “Microwave (MW) able to penetrate deep into biological materials. We investigated the effect of MW (at 2450 MHz) irradiation on gene delivery..and observed enhanced transgene expression… The specific wavelength used for domestic cooking and heating devices is 2450 MHz…”
2450 MHz, which is a measure of frequency (and not power, measured in Watts or milliwatts) has become standard in RFID applications. Here’s an example of “Intellitag” reader-&-tag sets for inventory control:,
These 2450 MHz barcode reading gadgets are made by a company in Flushing, NY (Queens) that even calls itself Alien Technology Corporation
–okay, now, that’s just a little frosting for the shrinking cake.  Wondering whether grocery counters are using these frequencies? The answer is Yes –maybe yours– and puts a touch of irony in the option for “Self Check-out”.
You may have already seen this recent story:

May, 2012 — “Rockefeller University researchers have remotely activated genes inside living animals..[using] radio waves..and..coated iron oxide nanoparticles..injected..into tumors…”
“…The radio waves are ideal for this sort of remote manipulation because they can pass through thick layers of tissue, and they can be easily focused…Even better, the researchers have already developed a way to achieve similar, albeit weaker, results without having to inject nanoparticles at all. They have developed cells that can grow their own required nanoparticles…”   Ever hopeful at Kurzweil AI (AI for accelerated intelligence), the report notes, “Friedman’s current method is not practical for clinical testing because it is not ethical to grow tumors in humans, so the researchers are planning to test alternative delivery systems for the nanoparticles.”
–no ethical problem getting humans to grow their own cancer with the help of cell towers, though. People willingly ingest nanoparticles for “health’ so it’s worth knowing how the mechanism works; the RFs ever-so-lightly heat up the nanoparticles to artificially warm the ion channels to ‘operating temperature’, which is cell-signal language for friendly “incoming” messengers (electrolytes); the cell then depolarizes its membrane in advance of an efflux/influx of nutrients– or transgenes and nanoparticles. I’ll have to add this technique to my list of reasons for not drinking colloidal silver.; This method is also the same principle at work iron oxide-containing aerosol particulates.
   In medicine, iron oxide nanoparticles are currently in use as tracking labels for therapeutic stem cells, called SPIONs (spy-ons! tee-hee) for Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.
So, radiofrequency-manipulated transgenes on cancer cell carriers are the evolving accomplishment of what I speculate are the ideal type of  DNA computer. My thoughts are here:
Frequency Basics….
“Electromagnetic waves are described in terms of their “wavelength” and “frequency.” The wavelength is the length of one cycle, which is the distance from the highest point of one wave to the highest point of the next wave, and the frequency is the number of cycles that occur in one second. Frequency is measured in units called “hertz,” named for the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. The frequencies of microwaves run from 300 to 3,000 megahertz (1 megahertz equals 1 million hertz, or 1 million cycles per second), corresponding to wavelengths of 100 to 10 centimeters.”; this range is also called UHF
“The sine wave or sinusoid..describes a smooth repetitive oscillation… the amplitude is the peak deviation of the function from its center position… The sine wave is important in physics because it retains its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency…”
                                                                  2-dimensional model
“..modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information… modulation..[conveys] a message signal..inside another signal that can be physically transmitted.”
“In the case of frequency modulation [FM], a data signal is used to modify the frequency of the carrier. When this occurs, the frequency of the carrier will increase as the amplitude of the data signal increases. Amplitude modulation [AM] works in a similar way, though the carrier amplitude is modified to conform to the amplitude of the data signal.”

Pulse modulation —“Pulse-Amplitude Modulation is “pulse shaping”. Essentially, communications engineers realize that the shape of the pulse in the time domain can positively or negatively affect the characteristics of that pulse in the frequency domain. There is no one way to shape a pulse, there are all sorts of different pulse shapes that can be used…   The square wave is a basic choice for transmitting digital data because it is easy to transmit, and is generally easy to receive… The most logical way to transmit a digital signal is through a stream of pulses. One distinct pulse for a digital “1”, and another distinct pulse for a digital “0”. If we take the fourier transform of a square wave, we get a sinc function. A sinc function is a never-ending function, which means that a square wave in the time domain has a very wide bandwidth….It turns out that simply by changing the shape of the pulse (changing it away from a square wave), we can create a signal with better properties: lower bandwidth, lower error rate, etc…”

“Radiation from mammals and the living human body..emit peak the far infrared. This is therefore the range of infrared wavelengths that pit viper snakes and passive IR cameras must sense.”
“Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with  matter. There are many forms of spectroscopy, each contributing useful  information to identify substances and to determine various characteristics of  their structure… Atoms and molecules can absorb electromagnetic radiation, but only at certain  energies (wavelengths)… we can note some general trends..The heavier an atom, the lower the frequencies for vibrations that involve that  atom… Because the IR spectrum of each molecule is unique, it can serve as a signature  or fingerprint to identify the molecule.”
“Near infrared light is closest in wavelengh to visible light and far infrared is closer to the microwave region… far infrared wavelengths are about the size of a pin head…Far infrared waves are thermal… any object which has a temperature radiates in the infrared.. even an ice cube emit[s] infrared.”; “This range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of approximately 1 to 400 THz [terahertz, or trillion hertz]”
[2008] “Security experts reckon the latest technology can detect hostile intentions before something bad happens…”
[2011]”New security scanners to reveal everything about you, instantly..ten million times faster –and one million times more sensitive– than any currently available system… The new technology could be used without us even knowing it.”
                                                       Sound and Fury
The healthy human brain naturally operates in the acoustic range of frequencies from 1 to 200Hz:
Normal wakeful brain activity is called betawave: “Beta is the frequency range from 12 Hz to about 30 Hz…”  Soundwaves below hearing range are called infrasound and characterize the frequencies generally used in Active Denial systems (ADS). The principle of ADS is electronic pest control and includes all kinds of unregulated devices: “Electromagnetic pest repelling devices claim to alter the electromagnetic (EM) field of household wiring, and vibrate the electromagnetic field that always exists around the wiring in the walls of your house.”
Active Denial-type example: “The possibility of a device that produces frequency that causes vibration of the eyeballs — and therefore distortion of vision — was apparently confirmed by the work of engineer Vic Tandy while attempting to demystify a “haunting” in his laboratory in Coventry. This “spook” was characterised by a feeling of unease and vague glimpses of a grey apparition. Some detective work implicated a newly installed extractor fan that, Tandy found, was generating infrasound of 18.9 Hz, 0.3 Hz, and 9 Hz.”
A truck-mounted military Active Denial device, operating at 95 GHz,  is demonstrated for TV cameras:; at 30 GHz (30 billion hertz) and above the range is called Extremely High Frequency. “92–95 GHz bands are also used for point-to-point high-bandwidth communication links”

“The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic hailing device and sonic weapon developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages, warnings, and harmful, pain inducing tones over longer distances… According to the manufacturer’s specifications, the systems weigh from 15 to 320 pounds (6.8 to 150 kg) and can emit sound in a 30° beam at 2.5 kHz… Carl Gruenler, former vice president of military and government operations for American Technology Corporation [now called LRAD] said that being within 100 metres (330 ft) of the LRAD is extremely painful, and that it was designed for use in short bursts at 300 metres (980 ft), to give targeted people a headache. He said that “you definitely don’t want to be” within 100 m; and, that the device will cause permanent auditory damage”; video demonstration

“In 1961, Allen Frey..reported that humans could hear microwaves…Pulsed microwave..(sound-to-skull) transmission was discovered during World War II by radar technicians who..could hear the buzz… By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligent speech may be created…”
Allan Frey wrote: “Burr and Mauro (6) presented evidence that indicates that there is an  electrostatic field about neurons. Morrow and Sepiel (7) presented evidence that  indicates the existence of a magnetic field about neurons…  we have obtained other nonauditory effects and found that the sensitive area for  detecting rf sounds is a region over the temporal lobe of the brain. One can shield, with a 2-in.sq. piece of fly screen, a portion of the strippled area  shown in Fig. 6 and completely cut off the rf sound…” –metal fly screen folks!  Frey’s original paper:
“The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks (or, with modulation, whole words) induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies. The clicks are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device.”
“The first known experiment with microwaved voices was conducted by Sharp and Grove** in the early 70’s… In the early 1990s, Dr. Edward Taub reported that words could be communicated onto a screen using the thought-activated movements of a computer cursor… In 1994, the the brain wave patterns of 40 subjects were officially correlated with both spoken words and silent thought. This was achieved by a neurophysiologist, Dr. Donald York, and a speech pathologist, Dr. Thomas Jensen, from the University of Missouri. They clearly identified 27 words/syllables in specific brain wave patterns and produced a computer program with a brain wave vocabulary.”
**”Sharp and Grove developed receiverless wireless voice transmission technologies for the Advanced Research Projects Agency at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in 1973.”
Normal human perception of sound: “The human ear can nominally hear sounds in the range 20 Hz.. to 20,000 Hz (20 kHz). The upper limit tends to decrease with age; most adults are unable to hear above 16 kHz. The lowest frequency that has been identified as a musical tone is 12 Hz under ideal laboratory conditions. Tones between 4 and 16 Hz can be perceived via the body’s sense of touch.”
Infrasound are sound waves that are felt by the body rather than heard…This is sound that is silent, below the range of human hearing. What happens when the human body is assaulted with infrasound repeatedly over long periods of time? Depending upon the amplitude or intensity, it produces feelings of extreme discomfort…Depending upon the frequency and intensity, infrasound can keep you awake, or, induce sleep. Therefore, it can serve as a remote means of causing sleep deprivation. Infrasound also has a deteriorating effect on work performance similar to alcohol ingestion… However, there is one effect of infrasound that can prove deadly during long-term exposure. Infrasound induces stress and causes the body to secrete the hormone Cortisol. This effect is a medically recognized danger of long-term infrasound exposure… during long term stress, or if Cortisol production is prolonged, its effects on the human body can become deadly. It can cause hyperglycemia, brain damage, weakening of the immune system, weight gain, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other complications. It actually begins to shut down immunity… infrasound weapons are used in conjunction with microwave (or millimeter wave) through-the-wall weapons that have a specific effect on brain activity.”
“[An] audio signal can be modulated onto the microwave carrier and subsequently perceived as the original sound “in the head” of a person illuminated with the microwave radiation.”
“Auditory hallucinations can range from primitive noises such as bangs, whistles, claps, screams, ticks, and others to speech and music. Commonly people who have auditory hallucinations hear voices which utter short comprehensible phrases. Sometimes the person may recognize the voice as one of a family member or deceased friend and sometimes it may be the voice of a stranger or even God. The voices or sounds can be thought to originate from anywhere.”; “Because of long wavelengths, infrasound may not appear to be coming from a specific location.”
–light-sounding snaps, ticks or clicks picked up by the ear are not hallucinations. If you can hear it, you’re being microwaved. The sound is produced by rapidly expanding cells.
“The Neurophone was developed by Dr. Patrick Flanagan in 1958. It’s a device that converts sound to electrical impulses. In its original form, electrodes were placed on the skin but with..developments, the signals can be delivered via satellite. They then travel the nervous system directly to the brain (bypassing normal hearing mechanisms.) Dr. Flanagan’s ‘3D holographic sound system’ can place sounds in any location… This allows for a variety of deceptions for gullible victims.”   “…Flanagan, then a child of 14 developed a radio transmitter that made  the brain into a radio reciever. This device transmits acoustic information to  the brain by means of radio waves into the skin, bypassing the 8th Crainial  Nerve. When he applied for a patent on the device, the patent examiner rejected  the whole thing saying that such a device would go against all known laws of  science. Over the following years, Dr Flanagan fought against insurmontable odds to prove that the device did indeed work. In the meantime, LIFE magazine ran a major article on Flanagan and the Neurophone, naming him as one of the top ten scientists in the US at the age of 17! [c.1961] …” ; “Flanagan says he invented an electronic sleep machine at age 8, developed and sold a guided missile detector to the U.S. military at age eleven, gained his air pilot’s licence at age seventeen, and been employed by a Think Tank at The Pentagon, and later as a consultant to the NSA, CIA, NASA, Tufts University, the Office of Naval Research, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds for the Department of Unconventional Weapons and Warfare.” Hypnotist Dick Sutphen says, “Dr. Patrick Flanagan is a personal friend of mine… When he attempted to patent the device, the government demanded that he prove it worked. When he did, the National Security Agency confiscated the neurophone…”  Flanagan eventually got back the rights to his “Revolutionary Ultrasonic Neural Stimulation” device, patented in 1968, and sells them himself, marketed for relaxation and learning. The advertisements are haunting echoes of Sutphen’s warnings on brainwashing: Step One is Alertness Reduction… Step Two is Programmed Confusion (‘deluge of new information, lectures, discussion’,etc)… Step Three is Thought Stopping (by calming techniques, focusing awareness, repetition, etc.).
Go ‘head. Brainwash yourself. Our ‘security’ agencies can repurpose the funds.
In physics, the term “ultrasound” applies to all sound waves with a frequency above the audible range of normal human hearing, about 20 kHz. The frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound are typically between 2 and 18 MHz.”
“Sonication is the process of converting an electrical signal into a physical  vibration that can be directed toward a substance [like brain tissue]…The primary part of a sonication device is the ultrasonic electric generator.  This device creates a signal (usually around 20 KHz) that powers a transducer.  This transducer converts the electric signal by using piezoelectric crystals, or  crystals that respond directly to the electricity by creating a mechanical  vibration. This vibration, molecular in origin, is carefully preserved and  amplified by the sonicator, until it is passed through to the probe…  The rapid movement of the probe creates an effect called cavitation. Cavitation occurs when the vibrations create a series of microscopic bubbles in the  solution [tissue], pockets of space wedged between the molecules that form and then  collapse again under the weight of the solution, sending out tiny shockwaves  into the surrounding substance. Thousands of these bubbles forming and  collapsing constantly create powerful waves of vibration that cycle into the  solution and break apart the cells.”
“Electroporation and ultrasound have been shown to facilitate the loading of drugs and genes into viable cells.”
Electroporation is a technique that increases the permeability of cell membranes by changing the transmembrane [electric] potential and subsequently disrupting the lipid bilayer integrity to allow transportation of molecules across [through] the cell membrane via nano-size pores… Previously, the idea of destruction of cell membrane integrity by irreversible electroporation [IE] has been applied and demonstrated to effectively exterminate microbial organisms… IE can effectively create tissue death in micro- to millisecond ranges of treatment time… [In this experiment] electrodes made of sintered Ag/AgCl were used for irreversible electroporation.”  Electroporation, which has a use in transdermal drug delivery, can cause a cell to empty (efflux) “during and after..pulses several milliseconds in duration.”
“The silver/silver chloride or Ag/AgCl reference electrode is many electrochemists’ reference electrode of choice…”
electroporation..therefore enables increased drug accumulation in the cells… our results in vitro demonstrated that electroporation of cells enhanced radiation [sensitivity] response… It is already known that reactive oxygen species are formed after electroporation of the cells in vitro [35,36]. Reactive oxygen species are known to contribute to radiation damage to the cells.
Radiofrequency fabricated self-assembling silver nanocrystal-wire brain probes is a subject that can wait for a rainy day because there’s some on-topic real X-files-weird ‘freq’show news:

“Scientists all over the globe have also been creating creatures that are part-human and part-animal in an attempt to find cures for various diseases.  In a previous article, I quoted a Daily Mail article which discussed the “human-animal hybrid embryos” that are secretly being created in British labs….Scientists have created more than 150 human-animal hybrid embryos in British laboratories. The hybrids have been produced secretively over the past three years by researchers looking into possible cures for a wide range of diseases.The revelation comes just a day after a committee of scientists warned of a nightmare ‘Planet of the Apes’ scenario in which work on human-animal creations goes too far…”

Zombie Apocalypse?

Face-eating attack: “Surveillance video shows that for 18 agonizing minutes [the victim]was.. kicked, punched and eaten alive before police shot Eugene four times.” The news announcer reports that the victim was “inadvertantly shot in the chest when police came to his rescue.”

The latest “attack takes place in front of the Miami Herald building. That is quite a  coincidence. A security camera on the building captures the attack, but from a  sanitized distance…[Rudy] Eugene was known to the North Miami Police Department cops as the first person they ever Tasered. That incident occurred in 2008 [correction, 2004; Eugene was tased 3 times]both his girlfriend and mother believe someone did something to him, drugged him  or cursed him, to cause his bizarre behavior, because it was so completely out  of character

   “We know the technology exists to put voices in people’s heads, and to control  their emotional states, and it can all be done invisibly…using the Pentagon’s silent sound spread spectrum technology, patented for decades and no doubt beyond our imagining in 2012. Perhaps his behavior could have been  switched to the emotional signature cluster of a rabid animal… So at some point we expect them to tell us that there is a horrible disease, a  form of weaponized rabies or mutated chimera virus, some such thing, that causes  this ‘zombie’ problem.” The media put out the word that the Miami attack ensued after Eugene took a ‘bath salt’ street drug but the toxicology came back negative. Now, officially, the “mystery deepens” in a case so strange that there is hardly a conclusion to make other than the perpetration of a staged-managed horror using targeted individuals.

In May of 2011 these headlines ran the circuit:”CDC Warns Public to Prepare for ‘Zombie Apocalypse’“, “Emergency agencies train for zombie apocalypse”in what a CDC website spokesman described as a “tongue-in-cheek” notice for Asst. Surgeon General Ali Khan to “instruct readers how to prepare for ‘flesh-eating zombies.‘” ;
..yet another zombie case where a crazed man threatened to eat his subduers and took 6 tasings:
   Tasers have been around since NASA scientist and inventor Jack Cover first introduced them in 1970, earning his patents in 1976. In April of 1981, the LAPD became the test force of choice to model Taser use as a ‘less lethal’ alternative. Cover created a corporation called TASERtron Inc. to market his “conducted electrical weapons” (CEW) and “Ultimately in late 1999 the ADVANCED TASER M26 emerged from a reorganized company known as TASER International. The TASER X26 debuted in 2003…
                               TASER X26
Electrical Incapacitation (EI) “devices generate sufficiently large transmembrane voltage..such that pores were created… More extensive EP [electroporation] is expected from the TASER X26 [than the Aegis MK63, as compared]..due to the approximately eight-fold difference in the peak magnitudes..” During 2004-2005 many metro US police departments were transitioning to the TASER X26.
   “CEWs were initially heralded as a Star Trek ‘Phaser-like’ device that incapacitated without lasting debilitating effects. However..they have also now become tied to very negative unpleasant things, such as “excited delirium”, “cocaine psychosis” and “in-custody death”….The high-voltage, brief pulse width stimulus train applied by the latest generation of..CEWs [TASER X26] delivers 19 very short duration pulses per second [19Hz]…generates open-circuit (arcing) voltage of up to 50,000 volt to arc through air or across thick clothing…[Chapter 5]  …The stimuli from a CEW will override the motor nervous system and block the command and control of the human body. Conventional stun devices stimulate sensory neurons..and can be overridden by a focused individual. The CEW directly stimulates preendplate motor nerves, causing incapacitation regardless of subject’s mental focus, training, size, or drug-induced dementia. [Chapter 6, p.61] “
>>>this ‘scribd’ document, taser assessment, was issued and edited by Mark W. Kroll and Dr. Jeffrey Ho: “Dr. Jeff Ho, Department of Emergency Medicine for Hennepin County, Minneapolis…stated at the Excited Delerium Expert Panel [Oct.8-9, 2007 Seattle, American College of Emergency Physicians Research Forum]..that [of] his studies..None pointed to any adverse effects of the CEW on human physiology.”; Mark Kroll is a board director of TASER International and “the most prolific inventor of medical devices in the world… Over 1 million patients have had devices licensing his patents implanted in them.”
The policy manual states the Taser X26 ‘should never be aimed at the subject’s head, neck, eyes, or genitals… While Taser use on children is strictly discouraged by the company, many police departments –including Cincinnati’s– have allowed the action in their policies.”
   Taser International claimed in 2005 that 600,000 persons had been tasered by their products in the course of police actions, assuming the figure represents approved discharges and not cases like this: [May 2005] “..She was eight months pregnant. And..about to get a speeding ticket she didn’t think she deserved. So when a Seattle police officer presented the ticket..she refused to sign it. In the ensuing confrontation, she suffered burns from a police Taser… In a two-day trial..the officer..testified he clocked her doing 32 mph in a 20 mph school zone… the Taser officer said he pressed the prongs of the muzzle… twice to her exposed neck.”
Miami-Dade police were implored to stop tasering children in November 2004 after a 6-yr-old was tasered at his elementary school for threatening to hurt himself, followed by a 12-yr-old girl truant who ran from police and was tasered in the neck. Taser International responded with a statement that “it is safe to use on anyone weighing at least 60 pounds.”
News video of a 64-yr-old cancer survivor tasered for refusing to ride in an ambulance –in this case, the man’s wife who had called for paramedics, announces to the deputies “He’s got a heart problem”, thereafter he was tasered directly in the chest.
News video of a 14-yr-old girl tasered in the head, penetrated to the brain. The reporter remarks that the girl has epilepsy
AIR-TASER, a non-firearm by definition for using air bursts to launch the probes, made by Taser International, shows a graph of ‘effective target area’ covering the entire human body and this notable statement: “[A] study was conducted on patients admitted to the Emergency Department of the King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles who had been shot with a TASER between July 1980 and December 1985. [Of] these 218 subjects.. 92%..stated they had total amnesia about the event and could not remember being subjected to the TASER.”
Others who did not survive are the subject of a documentary called ‘Killing Them Safely’ (trailer)
 “DARPA, and defence companies in Europe have been working out how to create an  electrically conductive path between a gun and a target without using wires. A  weapon under development by Rheinmetall, based in Dorf, Germany, creates a  conducting channel by using a small explosive charge to squirt a stream of tiny  conductive fibres through the air at the victim (New Scientist print  edition, 24 May 2003)…Meanwhile, Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems (XADS), based in Anderson,  Indiana, will be one of the first companies to market another type of wireless  weapon. Instead of using fibres, the $9,000 Close Quarters Shock Rifle projects  an ionised gas, or plasma, towards the target, producing a conducting channel.  It will also interfere with electronic ignition systems and stop vehicles. “We  will be able to fire a stream of electricity like water out of a hose at one or  many targets in a single sweep,” claims XADS president Peter Bitar.”
Protocol No.1
“Might makes right…
“Our State…has the right to replace the horrors of war by less noticeable and more satisfactory sentences of death, necessary to maintain the terror which tends to produce blind submission….we must keep the program of violence and make-believe. WE SHALL END LIBERTY”
Protocol No.22
“We shall contrive to prove that we are benefactors who have restored to the rent and mangled earth the true good and also freedom of the person…on the condition..of strict observance of the laws established by us… freedom of the person in no wise consists in the right to agitate oneself and others..before disorderly mobs…True force makes no terms with any right, not even with that of God”
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