Jennifer Lake's Blog

October 24, 2012

Morgification

Morgification is something I’ve been thinking about for months. In part, as the involuntary and evil twin of Borgification, and in breadth as a process that derives “morg” from its original word-root as a condition of death. It only so happens that All Hallows Eve is on our doorstep and this haphazard piece turns out to be timely. The inspiration didn’t come from philosophy or religion, but from polymer science; specifically, the activities of the (defunct) Polaroid Corporation and the men who were dipping their probes into the mysteries of organic stereochemistry to make “interesting” plastics. And then there’s the overall driver which is a psychic hologram of scientific tyranny. Pardon my negativity but there’s a problem Houston! We’re losing the Race for Space –and I mean losing control of those engineered aliens ( the “race” for space).   So, I guess what I want to say is: get jiggy with it science guys or get morgued for a comeback as zombie pumpkins.

“Morg”, of course, is taken from Morgellon’s, a name on overdrive, standing in for the range of disorders manifesting as recurrent lesions, extruding fibers, films, crystals, technological objects and insects oozing and tearing out of people’s skin. Prognosis unknown. Morgellon’s suggests these are medical problems. Morgification, I’m suggesting, is conquest.

   No one can yet tell me if it’s killing people because so far what I’ve heard is that ‘morgs’ are killing themselves. I have too little to offer in the face of this tragedy, but recent exposure to advanced cases of morgification support a conviction that the issue needs to be, and must be, defined. It was Edwin (“call me Din”) Land, the founder and genius of Polaroid, who was fond of telling people that a problem defined opened the way to its solution.

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The following description and accompanying photos (in the link) fits some of the morg specimens I’ve seen: “In this work, we discovered that.. PVP could self-assemble to form a macroscopic matrix made of a branched hollow polymer nanofibers… The self-assembled fibrous PVP structure formed in the aqueous solution was a jellyfish-like three-dimensional aggregate with a centimeter scale… Based on the..analysis of the early stage during the formation of the jellyfish-like PVP aggregate, the aggregate formation process can be divided into two steps: formation and fusion of PVP microspheres into pearl-necklace-like chains and growth of hollow fibers from the chains… The branched fibers produced in this work may serve as new templates for the synthesis of fibers or tubes of other materials… We discovered that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) could self-assemble into branched hollow fibers in an aqueous solution after aging the PVP solution for about two weeks. Based on this finding, we demonstrated two approaches by which the self-assembly of PVP into branched hollow fibers could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers.” [i.e. silica and gold nanoparticles] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844465/

 PVP powder, sold widely as a food additive, binding and thickening agent for foods, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, medical devices and blood plasma substitute. Mixed with iodine it’s called povidone, able to make light-polarizing film — it could have been among the many thousands of polymer compounds prepared by Polaroid.

Edwin Land, c1947 

For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized  “Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy  [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… and clearly demonstrated what they were investing in by granting Land control of a voting trust of the stock… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]   Din Land had shown them miracles, including a 3-D movie, which they restaged multiple times for scientists, capitalists, and the press. For the 1939 “World of Tomorrow” Fair in New York, Chrysler presented a 3-D Polaroid film of a car self-assembling as the animated parts danced before the audience. Still, Polaroid had little to sell and fewer customers, but 1940, World War II, new premises near M.I.T. and a flow of contracts from the US Navy changed everything. Near the end of the war, Polaroid took on a team of crack chemists and set out to make the products that Edwin Land had dreamed of.

One of the chemists who signed on to Polaroid in 1943 was Elkan Rogers Blout, newly promoted out of Columbia University with a chemical PhD and accommodated as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. Blout managed to keep his parallel life going between Polaroid and Harvard –Polaroid gave him wealth and Harvard gave him prestige– until 1962 and the fruition of Polaroid’s great commercial one-trick-pony: the instant color camera. Blout “led the team of chemists that synthesized more than 5,000 compounds in search of the key ingredients of the Polaroid color process.” http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2006-releases/press12202006.html By leaving the lab at Polaroid, Blout was to have time to make his mark in medicine. Since 1950, he’d had private lab space at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, sponsored by the Children’s Cancer Research Foundation under Sidney Farber: “Elkan established a spectroscopy laboratory at Children’s..to study biophysics of peptides and proteins… Indicative of his stature in the field of biopolymers, Elkan was a founding editor of the journal Biopolymers…” http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/09/elkan-r-blout/  At the top of his Harvard career, Elkan Blout was the Dean of academics at the Harvard School of Public Health, treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences responsible for a five-fold increase in monetary holdings and lastly, in retirement after having won the highest national awards, senior science advisor to the FDA.  But, from his first days at Polaroid during WWII, Blout (who was 24 at the time) had joined in the ‘classified’ culture of military secrets. It may have taught him much about networking and discretion, as doubtlessly as hobnobbing with financiers did with money. Perhaps it suited him as it suited Edwin Land.

When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada, Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…  From the first flight on July 4, 1956, to the day Gary Powers was shot down on May 1, 1960, the U-2 changed the course of history… suddenly a hidden world was totally revealed. It quickly became apparent that the bomber gap and the missile gap [promoted as falling behind the Soviets] were misapprehensions… the Western powers had overestimated Soviet strength… Subsequent flights totally revised American and NATO thinking about Russian capabilities.” [pp111-112, Land’s Polaroid]

The essential telling of U-2 surveillance and the involvement of Land is in the timing of its early flights a full year before the United States blew off the longest and dirtiest series of nuclear bombs over the heads of its citizens.  The Nevada tests known as Operation Plumbob in the summer and fall of 1957 initiated the period of peak atmospheric fallout that, according to epidemiological data, has never really abated due to the growth of nuclear industries, accidents, re-pollution and bioaccumulation. For some time now, even the public knows that the ‘testing’ excess was militarily unnecessary by any standard.  In the field of synthetic and biopolymers, however, fallout is magic.

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Got a minute?

All polymers are made of linked units called monomers.
A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature.  Starch, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars [polysaccharides], amino acids [polypeptides], and nuceic acids [polynucleotides]. The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the polymer’s primary structure. Many biopolymers spontaneously “fold” into characteristic shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the shapes of biopolymers.” http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Biopolymer
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“Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation…also known as 3D chemistry because the prefix “stereo-” means “three-dimensionality”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereochemistry
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The term ‘plastics’ includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Plastics typically have high molecular weight, meaning each molecule can have thousands of atoms bound together… Most plastics are based on the carbon atom. Silicones, which are based on the silicon atom, are an exception. The carbon atom can link to other atoms with up to four chemical bonds .. When we combine monomers, we generate polymers or plastics… The raw material formation may begin by separating the hydrocarbon chemicals from natural gas, petroleum, or coal into pure streams of chemicals. Some are then processed in a “cracking process.” Here, in the presence of a catalyst, raw materials molecules are converted into monomers such as ethylene (ethene) C2H4, propylene (propene) C3H6, and butene C4H8 and others….  Each monomer yields a plastic resin with specific properties and characteristics. Combinations of monomers produce copolymers with further property variations. So, within each polymer type, such as nylons, polyesters, polyethylenes, etc, manufacturers can custom make plastics that have specific features.” http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/How-Plastics-Are-Made
“A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure. Covalent [shared electron] bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinylpyrrolidone
“Most plastics are dielectrics or insulators…and resist the flow of a current… [but] Not all polymers behave the same when subjected to voltage and plastics can be classified as ‘polar’ or ‘nonpolar’…The polar plastics do not have a fully covalent bond and there is a slight imbalance in the electronic charge of the molecule… This ‘dipole’ will move in the presence of an electric field and attempt to line up with the electric field.” http://www.zeusinc.com/User/Files/Zeusinc/Documents/Zeus_Dielectric.pdf
Molecular self-assembly is mediated by weak, noncovalent bonds –notably hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds (electrostatic interactions), hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions and water-mediated hydrogen bonds. Although these bonds are relatively insignificant in isolation, when combined together as a whole, they govern the structural conformation of..macromolecules…” http://www.che.utexas.edu/research/biomat/PDFReprints/Fabrication%20of%20novel%20biomaterials%20through%20molecular%20SA.pdf
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Polymer fabrication techniques often use free radicals: Free radical polymerization is a method..by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks. Free radicals can be formed via a number of different mechanisms… The relatively nonspecific nature of free radical chemical interactions makes this one of the most versatile forms of polymerization available.. In 2001, 40 billion of the 110 billion pounds of polymers produced in the United States were produced by free radical polymerization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_radical_polymerization
High-energy ionizing radiation produces free radicals for chemically cross-linking polymers: “..[a] polymer may be crosslinked using..electron beam (or e-beam), gamma, or x-ray. Gamma irradiation is usually most economical at lower doses..and for large, high-density parts…Irradiation creates free radicals which will often chemically react in various ways… The free radicals can recombine forming the crosslinks. The degree of crosslinking depends upon the polymer and radiation dose… Another influence..is oxidation during irradiation. Furthermore, oxidation can continue after irradiation causing changes in properties with time… A competing process, called scissioning occurs when polymers are irradiated. In this case, the polymer chains are broken…” http://sterigenics.com/crosslinking/crosslinking.htm
Plasma polymerization: …”as early as the 1870s ‘polymers’ formed by this process were known, but these polymers were initially thought of as undesirable…It was not until the 1960s that the properties of these polymers where found to be useful… Glow discharge is a technique in polymerization which forms free electrons which gain energy from an electric field, and then lose energy through collisions with neutral molecules in the gas phase. This leads to many chemically reactive species, which then lead to a plasma polymerization reaction… These plasmas are formed by a direct current, alternating current or radio frequency generator.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_polymerization
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“This review describes recent developments in the emerging field of biomimetic polymeric biomaterials, which signal to cells via biologically active entities.  …The next topics are then the basic design rules for the creation of biomimetic materials. Here, the major emphasis is on polymers that are assembled in separate building blocks, meaning that the biologically active entity is attached to the polymer in a separate chemical reaction.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15296963
“Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach…by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte [red blood cell] membranes..for long-circulating [drug or gene] cargo delivery…”  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/06/17/1106634108.abstract
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“Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap)…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446438
“Conductive polymers are expected to play an important role in the emerging science of molecular computers…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_electronics
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Indeed… polymers are smart materials. If you knew nothing about plastics before reading this, I hope this random selection of quotes does a ‘Polaroid’–  gives you the picture in a minute.
   I have one last addition about the “pyrroles” :
“Polypyrroles are conducting polymers of the rigid-rod..family, all basically derivatives of polyacetylene. Polypyrrole was the first polyacetylene derivative to show high conductivity. In a series of papers in 1963, D.E.Weiss and coworkers reported high conductivity in iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole… In 2006, scientists from Brown University published work on a fast-charging and discharging battery chemistry based on polypyrroles. There are current studies into the medical applications… Polypyrrole..has been actively studied as a material for ‘artificial muscles’… Polypyrrole is used in the microwave fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, a new method that allows to obtain CNTs in a matter of seconds.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypyrrole
….now there’s a real Polaroid moment.
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In 1940, equal to Polaroid’s up-and-coming status as a think tank floating on Navy contracts, Edwin Land adopted Robert Burns Woodward as a special science advisor and chief “problem solver” to the company. Woodward was a Boston area native, PhD graduate of MIT, and soon to become the resident wizard of organic chemistry at Harvard. He was “considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century… During the..1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex..products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of synthesis..in which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, and by meticulous plannng…  it was thought by some..that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab… Woodward was a pioneer in showing how, with exhaustive and rational planning, one could conduct reactions that were stereoselective. Many..syntheses involved forcing a molecule into a certain configuration by installing rigid structural elements in it, [a] tactic that has become standard today.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._B._Woodward
   “In 1944, Land brought together two brilliant young chemists who had worked for Polaroid… Woodward..now twenty-seven..[and]..William E. Doering..[who] was twenty-six. Land provided them with a Polaroid laboratory and assistants, his own insistent energy and ideas, and a challenge to solve the classical problem… Synthetic quinine…” [p76, Land’s Polaroid] It was through Woodward, who had also been serving the War Production Board, that Elkan Blout came to Polaroid too. Woodward was to stay in the family –in 1946 he divorced his first wife and married Eudoxia ‘Doxie’ Muller, one of Polaroid’s first hires, described as a “humorous, cynical, blonde sprite” who was recruited to learn science on-the-job. “Doxie had been assigned by Land to begin the first chemical experiments on his instant photography project, given the code name SX-70, under Land’s daily guidance.” [p9, ibid.]
   Woodward’s “new era” in chemistry was to bear his name. “In the early 1950s, Woodward, along with the British chemist Geoffrey Wilkinson then at Harvard, postulated a novel structure for ferrocene, a compound consisting of a combination of an organic molecule with iron. This marked the beginning of the field of transition metal organometallic chemistry…  In the early 1960s, Woodward began work on what was the most complex natural product synthesized to date– vitamin B12… The synthesis included almost a hundred steps…  This [work] convinced organic chemists that the synthesis of any complex substance was possible given enough time and planning.” [wiki, above]
   Blout wrote of his friend, “Theoretically, interesting molecules always intrigued Woodward… He concluded that electronic effects had to be at work…” http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/rwoodward
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Interesting…
“Recently the mixtures of collagen with synthetic polymers..are becoming more and more interesting for scientists and technologists… Since collagen alone does not show interesting enough mechanical properties, the idea to develop collagen based composite materials by adding a selected synthetic polymer is interesting. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is an interesting water-soluble synthetic… used for..plasmas (substitute of blood plasma), for hydrogel production by radiation methods and..hydrophilic gels…  Collagen and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)..are also well known for their interesting biological properties. The blending of collagen with PVP makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur.”  http://www.chalcogen.infim.ro/1793_%20Dumitrascu.pdf
“…surgically induced fibrocollagenous tunnels induces angiogenesis in ischemic rat hindlimb model… collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone plus heparin induced significant vascularization…” http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:14705073
“Vascular tube formation and angiogenesis induced by polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles” [abstract title] www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427411012513
   Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, was a term first coined in 1900 but made-over in 1960s medical literature as a feature of cancer by the effort of a Boston [Children’s Hospital/Harvard] colleague, Moses Judah Folkman. Dr. “Folkman is widely known as a pioneer in the sudy of angiogenesis… Today [2008] there are more than 1,000 laboratories worldwide engaged in the study of angiogenesis, the field he founded.” In measurable practical value, however, Folkman may be better known for creating plasticized implants, including an early pacemaker: “While doing blood research for the Navy [Bethesda], Folkman had noticed that plastic tubing will gradually leak oil-based fluids… That led to a new drug-delivery system– implantable plastic capsules..[and] directly to the development of Norplant, the long-term contraceptive… Folkman gave the original patent..to the Population Council.”  http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2008/01/m-judah-folkman-biomedical-pioneer-dies-at-74
…”Judah Folkman has taken us enormously close to converting cancer into a manageable chronic disease…” http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles_various/Dr.Folkman.asp
   Without digressing here on the utility of cancer, this last comment fairly captures my perception of the goals of establishment medicine and brings up another haunting concept I’ve been thinking about as a result of this research: autoincarceration –for now, one to keep rolling. There are endless interesting citations about PVP.
   Polyvinylpyrrolidone was first made in a BASF laboratory, the company that advertizes “We don’t just create chemicals, we create chemistry” : “Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a genuine ‘multi-talent’ among BASF products because polyvinylpyrrolidones are good at (almost) everything… It all began around the end of 1938..in Ludwigshafen. Walter Reppe, the inventor of acetylene chemistry, used acetylene and pyrrolidone to produce a new monomer called vinylpyrrolidone… PVP started its career as a substitute for blood plasma in the Second World War. Known as Periston, it saved the lives of thousands of people… Half of the polyvinylpyrrolidones produced by BASF are destined for the pharmaceutical sector…  Today, BASF is the biggest producer of PVP in Europe –and an end to this success story is nowhere in sight.” http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/literature-document:/Brand+Luvitec-Brochure–PVP+and+more+Versatile+specialty+polymers+for+technical+applications-English.pdf
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                                                PVP
“When dry, it is a light flaky powder which readily absorbs up to 40% of its weight in atmospheric water. In solution it has excellent wetting properties and readily forms films…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinylpyrrolidone
[1953]”This work..may serve as a basis for later investigations..on the combining of PVP for certain physiologic products with which it comes into intimate contact when used as a plasma expander…” http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/1/5/396.full.pdf
“Pulsed electron beam irradiation at high repitition rate generates several carbon-centered free radicals along the polymeric chain simultaneously and enhances the intra-crosslinking radical reactions. Smaller nano-gel particles..were attained at higher pulse repitition rate (300 pulses per second)…the nano-gel structure was synthesized using relatively low dose-rate radiation…” http://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2007/preliminaryprogram/abstract_91187.htm
“The microemulsion was..subjected to either electron-beam or UV-radiation to induce free-radical crosslinking of PVP at low temperature… E-beams produced orderly grids and UV produced a tangled mess…” http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/py/c0py00161a/unauth#
“Recently studies have shown that infection can occur in the presence of neutralizing antibodies…if the virus is first subjected to polymer encapsulation… By substituting polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for PVA [polyvinyl alcohol], gene transfer increased seven-fold…” www.nature.com/gt/journal/v6/n9/full/3300978a.html
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Naturally existing pyrroles, incidently, come from tobacco, and as part of its intriguing history as the first confirmed isolation of  any virus (published 1892), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) turns out to “exhibit fascinating structural features… TMV-based materials have already shown great potential in nanoelectronics.” http://www.ee.sc.edu/research/NESL/NESL_pub_pdf/NanoLett_7_3729.pdf
–now, I can only speculate what kind of story Big Tobacco might have to contribute here. Tobacco keeps coming up in my radiation biology studies; as a source of desirable chemicals such as nicotinic acid and pyrrole, as a crop target of early “radium fertilizer” and as a factor in the cancer of Henrietta Lacks, whose tumor cells were designated the immortal HeLa line in 1951 (beginning of US domestic atomic fallout), then to become the most ubiquitous of laboratory creatures (i.e., the basis of polio vaccines) –and now this too, ready nanoelectronics.
   Americans should know from history that the burgeoning economy of the Atlantic colonies was built on the slave labor of tobacco plantations. By the 1700s, excluding J.J. Astor, great fortunes were in tobacco, exemplified by Pierre Lorillard: “Lorillard is the oldest tobacco company in the world.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Abraham_Lorillard; In 1968, Lorillard was acquired by Loews Corporation, controlled by the Tisch family. If you like, take the rabbit hole: http://smokershistory.com/Lorillar.htm; or jump in and follow the money http://www.smokershistory.com/MorganGT.html
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BASF, creator of the chemistry, was the 1925 founding corporation of I.G. Farbenunder the leadership of Carl Bosch…all shares were exchanged for BASF shares prior to the merger. Rubber, fuels and coatings were added to the product range“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BASF

In 1927, prior to the Wall Street Crash and the construction of Rockefeller Center,  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben formalized a joint partnnership that created the world’s largest chemical consortium. Howard Ambruster published a critical work in 1947 on the interwar history of the Standard-Farben venture: “Treason’s Peace, German Dyes and American Dupes”.  Ambruster wrote, “..it is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which..operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest and a world super-state directed by Farben.”  www.archive.org/stream/treasonspeaceger00ambrrich/…” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/

“Under the direction of Walter Reppe (1892 – 1969, chemist and member of the  Board of Executive Directors from 1952 to 1957), research begins in 1928 on the catalytic reactions of acetylene under pressure… Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius receive the Nobel Prize for the development of  high-pressure technology for ammonia synthesis and coal hydrogenation…Researchers in Ludwigshafen develop a groundbreaking new invention – magnetic  tape…  Ten years of intensive research into synthetic rubber culminate in success… A patent is filed in 1939 for one of the most interesting  derivatves of acetylene chemistry: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)… Times of war, 1940…The first 20 tons of caprolactam-based polyamide are produced in  Ludwigshafen. This opens up new ways of manufacturing fibers (nylon and Perlon)  and engineering plastics… ” http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/about-basf/history/1925-1944/index

“I.G. Farben had a holding company in the United States… Paul M. Warburg, first director of the Federal  Reserve Bank of New York and chairman of the Bank of Manhattan, was a Farben director and in Germany his brother Max Warburg was also a director of I.G,  Farben. H. A. Metz of I.G. Farben was also a director of the Warburg’s Bank of  Manhattan. Finally, Carl Bosch of American I.G. Farben was also a director of  Ford Motor Company A-G in Germany… Another elusive case of reported financing to Hitler is that of Fritz Thyssen, the German steel magnate…[whose]..personal banking operation was affiliated with W.A. Harriman interests in New York..” http://reformed-theology.org/html/books/wall_street/chapter_07.htm  “Virtually all members of the German Warburg family fled to the United States or Great Britain by 1938.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_family  “The I.G.Farben cartel was created by loans from Wall Street in what has been called the Dawes Plan. Carroll Quigley calls the Dawes Plan ‘largely a J.P. Morgan production.’ The J.P. Morgan Group set up the loan to I.G. Farben, which created Hitler… Do you see what happened? A Rothschild agent [Morgan & Co.] set up a cartel that was directly involved in the horrible persecution of the Jews. Still the family maintains the illusion of being totally supportive of their race. At first Germany had a significant disadvantage… The nation had a fuel shortage…[but] were able to fight WWII through the use of synthetic fuels that were created by the hydrogenation process (turning coal into gasoline)… Standard Oil..was able to complete the research, facilitating the war…” [from Bloodlines of the Illuminati, by Fritz Springmeier, http://www.whale.to/b/sp/rothschild.html]

While the processes for producing gaseous and liquid fuels by conventional techniques were being developed, exploratory experiments to investigate the rapid pyrolysis of coal to gaseous products were in progress… The results of these studies show that the rapid pyrolysis of coal produces a gaseous mixture of which acetylene is the principal hydrocarbon constituent…” http://web.anl.gov/PCS/acsfuel/preprint%20archive/Files/13_4_NEW%20YORK_09-69_0321.pdf

The US Government’s sample of PVP came to the military in 1943 as captured German medical supplies: “At the 28 July 1943 [Subcommittee on Blood Substitutes] Conference..a bottle of Periston [polyvinylpyrrolidone]..that had been captured in Tunisia..was exhibited and arrangements were made for various studies to be conducted on it… [T]oxicity experiments revealed gross pathologic changes in the spleen..described as the type to be expected in severe bone marrow damage… Autopsy also revealed changes in the liver that were apparently progressive…” http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/blood/chapter14.htm  Despite this, blood substitute science was unable to find suitable materials and Periston was bypassed because of adequate supplies of donated blood from the Red Cross program. The military dropped its inquiry at the end of the war, but in 1950 the Korean War revived their interest: “Periston was..[next] considered in the Subcommittee on Shock on 14 October 1950. Although it had been widely used in Germany during WWII and about half a million cases had since been followed up, not much was known… Apparently it caused no lasting damage to the tissues… At the 11 December..meeting..it was learned that the Schenley [Distillers] Corp. could then import 5,000 to 10,000 bottles of Periston a month from Germany and by July 1951 expected to import an intermediate form that could be processed further in the United States… A research project had been approved in principle… The Food and Drug Administration was prepared to clear Periston…” http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/blood/chapter20.htm [pp788-790] So Schenley Corp. became the government’s PVP contractor until late 1953 when Periston was dropped again in favor of another blood substitute called dextran –also provided by Schenley.

“Schenley had been owned by one Danny Weiskopf, formerly the right-hand man of Julius Kessler, the whiskey king of pre-Prohibition America. Weiskopf had sold out to Lew Rosenstiel..[who] managed to build up considerable stocks of ‘prescription whiskey’..[p95, The Bronfmans]… Before Repeal Rosenstiel had acquired..the important firm of Schenley with the help of..the totally respectable banking firm of Lehman Brothers… Rosenstiel was a true monster… He was a workaholic, needing only two hours of sleep, working seven days a week, impetuous.. a control freak who treated his employees like dirt, sacking them at a moment’s notice..[expecting] them to compromise themselves by talking in his absence, unaware that he had installed bugging devices in his offices… Rosenstiel was married four times and was bisexual…revealed from evidence given in a bitter divorce suit..by his fourth wife. If, as is possible, her evidence is true, it guarantees him a place in history as organizer of the parties at which J. Edgar Hoover could frolic in his favorite frocks, parties that featured boy prostitutes for the enjoyment of..guests like Roy Cohn. According to the fourth Mrs. Rosenstiel, at one party she attended Hoover ‘was wearing a fluffy black dress..with..lace stockings and high heels..makeup..and false eyelashes.’ Indeed it was the blackmail potential of the conversations recorded on the microphones Rosenstiel had thoughtfully installed throughout the house that allegedly explained Hoover’s refusal to pursue the Mafia. For it was at Lew’s place that Hoover met some of Rosenstiel’s business associates..like Frank Costello, Sam Giancana…Santo Trafficante..Angelo Bruno..and Meyer Lansky…” [p66, The Bronfmans, by Nicholas Faith] Sam Bronfman bought a 20% stake in Schenley. “Mr. Sam..–and above all Edgar– had been introduced to what would now be called ‘insider’ stock market dealings by the Loebs and the Gunzbergs… In France the Gunzberg connection with the Rothschilds enabled the Bronfmans to get in on the ground floor of..the innovative holiday group Club Mediterranee. In the United States the investments included a highly successful speculation into Polaroid..” [p175, ibid.]

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This story, as you might surmise, has more places to go than tunneling nanotubes, and at some point I just have to leave-off and mention that the early medical research on PVP by the government was mixed at best. They sanctioned ’emergency use’ of PVP blood substitute and called for more study. The only moderately favorable clinical trial done in 1950 was submitted by Dr. Robert M. Zollinger of Ohio State U, the beloved mentor of Judah Folkman who got him into Harvard Medial School. Polaroid eventually filed a number of PVP-containing patents, some of which appear near the end of Edwin Land’s life in 1983. “Paradoxically, a man who spent much of his life developing devices and systems for recording history didn’t leave much of his own. He didn’t keep a journal and his personal papers were destroyed upon death.” http://www.2think.org/land.shtml

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                                                                         NOTES

PVP in RESidence
Polyvinylpyrrolidone stores in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), currently called the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), “part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells..accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are..part of the MPS… The mononuclear phagocyte system is part of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity..[with] an important role in defense against microorganisms… [In] the liver, Kupffer cells store excess iron [coming] from the breakdown of red blood cells. In bone marrow and spleen, iron is stored in RES cells mostly as ferritin… The functions of the MPS..[are] formation of Red and White blood cells [RBCs and WBCs], destruction of old RBCs and WBCs, formation of antibody, formation of plasma proteins, formation of bile pigments [and] storage of iron.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticuloendothelial_system
“When administered in very large amounts or over long periods (either as a plasma replacement or as a dryg carrier) deposits identified as PVP have been found in RES cells of various organs and in the lung, kidney and intestines… For example, PVP storage was apparent in 28 of 29 autopsies of patients who received PVP..by intravenous injection over 2-81 days at total doses of 4 g[grams]. Microscopic examination revealed slight structural changes… Slight adverse effects to the function of lungs, kidneys, liver and intestines..have been described… Other reports have also noted..granulomatous or inflammatory reactions in association with PVP deposits in..the liver and lymph nodes… PVP deposits in a wide range of tissues..when examined up to 15 years later…”[noted here also at 20 years] http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2057958898-8907.html
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Edwin Herbert Land, “As a member of PSAC [the President’s Scientific Advisory Committee], Land co-authored a study that led to the establishment of the highly secretive National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), participated..and promoted the development of satellites..[and] also served on the special committee..that laid the foundations for the transformation of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into NASA…” http://cmu.edu/coldwar/mcelheny.html; EHL would certainly have been aware of the research objectives expressed by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 :

Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space…” https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/04/13/cyborgology
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April 13, 2012

Cyborgology

                                                                    
“There are many actual cyborgs among us in society. Anyone with an artificial organ, limb or supplement (like a pacemaker), anyone reprogrammed to resist disease (immunized) or drugged to think/behave/feel better (psychopharmacology) is technically a cyborg… there is no consensus on what a cyborg is… Many see..Frankenstein’s creature as the first cyborg… ” –Chris Gray, p2, The Cyborg Handbook
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“A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space….  the term “Cybernetic organism” has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts…
   “The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II…
The term [cyborg] first appears in print [in 1960]..when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper;
A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one.” — Clynes and Kline, 1960 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetic_organism
Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline:
Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space… This self-regulation must function without the benefit of consciousness in order to cooperate with  the body’s own autonomous homeostatic controls…
…While it is quite difficult to set upper limits to ‘natural’ human physiological and psychological  performance, we can take as minimal the capabilities demonstrated under control conditions such as yoga or hypnosis. The imagination is stretched by the  muscular control of which even the undergraduate at a Yoga College is capable,  and hypnosis per se may prove to have a definite place in space travel, although  there is much to be learned about the phenomena of disassociation,  generalization of instructions, and abdication of executive control.
      We are now working on a new  preparation which may greatly enhance hypnotizability, so that pharmacological  and hypnotic approaches may be symbiotically combined.
Wakefulness… The extension of normal functioning through the use of that group of drugs known  as psychic energizers, with adjunctive medication, for this purpose is a  present-day reality…
Radiation  Effects. One  subsystem of the Cyborg would involve a sensor to detect radiation levels and an  adaptation of the Rose osmotic pump which would automatically inject protective  pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses. Experiments at the AF School of Aviation  Medicine already indicate an increase in radiation resistance resulting from  combined administration of aminoethylisothioronium and cysteine to monkeys.
Metabolic..Controls. In the case of prolonged space flight…food — poses a  major problem. During a flight of a year Or longer… Hypothermia  (reduction of body temperature) would appear to be a desirable state in such  long voyages in order to reduce metabolism, and thus human “fuel” consumption… The use of.. hibernation (through pituitary control), alone or in  combination with pharmaceuticals, all seem to offer possibilities in attempting  to obtain and maintain such a state…
Enzyme  Systems. Under  conditions of lowered body temperature, certain enzyme systems would tend to  remain more active than others. The extent to which pharmaceutical or chemical  agents could influence this enzyme activity has not been systematically  investigated, but beyond question they will play an important role. Since  metabolism is subject to enzyme control, several intriguing possibilities exist.  For example, it may be possible through in vitro radiation to convert certain  organisms from aerobic to anaerobic states and, by studying changes in the  enzyme systems, to adapt them for eventual human use
Psychoses. Despite all the care exercised,  there remains a strong possibility that somewhere in the course of a long space  voyage a psychotic episode might occur, and this is one condition for which no  servomechanism can be completely designed at the present time. While an  emergency osmotic pump containing one of the high-potency phenothiazines  together with reserpine could be a part of the complete space man’s kit, the  frequent denial by an individual undergoing a psychotic episode that his thought  processes, emotions, or behavior are abnormal, might keep him from voluntarily  accepting medication. For this reason, if monitoring is adequate, provision  should be made for triggering administration of the medication remotely from  earth
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Current development in “remote medicine”:
May, 2012: [Nature magazine] “Researchers have remotely activated genes inside living animals, a proof of concept that could one day lead to medical procedures in which patients’ genes are triggered on demand.” http://www.nature.com/news/remote-controlled-genes-trigger-insulin-production-1.10585
“Some laboratory mice were given specially engineered insulin-producing genes. These genes were then remotely activated using radio waves. This could mean a whole new field of medical proceedures in which we turn genes on and off at will. This breakthrough is the work of geneticists at New York’s Rockefeller University… Admittedly..the researchers did first have to inject some nanoparticles onto the mice’s cells in order to affect their genes…
   “The radio waves are ideal for this sort of remote manipulation because they can pass through thick layers of tissue, and they can be easily focused…
Even better, the researchers have already developed a way to achieve similar, albeit weaker, results without having to inject nanoparticles at all. They have developed cells that can grow their own required nanoparticles… However, as Nature explains, this would still require growing tumors inside humans to actually get these cell cultures in place, which means the treatment isn’t yet ethically permissible in humans.”  http://io9.com/5908065/scientists-switch-mouses-genes-off-and-on-with-radio-waves?tag=genetics
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Manfred Clynes interviewed by cyborgologist Chris Hables Gray [published in The Cyborg Handbook, 1995]:
CHG: Why exactly did you guys decide to write about space travel?
MC: Nathan Kline was the director of this research facility there at the Rockland State Hospital and one day somebody asked him… Dr. Kline was interested in the application of drugs for the treatment of mental patients.
CHG: Yes, psychopharmacology
MC: Psychopharmacology. This man, I think Flaherty…
CHG: Yeah, he was with NASA.
MC:..invited him to write something for us at NASA. So, he talked to me and said, ‘Would you like to write something jointly with me? I will write about the drugs and you write about other physiologic systems.’ I said, ‘What do I know about this? I know nothing.’ Anyhow we agreed… And I coined this word cyborg…
CHG: I noticed you used the term participant evolution in that article.
MC: Yes. In other words man has now become conscious enough of the way he was built physiologically…that he could now supplement the homeostasis with which he evolved… So as to supplement it by his own imagination and through his own creativity…to simply allow him to make use of his faculties…
…I have to criticize a little what seems to be a great lack of appreciation of molecular biology among cyborg studies. The great things that are happening today in the scientific world are advances in molecular biology along with computers. Those are the two regions of our scientific world that are growing very rapidly, and compared to them psychology is dead in the water completely.
   It is already known that the emotional world of men is fashioned through molecules like neuropeptides… These peptides have receptors scattered throughout the brain..[and] it is known that the emotional world can be affected now by designer molecules. That’s where the computers and molecular biology will intermarry… computer-designed molecules..that will naturally work inside the brain and will be able to change the emotional aspects.
…They continually are making gene products, some are turned off, some are turned on…So that by controlling and knowing how to control the natural products, and turning the genes on and off, we will have tremendous power to change the emotional world of man.
…Evolution is more than survival of the fittest. And participant evolution can…probably improve the qualities of life more effectively..than by just waiting for the less fit to become extinct.” [pp46-53]
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Cyborg Ethics
C.H. Gray poses the question, “Could there be a cyborg ethics? Yes, we think so. And not just one. Several systems are implicitly elaborated in the pages [of The Cyborg Handbook]… David Channel has elaborated what he calls a ‘bionic’ ethic: ‘A bionic ethic must take into consideration both the mechanical and the organic aspects of the cybernetic ecology in order to maintain the system’s integrity, stability, diversity and purposefulness. Neither the mechanical nor the organic can be allowed to bring about the extinction of the other.’ (The Vital Machine, p154).” [p12]
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For the Human Materials Industry generated by “patient care”, the ethic is described:

When it appears that a patient will become brain-dead, a change in medical routines occurs. Care of the patient as a whole being becomes care of biological materials contained within and the technological components that convert them into useable products. There are two parts to the process; the maintenance of the body as incubator and storage container for the human materials, and the preservation and conversion of the specific materials themselves. It is important to note that this process can begin long before the patient is declared legally dead…
   “Once the brain ceases to function…the body is no longer a self-regulating system… Cyborg mechanics must replace brain functions…
   “Recognizing the considerable market potential of the human materials industry, pharmaceutical and medical supply companies have developed new products and entire new industries… The goals of these new products are to preserve tissue integrity before being removed, and to make the materials more ‘immunologically silent’ to prevent problems later when they are replaced inside another body. In essence, the human materials are being structurally, chemically and functionally transformed to make them more universal. In this way, they become not only substitutable mechanical parts, but more like off-the-shelf reagents, available for use in a variety of end-users.” [p208]
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This is possible in a late-capitalist age in which commodification has reached into hithertofore unimaginable realms of life. However it meant that ideas about the boundaries of the body as well as boundaries between human and nonhuman had to change… new social interventions were required. The first and most important was a new definition of ‘death’. The cessation of brain functions..is now accepted as the legal and medical category ‘death’…Brain death allows the suspension of time, which in turn allows cultural and bodily processes to be fragmented and reconfigured. Significantly, it allows the process to be staged by biomedical ‘managers’ and experts… this medical-legal construction left us with an even more ambiguous entity; the ‘living cadaver’. In attempting to reduce ambiguity, it is necessary to deconstruct the subject (the person), and reconstruct an object (the production unit)… Throughout the process, cultural meanings must be stripped from the person. Identity must be erased… While these processes can be called social technologies, the core technologies used..are chemical and mechanical. Through these, the physical body is reprogrammed and retooled for new uses…” [p206]
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While it may be true that many of us are living in cyborg societies, we have to remember that those are also plural societies… Future cyborg studies will hopefully attend to cultural beliefs and practices, and the ways in which they are transformed and transforming. Studying cyborgs and their social relations means not only learning where and how bodies exist in relation to machines, but also what types of bodies they are, and where they are situated. As Stone (1994) has pointed out, bodies and communities constitute each other. [p215]
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                                                      TechnoCalypse: The Transhumanists
                               (part one) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri9CFs6x-MQ&feature=relmfu
                               (part two) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WpZz3R7vrM&feature=relmfu
                               (part three) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRILun-zvQI&feature=relmfu
                               (part four) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAFVQCTeF_A&feature=relmfu
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                                                        Walker Lake Dome Project
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The Walker Lake Dome Project, built by Universal Yoyodyne and announced on March 30, 2012, intends to enclose the town of Westwood, California, in the volcanic northeast region of the state. http://sheildgeometry.com/specifications.html;  “Interestingly, Westwood had a very large indoor shopping mall as far back as the 1930s, as well as a large theater, skating rink and club for the mill workers. The town was sold in 1944 to the Fruit Growers Supply Company, today known as part of Sunkist… The [2010] Census reported that 1,647 people (100% of the population) lived in households..and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westwood,_California

“The company plans on using the town as a proving ground for technology that might one day enclose major U.S. cities, especially those prone to weather related disasters…” http://www.susanvillestuff.com/2012/04/anaheim-company-announces-plans-for-westwood-dome/

Sunkist Growers, Inc  “is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, and one of California’s largest land-owners.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunkist_Growers; “[Albert D.] Lasker is largely responsible for America’s infatuation with orange juice. Lord & Thomas acquired the Sunkist Growers, Incorporated account in 1908, when Lasker was 28…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_D._Lasker  Formerly timberland harvested for Sunkist packing boxes, the Westwood area and other lumber centers are now managed forests: http://www.foresthistory.org/Publications/FHT/FHTSpringFall2006/FHT_2006_Citrus.pdf

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Cyborg publications: http://www.brown.edu/Departments/MCM/amm/archive/cyborgArch.html

April 7, 2011

Borgification

Bad news about Fukushima and the state of the meltdowns http://vimeo.com/22062314 “Clearly we’re witnessing one of the greatest disasters in modern time” –Areva executive VP, March 21, 2011
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Would we choose Borgification to survive?
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“A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space….  the term “Cybernetic organism” has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts…
   The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II…
The term [cyborg] first appears in print..when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper; ‘A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one.’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetic_organism; See “Cyborgs and Space” http://faculty.uca.edu/rnovy/Clynes–Cyborgs%20and%20Space.htm
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Update May 2013: related to an environment “different from the normal one” in which flesh-eating bacteria proliferate, is the story of a graduate student who lost her hands, a leg and both feet from infection:

May 17, 2013
Woman who lost limbs to flesh-eating bacteria gets bionic hands… state-of-the art prosthetic hands called iLimbs…The iLimb Ultra Revelation hands can be programmed and configured via an iPhone or iPod app using Bluetooth…[She] told WXIA.com that the new hands “feel amazing.”…“I had the philosophy that in life we can’t really say what’s good and what’s bad… “What seems terrible now could seem great later.”
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“The evolution of technology development is often confused with science in the public mind.”Ralph E. Gomory http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~rgomory/
                        
Borrowing a Star Trek term for “techno-sapiens”, borgification looks to be an interim step for human enhancement (euphemism for eradication) with seriously high-dollar rewards and immediate military advantages. I don’t think it will last long, like 8-track tape or VHS –“new genes” are coming with compact DNA– but predictive programming has readied this road and engineers are having fun, fun, fun! Document excerpts below were generated out of a conference held by the National Science Foundation, December 3-4 of 2001:

The NBIC report [Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno] http://www.forbiddengate.com/NBIC_report.pdf : “The integration and synergy of the four technologies (nano-bio-info-cogno)originate from the nanoscale, where the building blocks of matter are established… Convergence of diverse technologies is based on material unity at the nanoscale and on technology integration from that scale… Revolutionary advances at the interfaces between previously separate fields of science and technology are ready to create key transforming tools for NBIC technologies… many of these visions could be addressed within 20 years’ time… Scientific leaders and policymakers across a range of fields prepared written statements for a December 2001 workshop, evaluating the potential impact of NBIC technologies on improving human capabilities at the microscopic, individual, group and societal levels.. as an outstanding opportunity at the interface and frontier of sciences and engineering… Highest priority was given to “The Human Cognome Project”, a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structure, functions, and potential enhancement of the human mind… The recommendatons of this report are far-reaching and fundamental, urging the transformation of science, engineering and technology at their very roots… This report sets goals for..transformation…

   “Manufacturing, biotechnology, information and medical service corporations will need to develop partnerships of unparalleled scope to exploit the tremendous opportunities from technological convergence… Government organizatins at all levels..must accelerate convergence… Unification of science based on unity in nature and its holistic investigation will lead to technological convergence… [see graph, p.21, under “Internal, permanent”, recommending (a)”New organs: new sensors and effectors, implantables (b) “New skills: converging technologies” and (c) “New genes: new genetics, cells”]
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“In general, the goals of the individual subcomponents of a Human Cognome project should be both ambitious and have practical payoff… Cognitive psychology and the social sciences in general have identified a myriad of human shortcomings… We humans are severely limited in working memory, but human beings are exceedingly good at scanning their immediate environment and forming patterns. Providing systematically organized, wall-size, visual language murals facilitates such an environment for rapid scanning… Visual language, thus, is an example of a cognitive prosthesis…” http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/a/topic/cognom/artclCncptlzHumnCognome.pdf
>>> I haven’t heard anybody yet refer to their Big TV screen as a “cognitive prosthesis” but given the sensitivity of neural signal transmission and the sophistication of interference frequencies to select and cancel competing transmissions, we ought to think of these devices as brain extensions. http://www.yorku.ca/eye/neuron2.htm
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“Intra-brain communication or IBCOM is a wireless signal transmission method that uses the brain itself as a conductive medium to transmit the data and commands between neural implants and data processing systems outside the brain… One potential [implant] solution may be to develop a nano-scale fully-implantable Neural Recording/Stimulation System (NRSS) that is small enough to be located in any place of the brain without any detrimental tissue interaction…  It would be ideal if a NRSS can be realized in an invisibly small size and be deployed in multiple (more than few hundreds of) neural probes scattered in the brain…” http://redishlab.neuroscience.umn.edu/papers/2009%20ibcom%20embc.pdf
Implantable chips may not be ‘ideal’, but playing with them seems like an important step in the search for and creation of alternate life, perhaps in creating the Smart Environment in which post-humans interact:

“On the surface, silicon seems like an ideal substitute for carbon in another living system. Theoretically, silicon has bonding chemistry identical to that of carbon, and like carbon, can combine with four other elements to construct an incredible range of different macromolecules. So why not silicon-based life?”  >>>This article goes on to briefly explain the “not” although science has no firm explanation of “life” as expanded capacities and criteria are changing concepts. Astrobiologist Lou Allamandola says, “..chances are there aren’t a whole lot of silicon species out there because there really isn’t that much silicon [compared to carbon] except on planets like this. If we’re going to find something that’s alive and silicon-based it’s probably going to be right here because we have an awful lot of silicon here, more than on average in the universe.” http://nai.nasa.gov/astrobio/feat_questions/silicon_life.cfm?video=lou  [bold emphasis added]

>>>okay, are we going to ‘discover’ a new silicon species? Will it look like “nanobes” or nanofibers? Nanofibers already have this experimental use: “Medical: Artificial organ components, Tissue engineering, Implant material, Drug delivery, Wound dressing, Medical textile materials” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanofiber ; and this battery “paper” application just sings with possibilities: “Silicon modified nanofiber paper as an anode material for a lithium secondary battery” http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090068553
“Silicon carbide whisker (SiCW) and silicon carbide nanofiber (SiCNF) are a new type of ceramic fiber which can [be] prepared by the similar method as that of CNT [carbon nanotubes]. Compared with CNT, SiCW/SiCNF has more excellent mechanical, heat, electricity properties, and better physical-chemical stability.” http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2010/896389/
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“[M]ilitary competition will drive molecular technology forward…[and] the great advance will come when protein machines are able to make structures more complex than mere fibers. These programmable protein machines will resemble ribosomes programmed by RNA… Engineered proteins will split and join molecules as enzymes do… But whereas ribosomes can build only the loose folds of a protein, these protein machines will build small, solid objects of metal, ceramic, or diamond– invisibly small, but rugged.” pp12-14, Engines of Creation, 1986, K. Eric Drexler

Biocompatible

“Studies were conducted on mouse embryo cells and fetal lung cells, with essentially complete abatement of cytotoxicity when the mineral fibers/whiskers are treated with a silicone.” [1995] http://www.patents.com/us-5587241.html  Silicone, explained: “Silicone is often mistakenly referred to as “silicon.” Although silicones contain silicon atoms, they are not made up exclusively of silicon, and they have completely different physical characteristics from elemental silicon…”  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Silicone

Radiation Resistance

“High-energy radiation can break chemical bonds and disrupt molecular machines. Living cells once again show that solutions exist: they operate for years by repairing and replacing radiation-damaged parts.” –K. Eric Drexler [p15]

2003 — “Weizmann Institute scientists have found what makes the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans the most radiation-resistant organism in the world: the microbe’s DNA is packed tightly into a ring… The red bacterium can withstand 1.5 million rads –a thousand times more than any other life form on Earth… Its healthy appetite has made it a reliable worker at nuclear waste sites, where it eats up nuclear waste and transforms it into more disposable derivatives… Since DNA is the first part of a cell to be damaged by radiation and the most lethal damage is the breakage of both DNA strands, scientists have focused on DNA repair mechanisms to find the answer to the microbe’s resilience. Cells, including human cells, can mend only very few such breaks in their DNA. Microbes, for example, can repair only three to five. Yet D. radiodurans can fix more than 200. Thus scientists believed that the microbe must possess uniquely effective enzymes that repair DNA. However, a series of experiments showed that the microbe’s repair enzymes were very similar to those existing in ordinary bacteria…  Russian scientists [are] saying it originated on Mars, where radiation levels are higher… Deinococcus radiodurans was discovered decades ago in canned food that was sterilized using radiation. ” http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-01/wi-ror010203.php

2009 — “The modern founding concept of radiation biology that deals with X-rays.. is that ionizing radiation is dangerous because of its damaging effects on DNA. Mounting experimental evidence does not fit into this theoretical framework, instead supporting that radiation resistance is governed by protein damage… There are profound practical implications to this new view of radiation toxicity. Basically, if you want to survive radiation, protect your proteins! D. radiodurans has shown us how to protect proteins from radiation…”  http://www.usuhs.mil/pat/deinococcus/index_20.htm
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1998 –“..the bacterium benefits from more than just good, tight-knit organization… [it] seems to keep equally strict control over another physiological process as well. Immediately after replication stops [because of radiation injury], a cell excises any damage to the bases that make up its DNA and to the surrounding area. The process is known as degradation. ‘It’s like repairing a building… The first thing..is get rid of the rubble and take down everything that’s broken..’ D. radiodurans takes the process to another level. The higher the dose of radiation, the more degradation.. and it knows when to stop degrading so as not to clean itself up into oblivion. Battista thinks he has found two proteins, unique to D. radiodurans, that function as master control switches. One of them appears to stop and start replication; the other seems to turn degradation on and off. ‘If you inactivate either protein,’ he says, ‘the cell becomes sensitive to radiation.'” [“Conan the Bacterium”, 1998, internal link from the above ‘usuhs.mil’]
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In perfectly circular fashion, George Soros is a major investor in pharma companies pioneering implantable chips and degradation proteins: One of the pharms, Integra Lifesciences, makes bio-implantables.
Here’s more on Soros’s pharmaceutical investments http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/george-soros-biotech/ and an article on a biological degradation tool, “heat-shock protein” called ubiquitin, that Soros (among many others, oc) funds. http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/molecule-of-the-month/
Ubiquitin — “This discovery won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2004… The basic functions of ubiquitin and the components of the ubiquitination pathway were elucidated in the early 1980s in groundbreaking work performed at Fox Chase Cancer Center by Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose for which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 2004″ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubiquitin
Artificial Intelligence
“..mid 20th century, the question ‘can machines think?’ became intriguing and popular among scientists..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendral
“Jerome B. Wiesner, the President’s [JFK] science adviser…had served as a board member of the Weizmann Institute and repeatedly ran into Ben-Gurion on visits to Israel. ‘Ben-Gurion would always ask me two questions,’ Wiesner recalled: ‘Can computers think? And should we build a nuclear weapon? I’d always say no.’ That answer, Wiesner thought, marked him..and limited his access.” [p.99, footnote, The Samson Option, author Seymour Hersh]
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“During the 1960s and 70s, Joshua Lederberg introduced computer science and artificial intelligence to the biomedical laboratory… [In 1965] researchers in chemistry and medicine at Stanford University..inaugerated DENDRAL… In 1973, Lederberg and his fellow investigators created SUMEX-AIM.., a nationwide time-share computer system.., via the ARPANET.” http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/lederberg/computers.html
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“[T]he essence of computation has nothing to do with electronics. A digital computer is a collection of switches able to turn one another on and off… [A] nanocomputer system will be able to direct the disassembly of an object, record its structure, and then direct the assembly of perfect copies… The first steps have already been taken, under the names of ‘genetic engineering’ and ‘biotechnology’…Barring worldwide destruction..the technology race will continue whether we wish it or not” –K. Eric Drexler, 1986
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and
..”the techniques of genetic manipulation have absolutely nothing to do with the genealogical selection that has been practiced by breeders since the..mid-nineteenth century”.. [p136, The World According to Monsanto,2008, Marie-Monique Robin]

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