Jennifer Lake's Blog

January 29, 2018

Atomic Oswald Three

Part One: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/atomic-agent-oswald/

Part Two: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2017/03/20/atomic-oswald-two/

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It is still 1959 in this telling of Atomic Agent Oswald. John Kennedy’s future CIA Director and Eisenhower’s current Atomic Energy Commission chairman, John Alex McCone, has become the ‘reluctant‘ (by his words) facilitator of a nuclear weapons moratorium. As we learned in Atomic Oswald Two, McCone was quietly leading a vanguard delegation of American nuclear scientists on a tour of Moscow and Leningrad at precisely the time of the Robert Webster/Lee Oswald false defections to the Soviet Union.
The depth and breadth of McCone’s own stakeholding in the nuclear business has yet to be told –to the extent possible, it will. In the meantime, one may wonder how McCone came to be the CIA chief: if the offer was an ill-considered political move on the part of Kennedy, or there was much more to it. The root of McCone’s ascent and control of the CIA may lie here, in the following.
*
*For your consideration:

JFK was elected in early November of 1960, remained the “president-elect” until inauguration day on Jan. 20, 1961. In mid-December, JFK is busily lining up his cabinet. “He spent most of November and December at the Palm Beach house his father had bought…There, and later at his house on N Street in Georgetown, he began to put together a government.” (p24, President Kennedy, Profile in Power, by Richard Reeves, 1993) “Kennedy interviewed strangers for hours every day…” (p25) “…he was trying to put together a bipartisan government, with Republicans as shields on defense and economics. ‘Sound’ was the image he wanted to project” (p27) …”On December 15, Kennedy told Robert Kennedy to come to Georgetown for breakfast… John Kennedy said at breakfast ‘You will be Attorney General. I need you… I need someone I know to talk to in this government… So, that’s it, General,’ he said, standing up…. ‘Nine strangers and a brother for a Cabinet,’ said Fred Dutton, one of Kennedy’s talent scouts.” (p29, ibid.)

*

“By December 1960, John W. Finney had been a reporter for three years in the Washington bureau of the New York Times, covering nuclear issues and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) …but he had yet to bust a big one. Finney’s story came late that month as was, as Finney recalled, ‘handed to me on a platter.’ The messenger was the Times redoubtable Arthur Krock, the patriarch of Washington columnists, who approached Finney’s desk late one afternoon…  ‘Mr. Finney,’ Krock said, ‘I think if you call John McCone he’ll have a story for you’… Finney immediately understood the situation: ‘They were looking to plant a story. I was the right person and Krock was the intermediary.’ Finney made the call and was promptly invited to McCone’s office. ‘McCone was mad, sputtering mad,’ Finney recalled. ‘He started talking and saying, ‘They lied to us!’   Who?  ‘The Israelis. They told us it was a textile plant.’ There was new intelligence, McCone said, revealing that the Israelis had secretly built a nuclear reactor in the Negev with French help; McCone wanted Finney to take the story public. Finney’s subsequent article, published December 19 on page one in the Times, told the American people what Art Lundahl [Nat’l Photo Interpretation Center] and Dino Brugioni had been reporting to the White House for more than two years: that Israel, with the aid of the French, was building a nuclear reactor to produce plutonium. ‘Israel had made no public announcement about the reactor, nor has she privately informed the United States of her plan,’ Finney wrote faithfully reflecting what McCone told him…  Finney’s story also noted that McCone had ‘questioned’ Israel about the new information but then added: ‘Mr. McCone refused to go into details.’ It was standard operating proceedure for official Washington: Finney got the story and McCone was able to duck responsibility for giving it to him.

“McCone’s leak to Finney would be his parting shot as AEC commissioner; a few days later he announced his resignation on Meet The Press…  The Finney story was being written that same day. Finney was convinced, as McCone wanted him to be, that the commissioner’s anger stemmed from recently acquired knowledge, some new intelligence about the Israelis. ‘McCone left me with the impression,’ Finney recalled, ‘that they’d suddenly appreciated that the Israelis were lying to them.’ Finney paid a higher price than he realized for his big story; the Eisenhower administration was using him and the New York Times to accomplish what its senior officials were publicly apprehensive about doing themselves –taking on the Israelis over Dimona. McCone, as he did not indicate to Finney, had been briefed regularly on the Israeli nuclear program after replacing Lewis Strauss.. in July 1958; there is no evidence that Strauss, who also received regular briefings on Dimona from Art Lundahl and Dino Brugioni, personally shared his knowledge with McCone. But Lundahl and Brugioni did. McCone, as AEC chairman, was a member of the U.S. Intelligence Advisory Committee, the top-level group at the time, and was, according to Walter N. Elder, a former CIA official who was McCone’s long-time aide ‘in on the action from the beginning. He sat at the table.’ “ pp71-73, The Samson Option, by Seymour M. Hersh, 1991

Background on Dimona and Israel’s pursuit of nuclear weapons is here: Lewis Strauss and JFK, part three at the top
https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/03/13/lewis-strauss-and-jfk-part-iii/
*Explanations of Walt Elder’s remarks about McCone are not included in The Samson Option –i.e. when the ‘beginning’ began, what ‘action’ at whose ‘table’–significant questions regarding the complex represented by McCone. Hersh does, however, ask this question: “What made McCone (who died in early 1991 after a long, incapacitating illness) join the [outgoing] administration in suddenly reacting to intelligence that had been around for years?”
— answer it for yourself but read on for a suggestion.
“Whatever the reason, even before McCone’s summoning of John Finney, there was a coordinated effort at the top levels of government to make Israel acknowledge what it was doing at Dimona. Such unanimity of purpose and widespread access to sensitive intelligence about Dimona wouldn’t happen again –ever.” p74, The Samson Option, by Seymour M. Hersh, 1991
*
When the Dimona story broke in the Times, President-elect Kennedy had one month until the inauguration. His new Cabinet met with the Eisenhower team for an official briefing on world affairs only once –January 19, the ‘eve’ of their investment. “Kennedy and Eisenhower..were alone for forty-five minutes… [Eisenhower] began with the black vinyl satchel, “the Football”, which contained nuclear options, commands, and codes… carried by military officers who handed it off to each other in eight-hour shifts… [then] they walked into the Cabinet Room for an official working session with the old and new secretaries of State, Defense and Treasury… Kennedy had requested discussion in four categories; (1) Trouble Spots…. Kennedy asked about atomic weapons in other countries. ‘Israel and India,’ [Christian A.] Herter replied. The Israelis had a reactor capable of producing ninety kilograms of weapons-quality plutonium by 1963. He advised Kennedy to demand inspection and control before there were atomic bombs in the Middle East. In India, he said, the Russians were helping build  a reactor. The meeting ended before noon…” pp29-3o, President Kennedy, by Richard Reeves; And on that note, the official briefing was over. Mr. Reeves offers in the introduction an observation on page 19, “There was an astonishing density of event during the Kennedy years“, escaping no one’s attention.

***

Late 1960 Dimona was ‘domed’ and visible from the nearby road. At any moment or place, news of the reactor could break in the world press. The CIA’s U-2 reconnaisance had overflown the Dimona construction site any number of times on its way to the Soviet borders. The U-2 flightpaths were the same route flown by Francis Gary Powers on his takedown ride.

The spy satellites were coming: “On January 31, 1961, the Americans successfully placed the first SAMOS satellite in orbit. The era of the spy satellite had been born, and the intelligence game would never be the same again.” p70, Cold Warrior, James Jesus Angleton…, by Tom Mangold, 1991

The Powers Incident: “On May 1, 1960, Francis Gary Powers, the most experienced U-2 pilot with twenty-seven completed missions, including overflights of the Soviet Union and China, departed from Peshawar [Pakistan] to carry out Operation GRAND SLAM –the twenty-fourth and most ambitious deep-penetration flight in the U-2 program, which was planned to fly across the Soviet Union from south to north… The primary target [was] Plesetsk, which..might be an operational ICBM facility… But Powers never made it to Plesetsk… Four and a half hours into the mission, while Powers was above Sverdlovsk, an SA-2 anti-aircraft missile had detonated at 70,500 feet just behind Powers’ aircraft, disabling it.” p18, The Wizards of Langley, by Jeffrey T. Richelson, 2001

*The U-2 began formal operations in the summer of 1956 

“Richard Bissell and Kelly Johnson had no illusions that the U-2 would be perpetually invulnerable to Soviet countermeasures. All they hoped for was a couple of good years. The Soviet ability to detect and track the plane from the beginning was not expected, but they began thinking about a successor plane long before the May 1, 1960 Powers incident.     In August 1957, the Scientific Engineering Institute (SEI), a Boston-based CIA proprietary that had been working on ways to reduce U-2 vulnerability, began to investigate the possibility of designing an aircraft with a small radar cross-section. SEI soon discovered that supersonic speed dramatically reduced the chance of detection by radar… Both Lockheed and the Convair Division of General Dynamics were informed of the [SEI] conclusion to guide their research on a possible U-2 successor… To assist him in evaluating proposals, Bissell once again called on Edwin Land [of Polaroid] to serve as chairman of an advisory group… In early August 1960, the U-2 was no longer flying over the Soviet Union… But another CIA-managed project was about to pay huge dividends and revolutionize U.S. intelligence capabilities… The primary objective of the program [underway in 1958], first known as the Advanced Reconnaisance System (ARS), then as SENTRY, and finally as SAMOS, was to develop a satellite that would electronically scan the photographs obtained by its cameras and transmit the data back to a ground station where it could be reconstructed into a picture. A subsidiary objective was to develop a satellite that would return its film back to earth in a canister.    …Not surprisingly, Bissell was assigned to manage the new satellite program, which would soon be designated CORONA…   Out on the West Coast, Charlie Murphy, a longtime Air Force designee to the CIA, served as Bissell’s Field Technical Director at the Lockheed Advanced Projects (AP) facility in Palo Alto…    Five contractors played key roles in the development of CORONA. Itek, a Boston-based company founded by Richard Leghorn, and Fairchild Camera and Instruments were asked to develop camera systems. General Electric and Eastman-Kodak were, respectively, awarded contracts for developing the recovery capsule and supplying the film. The Lockheed corporation would have a dual role..[plus] the responsibility for integrating the entire effort…. [A] small program office.. was established at the Ballistic Missile Division headquarters near Los Angeles. Work on the ‘black’ side of the project was handled down the hall.” pp20-24, The Wizards of Langley

*John McCone and Steve Bechtel were among the exclusive members of Mandalay Camp at Bohemian Grove, going back the 1930s: “The most elite of the camps is Mandalay. A visitor once said of it, ‘You don’t just walk in there –you are summoned.’ Mr. [Gerald] Ford and Mr. [Henry] Kissinger this year [1977] were guests of Mandalay whose members include Stephen Bechtel Sr., Stephen Bechtel Jr., Leonard Case Firestone and Edgar F. Kaiser, among the industrialists; former CIA director John McCone and [Gen.] Lucius D. Clay, former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [and senior partner in Lehman Brothers]. Following closely in Mandalay’s footsteps is Cave Man Camp. Its members have included Herbert Hoover, a dedicated Bohemian who was known to fellow campers as ‘the Chief’…http://www.nytimes.com/1977/08/14/archives/bohemian-grove-where-big-shots-go-to-camp.html

***

***https://exposebohemiangrove.org/category/camps/mandalay-camp/***

One key individual in the Bohemian web of relationships that united John McCone, Steve Bechtel, Foster and Allen Dulles, Lewis Strauss, Herbert Hoover and many others was John Lowery Simpson, the maternal uncle of Stephen D. Bechtel (Sr.)’s wife Laura, and a member of the club’s Isle of Aves camp. Simpson, a close friend to the Dulles brothers, introduced John McCone to Allen Dulles at an intimate dinner party in Dulles’s home, circa 1947. At that time, Simpson was a vice-president of the J. Henry Schroder bank of London and New York –he stated in a 1978 oral history (e-book) that “Foster was our [Schroder bank] senior lawyer and Allen was also our lawyer…”

“Schroder Bank, of which Simpson remained a director after joining Bechtel, was recently discovered to have been a bank for the CIA director’s controversial discretionary fund…” http://www.educationforum.ipbhost.com/topic/4582-john-alex-mccone/?page=2

**

Simpson photo source:

https://mikemcclaughry.wordpress.com/the-reading-library/cia-declassified-document-library/frank-g-wisner-appointed-chief-of-si-mission-istanbul-turkey/*

 

“[I]n Who’s Who in America for 1952, Mr. Simpson states that he served under Herbert Hoover on the Commission for Relief in Belgium from 1915 to 1917; U.S. Food Administration, 1917 to 1918; American Relief Commission 1919, and with P.N. [Prentiss] Gray Company [in] Vienna, 1919 to 1921. Gray was the Chief of Maritime Transportation for the U.S. Food Administration, which enabled him to set up his own shipping company after the war. Like other Hoover humanitarians, Simpson also joined the J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. (Adolf Hitler’s personal bankers) and the J.Henry Schroder Trust Company… Simpson states he was consultant to the Bechtel-McCone interests in war production during WWII…” http://www.coldcaseupdate.blogspot.com/2011/02/vijay-prashad-frank-wisner-jr.html

Readers can learn more about “Hoover’s Relief” here: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/11/23/lewis-strauss-and-jfk/

For the campers at the Grove, a singular pride in production accompanies coordination of the S-1 Committee, leaders in the Manhattan Project, photographed at Bohemian Grove, September 1942. ***

*

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_bohemiangrove08.htm

***

“After graduating from Berkeley, [Simpson] had gone to work for the Commission for Relief in Belgium, a joint U.S.-British project… He spent five years in Europe schooling himself in Continental finance, making the social rounds (most notably in Vienna, where he married a well-connected socialite, Margrete Mandel) and developed a close friendship with CRB’s head and his fellow San Franciscan Herbert Hoover. On his return to the United States, Simpson joined the J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation, a leading New York investment house… One evening during the mid-1930s, as Simpson was thrashing through an especially difficult contract, his friend and boss, Prent Gray..suggested the two of them seek advice from Sullivan & Cromwell, a law firm headquartered in the same building. During the Paris Peace Conference, Gray had met one of the firm’s partners… His name was John Foster Dulles. Perhaps, Gray suggested, he could help.
“‘Foster’ did help.. [and was] so helpful that he and his brother..Allen were subsequently awarded all of Schroder’s legal work. Schroder, in turn, began arranging financing for.. Sullivan & Cromwell clients. It was a mutually beneficial relationship, and during the course of it the brothers Dulles became fast friends with the bank’s rising young executive vice-president, John L. Simpson… Named a Schroder director, he became the firm’s international contact man.. [and] began shuttling between Washington, New York and Central and South America. Officially his missions were undertaken for the bank, but at the suggestion of his friends the Dulleses, he began doing the government favors as well, including ‘smoking out’..South American clients… Simpson passed along the results of his private intelligence-gathering to two men who were regular lunch partners in Washington: Dean Acheson, later to become..Truman’s secretary of State, and William ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan, founder of the OSS.
“During World War II, when Allen Dulles was organizing OSS networks from Switzerland, Simpson took time off from the bank to become chief financial advisor for the U.S. Army in Europe. After the Allied landings in Italy in 1943 and subsequent Italian surrender, Simpson, working with another Schroder executive attached to the OSS, in effect controlled the country’s treasury. After completing that task in 1944, he returned to San Francisco for..a brief rest at the home of his niece and her husband, Steve Bechtel. Bechtel, however, had an offer for him: a consultancy position with Bechtel-McCone…
“Simpson accepted and brought to Bechtel’s various enterprises a financial expertise they had been sorely lacking. But his real worth was as a door-opener…demonstrated at the inaugural meeting of the United Nations in San Francisco in April 1945 Assembled..were many of Simpson friends..and he made a point of introducing most of them to Steve Bechtel who showed them around his shipyards. One who got the tour was Thomas Finletter, later to succeed James Forrestal as..secretary of Defense.” pp74-75, Friends In High Places

**coming up: more Bechtel, McCone , early ties to the Atomic Energy Commission, CIA, World Affairs Councils, Schroder Bank, Allen Dulles, Permindex, and more quotes from “Friends in High Places; the Bechtel Story, the Most Secret Corporation and How It Engineered the World”, by Laton McCartney, 1988

***

 

***

*BUT…First, my brief lesson from Prof. C.Wright Mills (1916-1962), quoting his 1956 book The Power Elite:

“Changes in the American structure of power have generally come about by institutional shifts in the relative positions of the political, the economic, and the military orders… [B]roadly speaking, the American power elite has gone through four epochs and is now [in 1956] well into a fifth.” p269
*
“The supremacy of corporate economic power began in a formal way with the Congressional elections of 1866 and was consolidated by the Supreme Court decision of 1886 which declared that the Fourteenth Amendment protected the corporation. That period witnessed the transfer of the center of initiative from government to corporation. Until the First World War…this [third epoch] was an age of raids on the government by the economic elite, an age of simple corruption, when senators and judges were simply bought up.
 …The military order of this period..was subordinate to the political, which in turn was subordinate to the economic [order of hierarchies: economic, political, military] …that economy was dynamic; the ‘trusts’ ..[that] could readily use the relatively weak governmental apparatus for their own ends… [T]he powers of the industrial and financial corporations concentrated and interlocked… And as private economic power overshadowed public political power, so the economic elite overshadowed the political… Perhaps there has never been any period in American history so politically transparent as the Progressive Era of the President-makers and Muckrakers.” p271
*
“The New Deal [the fourth epoch] did not reverse the political and economic relations of the third era, but it did create within [the political and corporate ‘circles’] competing centers of power that challenged [corporate power].” p272
*
“But during the ‘thirties, the political order was still an instrument of small propertied farmers and businessmen…added [to it] the new struggle of organized labor and…unorganized unemployment… [T]hat is why the ‘thirties was a political decade: the power of business was not replaced, but it was contested and supplemented… The New Deal as a system of power was essentially a balance of pressure groups and interest blocs.”p273
*
“[The] balancing act that Roosevelt performed did not affect the fundamental institutions of capitalism as a type of economy. By his policies, he subsidized the defaults of the capitalist economy which had simply broken down… The ‘welfare state’ [was] created to sustain the balance and to carry out the subsidy, [as] differ[ing] from the ‘laissez-faire’ state…
   “We study history, it has been said, to rid ourselves of it…   Like the tempo of American life in general, the long-term trends of the power structure have been greatly speeded up since World War II, and certain newer trends within and between the dominant institutions have also set the shape of the power elite and given historically specific meaning to it fifth epoch: that [structural] clue is in the decline of politics as genuine and public debate…   The longtime tendency of business and government to become more intricately and deeply involved with each other has, in the fifth epoch, reached a new point of explicitness. The two cannot now be seen clearly as two distinct worlds.” p274
*
“In so far as the structural clue to the power elite today lies in the enlarged military state, that clue becomes evident in the military ascendancy. The warlords have gained decisive political relevance, and the military structure of America is now..a political structure. The seemingly permanent military threat places a premium.. upon their control of men, materiel, money, and power: virtually all political and economic actions are now judged in terms of military definitions of reality….
   In so far as the structural clue to the power elite today lies in the economic order, that clue is the fact that the economy is at once a permanent-war economy and a private-corporation economy… Within the elite as a whole, this coincidence of interest between the high military and the corporate chieftains strengthens them both and further subordinates the role of the merely political men…   During the ‘thirties, the political man was ascendant. Now the military and the corporate men are in top positions. Of the three types of circle that compose the power elite today, it is the military that has benefitted the most in its enhanced power…[and] one is tempted to speak of a political vacuum in which the corporate rich and the high warlord, in their coinciding interests, rule.” p276
*
“Its members exist all over the country, and it is a coalition of generals in the roles of corporation executives, of politicians masquerading as admirals, of corporate executives acting like politicians…
   “The higher members of the military, economic, and political orders are able readily to take over one another’s point of view…”p283
*
“As the requirements of the top places in each of the major hierarchies become similar, the types of men occupying these roles at the top– by selection and by training in the jobs– becomes similar. This is no mere deduction from structure to personnel. [It] is a fact revealed by the heavy traffic that has been going on between the three structures, often in very intricate patterns… As the business between the big three increases in volume and importance, so does the traffic in personnel.” p287
*
“The inner core of the power elite consists, first, of those who interchange commanding roles at the top of one dominant institutional order with those in another: the admiral who is also a banker and a lawyer and who heads up an important federal commission; the corporation executive whose company was one of the two or three leading war materiel producers who is now the Secretary of Defense; the wartime general who dons civilian clothes to sit on the political directorate and then becomes a member of the board of directors of a leading economic corporation.” p288
*
“By their very careers and activities, they lace the three types of milieux together. They are, accordingly, the core members of the power elite.” p289
*
*
Bechtel-McCone was the second incarnation of an ambitious partnership started after World War I by Warren ‘Dad’ Bechtel. W.A. Bechtel built his up his own business on public road contracts:
“As his road-building work continued, Bechtel began to grasp the significance of the.. automotive equation: oil. If more cars meant more new highways, they also meant the rapid, large-scale development of the West’s oil and gas resources… A boom was coming and Bechtel meant to be a part of it. But before he could get under way, though, Bechtel needed help, a partner who could share both his work load and his enthusiasm for the opportunities… Bechtel had to have a partner now, an experienced builder he could rely on completely. He found his man in the summer of 1921. His name was Henry J. Kaiser. [p26, Friends in High Places]
“…Kaiser’s low-balling tactics did not endear him to his rivals..[and] he was regarded as something of a pariah by most of the construction industry. Bechtel, however, was intrigued. Whatever Kaiser’s methods, there was no disputing his doggedness… He was a born promoter and an instinctive, near-habitual risk-taker… Moreover, Kaiser possessed the same sort of driving ambition…
“Within a few months the two men had concluded a partnership deal.. by no more than a handshake. ‘There are two priciples [Warren Bechtel] followed,’ Kaiser said later. ‘He hated to sign papers… And his usual condition for entering any proposition was a 50/50 division’… Together Kaiser and Bechtel were to build many of the major roadways up and down the West Coast. [p27]
“[They] were among the first contractors in the United States to tackle major pipeline projects, first for Standard Oil, then for Continental Gas… As more and more contracts followed, the relationship between Bechtel and Big Oil forged into an alliance, one that.. would [eventually] have a profound impact..on the Middle East and the course of American foreign policy.” [p28]
*
The endeavor that brought Bechtel-Kaiser onto the national stage of heavy construction, and reunited the younger UCBerkeley pals, Steve Bechtel and John McCone, was the Boulder Dam consortium known as ‘Six Companies”. The contracts for the dam were being let under the auspices of Herbert Hoover, lately Secretary of Commerce and Labor, and current President of the United States. It was in the midst of Boulder building that Warren Bechtel ventured alone to Moscow on business (to consult on Soviet hydroelectric projects) and died in a hotel after self-administering insulin. “That night, August 28, 1933, Warren A. Bechtel died in his sleep.” [p45]
“Steve [had] played increasingly larger roles in Bechtel’s pipelining projects, and by the time he was in his mid-20s was managing them on his own –so effectively so that by 1930 he became the functional corporate head of Bechtel-Kaiser Enterprises”..[p48]…his brothers, shortly after Dad’s death named him president of Bechtel’s operations.” [p49] …Neither Bechtel nor any of the Six Companies would ever go broke –on the contrary, all were to make millions more building government dams and roads… In this effort, Steve Bechtel would join with…one of the pivotal figures in American policy. His name was John McCone.” [p51]
*
“[Since ‘Boulder’] Bechtel and McCone had kept in close touch..[as] the core of America’s industrial might..was shifting westward, and what was moving it was oil. ‘Steve and I shared a sense of imminent change,” McCone recalled, ‘…of great projects…[and] We were sure we could have a place in them.’
…”And here Steve Bechtel had an idea. Why not, he proposed to McCone, offer the oil companies an entire construction package? Not just pipelines, but storage tanks, refineries, –the works… The grand plan settled, Bechtel and McCone drew up a contract –one that named McCone president and gave Bechtel, as chairman, controlling interest in the Bechtel-McCone Corporation– rented a suite of offices in downtown Los Angeles and in May 1937 proclaimed themselves in business.” [p53]  “By 1939, Bechtel-McCone had mushroomed into an organization with more than 10,000 employees and was building refineries, chemical plants and pipelines from Montana to Venezuela. ‘We will build anything, any place, any time,’ Bechtel crowed. ‘The bigger, the tougher the job, the better we like it.’ “ [p55, Friends in High Places]
   During WWII, the partners clinched contracts for shipbuilding from the military: “They knew next to nothing about building ships, but when an opportunity presented itself, [they] were always ready to learn.” Bechtel-McCone ran four west coast shipyards in Seattle WA, Sausalito CA, Richmond CA, and Los Angeles —“The War Department found them a site on Terminal Island in Los Angeles harbor, not far from their corporate headquarters. Bechtel and McCone dubbed the operation ‘Calship’.[p57] “Henry Kaiser had followed Bechtel McCone’s lead into shipbuilding, and during the first few years of the war the two companies had emerged as the country’s leading shipbuilders, running nearly neck and neck in the speed and volume with which they turned out vessels… At its peak during the summer of 1944, Kaiser was turning out 18 ships a month. By October, Calship was producing 20, winning for Bechtel and McCone the satisfaction of running the most productive single shipyard in the world. By then, Bechtel and McCone had become involved in other wartime enterprises… [such as the notorious Canadian pipeline boondoggle called ‘Canol’ which was abandoned and the Willow Run aircraft plant in Birmingham Alabama which produced no aircraft]. “All in all, World War II was a most lucrative enterprise for Bechtel-McCone… [They] had grossed [for themselves] well over $100 million. Their net investment: considerably less than $400,000.” [p69]
    After the war, Bechtel-McCone liquidated “largely for tax reasons” and regrouped its assets under a new name, Bechtel Brothers–McCone, run by its middle-management. In 1946, foundering without its prominent chief executive, Steve Bechtel returned to the company, ostensibly buying out McCone and his brother Ken, and rechristened it Bechtel Corporation… “[and] soon snapped up..major contracts…. Seldom, if ever, did Steve undertake a major move without checking it first with ‘Uncle John.’ “ [p76]*

*

“After the breakup of Bechtel-McCone, McCone had used part of his wartime windfall to buy the San-Francisco-based Joshua Hendy Iron Works [bought by Westinghouse as an independent subsidiary in 1946]. The company..had built ships during the war…[and McCone] became increasingly involved in shipping… when along with Socal in 1947, they assumed ownership of…Pacific Tankers Inc. Transporting oil for the Navy [duringWWII] from the Middle East to the United States, Pacific Tankers’ fleet..grew to 90 ships and by the end of the war had become the largest oil mover in the world.
   “With McCone as majority stockholder and Bechtel and several West Coast associates as silent investors, the company [was] rechristened Pacific Far East Lines and extended its operations to Japan, China and the Philippines. In addition, McCone [and..] Bechtel had entered into a partnership with Henry Mercer, the New York owner of States Marine Lines and U.S. Lines, companies with vast fleets that operated in the Atlantic. [McCone now] ranked as one of the dominant shipping figures in the world.
   “In between business chores, McCone also found time to serve as a director of the Stanford Research Institute and as a trustee and chief fund-raiser for the California Institute of Technology whose scientists had played a critical role in the development of the atomic bomb and were now on the leading edge of nuclear research.” pp 96-97, Friends in High Places
*
*Stanford Research Institute, or SRI, from the footnote on page 78 of ‘Friends’:  “Founded in 1946 by a group of West Coast businessmen, including Steve Bechtel and Henry J. Kaiser, and originally affiliated with Stanford University [until 1969], the Stanford Research Institute eventually grew to become the second-largest corporate-government ‘think tank’ in the country. Its business was supplying government and industry with the latest in applied research… Among its many programs, SRI evaluated the U.S. strategic force; conducted laser radar studies in the upper atmosphere; analyzed ballistic missile defenses; drew up studies for improving Air Force reconaissance and surveillance systems…
   Since SRI’s founding, Bechtel has been one of the institutes major clients and supporters. SRI..evaluat[ed] the development potential of Jubail Saudi Arabia, and drew up the blueprint for Bechtel’s industrialization of Indonesia during the Sukarno regime. Over the years, the Bechtel family has donated millions to SRI… No other company or family matches [them].”
“Steve Bechtel had realized the potential of atomic power and had positioned his company to capitalize on it.  The [Bechtel-McCone] involvement had begun at the dawn of the Atomic Age.” [p101]
   McCartney’s ‘Friends’ makes no mention of John McCone’s sponsorship of Ernest O. Lawrence and his tabletop cyclotrons of the early 1930s, but as the opportunities were presented “in the early 1940s, Bechtel through its connections with General Somervell, had built several ‘heavy water’ storage plants at Hanford Washington as part of the Manhattan Project… Later, after the bomb had proved its destructive potential at Hiroshima, Bechtel had been one of several contractors and utilities that built the ‘Doomsday Town’ in the.. Nevada desert…”
   “For Bechtel, the Doomsday study was one of a series of early projects the company carried out for the AEC.. [and] its energy-minded customers like PG&E. It was work that in the coming years would do much to define the emerging nuclear industry. Not coincidentally, it would also establish the Bechtel Corporation as the world’s largest purveyor of nuclear power.” [p101, Friends..]
Other Californians were making similar calculations… Henry Kaiser had.. gotten into the game in typically high-rolling fashion by securing a $110 million contract for Kaiser engineers to modernize and expand the [postwar] Hanford facilities.” [p102, ibid.]
*
The ‘Nuclear Negligence’ series on Kaiser Chemical notes that  “Kaiser was under consideration to participate in a program to develop alternate sources of uranium, but it is unclear whether that work ever took place.” http://www.eecap.org/Covered_Facilities/Illinois/Kaiser.htm
Concerning a piece of Kaiser’s Los Angeles real estate:
“Kaiser Permanente [Hospital in] Downey is built on the site of the first nuclear reactor in the state of California. This land [also] became a NASA site… The nuclear reactor was later moved to Santa Susana”  where a catastrophic explosion of the reactor in 1958 left permanente contamination.   “…The Downey facility processed at least 300 uranium slugs for use as nuclear reactor fuel in 1953 for North American Aviation.” http://www.kaiserpapers.org/downeyradiation.html
This is just the tip of the iceberg, folks.
*
Edgar F. Kaiser, who took over the empire from his father between 1956-58, later received a Kennedy appointment to oversee ballistic Missile Site labor relations.

***

Edgar F. Kaiser, president, Kaiser Industries Corporation; Henry J. Kaiser, founder and chairman of the board
Series: Photograph Files, CF Numbered series 292-430

“…McCone found the challenge of government work stimulating, particularly when it was for the Department of Defense, where he was able to give full vent to his hard-line anticommunist views. Even the Bechtelians.. were sometimes startled by the fervor… To hear McCone tell it, the Soviets were bent on nothing less than world domination. The free forces.. would be strong only if they understood that the atomic bomb was.. a God-given means of defending the American way of life… McCone’s chance to translate those views into action came in 1947 when he was invited to Washington to become a member of the President’s Air Policy Commission… [The] commission turned out a dramatically titled report, ‘Survival in the Air Age,’ which recommended..[a] buildup of nuclear-weapon stockpiles as quickly as possible. The report[s]..military conclusions were written by McCone…” [p97]   …”As his stature in the Defense Department grew, he became close to ..Dwight D. Eisenhower whom McCone first met when Eisenhower returned to Washington to take up duties as Army Chief of Staff. Another important Friendship made during this period was with Allen Dulles, later to be McCone’s predecessor as director of Central Intelligence.” [p98]

“McCone could draw satisfaction from the fact that one of his key recommendations in ‘Survival in the Air Age’ –the buildup of U.S. nuclear-weapons stockpiles– had been put into effect by Truman. As part of the effort, the president authorized the tripling of capacity at the principal weapons plant at Oak Ridge Tennessee, and the building of ancillary gaseous-diffusion plants at Portsmouth Ohio and Paducah Kentucky. McCone was heartened by Truman’s move. So was Steve Bechtel whose company was chief contractor on the work. McCone meanwhile, kept drawing closer to Eisenhower, now NATO commander and being touted by both parties as a presidential candidate. Eisenhower himself, however, was being coy about his candidacy and..had yet to declare his party affiliation. Then, in early January 1951, Henry Cabot Lodge, Republican senator from Massachusetts, told the press that..Eisenhower would soon announce his candidacy as a Republican. McCone, who was in Paris vacationing with his wife, hurried to Eisenhower’s headquarters outside the French capital… ‘Cabot Lodge made this statement and we’ve got to answer it,’ Eisenhower told McCone… McCone quickly discovered ..that [Ike] had still not made up his mind whether he was a Republican or Democrat. McCone pressed and argued with him until Ike finally gave in: all right, he was a Republican… [and] that afternoon, the statement was ready and.. Eisenhower was in. As president, Dwight Eisenhower would remember his friends, including John McCone, whom he would name chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. Under McCone’s aegis, the nation would begin gearing up for the age of expectedly cheap and trouble-free nuclear power. Dozens of new plants, costing billions of dollars, would be necessary. Required too would be a construction company to build them. As.. Steve Bechtel had put it, one step was following another.” [pp99-100, Friends…]

*** “Wasting no time extending Bechtel’s lead, Steve flew to Washington where McCone introduced him to AEC chairman Strauss whom he had come to know when both men were working for the Department of Defense. [1947? or earlier in wartime, under Forrestal as Secretary of the Navy?– McCartney is nonspecific]  Bechtel had his own friends at the AEC as well. One was with W. Kenneth Davis, the agency’s director of reactor development who was Socal’s research director, had worked with Bechtel during construction of the MTA [the Materials Testing Accelerator, at the core of the Lawrence Livermore lab]. [Along with] three others…all four [friends] would leave the Atomic Energy Commission and ultimately work for Bechtel…   their friend AEC chairman Lewis Strauss was not having an easy time of it…[and] by November 1957, Strauss..told Eisenhower he would not seek reappointment to the [AEC]. The man he recommended to replace him was John McCone.”

“Since the fateful meeting in Paris, McCone had remained close to Eisenhower and had provided a steady stream of advice during the 1952 campaign. McCone had also struck up a warming friendship with Eisenhower’s vice-president Richard Nixon, whom he had known since Nixon emerged as an ardently anticommunist Californai congressman, and John Foster Dulles, who had asked McCone to be his Deputy Secretary of State. Washington itself, however, had lost much of its charm for McCone, largely because of the flak he had taken as Under-Secretary of the Air Force for awarding a contract to ..his former business partner Henry J. Kaiser… paying Kaiser three times as much as it had..paid the Fairchild Corporation.. to build [an] identical plane… [It] was revealed that the Kaiser-Fraser Corporation..that was building the planes, was partly owned by.. Steve Bechtel. [p108, ibid.]  ..In 1954..Eisenhower briefly lured McCone back with an invitation to serve on a committee.. restructuring the U.S. Foreign Service… The following year, Eisenhower sent him to Rome as his personal representative ..[to] Pope Pius XII. McCone however, was reluctant to do more. His growing shipping business was on its way to making him the American Onassis.”

” [W]hen the call came ..to a meeting with [President Eisenhower] in May 1958… McCone did not turn the president down [as he was] offered the AEC post over lunch at the White House…    The agency John McCone took over had a budget of $2 billion per year, operated $7 billion worth of facilities, employed 105,000 persons and was counted as one of the most complex and diffuse organizations in the federal government… McCone quickly took charge. One of his first –and for Bechtel, most important– moves involved funding for the private nuclear industry… McCone recommended that federal subsidies be paid to utilities for the construction of..nuclear plants…” [p109] ” Another decision..was to halt uranium-buying from foreign sources; henceforth radioactive ore was to be obtained exclusively through U.S. companies, principally Union Carbide (a major customer of the McCone-and-Bechtel-owned Joshua Hendy Corporation), Kaiser, and Utah Construction [two of the Boulder Dam partners]. Next, he appointed three executives from Standard Oil of California [Socal, later-named Chevron] and the president of PG&E –all major Bechtel customers– to study the [process] of federal subsidies for reactors… [McCone] began spreading U.S. nuclear technology overseas, provising foreign aid in the form of experimental reactors to a host of countries large and small… ‘I’ve forgotten how many of these reactors were set up around the world, but maybe a hundred of them. I think.. we went a little too fast on that,’ [McCone said in an interview in 1974]. McCone was equally zealous in his support of U.S. nuclear-arms development, but here Eisenhower finally the line in late summer 1958 when he told his staff that.. [he] was, said the president, firmly committed to imposing a ban on all nuclear-arms testing. The ban was bitterly opposed by McCone ..and the idea lay dormant until the Kennedy administration… Nonetheless, thanks to McCone, Bechtel and General Electric were moving right along and by the fall of 1959, the Dresden I nuclear plant was complete.” [pp110-111, ibid.]

 

**Dresden I, operational in 1960

**

*** “There were many chores Steve Bechtel and his company would perform for presidents, many favors they would do –and had done– for the organs of government, including, though few knew it, the Central Intelligence Agency. [p117] The approval for CIA covers came directly from Steve Bechtel, who had his own ties to the agency… [p118] …Steve Sr. and John Simpson were Bechtel’s liason with the intelligence community at the high levels, but in the field, Bechtel worked with Washington through.. key executives…” [p119]

Stephen D. Bechtel Jr., handed the business by his father at the family Christmas party of 1959

*”There had never been any doubt that one day, Stephen D. Bechtel Jr. would take over the company Steve Senior had built. Besides Bechtel blood, he had all the other requisite qualifications… Steve junior had seen the world of Bechtel and he wanted to be part of it. Conveniently, one of Bechtel’s senior executives was waiting with a job offer. There was a pipeline down in Texas, he said. Was Steve interested? ‘Hell yes,’ he exclaimed.” [p129] “In taking over as Bechtel’s president, Steve Bechtel Jr. sounded a brave note. He would run the business..with the same vigor and vision… but if Steve Bechtel Jr. expected his father to fade into the background, he soon found he was mistaken. Freed from the administrative chores he so detested, Steve Senior was..even more dominant then before… He spent fully six months of the year on the road, popping up one day in London, the next in Toronto, a third in Beirut, Seoul, Sydney or Rome. In his wake, he left a lengthening string of deals:  …mines in South Africa;… smelters in Chile; …pipelines in Germany and Switzerland; nuclear plants in Spain and India…” [p135, Friends in High Places]

*************

   The circle of personal relationships around Herbert C. Hoover and his ‘relief’ endeavors is an essential historic digression in elucidating the web-work of the cold war power elite. The story starts in this blog with “Lewis Strauss and JFK” –Strauss joined Hoover’s Committee for Relief in Belgium as second-in-command. Close behind, Prentiss Gray and John L. Simpson of J. Henry Schroder Bank, the ‘Schrobanco’ group in New York established later in 1923, followed suit and signed up for the WWI CRB.
   Prentiss Gray, an Oakland CA native and UCBerkeley alumnus, built a global grain-shipping business out of “food relief” and became the president of Schroder Bank in New York until his accidental death in 1935. After the war, his son Sherman Gray joined the business. New blood came into Schrobanco when George W. Mallinckrodt joined in 1954. Mallinckrodt married the boss’s daughter,(Baroness Charmaine Schroder) in 1958 and the pair were sent to London in 1960 to grow the business with Europe. Charmaine’s brother Bruno, the holder of 40% interest, reigned over the bank and its branches from London.
   Mallinckrodt is an interesting figure in this atomic version of events: three generations before him, his German forebears founded a chemical company in St. Louis Missouri. The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works became the greater family’s firmament of wealth, and in early 1942, it also became the first contractor to make processed uranium for the Manhattan Project.
*
                                                                                      
*
“Before the creation of the secret cities of Los Alamos, Oak Ridge and Hanford, the Manhattan Project hired the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works of St. Louis to refine the first uranium used in the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. For the next two decades, Mallinckrodt continued its classified work for the Atomic Energy Commission…” https://firstsecretcity.com/tag/mallinckrodt-chemical-works/
**
Mallinckrodt Chemical dumped its radioactive waste in the open outside the city’s downtown, what is today the residential neighborhoods of St. Louis’s North County. The local landfill where the majority waste now lies underground is burning in a “Subsurface Smoldering Event” and threatening the entire region with massive contamination. Uncovered piles of dirt-like radioactive tailings were left to ‘drift’ and wash into the Coldwater Creek, already a generational source of sickness to the residents. Watch the HBO documentary “Atomic Homefront” about this disaster.
*                                                                   
*1942: Mallinckrodt received the Belgian Congo ore shipped by Edgar Sengier to the Archer Daniels Midland docks in New York Harbor
**

The government’s broker for Edgar Sengier’s Congolese uranium was Thomas K. Finletter: “The Navy had arranged for the first approach to the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga to obtain a supply… Edgar Sengier, who represented the Congo mining interests had concluded.. that uranium eventually would become important to the war effort and he managed to divert to the United States some two thousand steel drums..of ore. These were stacked in the open at Port Richmond, Staten Island New York, and plainly marked ‘Uranium Ore, product of the Belgian Congo… Sengier communicated with Thomas K. Finletter, who was then Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, to let him know that the ore was available. Finletter passed the word to Colonel Kenneth D. Nichols of the Corps of Engineers, and Nichols purchased it from Sengier.” [p181, Men and Decisions, by Lewis L. Strauss, 1961] “Prior to 1939, of course, there had not been much interest in the ore… Sengier recalls that in May of 1939, about five months after the news of fission… three French scientists..suggested to him that the Union Miniere should join with them in making an experimental bomb in the Sahara. Sengier accepted this idea in principle and agreed to furnish the preliminary material…but in September 1939 the outbreak of war ended the project… Sengier decided to take some steps on his own responsibility… He gave orders to send to the United States all the radium and certain uranium ores which were then at plants of the Union Miniere in Belgium…[where they] were stacked in the open near the dock..on Staten Island..[and] remained unguarded and unnoticed for nearly two years… [Years later, under the AEC] it fell to me [Strauss] to complete some of the details with Sengier. We had both been connected with Hoover’s Commission for Relief in Belgium in World War I and our friendship dated from those days.” [pp316-317, Men and Decisions]    ***

At the 1945 United Nations Conference in San Francisco, Finletter was appointed as a  former State Dept. official to attend as a consultant. Steve Bechtel gave him the tour: “Assembled at the conference were many of Simpson’s friends from Washington and New York, and he made a point of introducing most of them to Steve Bechtel, who showed them around his shipyards. One..was Thomas Finletter, later to succeed James Forrestal as..Secretary of Defense.” [p75, Friends in High Places] Finletter was later made chairman of the Air Policy Commission where he and John McCone fastened onto each other.
*
From Thomas Finletter’s oral history for the Truman Library:
[Q] “You were appointed chairman of the President’s Air Policy Commission in 1947, why in your opinion, why were you selected for that position?”
Finletter: “I haven’t the slightest idea… I can’t answer the question.”
[Q] “Did you have any association with air matters before this time?”
Finletter: “I’m trying to think… I do not think so.”
[Q] “As you know [the library has] the records…The commsision..predicted that Russia would not develop an atomic bomb before 1953… Why in your opinion were the Russians able to develop the device so much quicker than you had expected?”
Finletter: “It’s impossible to answer that… Of course, my statement was based on information from all sorts of intelligence sources…”
[Q] “And then in April of 1950 [two months before the invasioon of South Korea] you became the Secretary of the Air Force and served..until the end of the Truman administration. Here comes my old question again, why were you chosen?”
Finletter: “I haven’t the foggiest idea. Well..one possible reason [was] the fact that I had been the chairman of the Air Policy Commission…”
https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/finletter.htm
Finletter’s field of competence, it appears, was international business law with the firm of Coudert Brothers in New York, brokering contracts between governments and corporations. When Finletter accepted the appointment as Secretary of the Air Force, he called on McCone and said, “I need you by my side.” McCone served as UnderSecretary of the Air Force for Finletter’s term: “Though McCone’s title was deputy secretary [sic], it quickly became apparent that he was the department’s real boss. McCone’s first order of business: Get aircraft production moving on a crash basis; get the Sabre jets needed to combat the Russian-built MiGs out of the plants and into the skies over Korea.” [p99, Friends..]

******

In 1947, while the Air Policy Commission was convening,  Laton McCartney writes that John McCone met Allen Dulles:
   “The occasion that initially brought them together was a dinner party at the Dulles townhouse in New York, called to celebrate the expected victory of Thomas E. Dewey as president. Taking a brief respite from his Washington duties, McCone had been staying as the houseguest of Grete and John Simpson, Steve Bechtel’s chief confidant. When the Dulleses asked the Simpsons to dinner, Uncle John brought McCone along… On a deflated note [over the election], the party broke up, but not before John McCone had made an important friend.” [p98, Friends..]
As for John L. Simpson:
“A native San Franciscan and nine years Steve’s senior, Simpson possessed a worldliness and sophistication no one else in the Bechtel organization, including its president, could match. After graduating from Berkeley, he had gone to work for the Commission for Relief in Belgium, a joint U.S.-British project..[for] refugees during World War I. He spent five years in Europe schooling himself in Continental finance, making the social rounds (most notably in Vienna, where he married a well-connected socialite Margarete Mandel), and developing a close friendship with CRB’s head and his fellow San Franciscan, Herbert Hoover. On his return to the United States, Simpson joined the J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation, a leading New York investment house with branches throughout Europe.“[p74, ibid.]
*
Few Europeans of this era have an internet footprint, as expected, but Margarete Mandel is a virtual phantom. It has been noted that a familial (but untraceable) relationship exists with Col. Edward. Mandell House of Texas, known as President Wilson’s alter-ego, but the question remains. Might this Austrian socialite and wife of John L. Simpson be a relative of Georges Mandel who went by the name of Mantello, described himself as Hungarian, but is listed as a citizen of Austria?  Mandel/Mantello has already been introduced in Atomic Agent Oswald as the president of the world trade organization and CIA front PERMINDEX. The logic in the question reflects the postwar focus on a fractured Austro-Hungarian Empire and the reach and autonomy of the Commission for Relief in Belgium and its successor agencies under Hoover’s U.S. Food Administration and the American Relief Administration.
*
“…the evidence suggests that the major emphasis in the Wilsonian policy.. largely sought to rely on the skillful utilization of food relief programs by Herbert Hoover to check whatever revolutionary socialist tendencies emerged among the new nations. In the last analysis, this Hoover-directed..food relief, with its emphasis on the breaking down of nationalistic barriers to trade.. was a classic expression of the.. proto-Marshall Plan tendency of Wilson and his advisers to use America’s expansionist economic power.. to establish international liberal-capitalist stability…  The Hungarian Bolshevik Revolution of March 1919 was naturally of great concern to many Wilsonians at Paris [Peace Conference] who feared.. revolution might spread… In response to the threat.. Wilson and Hoover agreed during April on a program of manipulating food and relief supplies in such a manner as to isolate and contain the Hungarian Revolution… Hoover and Wilson were especially interested in adopting a liberal-reintegrationist approach..to Austrian relief and the diplomatic treatment of the defeated Austrians.. to prevent the possible spread of Bolshevism from Budapest to Vienna.” [pp191-192, Woodrow Wilson and World Politics, by N. Gordon Livin Jr.,1968]

……posting in progress…..

 

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March 20, 2017

Atomic Oswald Two

The “bulletin board” saga  continues from the original post, for ease of reading, now after two years of filling in the holes. Atomic Agent Oswald leaves off in the detailing of the 1959 defection of Robert E. Webster, employee of the Rand Development Corporation of Cleveland Ohio, described as a CIA front.

*Catch up with the original post here: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/atomic-agent-oswald/

Robert Edward Webster* defected to the USSR on Saturday October 17, 1959, allegedly at a meeting in the American embassy of Moscow accompanied by his “employers” H. James Rand and George H. Bookbinder –however– according to E.J. Epstein’s chapter notes in Legend, Webster defected under duress from a Soviet police station by handing over a written statement.

Webster’s so-called defection came one day after Lee Oswald’s arrival in Moscow on the 16th. There was commotion at the embassy that day, the 16th, when “Russell A. Langelle, the chief security officer in the Moscow embassy, was charged with espionage, declared persona non grata.. [after being]‘kidnapped by five unidentified Russians’ who had then threatened him and his family and tried to blackmail and bribe him into becoming a Soviet espionage agent.” p277, Mole, by William Hood,1982. –the Langelle story appeared in the New York Times Oct. 18. “…Langelle returned to the United States on 25 October…” p280, ibid. Six days later on Saturday 31 October, exactly two weeks after Webster, Lee Harvey Oswald entered the embassy to announce his defection. No record yet  indicates the presence of additional people from Rand Development or the Commerce Department during Oswald’s defection.
*
The window on Webster’s world reveals a fascinating subset of intelligence activity with direct bearing on the heart of this thesis, perhaps the most speculative aspect of the posts regarding a counter-proliferation role for Oswald. Internal memos from the CIA requested by the HSCA investigation note that Rand and Bookbinder had traveled previously in 1958 to the USSR with “Brigadier General” W. Randolph Lovelace, an eminent physician with Atomic Energy Commission contracts who co-founded the Lovelace Clinic in Albuquerque New Mexico. One memo reads: “For your information, only Rand, Bookbinder, and Lovelace have had frequent contact with Soviet officials both in the United States and the USSR, including Mikhail Ilich Bruk, formerly with the Soviet Ministry of Health, who was identified by AEDONER [Yuri Nosenko] as an agent of the KGB. You will note that Rand was the employer of Robert E. Webster who defected…”
*
Dr. ‘Randy’ Lovelace*  appointed in 1958 to become NASA’s chairman of its Life Sciences. Later in April of 1964, LBJ invested Lovelace as NASA Director of Space Medicine, a post he held for barely 8 months until dying in a small plane crash with his wife and pilot.
   The Lovelace Foundation, research arm of the clinic, housed and tested U-2 pilots and astronauts for the government looking for The Right Stuff. The foundation was created in 1947 when, after losing two sons to polio, Lovelace left his job as Chief of Surgery for the Mayo Clinic and moved back to New Mexico. He hired Dr. Clayton S. (Sam) White to run the foundation on the “Mayo model”.  Dr. White pioneered the AEC contracts, which included nuclear blast effects on humans and the creation of the Fission Products Inhalation Project. The Lovelace Foundation gained extra space for its sophisticated atomic experiments and simulations at Kirtland Air Force Base, home to the Sandia Corporation.
*
“Sandia is the direct descendent of Los Alamos’s Manhattan Project ordnance engineering division that turned the Little Boy and Fat Man bombs into deployable weapons… known as Los Alamos ‘Z’ Division, established at what is now Kirtland Air Base… Sandia became a separate lab in 1949..[and] is the most diverse of the three nuuclear weapons labs… Sandia is also the “foreman” of the..nuclear weapons complex, acting as its liason to the Pentagon… Sandia’s secondary mission is studying nuclear weapons ‘effects’, which are not the horrific effects of nuclear weapons on humans and the environment..[but] the effects of nuclear weapons on nuclear weapons, to make sure they are radiation hardened..[to] operate in..a nuclear war.”
The other effects, i.e. on humans, were contracted to Lovelace. This is the era of “nuclear battlefields” where soldiers were expected to take ground contaminated by radioactive fallout. Here’s a sample report of blast and radiation effects produced as a collaboration of the AEC, Lovelace Foundation and Sandia Corp. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc13019/m2/1/high_res_d/CEX-58.8.pdf
                                                                                  *Lovelace Foundation Clinic*
*
  Dr. Sam White’s adoring younger brother Byron was at that time making his mark in the world of football and law, and in 1960, Byron R. White became the Colorado manager of the JFK for President campaign. JFK rewarded Byron White by appointing him Deputy Attorney General of the United States, under brother Bobby Kennedy.  The friendship between them dated back to their college days when White met the Kennedy family in London while he was preparing to enter Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. During WWII as an ONI officer, White wrote up the report on JFK’s PT109 incident.
*   *Byron R. White with Kennedys
Here possibly was an inside track for the Kennedys to get information about nuclear testing, fallout, and a potential back- channel to the Soviets.
*
“A choice of cancer or polio”**:
   Medical technology was listed as the principal commodity of the Atoms For Peace program when the government distributed its manuals in 1956, a broadly defined field already in advanced development. To this day, the standard history of polio omits a causal relationship with radiation. A famed collaboration to produce a global polio vaccine was well underway with the Soviets by 1958.
The Russian scientists, led by Deputy Minister of Health Dr. Viktor Zhdanov and leading polio expert, Dr. Mikhail Chumakov of Moscow’s Institute for the Study of Polio, actually refined Sabin’s vaccine and developed it into a useful form that could be taken orally. Russian scientists then conducted trials of the vaccine on a massive scale. In all, well over 70 million people in the Soviet Union received the Sabin vaccine. Its successful use in the Soviet Union established the vaccine internationally, and the Sabin vaccine was subsequently widely used in the United States and became the worldwide standard vaccine for the prevention of polio.”
*
In February of 1962, and again in August, the Sabin polio vaccines were shipped into Cuba for mass inoculations. For the record, it was the CIA chief John McCone, most recently chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, who stood his ground in August of 1962 that nuclear missiles were being deployed to Castro’s Cuba:
“On August 21, Robert Kennedy asked McCone if the CIA caould stage a phony attack on the American military base at Guantanamo Bay as a pretext for an American invasion of Cuba. McCone demurred. He told John Kennedy in private the next day that an invasion could be a fatal mistake. He warned the president for the first time that he thought the Soviets might be installing medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. If so, an American sneak attack might set off a nuclear war. [p222] He advocated raising a public alarm about the likelihood of a Soviet missile base. The president instantly rejected that idea, but he wondered aloud whether the CIA’s guerillas or American troops would be needed to destroy the missile sites –if they existed. At that point, no one but McCone was convinced that they did.
…Thirty-eight Soviet ships had docked in Cuba in the past seven weeks, McCone told the president.[p223] Their cargo “might contain missile parts. We do not know.”
…A U-2 flight passed over Cuba on August 29. Its film was processed overnight. On August 30, a CIA analyst bent over his light table and shouted: I’ve got a SAM site! It was a surface-to-air missile, an SA-2, the same Soviet weapon that had brought the U-2 down over Russia.”[p224, Legacy of Ashes, by Tim Weiner, 2007]
*
They tell us this is what the photoanalyst saw on August 30, 1962*
–a characteristic defensive Russian surface-to-air missile(SAM) site*
*
**Song lyrics, The Salt of the Earth: “…Raise your glass to the hard working people… Who need leading but get gamblers instead… And a parade of the gray suited grafters, A choice of cancer or polio” –Rolling Stones, Beggars Banquet 1968
*
* Albert Sabin and Victor Zhdanov in 1958 * Governments have concealed the spread of polio (brain infection) occurring with nuclear industry, including x-ray use and electronic RF. Not surprisingly, Oswald’s concealed New Orleans milieu was rooted in activities of cancer and polio. “Webster’s window” in the USSR may have been similar, whether or not Webster himself was any more than a diversionary defector, a “double dangle.”  It is inherent in the study of radiation injuries to encounter cancer and polio.
*
   “In the first five months of 1959, ten million children in the Soviet Union received the Sabin oral vaccine.” http://amhistory.si.edu/polio/virusvaccine/vacraces?.htm
*
“In addition to his accomplishments in the field of public health, Zhdanov chaired the [USSR] Interagency Science and Technology Council on Molecular Biology and Genetics, which among its many functions directed the Soviet biological weapons program.” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Zhdanov
*
According to sources, Robert Webster began planning his defection in May of 1959 as a professional visitor in Russia with Rand Development Corp.  Anthony Summers called Rand Development Corp “one of the first American companies to negotiate with the Soviet Union for the purchase of technical products and information… A Congressional Expense Inquiry shows that Rand Development held several CIA contracts. The president of Rand Development, Henry Rand,  has been identified as a senior veteran of the Office of Strategic Services –or OSS– the forerunner of the CIA. So too was another top official of the company, George Bookbinder. Rand Development’s onetime Washington representative, Christopher Bird, was a CIA agent.” p148, Conspiracy, by Anthony Summers, 1980
   The source on Rand Development’s product sharing with the Soviets appears to come from the Mankind Research Unlimited Inc.’s bio-sketch on Christopher Bird. MRU and its fundraising foundation MRF were not incorporated until 1973, but Bird’s professional relationship with Rand dates from his years “after military service”, about the same time that he became the assistant of Cleveland industrial-financier Cyrus S. Eaton for the purpose of organizing the international nuclear disarmament conferences known as ‘Pugwash’, held first in July of 1957. Eaton sponsored and hosted not less than three Pugwash conferences between 1957 and 1959. The extent of Christopher Bird’s involvement with Eaton and Pugwash is not yet known. Cyrus Eaton, who got his start in working life during school summer vacations on the estate of John D. Rockefeller, made many trips to the USSR including a reception to receive the Lenin Peace Prize in 1960.
–see pages 34-35
*
Pugwash 1957 conferees* Pugwash, Nova Scotia, hosted by Cyrus S. Eaton. The Fifth Pugwash conference held August 24-29, 1959 in Nova Scotia was the last hosted by Eaton. It was also the first to engage the threat of chemical and biological warfare (CBW): “most of what Pugwash does, whether on CBW or anything else, takes place under ground rules that forbid disclosure [without consent]… Pugwash came into existence because it was able able to build [on] two attributes –access to policy levels of government and trans-national peer-grouping– into something for which a..need existed: an enduring open framework for East-West dialogue on security-related issues at a time when..mutual sus[icions and propaganda were clogging the more conventional channels of communication… [T]he fact that Pugwash did not seek to operate in the public eye..enabled governments to tolerate it…” http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/spru/hsp/documents/pugwash-hist.pdf
*** “Eaton spent his summer vacations working at Rockefeller’s estate and returned to Cleveland upon graduation… Rockefeller offered him full-time employment. An early assignment was to placate property owners whose lawns were being torn up by the East Ohio Gas Company… [D]uring the 1920s ‘he was into everything, buying, selling, swapping, maneuvering, manipulating. His touch was the purest gold,’ wrote E.J.Kahn Jr. in..New Yorker magazine in 1977. His innumerable holding companies owned utilities, steel mills, a major portion of Goodyear Tire, [mines] and..other businesses… As early as the 1920s he was Herbert Hoover’s guest at the White House…” https://isgp-studies.com/organisations/introduction/1957_Pugwash_Eaton_and_Rockefeller.htm
*

“There are no Communists in America to speak of except in the minds of those on the payroll of the F.B.I.,” he said in the spring of 1958. It delights him to be able to bring persons he unquestioningly identifies as Communists into his familiar capitalistic orbit…”  (Oct.1977 New Yorker article by E.J.Kahn Jr.)

Eaton made his first well-publicized ‘peaceful trade’ business trip to the USSR in August of 1958.
*
Goodyear Tire and Rubber is another prime example of corporate adventurism into nuclear industry:
“In April 1952, the [U.S.] Atomic Energy Commission announced a proposed new expansion of the nation’s atomic energy program…[which would include] a new gaseous diffusion plant to increase the production of fissionable materials… [T]he commission [chose]..a site in Pike County Ohio for the new plant…   A new name would be brought into atomic energy plant operations when Goodyear Atomic Corporation was selected as the operating contractor in September 1952.”
 The Secret Life of Plants* *coauthors Christopher Bird*and OSS veteran Peter Tompkins* l**
*
Peter Tompkins’ WWII/OSS partisan resistance fighter networks in Italy, Corsica, Sicily, and North Africa were largely assumed by James J. Angleton who became the OSS/CIA station chief in Rome.
*
*Rand at 1957 press conference holding electron microscope image of viruses. Did “Dr. Henry Rand” participate in the “vaccine diplomacy” of the Sabin/USSR polio campaign? Is this the genesis of Rand’s future cancer vaccine? Ultimately, the vaccine question is if the polio/cancer combination was a nuclear battlefield prophylactic to radiation-harden humans. The same protocols, if successful, had applications for nuclear-powered aircraft,  bomber pilots, and deep space travelers.

*

The CBW Pugwash conference of 1959, hosted by Eaton and assisted by Bird, was organized by Dr. Martin M. Kaplan, a Philadelphia veterinarian who became the chief of medical research for the World Health Organization. In 1955, Dr. Kaplan and his colleague from the Wistar Institute, the controversial Hilary Koprowski, spent time in Kenya teaching the locals how to make ‘primitive’ laboratory vaccines. Koprowski was also competing at the time to make a universal polio vaccine and later became embroiled in his own defense over charges that his African lab work was the origin of AIDS.

*
Researcher Gary Hill:
“It occurred to me it is not appearance but personality that links these two individuals [Webster and Oswald]. Therefore since…both men appear to have been manipulated in their behavior, then perhaps they were chosen because of their similarities. If so, then the same forces controlled both men…
   “That this company [Rand Development] is a CIA front is not news…however, its interest in hypnosis and mind-control as an intelligence tool may be… Could Bird be the key to Webster’s odyssey? According to [author Dick] Russell, Bird would later become ‘Biocommunications Editor/Russian Translator’ for Mankind Research Unlimited Inc…[with a] company capabilities list included [as] ‘brain and mind-control… acquiring on a daily basis a large amount of unique bio-cybernetics data from Eastern Europe. MKUltra gave the CIA an alternative to false defectors…Programmable defectors..willingly believing [in] false information… It is interesting that at this point the numbers of defectors took a sharp increase… Oswald had been hospitalized and incarcerated for periods adequate to allow the process to occur.” Fourth Decade, July and September 1995 issues
*  
Christopher Bird may at least be a key to Rand Development and the activities of H. James Rand.
   A deeper association of some kind between Rand and Lovelace Foundation is confirmed in the sanitized “papers” collection of Floyd B. Odlum, chairman of the Lovelace Foundation and owner of Atlas Corporation who oversaw a uranium mining empire.
https://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Finding_Aids/pdf/Odlum_Floyd_Papers.pdf
see personal correspondence item section #9 on page 13 of 105: “James Rand”–this could be either father or son, but coincident with the Lovelace Foundation’s collaborations with the Atomic Energy Commission and National Institutes of Health in the 1951-1953 time period. Also of note in this immediate subsection of Odlum’s papers are “scientific psychic studies” which recurs with specificity from this point onward.
  *** Odlum specialized in the financial investor-funded acquisition, reorganization and merging of companies in the great wave of mega-corporations that arose in the first decades of the 20th century. He owned Consolidated Vultee Aircraft –Convair– when it won the contract to build the first nuclear-powered aircraft.
   Additionally, “In 1951, the Air Material Command..awarded Convair Project MX-1593 a contract to develop..an intercontinental ballistic missile. Convair engineer Karl Bossart named the project “Atlas” and Convair began to develop America’s first ICBM… In 1952, Convair received a contract to develop a supersonic bomber to succeed the Boeing B-47…” http://www.456fis.org/CONVAIR_DIVISION_GENERAL_DYNAMICS.htm
Consolidated Aircraft’s history up to the merge with General Dynamics in 1954:
http://www.reubenfleet.com/consolidated-aircraft/
General Dynamics gained the Convair plants in San Diego CA, Pomona CA, and Fort Worth TX. It “could now bid on U.S. aerospace contracts…  The Convair Division would operate over the next half century primarily as an independent company under the General Dynamics corporate umbrella.”
*
“In 1955 a gift of 320 acres of land from the city of San Diego helped [John Jay] Hopkins to establish the General Atomics Division. In collusion with the City Council, Hopkins was instrumental in persuading the Regents of the University of California [contract operators of Los Alamos weapons lab] to establish a ‘scientific and technical’ branch at La Jolla.” http://www.sandiegofreepress.org/2016/07/general-dynamics-san-diego/  The University of California San Diego was born. Further offspring soon joined the complex as the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and Salk Institute of Biological Studies.
*
A web of personal associations between H.James Rand and Odlum could be present in the following facts:
Rand’s wife, Martha Osborne Rand,was employed by Bonwit Teller, a women’s quality apparel store in New York, bought by the Odlums/AtlasCorp in 1934 and personally managed by (ex-) Mrs. Odlum for the next fifteen years. Other questions raised above have suggestive answers in the environment of Cleveland, the Cleveland Clinic, Case Western Reserve University, the Case Institute of Technology, and the Pugwash collaborations of Bird and Cyrus Eaton.
   Case Western Medical hired Frederick C. Robbins in 1952 who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in Medicine for groundbreaking work on the isolation and growing of polioviruses, making the Salk and Sabin vaccines possible. Rand had a working relationship with Case Medical personnel, in at least one instance resulting in a successful product in 1947– a heart defibrillator co-developed with Dr. Claude S. Beck who was also hired in 1952 by the University. Dr. Robbins, incidentally, after retiring as the medical dean in 1980, worked on special tasks for the U.S. government which included becoming chairman of NASA Life Sciences Strategic Planning Study Committee during Reagan/Bush. To say that Robbins was well-connected in the nuclear establishment is an understatement. His father, William Jacob Robbins, was a renown plant physiologist, Director of the New York Botanical Gardens and laboratory, and longtime operative of the Rockefeller Foundation. The elder Robbins’ annual fishing buddies counted among them Karl T. Compton of MIT (native to the Cleveland area) and Jerome C. Hunsaker, a titan of aviation and director of NACA, NASA’s predecessor. All had worked for special projects of the Atomic Energy Commission. Frederick Robbins brother, Daniel Harvey Robbins, was a vice-president of Itek Corporation and optics engineer contributing to classified camera work for the CIA, used in the U-2, Corona, and subsequent spy satellites.
https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19910012383.pdf
   Case Technology employed T. Keith Glennan, who became an AEC Commissioner in 1950, returned to Case after his term and became the first chief of NASA in 1958. Glennan was the head of NASA when H.J.Rand and Bookbinder were escorting NASA’s top medical man around the USSR. Floyd Odlum and his second wife, aviator Jacqueline Cochran, were also traveling in Russia in this time period, extending over the defections of Webster and Oswald.
The operating founders of the Cleveland Clinic, the Drs.Crile, father and son, lived next-door to Rand.
*
  James H. Rand III bought this ‘sanitarium’ and hotel in 1934 (his approx. age 22) and renamed it Ohio Institute of Oxygen Therapy, used for research and closed down two years later. The hyperbaric steel sphere was later dismantled for scrap in the war effort. “Oxygen therapy” was precisely the shared interest of Dr. Randy Lovelace and Dr. Sam White which brought them together as colleagues and friends.
http://www.clevelandareahistory.com/2010/02/giant-steel-sphere-used-to-treat.html***
*
Taking the suggestion from Gary Hill that Webster and Oswald were controlled by the same Forces, namely Rand Development Corp. providing oversight of both defectors, a relevant timeline [to be posted] emerges full of possibility. Added to the timeline activity is an even greater resource from the legacy documents of Cyrus S. Eaton: the Eaton Papers at the Western Reserve Historical Society. Cursory perusal of the collection presents nearly every contextual element supporting the Atomic Agent Oswald framework described here.
   While the lists make only guesswork of the contents, the evidence of longstanding personal contact with Eaton includes James H. Rand, Christopher Bird, David Rockefeller, Edward Teller, Lewis Strauss, Clint Murchison Sr. and family, the Mellon family, Rockefeller family members and Rockefeller Foundation, John J. McCloy, John McCone, George Kennan, Roger Revelle (of Scripps Institute of Oceanography), Linus Pauling, Leo Szilard, Allen Dulles, Dean Rusk, Alfred P. Sloan, Leo Cherne, Earl Warren, Harry Byrd, Henry Kissinger and many more recognizable people. Business contacts range over the alphabet from Alcoa, Anglo-American (South Africa), Atlas Corporation, Dresser Industries, Dupont, Kerr-McGee, Itek, Loeb Rhodes & Co, Pfizer, Seagram & Sons, Sears Roebuck, Shell Oil, Standard Oil, RCA, Rio Tinto Zinc, TRW, Texas Gulf Sulphur, Textron (owner of Bell Helicopter), U.S. Rubber, Vanadium Corp. and various mining companies in taconite (iron), uranium, coal, gas, oil, gold, diamonds, copper, platinum, etc. Interwoven are the special project folders like the American National Exhibit in Moscow 1959, Atoms For Peace Awards, Atomic Industrial Forum, American Security Council, March of Dimes, Planned Parenthood, “Gary Francis Powers”, Radio Free Europe, Rotary Clubs Int’l, etc., etc, etc
*
***
….Eaton, Bird, Odlum, Rand and Bookbinder…  all possibly Webster’s defection ‘managers’. Were they Oswald’s managers, too?
“Twice in the span of his Moscow [exhibition] assignment Webster returned home, presumably in line with his work. He was also trying to make up his mind about other things, Rand believes. Apparently there were attempts even then to dissuade him from defecting. When they failed, Rand flew to Moscow and got in touch with Anastas Mikoyan (Mikoyan visited Cyrus Eaton once and is or was second in command of all the Russians). This was in late fall, 1959…” –ref. The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 19, 1962; http://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=55073&relPageId=159
*
“Mikoyan is still warmly remembered by many Americans for his surprise high-level visit to the United States in 1959 where he opened the Soviet exhibition in New York [N.Y.Coliseum opening night June29, 1959, which may be in error regarding Mikoyan. Mikoyan paid the U.S. an earlier unofficial visit Jan-Feb.] and met with businessmen like Averell Harriman and John J. McCloy… In Washington, he met President Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. In Cleveland he visited.. Cyrus Eaton… That same year, Mikoyan also paid a very important visit to Cuba and fell in love with the island.” https://abovyangroup.org/2014/05/25/mikoyan-enigma/
Anastas Mikoyan, Deputy Premier of the USSR, with J.F.Dulles (Dulles died May 24 1959)*
*
One can generate narrative from the Eaton Papers folder listing alone, regardless of the content of those folders. The plethora of related “groupings” cannot be coincidence. Below is a brief example of one grouping which can be expanded from the same folder list and journalist sources.
 
Box 279, folder: Richardson Foundation, 1956
 
The context of the Richardson Foundation from p77, George Bush, the Unauthorized Biography :  “…Prescott Bush was essentially a covert operative in Washington. On June 10, 1954, Bush received a letter from Connecticut resident H. Smith Richardson, owner of Vick Chemical Company (cough drops, Vapo-Rub)…[which read], ”I want to get your advice and counsel on…what should be done with the income from a foundation which my brother and I set up, and which will begin its operation in 1956…” This letter presages the establishment of the H. Smith Richardson Foundation, a Bush family-dictated private slush fund which was to be utilized by the Central Intelligence Agency… The Bush family knew Richardson through their mutual friendship with Sears Roebuck chairman, Gen. Robert E. Wood… General Wood’s daughter Mary had married the son of Standard Oil president William Stamps Farish… In The late 1950s, the H. Smith Richardson Foundation took part in the ‘psychological warfare’ of the CIA…carried out mainly against unwitting U.S. citizens.”
 
Box 279, folder: Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, 1960-1973
 
Context from Family of Secrets, pp70-75: “While Dimitri von Mohrenschildt clearly enjoyed the high-society glamour [of elite life in the U.S.], in reality his life was heading underground. Dimitri’s lengthy covert resume would include serving in the [OSS] wartime spy agency and later cofounding Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty…  When the Hooker marriage unraveled, Dimitri began seeing Betty Hooker… Betty’s son, Edward Gordon Hooker, entered prep school..[and] shared a small cottage with George H.W. ‘Poppy’ Bush… The relationship between Bush and Hooker lasted…until 1967, when Hooker died of an apparent heart attack. He was just forty-three… In 1937, Betty Hooker and Dimitri von Mohrenschildt married. By then, Dimitri had been hired by Henry Luce as a stringer for Time magazine… Meanwhile, Dimitri’s younger brother George…finished highschool and then joined a military academy… [George de Mohrenschildt came to the U.S. in 1938, moved in with Dimitri and Betty, and eventually] “In 1950, together with Poppy Bush’s old friend and former roommate Eddie Hooker, [George] launched a modest oil investment firm, Hooker and deMohrenschildt with ‘offices’ in New York, Denver, and Abilene…”
 
Box 120, folder: Dresser Industries, 1944-1959
Context from Family of Secrets, Ch.3: “After graduating from Yale in 1948, Poppy [GHWB] headed out to visit ‘Uncle Neil’ at Dresser Industries, which were then in Cleveland. Mallon dispatched [GHW, Barbara, and baby George] to Odessa [Texas]… Poppy’s initial jobs included sweeping out warehouses…but he was soon asked to handle more…[escorting foreign clients and dignitaries]… [T]here is the not-surprising fact that Dresser was well-known in the right circles as providing handy cover to CIA operatives… Continuing his whirlwind ‘training’, Dresser transferred Bush to California…to work the assembly line at Dresser’s Pacific Pump Works…[which was], like Dresser, an important cog in the war machine. The firm…even provided crucial parts for the top-secret process that produced the [first] atomic bombs… In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation to Dallas, which besides being an oil capital was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite… Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the non-profit Council on World Affairs, in whose Cleveland branch he had been active. Started in 1918, the World Affairs Councils of America were a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations, the presidency of which Allen Dulles had just resigned to take his post at the CIA.”
*
The vignettes above are but a subgroup that can be drawn from a larger group including Box 352, folder: U.S. Rubber Company, 1928-1965. The U.S. Rubber Co. was purchased by W.A. Harriman and Co. in 1928 which promptly installed Prescott Bush as its international sales executive. U.S. Rubber sponsored an array of intelligence activity within its extensive reach. This grouping can also include Box 294, folder: Slick Airways Inc 1956-1972., owned by Texas oilman, adventurer, and CIA operative Tom Slick who also sponsored MK-Ultra programming. Perhaps it suffices to demonstrate that Eaton’s business, and the legacy of his document collection, was an extension of the Anglo-American intelligence establishment.
*

Economic Warfare

*
An Economic Defense Advisory Committee (EDAC) policy paper issued by the U.S. Dept. of State in January 1959 notes that “..Only the Department of Commerce [ headed by Sec. Adm. Lewis L. Strauss] has made recommendations for changing current policy…[to] the reversal of the present attitude toward ‘peaceful trade’ and the substitution of the economic warfare approach… which would deny US exports of strategic or nonstrategic goods to the USSR unless such exports are individually determined to be to the advantage of the US.” https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1958-60v04/d342, 
   The CIA weighed-in with this addition: (item report #d335) “The Soviets probably genuinely desire an increase in US-USSR trade. The possibilities for expanding this trade are severely restricted, however, by the limited range of Soviet goods likely to be marketable in the US…  We believe it reasonable.. to modify certain administrative restrictions, especially export licensing, [so that]US export to the USSR might expand over the next few years…  the USSR [can balance trade].. by selling more gold to the Free World…  [T]his special estimate, submitted by the CIA, was prepared by CIA, INR, and the intelligence organizations of the Departments of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Joint Staff. All members of the U.S. Intelligence Board concurred in this estimate on October 7 [1958] with the exception of the representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Bureau of Investigation who abstained on the grounds that the topic was outside their jurisdiction.”
*
Perhaps it is emblematic of the FBI and AEC to secretly share their joint responsibility for global nuclear security intelligence –withheld even from the U.S. intelligence community at large . Readers of Atomic Agent Oswald are familiar with the collaboration of the FBI/AEC “dual agent” program (1949-1964), mediated by the FBI’s Charles Bates between the principals, J.Edgar Hoover and Lewis Strauss, and among the erstwhile agents. No remnant of the publicly available declassified file covers the period from 1954 to 1964 (file closed Sep30, 1964)  as the world witnessed new international trade in atomic technology.
***Here’s an example of that trade in hindsight: “[I]n 1957, as part of the Atoms For Peace program, Washington had the components for a TRIGA Mark I reactor delivered to [the Belgian] Congo. This compact facility was made by..General Atomic and installed by on-site Belgian technicians. It went operational in 1959 ..[and was] hailed..as a symbol of progress in Africa…[even as] the young nation quickly descended into civil war and chaos… Twenty years later, one of the fuel rods suddenly turned up in Italy. Smugglers offered the uranium, which was at least 20-percent enriched, to what they thought were buyers from the Middle East– in reality agents of the Italian police’s Central Investigating Service… [A]uthorities apprehended twelve people, all of them members of the mafia…” pp154-155, A Short History of Nuclear Folly, by Rudolph Herzog, 2012.
……So, what was jurisdictional to the FBI and AEC regarding economic warfare policy in commercial trade?
“As the investigative arm of the Department of Justice, the FBI is responsible, among its other duties, for catching spies… Contrary to popular belief however, the FBI does have some agents overseas. They are assigned to American embassies, usually under the cover of ‘legal attaches.” [p.203, The Invisible Government, 1964]
“Because of the law which set it up and its close relationship to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy in the Congress, the AEC is one of the most independent branches of the Invisible Government. One of Eisenhower’s parting admonitions to Kennedy was: ‘You may be able to run lots of things around here. But one of them you can’t run is the AEC.’ [p201, The Invisible Government, by David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, 1964]
*  AEC chairman John A. McCone (center) 1958* *“McCone gained a reputation as an uncompromising supporter of John Foster Dulles’ doctrine of massive retaliation, the Air Force’s atomic warfare theories, and the hard-line strategy against the Soviet Union.” p196, The Invisible Government
*
Roswell Garst (left foreground) offered hybrid corn to the USSR in January 1959, and again for the cameras on Krushchev’s goodwill tour of the U.S., September 15-27, 1959. The Russians wanted industrial chemicals and steel.
*
   As far as U.S.-USSR atomic relations were concerned, 1959 was an historic breakthrough year under the sway of a nuclear test moratorium. On September 15, after the closure of Moscow’s American National Exhibit, Nikita Krushchev and entourage flew to Washington for a 12-day visit. The first order of business on that day was a Krushchev meeting with Eisenhower and a separate meeting of the Soviet atomic energy chief, Vasily S. Emelyanov, with the AEC’s John McCone.
*
*Ambassador Lodge managed Eisenhower’s presidential campaign*
*
On September 17, Krushchev and his party boarded a train for New York City, accompanied by an American escort, Ambassador and US representative to the U.N. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.  Lodge wrote in his personal notes of the “conversation with Krushchev on the train…[that] he used it as occasion to bring up the subject of nuclear tests… On the negotiations on the cessation of nuclear tests he said that we wanted to get intelligence operators into the Soviet Union….”  http://www.dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/frus/frus58-60×1/11soviet5.html
*
 The same day in New Orleans, from the premises of the Int’l Trade Mart,  Lee Oswald was booked on a freighter to Europe.
*
*
NUCLEAR EXCHANGE
In the name of peace and progress, an immediate schedule of travel was arranged for select officials and scientists: “The exchange of delegations took place at a time –October 1959– when the Soviets were America’s only nuclear rival… The American delegation consisted of top AEC brass…” https://ornl.gov/blog/ornl-review/alvin-weinberg-and-scientific-diplomacy-cold-war
Another Soviet delegation arrived in the U.S. in November: [newspaper clip] “This visit by the Russian scientists is in implementation of the information exchange arrangements agreed to during Prof. Emelyanov’s visit to the United States in September, and is similar to the recent tour of Soviet atomic energy installations by Chairman McCone of the USAEC with a group of U.S. nuclear scientists.” 
[newspaper clip] “The Brookhaven National Laboratory..received a visit from the party of top Soviet[s]..which has been touring various atomic energy installations in the [U.S.] since November 5… [F]inal meetings [are] in Washington…”
“[AEC] Chairman John A. McCone and his Soviet counterpart, Professor Vasily S. Emelyanov, signed a Memorandum on Cooperation on November 24, 1959, covering exchanges of visits and information on several unclassified areas of peaceful nuclear application.”
*
    Undersecretary of Commerce Frederick H. Mueller with McCone*
*
The American atomic contingent, led by AEC chairman McCone, took the initiative of visiting the USSR shortly after Krushchev’s 12-day tour. The exact itinerary, arrival and departure, of McCone’s party is not known to this researcher –only this item  from the New York Times: “McCone Flies to Leningrad”…”Leaves Moscow for Leningrad”, NYT p23, dated October 11, 1959
*
This newspaper notice follows by one day Oswald’s arrival in Helsinki, Finland:
“The State Department was later concerned that Oswald had received his [USSR] visa in Helsinki in a shorter period of time than usual, which would indicate that there might have been some preparation for his defection. The Warren Commission’s analysts.. assumed that Oswald received his visa on October 14 after arriving in Helsinki on the tenth [a Saturday], though he may have applied for it as late as the twelfth [Monday], leading to the conclusion that ‘Oswald probably received his visa four days after he applied for it, but he may have received it only two days later.’  They [WC] recognized that the speed with which Oswald received his visa could lend credence to the CIA theory they quoted as suggesting that ‘Soviet authorities had advance warning of Oswald’s arrival and had been ready and waiting to handle him rapidly once he arrived.’ ” p288, Legend, the Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald, 1978, by Edward Jay Epstein
*
As of October 1959, the whereabouts of Robert Webster were unknown to Americans:
“Webster…disappeared on September 10, 1959. Upon returning to the United States, Dr. Rand, Webster’s employer, reported his disappearance to the State Department, and the U.S. Embassy in Moscow wrote a note to the Soviet Foreign Ministry requesting information on Webster. When he had received no reply regarding his former employee by October 14, Rand returned to Moscow. On October 17 [Rand] and Richard L. Snyder of the American Embassy obtained an interview with Webster who had been brought to Moscow from an undisclosed address in Leningrad, then handed Snyder a signed statement renouncing his United States citizenship… He told Snyder that he would send him his American passport as soon as he returned to Leningrad. (According to the CIA defector list, Webster handed Snyder his passport on October 19, 1959.)” p291 (Notes) Legend, ibid.
If the Legend notes are accurate and Webster surrendered his American citizenship at a police station and then left the city –for a month-long vacation with his girlfriend, as it stands– avoidance of the U.S. Embassy may have preserved his anonymity with embassy staffers. If the embassy needed to write “a note to the Soviet Foreign Ministry requesting information on Webster”, what didn’t they know? Is it possible that Robert Webster assumed the identity of Lee Oswald at this time to make a record of Oswald’s pre-defection activity in England, Sweden and Finland?
   According to Mark North in Act of Treason: “On 6/3/60 Hoover sent a memo to the State Department entitled ‘Lee Harvey Oswald, Internal Security’ in which he stated ‘Since there is a possibility that an imposter is using Oswald’s birth certificate, any current information the Department of State may have concerning subject will be appreciated.’ The [birth] certificate had disappeared in New Orleans around the time of Oswald’s defection to the Soviet Union.” p57, Act of Treason, by Mark North, 1991.
   Oswald’s means and timing of travel from the U.K. is still unknown and in dispute: He told the U.K. customs office, on or about October 9, that he planned to spend a week in England. Late the next day, “According to Finnish hotel records, he checked in midnight on Friday at the Torni Hotel in downtown Helsinki, then moved on Saturday to the less expensive Klaus Kurki Hotel where he remained registered for five days. Swedish intelligence has found evidence that Oswald traveled to Stockholm during this period…” pp93-94, Legend
   In addition to later statements from Marina that her husband worked for the American exhibition, there is a more direct reference in Legend that suggests Webster was using Oswald’s name: “The close coincidence between the movements of Oswald and Webster, as well as their not dissimilar physical appearance, possibly accounts for a number of mistaken identifications. Fritz Dieter Jaeger of the German Merchant Marine told the FBI in 1963 that he had met Oswald in Leningrad in 1961 and gone to the movies with him. It turned out that he had met Webster.” p.292, ibid.
*
6-week concentrated timeline of the Webster–Oswald defections:
September 4 —last day of the American National Exhibition in Moscow. In Santa Ana CA, Oswald is released from his MACS unit and goes to the local courthouse to apply for a passport which he receives Sept. 10
September 10 or 11 — Webster ‘disappears’, reportedly last seen at a party attended by KGB to celebrate his defection.
September 11 — Oswald is formally discharged from the active duty Marines. He arranges bus travel to Ft. Worth TX, arriving Sept. 14
September 15 — Krushchev, Atomic minister Emelyanov and entourage arrive in Washington D.C. for a goodwill tour. Oswald visits his brother’s family.
September 17 — Krushchev advises Ambassador Lodge, on the subject of nuclear test cessation, to ‘get intelligence operators into the Soviet Union.’ Later the same day, Oswald books an ocean passage to Europe on the S.S. Marion Lykes. He registers at the Liberty Hotel –his birth certificate is stolen, according to the FBI.
September 20 — Oswald sails for the port of LeHavre, France
September 21 — Webster is granted a Soviet passport.
*
Over the course of the next two weeks, Krushchev returns to the USSR and a U.S. Atomic Energy delegation headed by John Alex McCone arrives in Moscow.
*
October 8-10 — Oswald disembarks in France (8), ferries to U.K. (9), and flies to Helsinki (10) arriving at approx. midnight
October 11 — McCone and company ‘leave Moscow for Leningrad’. Webster is assumed to reside in Leningrad.
October 12 — Oswald applies for a Soviet visa at the consulate in Helsinki. He receives it October 14
October 14 — H.J. Rand, from the U.S., reports his former employee Webster is missing. Rand arranges travel to Leningrad.
October 17 — Rand and Bookbinder accompany Webster to Moscow where he defects from an OVIR office
October 18 — Webster and KGB girlfriend/co-worker leave together for a one month vacation in Sochi.
Oct. 17-19 — Oswald makes his first ‘attempt’ to defect. On Oct. 20, he is called to a meeting by Soviet authorities about defection.
*
*
AEC chief McCone’s official atomic exchange visit with the Soviets in October of 1959 presents a remarkable intrigue for coinciding with the Webster/Oswald defections.Had they revived the FBI/AEC Dual Agent program? Is this a display of coordinating the “same forces” controlling both men? The background of this timing plays out amidst thousands of professional ‘exchange’ visitors and tens of thousands of tourists crossing the Atlantic between the U.S. and USSR, not to mention visitors and defectors from other countries. The Lacy-Zaroubin Agreement signed in January of 1958 formalized a negotiated minimum of professional visitors; from scientists to ballet dancers to film crews and students. Ruth Paine is associated with a 1958 exchange student effort from the anti-nuclear Society of Friends in Philadelphia. Mind-control theme research from the guests and hosts of gnosticmedia.com relate that George DeMohrenschildt co-operated the Russian Student Fund with CIA- affiliated anthropologist R. Gordon Wasson.
   The relevance of questions concerning McCone’s oversight of Oswald is substantiated in the immediate aftermath of the assassination: McCone “rushed to Hickory Hill…to be with Bobby” and was present for the phone call confirming JFK’s death. “A few minutes later, he and Robert left the house and walked around the lawn, speaking privately…” These were the moments in which RFK asked McCone ‘if they had killed my brother’ according to RFK aide Walter Sheridan.   “McCone returned to [CIA] headquarters at around 1530, summoned the CIA Executive Committee… [I]ssued orders for all stations and bases… [and] directed that a special cable channel be established so that all [communication] traffic related to Lee Harvey Oswald..went to a central repository, and he sent a [blank] to Parkland Hospital..to coordinate activities with the Secret Service and the FBI. After the Secret Service obtained a graphic film of the assassination taken by.. Zapruder, McCone had the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) officers.. prepare briefing boards…”. In the months ahead, as the Warren Commission set upon its duties, “…DCCI Marshall Carter recalled that McCone said he would ‘handle the whole [commission] business myself, directly’…” http://www.nsarchiv2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB493/docs/intell_ebb_026.PDF
   In this 2015 ‘report’ by David Robarge, published by the CIA’s own Studies on Intelligence, is noted that “Mr. McCone withheld evidence the CIA secretly monitored Oswald’s mail after he attempted to defect… [and] it suggests the White House may have directed him to hide the information.” It just doesn’t say which White House.
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   John McCone, in a  1988 legacy interview, elaborated on a few features of his early career after graduating from UCBerkeley: “I knew Ernest Lawrence…an extraordinarily bright young man…And I saw him on and off until the war [WWII] started and he became involved with the Manhattan Project.” [Q: Did you know him when he was working on the first cyclotron?] “Yes, I raised some money in the early 1930s to help him develop his cyclotron…We are talking about a very small unit and small amounts of money –hundreds of dollars, not thousands…to build a little machine…  So, it wasn’t any great undertaking but it was the opening step in the whole area of [U.S.] nuclear science.” [Q: Tell us about your business interests after World War II.] “After the close of the war, we [e.g.Steve Bechtel] liquidared the shipbuilding companies… Then we returned, Mr. Bechtel and I, to our original objective of construction-engineering…[and] we had a shipping enterprise that I was very much interested in…And so we came back in the shipping business, with tankers and so on…  We had some manufacturing activities and the Joshua Hendy company in Sunnyvale [CA] and I was looking after those. And then in 1947, my life was kind of divided.. in government…[and] I wanted to do it. So, in the late 1940s I guess, I dissolved my interest with the Bechtels and acquired all of the equity in Hendy and directed that strictly toward the shipping business. I liked that type..of shipping that I was in, which was bulk movement of oil and ore…and I carried that on until 1970 when I liquidated all my business activities and retired.”
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* Joshua Hendy Iron Works, Sunnyvale : “Hendy was acquired in 1946 by Westinghouse to make equipment for electrical utilities” http://www.asme.org/about-asme/who-we-are/engineering-history/landmarks/34-joshua-hendy-iron-works/
“In the postwar period, the [Hendy] plant continued to produce military equipment including missile-launching and control systems for nuclear-powered submarines. It also produced.. nuclear power plant equipment.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Hendy_Iron_Works
Hendy today: U.S. Air Force Satellite Test Center, Onizuka Air Force Station, http://facilities.fhda.edu/_downloads/HABS Onizuka
“After the war, Mr. McCone took over the Joshua Hendy Corp., a shipping firm that operated a fleet of tankers and cargo vessels…” [obituary] https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1991/02/16/john-mccone-cia-director-for-kennedy-johnson-dies/…
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McCone, as president of Hendy, became a member of President Truman’s Air Policy Commission: “I had not served in government at all when President Truman, in 1947, appointed a five-man Air Policy Commission… Through the recommendations of the Air Force, with whom I had worked very closely, I was asked to..serve as a counselor to that commission…[But]..ahenry Ford, who was the fifth member, was asked to withdraw by his board of directors..[concerned about] conflict of interest. So he withdrew and the president asked me to take the fifth position…which I did..on the condition that I devote time to the military aspects and that others could devote their time to civil aviation. So I wrote the part of the report dealing with the military myself. I took that part..before it was released, over to [Sec.of Defense] Forrestal and he read it and said….’why don’t you come in and act as acting deputy [secretary of defense]… So the next day…it was agreed…  That’s the day that changed my life because it got me into government. I carried my business interests at the same time… The reson for that was that I was never committed exclusively to serving government as many men are. I preserved a two-track existence…[and] Throughout my business career…I was in close touch with military activities… [with] a respect for some of the officers and civilians that were involved in it. I had great respect for Forrestal, great respect for [John J.] McCloy and [Robert A.] Lovett…”
[conversation, The Eisenhower Years]
[Q: You served Eisenhower as head of the Atomic Energy Commission. Tell us about the argument that you made during that time concerning a possible test ban.]
“We were testing through the 1950s and there was a demand to stop it… [W]e made various attempts at a treaty which would suspend nuclear tests in the atmosphere. Everybody was in favor of it. It had to be a treaty that could be verified, so then they, the Soviets, proposed a moratorium. They said that they would not test. This was appealing to Eisenhower but it was not appealing to me as chairman of the [AEC] because our resources were detecting what they were doing. They would not guarantee against their violation of any arrangement. We wouldn’t know if they were continuing with development tests…[i.e] small weapons but large enough to advance the state-of-the-art as far as they were concerned. It posed a very tough argument to the president… pursued all the way through the last year of the Eisenhower administration and on into the Kennedy administration.”
[Q: Your first contacts with the Kennedy administration were also over the test ban issue?]
“There were several members of the Joint Committee [on Atomic Energy] who came to me and asked me if I would go and talk to President Kennedy…  I wouldn’t do it… [But] then after a little while [October 1961] the Soviets suddenly exploded a big bomb [the largest ever] that was detected… And at that point President Kennedy asked if I would come talk to him and I did. That was the first meeting on this subject…”
[Q: Did the debate on the test ban involve you in further controversy?]
“In 1956 Adlai Stevenson had made a speech in San Diego in which he advocated that the United States unilaterally abandon all testing of nuclear devices. He was quite sure that if we did, the Soviets would follow the lead. I violently opposed that approach because I didn’t think the Soviets would follow. I didn’t think we had the detection devices to know whether they were following for sure, and that became a source of argument….  In any event, we finally got an arrangement with the Soviets that was satisfactory. We improved our detection capabilities so that they could not light a match without our knowing it…”
[Q: When President Kennedy brought you in to offer you a government job, were you surprised?]
“Sure, I was very much surprised. I never expected to serve in his administration in any capacity.”
[Q: ..because you were a Republican?]
“Because I did not know Kennedy. And I did not know..any of the people who were in his administration. I made this report [for him] when the Soviets violated the test moratorium. I thought that was the end of it. Then he asked me to come in and see him, and he proposed to me that I become the director of Central Intelligence…  This surprised me…  and he said a very interesting thing…  ‘Now, there are only four people besides…Allen Dulles that know we are having this discussion  [and] I don’t want anybody else to know about it’ …So, I..[only] talked to my wife about it, and we decided to go ahead…”
—1987-1988 interview of John A. McCone by Harry Kreisler, alumni of UCBerkeley
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The old UCB Rad Lab (1920s and 1930s)**
                    **new Rad Lab c.1940
   **E.O. Lawrence’s first working cyclotron c.1928 **1932, Lawrence with a 27inch table top model*
   Around the same time (1988) that the elderly McCone was dusting off his remembrances for UCBerkeley, a new book about his business activities was due for release — “Friends in High Places” by Laton McCartney, which was predominantly a look into the Bechtel Corporation run by McCone’s friend and partner Stephen D. Bechtel (Sr.).  ***
   Bechtel, the family held corporation, boasts today that “We have designed or built more than half of the nuclear power plant construction projects in the U.S. and provided services on 88% of them over the years.” And this just for the U.S.
   The relationships making this possible revolve around McCone and date back no later than the early 1930s when the former UCBerkeley schoolmates, John McCone and Steve Bechtel, reconnected with each other in 1931, according to McCartney. Left out of ‘Friends’ is McCone’s early sponsorship of Ernest Lawrence and the Berkeley Rad Lab –the man and the lab that hired-on physicist Luis Alvarez in 1936. Alvarez’s sister was Lawrence’s devoted secretary. Luis Alvarez gave his approving imprimatur to the Warren Commission, the altered Zapruder film, the “shots from behind” and “single bullet” theories of the JFK assassination. Also missing from ‘Friends’ was the ownership of Joshua Hendy Iron Works by nuclear reactor builder and supplier Westinghouse.
   It was up to McCone as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, expressly selected, to carry on the work of his predecessor, Adm. Lewis L. Strauss, and preside over the moratorium and disarmament goals of the American president.
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NEXT: Atomic Oswald Three

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