Jennifer Lake's Blog

March 13, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, Part III

Part I: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/11/23/lewis-strauss-and-jfk/

Part II: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/01/23/lewis-strauss-and-jfk-part-ii/

Israel Gets The Bomb

Israel was the first of the [‘pariahs’] to..develop a nuclear arsenal… Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David Bergmann..an organic chemist..expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany he emigrated to Palestine where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] Bergmann, apparently, did not stay long in Palestine.

    “Bergmann’s father was one of the most eminent rabbis in Berlin and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann..then living in England…  In 1933..Weizmann arranged for young Bergmann to join him on the faculty of Manchester University..[where he] came to the attention of Frederick A. Lindemann, later [dubbed] Lord Cherwell, a German-born Oxford scientist… [The] Zionist movement in Palestine asked Weizmann in 1936 for a chemist to..produce high explosive for..[the] war against the Arabs and the British… Weizmann assigned the mission to Bergmann…” [p25, The Samson Option] Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: ‘He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it…'”[p26, ibid.]
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   “..Hebrew University’s Israel Dostrovsky [came to] play a key role in Israel’s..atomic weapons. Born in Russia in 1918, his family emigrated to Palestine the next year. His studies in..chemistry took him to London [where he was] awarded..a doctorate in 1943. After spending the next five years in England, [Dostrovsky] returned to Palestine in 1948 where he founded the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann [renamed from Sieff]. At the same time..[being] a major in the IDF Science Corps, he established Hemed Gemel, a special branch of the corps..[that made]..its first projects..sending geologists into the Negev desert in search of uranium.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb]
   Bergmann used his ‘guest scholar’ status in England to make high-explosives for the Hagannah to use against the British — he left the UK in 1940 for the United States and reconnoitered in New York with his ‘old friends’. Herman Mark, ‘father of polymer science’ who worked closely with Bergmann and became the dean of Brooklyn Polytechnic, had “turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. ‘The whole gang came to America,’ said Mark. [p25, The Samson Option] “ ‘Bergmann was anxious..’ said Mark,’that there shouldn’t be too much talk [about Israel’s bomb]. It was super-secret –just like the Manhattan Project.’ There was at least one early occasion, however, when Bergmann couldn’t resist sharing what he knew. Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy New York businessman and ardent advocate of statehood for Israel, was one of Ben-Gurion’s most important and trusted allies in the United States. By 1947, Feinberg was playing a major –and highly discreet– role in fundraising and White House lobbying [Truman’s admin.] for Israel..[and] the Democratic Party. He would operate at the highest levels between Washington and Jerusalem for the next two decades… One night over dinner, added Feinberg,’Bergmann’s eyes lit up and he said, ‘There’s uranium in the desert’. There was no question about the message –that a path was now cleared for Israel to develop the atomic bomb. Feinberg was astonished at such indiscreet talk: ‘I shushed him up,’” [p27, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh]
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   Dostrovsky “joined the Weizmann in 1948, shortly before its dedication. Immediately upon joining the staff of Weizmann, he was appointed director of the isotope research department, a position he held for 17 years…” Over the early course of those responsibilities, Dostrovsky also became “chairman of the desalination committee.”  http://www.jpost.com/HealthAndSci-Tech/ScienceAndEnvironment/Article.aspx?id=189590
Bergmann and the French not only got it done in the Negev..but they kept it secret.” [p23, The Samson Option] “No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist [who worked on the Manhattan Project]..and expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction.[p30]…His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family…  Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Bergmann for a memorable meeting with Ben-Gurion..in the Negev…[footnote:] ‘We had a long discussion about atomic energy,’ Goldschmidt recalls. ‘Ben-Gurion asked me how long would it take for nuclear desalination to make the Negev desert bloom? –a favorite Ben-Gurion question. I said fifteen years. He started scolding me..we could do it much faster.’” [p31, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh]
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   Israeli collaboration with the French appears at the initiation of Francis Perrin: “Perrin was important… A socialist who fled [France] to England in 1940… he became friendly with Bergmann..and traveled to Tel Aviv in 1949. It was after that visit that some Israeli scientists were permitted..[in] Saclay..atomic research center near Versailles.”[p29, The Samson Option] Unmentioned by Hersh is that Francis Perrin was part of the small team attempting an atomic bomb in the Sahara in 1939 with the backing of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. Perrin used his 1940 entree in England as a way station to the US where he resettled in New York with his family, including his father, Jean Baptiste Perrin, a once scientific rival of Pierre Curie. Some years after Curie’s death, Jean Perrin was supported with Rothschild funding to establish the Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the Sorbonne. Friendship with Bergmann was likely to have evolved in New York during the war.
>>>see Part II ‘comments’ for more about the death of Pierre Curie.
   Attaining nuclear weapons in either France or Israel was dependent on removing obstacles as in the US: “The French debate revolved around..Frederic Joliot-Curie [a noted French Communist]..who was opposed to a French role in NATO and any French link to nuclear weapons. In 1950, [Joliot] was the first to sign the Stockholm Appeal, a Soviet-backed petition [issued by the World Peace Council] calling for a ban on all nuclear weapons…  Joliot-Curie was dismissed after signing the Appeal..[and] replaced by Pierre Guillaumat [..French secret intelligence]..and Francis Perrin, [who was] the first to publish a formula for calculating the critical mass of uranium...  A critical decision..came in 1951 when..[Pierre] Guillaumat authorized..a natural uranium-fueled reactor capable of producing..about twenty-two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year… The decision to produce..plutonium would irrevocably propel France down the road to a nuclear bomb, as..the Israelis had to know.” [p29, The Samson Option]
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And so it began –an isotope research program for use in water desalination and reclamation.
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JFK
Kennedy was a third-term congressman in October 1951 when he left for a 7-week junket to Asia with a first stop in Paris “at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)..on October 3” to meet Eisenhower. From there, along with his brother Bobby, sister Pat, and Congressman Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., the party traveled on to Palestine. “The two brothers had never spent such an extended period together, and these weeks defined their relationship for the rest of their lives.” [p284, The Kennedy Men] “In Israel both Jack and Bobby kept extensive diaries, and there is scarcely any overlap in their accounts. Jack stood back from the..hatreds and emotions… As always with Jack, the omnipresent threat in the world lay in the Soviet empire… One evening in Jerusalem, [they] went to the modest home of Prime Minister..Ben-Gurion for dinner… [JFK] was an observer of men, and by the evidence of his diary, he did not impose himself on this evening as much as take the measure of those around him, including the American ambassador, Monnett Bain Davis, several other Israeli ministers, and..Roosevelt Jr… Like his mother, he was considered a friend of Israel. FDR’s namesake was the center of this evening, not Jack… ‘It was almost as if we weren’t there,’ Bobby recalled…  Roosevelt asked the inevitable question: Could there be a real peace between Arab and Jew? ‘It depended..on the peoples wishes,’ the prime minister said. ‘Present government [is] not concerned with peace’… Ambassador Davis boldly told Ben-Gurion that the Arab states were afraid of Israel. ‘How could Egypt with its large population be frightened,’ Ben-Gurion replied with rhetorical flourish. ‘We wouldn’t want to go back to Egypt again. We had enough the first time.” [p286, ibid.]
>>> 1952 –July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
   “In this part of the world,” wrote Kennedy biographer Leamer, “history was written with blood and vengeance, and a man who entered politics knew that he might die…   Four days after Jack and Bobby met with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan, he was assassinated. In his diary Jack noted that ‘assassinations have taken a heavy toll of leaders in Middle and Far East,’ and then made a list of some of the murders. Jack tallied seventeen assassinations in the past four years alone. From Mahatma Gandhi in India to Folke Bernadotte in Palestine, murders..changed history the way few laws or mandates ever could.” [p288, The Kennedy Men]
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NOTE: Israel Dostrovsky achieved a succession of appointments in his government’s atomic weapons program including chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) followed by the vice-presidency of the Weizmann Institute under Albert Sabin, creator of the oral (OPV) polio vaccine. Sabin was president of the Weizmann Institute over the course of 1971-1972 when the biology programs there were exploring the uses of SV40 monkey virus as a transgenic (mutation) agent. Dostrovsky succeeded Sabin as Weizmann president in 1972. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists published Dostrovsky’s article describing his water program –an evidently perfect cover for the activities at Dimona to which the Israelis acknowledged (‘desalination’), finally, to the Kennedy administration. “Water For Israel”, which includes ‘cheap water’ from cloud seeding and the total capture of Palestine’s water supply, is an instructive read: http://books.google.co.il/books?id=4gsAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=
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At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents, real and fancied. After a short time [RFK] transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him… He loved what he was doing…” Nevertheless, Robert Kennedy answered the call to “come up and take over” JFK’s campaign for the Senate. ” ‘We couldn’t win relying on the Democratic political machine,’ Robert said later,’so we had to build our own machine.‘ ” [p94, Robert Kennedy and His Times, Schlesinger]
   The Democrats, nationally, were taking the hit for not merely tolerating but employing communist subversives at high levels of  government: “Harry Dexter White [‘a Russian spy!’] assistant secretary of the Treasury under Roosevelt [Morganthau] had died in 1948 while the House Un-American Activities Committee was searching his past for evidence of espionage. According to [Atty. Gen. Herbert] Brownell both Democratic presidents had appointed White..despite warnings from the FBI.” [p149, No Sacrifice Too Great]
    “National politics and national security are always to some extent interrelated, but in the years of the Truman presidency the relationship became problematic. Trust leeched out of the political system, loyalties waned, betrayal became common. Communism..achieved astonishing influence not in its own right, much less on its own behalf, but as an agent for poisoning American politics.” –Daniel Patrick Moynihan, http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/m/moynihan-secrecy.html
Meanwhile…
Machinery of other sorts were rolling onto the battleground. Colonel Boris Pash, formerly “Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast.. [who] spent much of his career hunting communists… considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy.”[p190, American Prometheus] After his ALSOS Europe mission and following attachment to MacArthur in Tokyo, Pash’s next assignment came “In March 1949.. detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination where he oversaw programs in West Germany for three years. Pash then ran special forces planning..in Austria from 1952-1953“… http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
   During this time, Pash organized a special operations unit for the CIA called PB7, said to be an assassination squad. Pash, years later before a congressional committee, denied it conducted assassinations.  Mr. Pash:It was not an assassination unit. In the first place..I was never an employee of the Agency. I was detailed from the Army for a normal tour of duty to the Agency..and then I was assigned and left for Austria in 1952 as Special Forces Unconventional Warfare Planning Officer. In 1954..[to] early ’56 I was in the Presidio of San Francisco as a deputy G-2 in charge of security..” Mr. Baron:“Let me ask you a particular question..brought to our attention by Artie Lazarus… He said that when he first joined you in PB7, you asked him to read the charter of PB7… [He] said it contained some specific language about PB7 being responsible for assassinations, kidnappings and other such functions as may be assigned by higher authority. Now do you recall that part of the charter of PB7?” Mr. Pash:I don’t recall that particular wording…It could have been there without my recalling it…” Mr. Baron: “..were you aware of any assassination plans or attempts?” Mr. Pash:No, I never heard that. There was a small incident..[with a] group of branch chiefs or something like that in Plans and Policy…a discussion with regard to denying the Soviets certain types of individuals…This woman gets out and says why don’t we murder them?…And that’s allMr. Baron: “But it would be your testimony that..you never heard such a plan with such a request?” Mr. Pash: “..No, never….[In 1954] I said that the only time..assassination would be justified was if somebody could categorically state that if it was not done..the safety of the United States was at stake..in other words, if you don’t do it the United States is destroyed..and you have no other way to stop [it]..I think it’s all right…” www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?docId=1430&relPageId=23
   Pash seemingly had good recall on when he thought assassination became “all right”. Throughout 1953 he was helping Lewis Strauss and J.Edgar Hoover construct a disloyalty case against Robert Oppenheimer, brought to an AEC tribunal in 1954. During the war, “On June 29,1943, ..Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer be denied a security clearance and fired.” [p233, American Prometheus]. He agitated against Oppenheimer to such an extent that he was given an overseas assignment –AlSOS.
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As usual, the Education Forum members have interesting notes about Pash: “Pash’s subordinate, Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa for a number of years”….”Is that Pash [ marked ‘unknown man’ in the photo] standing next to LBJ at Parkland Hospital?”….”I found that Pash, postwar, maintained an office at Oak Ridge”….”There’s a Boris Pash/Sidney Gottlieb connection with the Health Alteration Committee”….etc. http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=3868&st=15
    A further note on Pash to illustrate (and belabor) a previously mentioned point of using medical institutions to cover for weapons development occurred during ALSOS’s decisive 1944 push into the Nazis’ last holdouts. “The rumours.. [about a Nazi A-bomb] continued to circulate until November when the advancing Allied forces took Strasbourg. It was here that they believed a number of eminent physicists, including von Weizacker and Fleischmann, had been working on the bomb…Within hours, Pash and his ‘Strasbourg Task Force’ had located the university’s physics laboratory. It was in the wing of a local hospital and [the] physicists were found there posing as doctors.” [p109, Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds, by Peter Goodchild]
   In the United States, they did not merely “pose” as doctors but practiced.
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Strauss’s assistant William T. Golden prepared this memo about Sloan-Kettering in 1950: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius “Dusty”] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants… He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.” http://archives.aaas.org/golden/doc.php?gold_id=80
   At some future point on this blog, I hope to write up my thought experiments on the Peaceful Uses of Cancer as a complementary enterprise to the Peaceful Uses of the Atom. In this early ’50s window of time, however, it constitutes future-pacing a problem which was then manisfesting as poliomyelitis.
   The Health Physics field chartered itself in 1947 with the tasks of ”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys… studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains..eaten and metabolized by higher forms… Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods… [concluding that] Large scale biological work is mandatory” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/health-physics/
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Radiation
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes [polio] myelitis:   http://www.doh.wa.gov/hanford/publications/health/mon9.htm  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed…. Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure… When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.”
A Radiation effects source document used by military planners describes damage: “The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage.. has been well documented… [S]peculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system… …hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation… vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS… ….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation… “It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…” http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil/outreach/pdf/tmm/chapter7/chapter7.pdf .
Some the of materials in the above are cited in the National Security Archives, a project of George Washington University
Listed in http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/research/pubs/titles.txt are additional entries such as these:
–“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H.. Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904. Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
–“Muller, H.J.. Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science 66:84-87.##”
–“Stern, S.. Report of thirty-one cases of therapeutic abortion induced by roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
Note the years: 1904, 1927, 1928
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Hmm….fallout vaccine, anyone?
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Stacking the Commission
By the end of Strauss’s [first] term, the other commissioners, many members of the AEC staff, and most scientists regarded him as a tough, obstinate, and tenacious opponent of the free exchange they desired. For these people, Strauss was the symbol of narrow realism; he, on the other hand, had identified J. Robert Oppenheimer as a symbol of those who, whether disloyal or merely naive, did not support the fight against Communism with full enthusiasm.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss stood One-to-Four against his fellow commissioners in the fall of 1949. They were not willing to endorse building H-bombs which were already being touted in the press as 1,000 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The GAC (General Advisory Committee), nine-member body of scientists that counseled the AEC of which Oppenheimer was its de facto spokesman, were nearly unanimous against the Super. Strauss allies, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarez, and Edward Teller, flew in to Washington and launched a counteroffensive of intense lobbying. No one had yet been officially told about the  atomic spy-ring in Los Alamos. According to Moynihan’s essay on ‘Secrecy’, Truman was never told about the Venona radio decrypts.
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   “On Sunday, November 7, as the Strausses relaxed in their suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Senator McMahon [on the Joint Congressional Committee for Atomic Energy] telephoned..[and] brought the welcome news that Commissioner Gordon Dean, whom McMahon had placed on the AEC, had been converted into an advocate of the super. Now the AEC was divided three to two… On November 23, when the debate over the superbomb was at its height, the White House announced that Chairman Lilienthal planned to resign… Washington gossip identified Strauss as a possible replacement for Lilienthal.” [pp118-119, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss, too, had already planned to resign. “‘I don’t want you to resign,’ [Truman told Strauss] …[but] did not press Strauss to remain [rather] asked who the new chairman should be; Strauss endorsed Gordon Dean, the first to join him in favor of the super…” [p125, ibid.] Like Lilienthal’s promotion out of the AEC, acquired with the help of Albert Lasker, Strauss himself arranged for Chairman Dean to join Lehman Brothers on his exit (in 1953).
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“[W]hen the  time came to seek a replacement for his own seat on the AEC, Strauss remembered  the 45-year old Case president. While some of the Democratic Congressmen involved in the search preferred the appointment of AEC General Counsel Joseph A. Volpe Jr., Strauss used his connections in the White House and the Pentagon to secure Glennan’s appointment…”
   T. Keith Glennan, later, NASA’s first chief, was recruited by Strauss. [Glennan interview:]”Needell: Tell me about Strauss… He’s a rather strong character, I understandGlennan: “Strong and strange… [I was] asked if I would permit my name to be considered for a post as a Commissoner of the AEC. I said, “You must be crazy. I don’t know the first thing about an atom. I don’t know about a reactor. I don’t know anything about nuclear energy…  [AEC used the] building originally built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It was the first one they were in, on Constitution Avenue, right next to the Federal Reserve Board… I got there in 1 October, 1950″…  http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/TRANSCPT/GLENNAN4.HTM
   “Before Strauss left the AEC, he was offered a place on the Federal Reserve Board, which he turned down as too routine.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Brien McMahon arranged a post on the Atomic Plant Expansion panel and Laurance Rockefeller hired him to manage the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where he co-incorporated The Population Council. At the outbreak of the Korean War, a 3-billion-dollar appropriation was assigned to the AEC for development.
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GLENNAN: “..it was not a very collegial Commission at that time… I remember Tom Murray calling me names. Things of that kind… We searched for a man to replace [AEC General Manager] Carroll Wilson and finally came up with a Vice President of Esso [Exxon, or Standard Oil of New Jersey]– Marion Boyer– who worked out well..as..Wilson’s replacement… [The] general manager from then on took part in all of [the] executive sessions…  There was Sumner Pike and [Henry] Smythe and [Gordon] Dean and Tom MurrayEugene Zuckert replaced Sumner Pike…He came I think from the Air Force, Assistant Secretary to Symington over there…  We were concerned with increasing our ability to turn out the weapons grade materials… While I was there, we made the deal with South Africa to take the tailings from the gold cyaniding process, which ultimately provides a lot of uranium… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum.  NEEDELL: Did you meet regularly with people like Lawrence? GLENNAN: Yes. Lawrence saw to it that we did. He was an aggressive person… he came in and lobbied the Commission. He’d spend a lot of time alone with Gordon Dean… NEEDELL: You opposed the MTA. [Materials Testing Accelerator, heart of the Livermore Lab] GLENNAN: Yes, just on an engineering basis… The things we were short of were enrichment plants and raw materials and the rest of the fuel cycle. NEEDELL: Now, the MTA was going to be a production facility… you had to somehow meet the challenge of getting more production facilities. GLENNAN: Exactly… Teller wanted to do it and Lawrence wanted to do it. That was the argument…  I got along well with Ernest. With Teller.. not well. I found myself opposing him… and I finally said, “Balls, Edward–all you want is another chance to have some tests to improve the weapons… We got into arguments…  COLLINS: You indicated that one of your interests as a Commission member was somehow working out that government-industry relationship. GLENNAN:”..I finally reasoned that the people who were really doing the work were industry. The scientists had the General Advisory Committee…The public had the Congress, and industry got.. a lot of complaints. … If, as we all then believed, nuclear power was going to be useful and possible, they ought to be in on the ground floor with it… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum, for just this purpose, at a meeting of the Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, on 25 November, 1952. I proposed it in just the way I’ve been discussing it now, that industry really ought to get in with both feet and play a part in the development of a nuclear power industry, and not simply take what came out of the interests of scientists.http://airandspace.si.edu/research/dsh/TRANSCPT/GLENNAN4.HTM
Atomic Industrial Forum: “The AIF was formally incorporated on April 10, 1953 in New York and marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. The first Executive Director of AIF was Charles Robbins… As a nonprofit trade association the AIF advocated the peaceful uses of atomic energy and increasing the role of the private sector in its development. Its first order of business was to advocate revising the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to allow and foster the commercial ownership of non weapons nuclear facilities, such as production of radioactive isotopes and nuclear power plants.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Industrial_Forum
“Mr. Robbins, who helped found the forum in the late 1940’s, was a former member of the national advertising staff of The New York Times and had been with Bozell & Jacobs, a New York advertising firm.”  [Bozell was a family affair; Leo Bozell Jr., Robbins nephew, married the sister of William F. Buckley] http://www.nytimes.com/1989/08/11/obituaries/charles-e-robbins-executive-83.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Brent_Bozell_Jr.; “Robbins had been the managing editor of the Wall Street Journal and later the president of the Atomic Industrial Forum.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Frederick_Robbins
William F. Buckley, “son..of a Texas oil millionaire..joined the Central Intelligence Agency [in 1951]” and became a writer and publisher. His second “book, coauthored with Bozell, was an unabashed attempt to defend a family friend: Joe McCarthy… In September 1960, Buckley, Douglas Caddy and Marvin Liebman established the far right group Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)..to [oppose] John F. Kennedy in the forthcoming presidential election.” http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/mobile/JFKbuckleyW_full.htm (sumitted as an example of dot-connecting, typical of Lewis L. Strauss’s relationship hierarchy)
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When Strauss, who like other retired commissioners was a consultant to the Joint Committee [the JCAE, with McMahon as chair] saw the report of the panel [General Advisory Committee]..chaired by Oppenheimer in December 1950, he concluded Oppenheimer was working against the United States.. [p131, No Sacrifice Too Great] Whether consciously or not, Oppenheimer was helping the Soviet Union… In the interest of national security, Strauss concluded, he must safeguard the AEC from Oppenheimer’s influence. Strauss started his campaign..[on] Fevruary 9, 1951…his purpose was clear: the AEC must get rid of Oppenheimer.” [132, ibid.]
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Brien McMahon and Prescott Bush
James O’Brien McMahon, a Yale educated lawyer,  first came to Washington in 1933 as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General. He resigned Justice in 1939, but stayed in D.C. to practice law until persuaded by fellow Democrats to run for the Senate in 1944 from his home state of Connecticut. Known for his energy and eloquence, McMahon authored the compromise (to the May-Johnson) bill that granted civilian control over atomic weapons and power, adopted as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. “[A] real fight began..when it was suggested that McMahon head the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. It was unheard of to allow a freshman senator to chair a Congressional Committee….   In 1952 Brien McMahon decided to run for President of the United Stateshis main platform was to insure world peace through fear of atomic weapons. The campaign was cut short however when it was discovered in June 1952 that McMahon was terminally ill with cancer. On July 27, 1952, despite that he had withdrawn his candidacy and despite his inablity to attend the Democratic National Convention the delegates from the state of Connecticut unanimously nominated McMahon as their choice for President of the United States. The following morning Brien McMahon fell into a coma and died…” at the age of 48. http://www.library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/mcmscope.htm
Had he lived, McMahon would have been John F. Kennedy’s most formidable Democratic presidential challenger.
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“Shortly after” Prescott Bushwon a special Senate election in 1952 (which was called to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Brien McMahon)  …Prescott Bush was not known as a conservative Republican in Washington.” http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1988-12-14/news/8802250340_1_george-bush-sen-prescott-bush-reagan-democrats; Bush had been a Greenwich, Connecticut resident since joining W.A.Harriman &Co. in 1926 where he was made the international director of Harriman-controlled U.S. Rubber –along with Philips Electronics, a sponsor of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond, secret intelligence. (see part II).
   In 1928, the Harriman’s bought out Dresser Industries and “installed an old friend, H. Neil Mallon, at the helm.” [p24, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker] Two years after that, they merged with Brown Brothers. Prescott, “At Yale in 1916..had become close friends with his classmate Roland ‘Bunny’ Harriman…Both Harrimans, like Prescott Bush, were initiates of..Skull and Bones.” [p16, ibid.] ..”In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation [from Cleveland] to Dallas which..was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite. Though a virtual unknown on his arrival, Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the nonprofit Council on World Affairs…a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations…  Mallon’s Dallas Council..may have had some kind of sanction at the highest levels. [p29] Following Ike’s decisive victory..the administration was filled with Bush allies, including national security advisor Gordon Gray, a close friend of Prescott’s…” [p30, Family of Secrets] Prescott also pitched his first political campaign for the Senate in 1950 and lost, rejected by Connecticut voters. His appointment to McMahon’s office kept him from having to run again until 1956.
   The fact of Prescott Bush taking McMahon’s seat on the Joint Committee for Atomic Energy, whether or not he also took the power, is being/has been scrubbed off the record. According to Baker, “the extended Bush clan truly represented a kind of private-public business combine. For example, within months of Prescott being named to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, [George Herbert Walker Jr., Poppy’s uncle] formed a partnership to invest in commercial nuclear energy businesses.” [p33, Family of Secrets]
   Another of Poppy’s uncles, brother of G.H. and Dorothy Walker, Dr. John M. Walker, became the President of Sloan Kettering Institute in 1965 (to 1974). Ironically “Walker had a private practice [Greenwich, CT] until he was diagnosed with polio in 1950…he would eventually need a wheelchair.” The Walkers also lost a daughter to polio in 1955.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_M._Walker
>>>The vast Harriman fortune, just as a reminder, resulted when “Jacob Schiff joined forces with Harriman to reorganize the Union Pacific” and takeover a number of other railroads. http://www.raken.com/american_wealth/Bankers_Gilded_Age/Kuhn-Loeb_5.asp
>>>Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Elisha Walker, if not a close relative of George Herbert Walker, was still in business with him: both Walkers were directors of American International Corp. (est.1915) along with Otto Kahn, Percy Rockefeller, Pierre duPont, et.al. http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/53/belgrano.html; Elisha Walker was also a joint owner of Julius Kayser and Co., later merged (c.1943) and owned by Kennedy campaign fundraiser Abraham Feinberg. (see stock certificate http://scripophily.net/julkaycospec.html; is that Eugene Meyer listed as the first of five owners?)
Elisha Walker was chairman of Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32 and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32 [founder Amadeo Giannini]; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist at Memorial Hospital [Sloan Kettering], N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)” http://www.smokershistory.com/PHoffman.htm
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Politics
Kennedy, in the meantime, was compelled to run the Massachusetts race against Eisenhower’s presidential campaign manager, the ‘very busy’ Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., winning by a 3% margin. “The Massachusetts representatives did tend to emphasize the plight of United Fruit…  the region ‘has made a specialty of Latin America’ and..’over 90% of New England’s foreign investment is in Latin America, a large part being..United Fruit Company… this investment was being threatened by the Communists…[and] Guatemala had developed into a ‘situation of great peril’… Thomas Dudley Cabot..had been..president [1948-49] of United Fruit and its registrar bank, the First National Bank of Boston…” [p117, The CIA in Guatemala, Richard H. Immerman]
>>>Thomas Dudley Cabot (1897-1995), CEO of Cabot Corporation 1922-1960 [chemicals, aerogels, drilling fluids]; worked for Truman’s State Department “in charge of a U.S. program arming allies throughout the world…In 1953, Cabot also served as a consultant on a special development mission in Egypt [coups in Egypt and Iran 1953]… Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.[was] also..a director of United Fruit.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Dudley_Cabot
    With James Forrestal dead, Eisenhower’s Republican rival was Strauss’s old friend from “Hoover’s Relief” days, Robert A. Taft. “Strauss supported his friend Bob Taft..[whose] strong points were similar to Strauss’s…[except that Taft]..clung to an isolationism…more suited to the 1920s’..” [p136, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   As the 83rd Congress convened, Robert Taft led the Majority Republicans and Lyndon Johnson was elected to lead the Democrats. “In 1953, the convergence of unusual circumstances gave the Democrats the plurality of the Senate’s membership while the Senate Republicans maintained their majority party status.”– go figure. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/People_Leaders_Knowland.htm; Taft soon relinquished party leadership to California’s William Knowland.
 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was appointed by Eisenhower, on his third day in office, to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (held to Sep. 1960).
   “The day after the election, the Scripps-Howard newspapers interviewed McCarthy [R-Wis.] and were told that he planned ‘an entirely different role’ for himself..[p187, Senator Joe McCarthy, Richard Rovere] In what remained of the Truman years, McCarthy was nothing but an engine of denunciation… he denounced and accused and blamed and insulted and vilified and demeaned. He was a pure delight now..and the Republican organizations were in hot competition to have him come in with a load of documents on anyone who was giving them trouble.” [p179,ibid.] ..”They planned to take advantage of the atmosphere McCarthy had helped so greatly to create and at the same time to control McCarthy by directing his attention… I [Rovere] remember being told exactly this by Senator Taft early in January of 1953… Taft knew that McCarthy was dangerous..,” [p187, ibid.]..[but] felt he had engineered a brilliant coup by bottling McCarthy up in Government Operations, where he would spend his days studying reports…and by letting the furor over Communism expire under the deadening [mediocre] touch of Jenner and Velde. ‘We’ve got McCarthy where he can’t do ant harm,’ [Taft] said. He went on to say that..he himself had never thought that Communists represented half as serious a menace as the Left liberals and welfare-statists.” [p188, Senator Joe McCarthy]
   “Taft was a tall and large-framed man who posessed exceptional physical stamina and good health until April 1953. Family and colleagues were stunned when..a widespread and rapidly advancing cancer..claim[ed] his life by the end of July.” http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Robert_Alphonso_Taft.aspx
   “Taft’s bottle for McCarthy had never been corked. McCarthy simply poured himself out.” [p190, Senator Joe McCarty]
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   “On February 10, 1953, three weeks after Eisenhower entered office, AEC Chairman Dean submitted his resignation…shortly after Dean announced his resignation, John A. Wheeler, a physicist at Princeton [IAS], who was consultant to the AEC, lost a copy of a highly classified, extensively technical description of..thermonuclear weapons. Obviously, the AEC must tighten up security; who better than Strauss, with his reputation for protecting secrets, to do so. Senators Taft, Byrd, and Hickenlooper all urged Strauss to accept.” [p137, ibid.]
*
As soon as he took office, Eisenhower searched for some way to bring home the awful realities of the nuclear age to the American people… and in July, when he appointed Lewis Strauss to head the Atomic Energy Commission… on the day that Strauss was sworn in, Eisenhower took him into the Oval Office..and said: ‘Lewis, let us be certain about this; my chief concern and your first assignment is to find some new approach to the disarming of atomic energy… The world simply must not go on living in the fear of the terrible consequences of nuclear war.’…[In] August 1953, [Eisenhower] learned that the Russians had detonated their first hydrogen explosion…” [p111, Eisenhower and the Cold War, by Robert A. Divine]
>>>according to AEC liason Robert LeBaron, the Soviets detonated an H-bomb in 1950 or ’51, prior to the successful Teller-Ulam tests of 1951-52. Teller required the help of his Los Alamos assistant Frederick de Hoffman, later the founder of General Atomics (1957) and longtime president of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
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Chairman of the AEC
Strauss brought a new style of management to the Atomic Energy Commission… he replaced the informal, rambling seminars of his predecessors Lilienthal and Dean with crisp, formal sessions designed to produce quick decisions rather than slowly evolving concensus. Forceful, determined, and impatient once he had made up his own mind, Strauss dragged the other commissioners along… Eisenhower’s defense policy rested on the deterrent power of the hydrogen bomb… aggression by threatening to strike the Soviet Union with overwhelming force… called ‘massive retaliation’ or the ‘New Look’…” [p144, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss’s style of management [dictated that] At each meeting Strauss announced what he planned to do, then addressed each commissioner in turn for comments. In this atmosphere, none of them dared oppose Strauss…”  [p175, ibid.]
Whoever mastered a thermonuclear explosion employing a dry isotope of hydrogen [instead of the super-cooled liquid] would have the first deliverable [H]bomb.” [p145, ibid.]
   The return of LLS to the AEC chair was the fulfillment of a three-year campaign: by February of 1951 “he warned [Gordon] Dean that the thermonuclear program was not moving quickly enough. He accused Oppenheimer of ‘sabotaging the project’ and added that ‘something radical’ must be done…[he] did not suggest what, but his purpose was clear.” [p132, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “The Greenhouse test [Marshall Islands, April and May 1951] proved the Teller-Ulam design would work, but considerable technical effort remained… Teller and Strauss hoped the AEC would establish a second laboratory [the Livermore, CA lab] to further work on fusion..[and] remove the hydrogen bomb from Los Alamos where they believed Oppenheimer exercised excessive influence… Among the many influential men who thought so were Strauss, Teller, AEC Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, GAC [advisory panel] member Willard F. Libby and Berkeley Dean Kenneth S. Pitzer. All but Strauss voiced their suspicion of Oppenheimer..to the FBI..” [p133, ibid.]
   The October tests of 1952, Operation Ivy’s ‘Mike’ shot, “Three years plus a month after Strauss first called for a hydrogen bomb, [‘Mike’] transformed the atoll of Elugelab in the Eniwetok chain into a coral crater” by aerosolizing 100 million tons of soil and water. Biographer Pfau wrote, “the process obviously worked… By this time, only five [of nine] members of the GAC that had followed Oppenheimer..in 1949 remained… his two closest..allies, Lee A. DuBridge and James Conant..stepped down… the other two veterans –Isidor I. Rabi and Oliver E. Buckley– backed away from Oppenheimer’s advocacy..to become at least lukewarm supporters of the fusion weapon.” [p134, ibid.]
>>>Buckley was the president (1940-1951) of Bell Laboratories. Isidor Rabi was later sent to Israel’s Dimona plant as a U.S. inspector.
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    The significance of the Oppenheimer case, and the way in which Strauss handled it, is an indispensable display of method prior to the JFK assassination. Oppenheimer was proposing in essence the policy of flexible response eventually recommended to, and adopted by Kennedy.  “Strauss would use every resource he could mobilize to win the case.” [p160, No Sacrifice Too Great] and having an appropriate Commander-in-Chief on his side was required.
   “Taft’s opponent was General Dwight D. Eisenhower..[and] the contest was very close, but Eisenhower won..[helped] especially by a group from Texas that Taft was accused of stealing. The contested delegations helped put Eisenhower over the top…” [p136, ibid.]. It was also the refusal of the presidentially ambitious Earl Warren of California, who lost early in the convention polls, to cede his supporters to Robert Taft.
   Eisenhower assumed office, AEC Chairman Dean resigned, John Wheeler lost his H-bomb manual, and Strauss “quietly took control of atomic policy.” [p138, No Sacrifice Too Great] “On March 30, 1953, he presented a set of recommendations to the National Security Council.. [in] the context of the president’s desire to reduce the size of the federal budget [with] proposed savings of half a billion dollars in the atomic energy program by paring away nonessential spending… [He] pointed out that the stockpile of nuclear weapons..[had] potential for great benefit… [T]he fissionable material in the bombs could be converted into fuel for reactors. So, it was a good policy to continue the manufacture of weapons… Strauss recommended major reductions in spending in three areas: the cost of security, to be achieved by declassifying as much data as possible; the cost of weapons tests…and the cancellation of $200 million allocated for a reactor to drive..an aircraft carrier. The National Security Council and the president approved all of Strauss’s recommendations. By canceling the large ship reactor..he left [Adm. Hyman] Rickover angry.” [p149, ibid.]
   “Eisenhower nominated Strauss [to the AEC chair]..on June 24..and three days later the full Senate confirmed him without a ripple of dissent. On July 2, surrounded by family and friends in the president’s office, Strauss took the oath of office again. [p141] Strauss had marked the Bible on which he took the oath at a well-known passage… Micah 4:3,And He shall judge between many peoples and shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” [p142]
   “There was a poignant note to the ceremony: Bob Taft was making his last visit to the White House where he had lived as a boy and where he hoped to live as a man… Three separate medical examinations [at Walter Reed, NYU, and Sloan Kettering] confirmed..a fast growing cancer had reached its final stage, but he insisted on attending..limping painfully on crutches. Taft died within the month.” [pp143-144, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Strauss wrote: “Only a few weeks earlier, I had sat with him at his home in Georgetown, where, behind closed doors..I brought him a final and terrible verdict from Dr. Cornelius Rhoads of Memorial Hospital in New York. It was the diagnosis that multiple metastases of a cancer would take his life… After a long silence, he asked if there was anything to be done… I told him..odds were very long against..his case.” [p335, Men and Decisions]
Had he lived, Robert Taft would have challenged Eisenhower’s second term.
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J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and Strauss claimed to have first met each other in the course of picking Japanese targets in mid- 1945.  About this same time, LLS replaced Lessing J. Rosenwald on the Board of Trustees of Princeton IAS, “and when Frank Aydelotte prepared to retire as director, Strauss headed the committee to select his replacement.” [p92, No Sacrifice Too Great] “At first, Strauss and Oppenheimer appeared to get along well..[p93]” but soon “fought over atomic policy, at first secretly and then openly beginning in the summer of 1947. One issue was atomic power. Whereas many people expected atomic energy to lead mankind into a golden age of cheap, plentiful electricity, Oppenheimer..sought to quell such unrealistic hopes…and warned that nuclear power would not provide ‘any considerable portion’ of the world’s electricity for [at least] twenty years.” [p99, ibid.]
*
On his return to the AEC, “Strauss attached only one condition to his acceptance, he told [Eisenhower]: Oppenheimer could not be ‘connected in any way’ with the AEC.” [p139, No Sacrifice Too Great] “In June of 1953 McCarthy was considering an attack on Oppenheimer. As soon as Strauss learned [of it] he wrote Senator Taft that it would be ‘ill-advised and impolitic’ for McCarthy to proceed. His reasons..were that ‘some of the so-called evidence will not stand up…and the present is not the time.’ FBI Director Hoover and Vice-President..Nixon also helped turn McCarthy away from Oppenheimer…” [p140, ibid.] …”While Strauss..looked for proof of Oppenheimer’s disloyalty, he sponsored an increase in Oppenheimer’s salary...[which] may have been designed to keep Oppenheimer from recognizing the depth of Strauss’s hostility toward him.” [p148, ibid.]
   Oppenheimer was less than right this time on the power issue –it took longer. Even though a commercial plant was opened in Shippingport, PA in 1955, the US taxpayers footed its operations for years while it served as a model for attracting private operators to nuclear power generation. The Shippingport operators sold the electricity and kept the earnings.
   On July 7, 1953, five days after his swearing-in, Strauss “acted quickly to cut off Oppenheimer’s access to the AEC’s secrets… [He] ordered the AEC Security Division to phase out the classified library that Oppenheimer maintained [at Princeton’s IAS] and replace it with a new facility under the commission’s direct charge..and control..” [p145, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss also wrote to the FBI and requested a reinvigoration of the atomic dual-agent program: memos from August indicate that “if the Director felt it advisable, Strauss..had certain programs in mind which would incidentally, if put into effect, require additional appropriation for the FBI.” Director Hoover politely responded to Strauss of the necessity for the AEC to get its own house in order. These were the last memos made available until 1964; the very last memo concerning the fate of the whole dual-agent correspondence.   http://www.governmentattic.org/4docs/FBIundercoverAECfacilities_1949-1964
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William T. Golden
    Golden, who was “assistant to Admiral Strauss exclusivelyI was the only assistant; the other commisioners didn’t have assistants“, gave an oral history in 1989 [at age 80] on his recollections: [Question:] “Was Oppenheimer under a cloud yet in 1950?” [Golden:] “No, but yes. Oppenheimer had always been suspectBut Groves used Oppenheimer very effectively. They were a marvelous team…but at any rate, no charges had been brought..at the time…” [Question:] Oppenheimer was not in favor of a “new OSRD” [Strauss’s Office of Naval Research]…apparently..very much in favor of a strong grants program in the NSF [National Science Foundation].. [Golden:] Yes… [Question:] You submitted a memorandum to Robert Lovett [Brown Brothers Harriman] Deputy Secretary of Defense about the Research and Development Board…and you recommended George Merck as a new chairman of the RDB and the one to reorganize it… [Golden affirms:]..gradually the feeling has become one of increasing recognition of peaceful uses of atomic energy..and that atomic weapons should never be used again… [Question:] Right. Nuclear energy for electrical power… [Golden:] ..there had been..great enthusiasm for that, and especially for the breeder reactors… It was looked on as a wonderful development for society. And there was not much worry given to the..dangers, and how to avoid them. [Question:] Nuclear waste was not an issue? [Golden]..not a big issue…it was not regarded as the big problem that it has in fact become.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/goldenw.htm
   Early on, Golden had been a Wall Street securities analyst for ten years before induction into the Navy in 1941. He was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and given the rank of Lt. Commander, the same rank as Strauss — virtually shadowing Strauss on his way up the ladder. Golden was another, along with Robert Taft and Arthur Krock, to give Strauss first council on accepting Truman’s offer of AEC commissioner [in July 1946]. Golden remembered,”I couldn’t think of anything more exciting than the AEC.” He remained Strauss’s shadow with special assignments, returning with him to the AEC “part time”, he said, through 1958.
   There is at least one easy-to-find (lawsuit) record of Golden’s business dealings (1953-54) helpful to Abraham Feinberg and Israel: a stock sale that enabled Feinberg to fold his textile holdings into the larger company which he controlled, Julius Kayser & Co. The transfer brought more centralized control of a base of manufacturing plants in Greensboro, North Carolina; by happenstance a base for the Smith Richardson Foundation– connected to the American Security Council (see part II)– alleged to have trained private paramilitary for sensitive National Security ops . Golden and others in the sale “were directors of..Kayser” who then “resigned as directors” so that Feinberg and friends could be “elected as directors.” http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/224/753/146185/
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Abraham Feinberg
   Feinberg and his associates were already well known and heavily documented by FBI counterintelligence as smugglers of arms and people. At least 70 people in Los Angeles were in the files.  “Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States… [and] more recently..in undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy… Ben-Gurion noted in his diary [in 1958] a conversation ‘he had with Abraham Feinberg’..to raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among ‘benedictors’ in the United States… [Feinberg’s] close associate, David Wahl,..among other Feinberg associates, was a longtime undercover Soviet agent (beginning in the 1930s…)” http://www.irmep.org/ila/feinberg/
   Feinberg had initially sought his political influence through Robert Hannegan, FDR’s Commissioner of Internal Revenue, “responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelt’s running mate in 1944.” Hannegan by then was the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hannegan  Feinberg said, “I realized that it became important for me to know the people around Truman..[e.g.] David Niles… Through him I became friendly with Matt Connelly…  Eddie Jacobson..of the B’nai B’rith.. [who] had been a partner of Truman and a very close friend…  [Jews] around the country..understood that without Truman, Israel would have had very difficult days..to even come into existence… He often said, ‘If not for my friend Abe, I couldn’t have..been elected.’http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/feinberg; In 1960 Feinberg founded AIPAC and funded JFK: “I think [Truman] was a better statesman than Kennedy, although you can’t tell because Kennedy had no chance.
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By 1953, the scientific team at the Weizmann Institute had developed the improved..mechanism for producing heavy water and a more efficient method for mining uranium. Both concepts were sold to the French..[which] led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research that was signed by the two nations…  Goldschmidt [the Rothschild family plutonium expert] was serving as director of chemistry for France’s Atomic Energy Commission… [p31, The Samson Option] Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam ‘at will’...  [Goldschmidt explained:] ‘We weren’t really helping them [the Israelis]…We were just letting them know what we knew –without knowing where it would lead’… Bergmann had made the..point..’It’s very important to understand that by developing atomic energy energy for peaceful uses, you reach the nuclear option. There are no two atomic energies. [p.26, ibid.] …The intellectual spokesman for the French nuclear program..Pierre Gallois..[said it] came down to this: ‘When two nations are armed with nuclear weapons, even if they are unequally armed, the status quo is unavoidable.’ Gallois was taken very seriously by the Israelis.” [p.40, The Samson Option]
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The U-2
Eisenhower came into the presidency in 1953 concerned about the lack of aerial intelligence..and ordered the CIA to do something about it. A Photographic Intelligence Division was promptly set up… Eisenhower’s next major step was to authorize a daring reconnaissance program –primarily targeted at the Soviet Union– and assign the development of [a] revolutionary airplane..jointly to the CIA and the Air Force..[to be] built under cover by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Burbank California, and known as the U-2.” [p.47, The Samson Option]
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Polaroid
   When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada (Jan.1951), Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He [Land] knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…”  For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid] https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/10/24/morgification/
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak, in which Strauss not only owned stock but matched to the inventors of Kodachrome, became a significant  collaborator in the U-2; the laboratory that Kuhn Loeb partners Strauss & Wiseman urged George Eastman to provide for Kodachrome development in 1922 may have been the actual premises of Kodak’s Hawkeye Works, the CIA’s photo analysis branch. A proprietary interest is clear. Kodak and Polaroid held each others’ stock.
   [From part I:] …”Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates… In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making..the first 16mm movie camera.” http://www.city-net.com/~fodder/16mm/film.html Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.”
   “George Eastman [d.1932, by suicide] funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” ” Flexner then founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study in 1930…and “[Rochester became the] headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides [isotopes] and fluorine.” Among those experiments at Rochester were outdoor night-time hijinks by scientists spraying radioactive liquids around the school and medical campuses.
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Fallout and Weather
   Albert Lasker died of stomach cancer in 1952, but his widow Mary carried on the couple’s special interests. This included sponsorhip of Israel’s cloud seeding program, evident in at least 3 boxes of Mary Lasker’s papers at Columbia showing multi-party correspondence from 1953 to 1958. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eresources/archives/rbml/Lasker/
   A point about weather control from 1952 to 1955 is that many countries, eventually numbering around 50 or so, started cloud seeding operations:
   Due to the British program called ‘Cumulus’, “one of the worst flash floods ever to have occurred in Britain” devastated the town of Lynmouth on August 15, 1952. The discovery of a cloud seeding cause emerged from documents uncovered in a BBC investigation showing that Cumulus ran operations from 1949 to 1955 before it too [the program] disappeared. The UK government denied seeding clouds before 1955. ”The documents also talk of rainmaking having a potential ‘to explode an atomic weapon in a seeded storm system or cloud. This would produce a far wider area of radioactive contamination than in a normal atomic explosion.”
>>>The U.S. program was called ‘Cirrus’ and officially canceled in 1953 although records of ongoing work extend through 1957.
    Rockets and missiles, as they came available, were tools of the trade in cloud seeding– so imagine them carrying small nuclear warheads or clad explosives. Could they be distinguished from lightning and thunder inside a storm? How likely is it that no country ever tested this method of radiological warfare when it stands as a ‘white paper’ by the British? The U.S. and U.K. were staging joint atomic operations from 1952 onwards.
    My first conventional view of radioactive rain, measured widely in the U.S. in 1953, was that cloud seeding reduced detectable atmospheric radiation and hid the extent of  U.S. testing from other countries, though it’s certainly possible that large tests were actually masking localized weather war. Princeton IAS was running a cutting edge weather program during this time with the help of John von Neumann’s supercomputer; Strauss was the IAS chairman and Von Neumann later became an AEC commissioner. Ernest Lawrence, Strauss’s greatest ally for building the Super, was also the loudest proponent among scientists for radiological war.
U.S. cloud seeding technologies were evolved by high-explosive experts. https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/17/weather-control/
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In June 1946..before Oppenheimer’s arrival at the Institute [IAS], Johnny von Neumann had begun to build a high-speed computer in the boiler room basement of Fuld Hall. Nothing so practical had ever existed [there, or] so expensive. The trustees initially gave von Neumann $100,000…And then, in a rare departure from Institute policy he was allowed to obtain additional funding from the Radio Corporation of America… Oppenheimer and von Neumann formally unveiled the Institute computer in June 1952. At the time it was the fastest electronic brain in the world…” [p376, American Prometheus]…”Von Neumann was unusual…And, like Edward Teller, he was rabidly anti-Soviet. One night at a party..discussion of the..Cold War..von Neumann said quite matter-of-factly that it was obvious: The United States should launch a preventive war and annihilate the Soviet Union… [Von Neumann]wrote to Lewis Strauss in 1951..’the USA-USSR conflict..will very probably lead to an armed ‘total’ collision and maximum rate of armament is therefore imperative.’ [p378, ibid.]
*
Oppenheimer’s Tribunal
By September of 1953, after the dual-agent FBI/AEC memos fizzle, Strauss initiated the FBI’s active surveillance of Oppenheimer–he was followed, bugged and wiretapped, and by December, the bugs extended to his home and lawyers’ offices. “Strauss elevated his scheme to end Oppenheimer’s influence… He told the AEC’s..counsel..that ‘if this case is lost, the atomic energy program..will fall into the hands of left-wingers… it will mean another Pearl Harbor… if Oppenheimer is cleared, then ‘anyone’ can be cleared…” [p.491, American Prometheus] “Strauss [then] turned his attention to selecting the judges. He needed three men…[and] settled on Gordon Gray to chair the board. Gray was..president of the University of North Carolina..whose family money came from the R.J.R. Tobacco Company…[he was also a close friend of Prescott Bush]… Strauss [next] selected..Thomas Morgan, chairman of the Sperry Corporation… For the third member, Strauss chose..Dr. Ward Evans, whose..qualifications were..science..and his unblemished record of voting to deny clearances on previous AEC hearing boards… From Strauss’s point of view, they were the perfect empty vessels.” [p.492, ibid.]
   Before the proceedings against Oppenheimer were to begin in April, the AEC had scheduled a  major thermonuclear test series in the Marshall Islands –Operation Castle– six high-yield H-bombs tested with the intention of seeking “radsafe” levels of exposure.
Castle-Bravo
At 6:45 on the morning of 1 March 1954, eight years after the testing in the Marshall Islands began, the US detonated a bomb codenamed ‘Bravo’ on the island of Bikini..equivalent to 17 megatons of TNT, 1,300 times the destructive force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima… That morning the wind was blowing in the direction of two inhabited atolls, Rongelap and Utrik, roughly 100 and 300 miles from Bikini. During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin] “Bravo was an unecessarily dirty bomb– it delivered huge quantities of fallout… it detonated low off the ground and the fireball scooped up..Bikini’s coral reef…”[p.59, ibid.] “[D]octors on the ground didn’t even keep records… When the Rongelapese were taken to Kwajalein their urine samples were analyzed only as a pool sample instead of individually…The Atomic Energy Commission averaged the values of radionuclides found in land, fish, and fruits..thus concealing the expected effect on..an individual…[p54]

   “Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said]‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’ [p61, Day of Two Suns]
   “[A] magistrate on Rongelap..tells what happened… ‘The next day..we noticed the water turned to yellow. I warned the people not to drink from..water catchments, and told them to drink only [coconut milk]. The people began to get sick with vomiting, aches all over..and fatigue…’ [p25] It was two days before the Navy arrived to pick up the Rongelap islanders and US personnel– two days in which they breathed, slept and ate the fallout. [p26] ‘After two days..my fingernails came off and my fingers bled. We all had burns..and our hair began to fall out’..[p27, ibid.]
   Strauss was there— Castle was the only test series he was known to attend. The next day, “March 2, 1954, [Oppenheimer lawyers] Garrison and Marks themselves appeared in Strauss’ office and confirmed that Oppenheimer was willing to accept [submitting his resignation]… Strauss, confident of victory, dismissed this..as ‘out of the question’.” [p.496, American Prometheus]. According to Strauss’s own memoir, he was still in the Pacific: “On my return from Eniwetok on March 29, 1954, I reported to President Eisenhower on the Castle..series. The President had been greatly concerned over the reports of..fall-out..on the atolls of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Uterik and on a Japanese fishing vessel… The next morning..the President..asked me to tell the press substantially what I reported to him… The shot was fired, the wind failed to follow the predictions, shifting south..and the little islands..were in the path of the fall-out.” [pp410-411, Men and Decisions]
>>>Operation Castle lasted from March 1  to May 14: two shots in each of the three months (6 shots)
*
The Polio Shots
one shot in each of the three months (three shots)
*
Small-scale human testing of the new Salk “inactivated” polio vaccine (IPV) began in 1953, overlapping Dr. Hammon’s G.G. program in Iowa and Texas. Author Jane S. Smith wrote that “during the summer of 1953..the mass distribution of gamma globulin [G.G.] became a rehearsal for the polio vaccine field trials expected for the following year. [The NTS was running Operation Upshot-Knothole from March to June of 1953, all kiloton range]. The National Foundation [for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP, or ‘March of Dimes’] had developed valuable experience in mass purchasing and distribution, the public had been introduced to the idea that you cured polio by lining up for injections at schools or other public areas, and the administrators of the Public Health Service had realized that they had to step in or let [the NFIP] create..in effect, a shadow network of health services.” [p.250, Patenting the Sun] “Tom Rivers..put it squarely; ‘The Public Health Service would eventually have to license the vaccine,’ he said, ‘and nobody in the Public Health Service knew anything about polio… we had an awful time teaching them about polio.’ ” [p.251, ibid.] “In November [1953], Basil O’Connor..announced that the trial would begin no later than the first week in February [1954]. By February they were hoping for early March.” [p.253] “…the journalistic blitz was on. The New York Times Magazine had featured Salk in January… Life..made the vaccine its cover story on February 22. Time featured..Salk surrounded by..crutches, leg braces and syringes on the cover of its March 29 issue… Better Homes and Gardens, victim of an early deadline..featured a story in its March issue..as though the trial had actually started in February, complete with fabricated quotations from children... [p255, ibid] …By this time, the start of the field trial had been postponed yet again, to April 26.” [p.258, Patenting the Sun] The vaccine trial, postponed even further, did not begin until late May. The Castle tests ended on May 14.
>>>Thomas Milton Rivers, “Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute” spent his entire adult life working for the Rockefellers. “Between 1922 and 1955, Rivers molded Rockefeller into the preeminent laboratory for research on viruses“. In 1945 he was assigned to oversee the Atomic Bomb Casulaty Commission. There is no indication that oversight of the ABCC (or its successor) was temporary: “studies..suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years.”  Rivers’ work for the Salk vaccine trial put him in close contact with the man who ran the program, Dr. Thomas Francis. Dr. Francis, who was Jonas Salk’s mentor and Rockefeller Hospital alumnus, was hired to reorganize the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after completion of the polio vaccine trials in April of 1955. The ABCC project became the “Lifespan Study” of Japan’s atomic survivors who lived past 1950 and had no leukemia (solid tumors only). Following that, Francis undertook “large population surveys” gathering health data from his base at the University of Michigan, just as the Health Physics mandate recommended. The Ford Foundation built him a “peaceful uses” nuclear reactor in 1957: “The reactor operated from September 1957 until July 3, 2003http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Nuclear_Reactor
*
So, the Salk polio vaccine trials were supposed to be timed for coordination with Operation Castle (March to May of 1954) –as the Provo G.G. trials coordinated with Nevada’s Buster-Jangle (Oct-Nov 1951)– but, perhaps the exceptionally dirty Bravo test caused the delay and put fear into the designers, since no amount of additional time was going to improve the vaccine.
   “What had made the bomb so dirty? The answer was discovered by K. Kimura, one of the Japanese scientists who analyzed the fallout on the Lucky Dragon’s deck. In this debris from the bomb he found a substantial amount of a rare isotope of uranium –uranium 237. It happened that Dr. Kimura himself was the original discoverer of this isotope; he had created it in the laboratory 14 years before [as].. a product of the bombardment of the common uranium isotope 238 by neutrons… The bomb must have had a thick blanket of uranium 238 surrounding its fission-fusion core; fast neutrons from the fusion reactions fissioned the U-238 blanket and thus multiplied the force of the bomb –and also the output of fission products. In short the weapon builders had found a way to use the neutrons that would otherwise have gone to waste: they had made a fission-fusion-fission bomb in which common uranium 238 was added to the fuel… One can immediately see a great gain in economy over the ‘primitive’ Hiroshima bomb. To produce a 20 megaton explosion with only the original fuel, uranium 235, would require 11,000 pounds..of this rare isotope, separated so laboriously from U-238, and cost about a hundred million dollars. Using U-238 as fuel, however, we can get our 20 megatons at the bargain-basement price of a quarter of a million dollars. (The same size of explosion with TNT would cost ten billion dollars!)http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
*
The Salk IPV trials, which took place across the U.S., Canada, and Helsinki Finland, dodged a major bullet by waiting. (The city of Helsinki still thinks of itself as the former “spy capital of the world”).  With less tweaking than was probably anticipated, the delayed trial data proved a success. Controversial as the subject must be, the radiation vaccine got the go-ahead and postponed its reckoning to the next year during 1955’s Operation Teapot –Nevada’s first full-scale thermonuclear series. In areas where fallout was intensified by weather, post-vaccine polio increased as much as 700% from the previous year –oops– blamed on faulty vaccine preparation.
*
Private Ownership of nuclear fuels and energy facilities was amended to the atomic charter in August of 1954: “the Commission may issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, import, or ex-port under the terms of an agreement for cooperation..” http://nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/treaties/atomic-energy-act/trty_atomic-energy-act_1954-08-30.htm Strauss continued to exert expanded authority over this trade in his one-year pro-tem office as Secretary of Commerce (June 1958-June 1959)
*
Oasis in Israel
   Before 1954 was through, Strauss proposed his diplomatic agenda as the spokesman of Atoms-for-Peace: “he recommended a solution for the Arab-Israeli dilemma built around the use of atomic power to operate desalinization plants along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. All Countries in the Middle East could share the fresh water..[and] replace tension with amity. By this time, Strauss..supported the nation of Israel.” [p.223, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss and Eisenhower called it The Oasis Plan. Of course, Strauss always supported Israel– the Zionist v. non-Zionist debate among Jews in the U.S. was based primarily on U.S. immigration policy, a holdover from the WWI era when non-Zionists, like Jacob Schiff, sought restraint from incoming Russian Jews.  U.S. Zionists favored unrestricted immigration.  By WWII, and in Palestine particularly, the situation reversed; Zionists, like Weizmann, wanted tight immigration controls and non-Zionists, like Feinberg, wanted free entry.
*
Overflight
The first Soviet two-stage hydrogen bomb was successfully tested in 1955… The first U-2 flights [1956] over the Soviet Union provided dramatic evidence that the Soviets were not nearly as advanced in conventional arms as the Pentagon assumed. There was no “bomber gap” or “missile gap”… The administration’s truth-teller continued to be the U-2, whose pilots, including Gary Francis Powers, later to be shot down, were usually assigned to overfly the Soviet Union. But there were other standing U-2 targets in sensitive areas…and that description fit the Middle East in 1958… Gary Powers and his colleagues, who had continued intermittently to overfly the Middle East, were now steadily back at work in the area. The CIA’s photo interpreters were suddenly seeing a lot of activity at an Israeli Air Force..range south of Beersheba…” [pp.50-51, The Samson Option]
   “The U-2 went operational from a secret base in West Germany on July 4, 1956… It was a spectacular asset… [p.48, ibid]… Among the inevitable by-products of the [nuclear] manufacturing process are radioactive gases which are vented into the atmosphere. The analysts of the early U-2 photography learned to look for..distinctive chimneys…” [p.52, The Samson Option] The U-2 planes also carried particle filters mounted in air scoops as earlier detection flights had done.  By the time Dimona started taking shape (1957-58), “the U-2 continued to overfly the Negev. Lundahl [chief of photo analysis] also relayed the findings on Dimona to Lewis L. Strauss..who [was]..cleared for U-2 intelligence.” [p.54, ibid.]
*
Dimona
[apologetics from Seymour Hersh:]
Strauss certainly knew as much about Dimona as as anybody in the intelligence community… There is no evidence, however, that he raised questions about the Israeli weapons progam while in government; nor was he known to have ever discussed Dimona after leaving office. Strauss chose not to talk..because, as a Jew with deep feelings about the Holocaust, he approved of it… He was insistent on continued nuclear testing… At the same time, he championed Atoms for Peace..[on] the assumption, which turned out to be dreadfully wrong, ..that smaller nations once supplied with.. a nuclear power plant, would have no incentive or desire to develop nuclear weapons… Strauss’s activities on behalf of a Jewish homeland apparently were not known… At some point in his AEC career [believed to be the 1955 Geneva meeting on the Peaceful Uses of the Atom] Strauss met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann…Neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis..knew that the two had met [but].. in the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get Bergmann..as a visiting fellow at the..Institute for Advanced Study… rules were bent for Strauss. [The IAS’s new director at the time said] ‘It became clear that [Bergmann] and Strauss were close, and also clear that he was working on [the Israeli nuclear] weapons program.’ …Strauss..did not tell anyone..about Dimona. Fair or not, the issue of ‘dual loyalty’ –exemplified by Strauss’s actions– has been a very real concern…” http://www.american-buddha.com/lit.samsonoptionhersh.7.htm
   Hersh’s writing career, as noted in the JFK Conspiracy Con, was underwritten by Julius Rosenwald’s grandson, Philip Stern, from a family centrally tied to the creation of Lee Harvey Oswald’s “legend” and secretly invested in nuclear technology.  It is the Sterns’s business partner, Zalman Shapiro, who appears as the object of Hersh’s exoneration in the The Samson Option, and yet it’s Strauss’s legend that gets the most fortification from Hersh. “Holocaust guilt”, or guilt of any kind, is a wash. Strauss exuded neo-Maccabean pride, built agencies in service to it, and regretted only that he could not do more– an expression easily twisted into holocaust guilt. Without a Holocaust there would have been no Bomb.
    The problem is not ‘dual loyalty’ but loyalty to the mental poison of duality and absolutism.  Hersh and others, continually hiding Strauss’s early medical background in Rothschild employ and his lifelong association to biological warfare, dissemble on the real nature of the game –the self-canceling schism of rival degeneracy. Very gnostic and very “Protocols”. The exceptionalism in it, and the place where Strauss assumed his power and profit, was in the middle of it all where the ends are bent to form an apex –the node of dialectical form: summit of a pyramid.
*
                                                                       
…to be continued: epilogue, story timeline and JFK assassination events…

January 23, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, part II

The second installment of this piece is aimed to faithfully carry on the rough chronology of part I –all of it being supplemental to the JFK Conspiracy Con which posits nuclear trafficking, legal and not, on top of the list of motives for Kennedy’s assassination. It’s well-known that by the middle of his term, Kennedy was expressing persistent concern over the dangers of radioactive fallout. That fact alone made his “natural enemy” the former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Lewis Strauss, the No.1 nuclear dissembler, who dismissed the fallout hazard as no more dangerous than sunshine and less threatening than an X-ray. Strauss’s friend and ally physicist Edward Teller famously attempted to inform JFK in 1961 that radiation is healthful (and was rebuffed). It’s also possible that Kennedy sons, John Jr. and Patrick, were afflicted with radiation-induced disease and the parents became aware of it. In addition, it’s my personal operating belief that JFK was chosen as early as 1952 for the inevitable nuclear showdown-to-come, as long as the candidate didn’t self-destruct. He seemed always on the verge– Phil Graham of the Washington Post said during the 1960 campaign, when consulted on a choice of vice-president, that whomever Jack Kennedy took for a running mate would soon be President.

                    Eugene Meyer, owner Washington Post, P.G.’s father-in-law (d.1959)

Phil Graham killed himself with a shotgun on August 3, 1963. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKgrahamP.htm

*                                                                                  Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1895-1974)

The contributions to JFK assassination research about the participant groups, either with foreknowledge or working relationships, point to common threads in the nuclear industry; what we must think of as a gateway to more advanced technologies coming from the same contractor pool (General Dynamics under the ownership of Henry Crown is a good example) and their corporate heirs. By 1960, as Hans Bethe claimed, the weaponolgy of H-bombs had reached its peak. There wasn’t much more to be done developmentally to improve on bombs for military use. Even Teller left his statement that bombs over 10 megatons (10 million tons of TNT force) lost their excess energy to space. Tests of these behemoths, done through the 1950s and onward, amounted to mass terror and biological warfare in the hands of what Pierre Curie called “the great criminals” (Nobel Prize speech of 1903). Ernest Rutherford added a rejoinder in 1904: his wish to have nuclear experimentation postponed to some enlightened future time (in other words, probably never). Rutherford was an obstacle. Both men died prematurely from radiation-related disease.

Lewis Strauss remained a stalwart for testing to the very end. In 1964 he was back on Capitol Hill stumping for a reversal of the Limited Test Ban, working the dialectic, publishing articles and assembling pressure groups. He had been making public claims about fallout-free weapons since 1954, ironically when the levels of radioactivity began skyrocketing. As his biographer Richard Pfau noted, “more than any other individual, Lewis Strauss shaped the atomic energy policy of the United States…[p219]…It would not be exaggeration to call Strauss the father of the nuclear power industry…  Strauss’s position on weapons tests had been consistent.”[p220, No Sacrifice Too Great] Consistency, fortunately, has been good currency in this case, rewarding the investigation with solid information, sense and plausibility when there was little to go on. Unfortunately, the ramifications are dire: radiological warfare on ourselves, and presently getting worse. Dr. Rosalie Bertell called it our “death crisis”. Lewis Strauss had something to say about death “four months before [dying]..Strauss wrote ..[that] good and evil struggled incessantly, and..everyone was ‘enjoined to choose between good and evil, between life and death’ ” [p252, No Sacrifice Too Great]  For his  part, Strauss was autocratically consistent in his righteousness. His wife told the biographer “in a rare written comment, Strauss had developed an emotional attachment to the power he wielded over policy.” [p216, ibid.] In effect, it was obvious from the time that his activities became a matter of public record during World War II. Strauss thought of his war duty as “public service” and called his Pentagon period under Forrestal “these days of grace.” He not only lobbied for the Office of Naval Research, he shaped its operations and recruited staff. “The ONR proceeded to work out a program by which contracts were made with universities for basic research… Men who had vowed..[to] never do any work after the war for either Armed Service found themselves doing so” [p148, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962]

Wartime extended Strauss’s influence further to leadership at Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study [IAS] and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research [SKI]. He became a lifetime trustee of the American Cancer Society under Lasker control. He was still an active leader of Kuhn Loeb &Co., a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and its subsidiary-like Business Advisory Committee, an executive of the American Jewish Committee and “the Jews’ War President”. The next step for Strauss on the Atomic Energy Commission forbade him by law to engage in “any other business” –he was required to resign his partnership in Kuhn Loeb– to which he readily acceded. The initial contentiousness that flourished on the original Commission chaired by David Lilienthal evaporated under the chairmanship of Lewis Strauss:  “Strauss was to have unlimited power… there would be lavish funds and inordinate publicity…  great gifts Strauss was able to channel to his friends after he remade the Atomic Energy Commission in 1953-54.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, by Nuel Pharr Davis, 1968]

On his comeback as AEC Chairman in 1953, Strauss also began to forge a relationship on-the-record with J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. The men planned to cultivate special secret agents paid by the FBI but answerable to the AEC chairman. Since 1947 occasional high-profile security breaches had threatened the civilian AEC with military intervention. Little had changed with respect to missing materials. The new approach with joint FBI/AEC agents to spy on operations as embedded employees was intended to preserve the AEC’s autonomy. The joint special agent program is made to look like a flop, even after two years of activity (1953-54), but is one of the most intriguing elements bearing on Lee Harvey Oswald’s profile. The FBI/AEC recruits were specifically of his type. Oswald was getting paid by the FBI. Was he working for Strauss? Whatever the answer might be, the joint special agent program fizzled or disappeared at an interesting time in 1954, the year that Strauss infamously went on a vindictive campaign to oust Robert Oppenheimer from the nuclear establishment. With full cooperation from J.E. Hoover and the FBI, Strauss erected an unlawful net of wiretaps and had the agents tailing Oppenheimer’s every move. Many of the people involved thought Strauss was exploiting McCarthy’s Red Scare but he appears to have planned it following the triumphant approval of the ‘Super’ (H-bomb) crash program by President Truman in January of 1950. Oppenheimer was deeply opposed to the Super. Strauss and Oppenheimer in the meantime still had to work together as administrative colleagues at Princeton’s IAS; Strauss, as IAS board president, had in fact hired Oppenheimer to direct the Institute in 1946. He laid in wait at least 4 years, if not longer, to bring the man to ruin.

Strauss’s one respite from pursuing Oppenheimer in early ’54 was a trip to the Marshall Islands to witness the thermonuclear  ‘Bravo’ test (Castle series), the only test he ever attended. Castle-Bravo is possibly the most controversial of all U.S. nuke tests; Japanese fishermen died and local Marshallese were irradiated and displaced. It was not an accident. “During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin, 1988]…”“Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said] ‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’” [p61, Day of Two Suns]    Strauss wrote, “It was the first time, so far as I am aware, that public attention had been called to the subject of fallout…” [p410, Men and Decisions] “people began to worry about the risks from radiation that followed such tests. So well did the resulting outcry fit Soviet objectives to eliminate nuclear weapons that Strauss suspected the Japanese fishermen might have been Soviet agents.” [p190, No Sacrifice Too Great] He enlisted the CIA to investigate.

As far as I know, the plight of the Marshalls or the responsibility of the AEC chairman was not included in the charges against Strauss during the  1959 Senate hearings for his confirmation as Secretary of Commerce. Fallout, however, was an issue. “According to [Clinton] Anderson, the administration actually was augmenting the fallout content of bombs in the existing stockpile.” [p217, No Sacrifice Too Great] The biographer wrote, “He probably should have turned down the president’s offer to join the cabinet…” [p242, ibid.] To the contrary, Strauss held out for the post and rejected a series of offers that included “permanent chairman” of the AEC and White House Chief of Staff. “When Strauss declined this offer, the president asked whether he might like to replace Secretary Dulles… Finally, Eisenhower suggested..secretary of commerce… Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it… Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War..” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]

After the vote-down from Congress,  “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued his parting statement…[p240, No Sacrifice Too Great] He soon followed up with his semi-autobiographical Men and Decisions —perhaps the real parting statement which closes with these words: “Now, we are told, we stand at the threshold of an era when it will be possible for man to abdicate both the right and responsibility of free decision and to delegate it to the machine… thereupon decisions will emerge which are to send us to war or lull us to sleep. They will be decisions for which no man will bear responsibility –decisions as coldly impersonal as..the device… For what machine can ever apply the considerations of compassion and justice..that affect his future in the world and in the universe?” [p430, Men and Decisions]

*

I wonder how Strauss’s readers in 1962 perceived his enigmatic closer. Taking liberties with the last paragraph, I edited out the specific references to hardware (“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”) because they are not definitions of a machine, although his allusion to electronics is very interesting and significant to his meaning.  No pile of hardware, obviously, makes decisions or ever will. Our government is a machine. But Strauss was fighting “tomorrow’s war today”. His machine, the device of his devising that he spent all his life energy on, was “coldly impersonal” and he remained its decider, or so one assumes. There’s not much in the memoirs to suggest exactly how Strauss fit into the hierarchy of the greater machine in which he was part, but in the largest measure that’s the point here; to discern what part of “decisions for which no man will bear responsibilty” can be ascribed to him.  Part II chronology picks the details back up with the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. who died from a mishap with electronic remote control.

                                        Harry Byrd Sr.

*

Joe Kennedy Jr.
Joe Jr. graduated from Choate in the spring of 1933..the exemplar of what a Choate graduate should be… [He] might have headed to Harvard in the fall, but his father had a different idea…[JPK Sr.] enrolled Joe at the London School of Economics, a fervidly intellectual atmosphere full of Socialists and others who fancied themselves on the cutting edge of economic and political theory.” [p81, The Kennedy Men, by Laurence Leamer, 2001] “[Harold] Laski saw that young Joe had character and an incomparable zest for life… ‘He had set his heart on a political career,’ Laski recalled. ‘He..often sat in my study and submitted..his determination to be nothing less than President of the United States.’ “[p82, ibid.] Joe Jr. stayed the year in London, finished his courses and set off in the summer of 1934 for a tour of Europe.
   Back in Washington D.C., Joe Kennedy Sr. was assuming his duties as chairman of the new Securities and Exchange Commission, the circumstance which brought him under the scrutiny of Arthur Krock of the New York Times. “I had encountered Joseph P. Kennedy several times in the entourage that accompanied Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt..in 1932..But not until 1934, when President Roosevelt appointed Kennedy to the..[SEC]..did I become really acquainted with him.” [p330, Memoirs, Arthur Krock, 1968] Krock described meeting Joe Sr. “to take the measure of the man” on the recommendation of “two friends..Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.” [p331, ibid.] The Wall Streeters were worried about Kennedy. By 1935 Krock “began to be an intimate of the family under the sponsorship of the patriarch, Joseph Patrick himself… In their feudal family structure the eldest son..was designed by the patriarch to be the first Roman Catholic President of the United States, and it was only because of his fatal valor in the Second World War that the quest descended to the second son.” [p328-329, ibid.]
   The ‘Anvil’ mission that killed Joe Jr. and his copilot on August 12, 1944 was the seventh in a series (of 15) operations under the Army Air Force called ‘Aphrodite’, but the first to be run by the Navy.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Aphrodite .
Kennedy’s bomber malfunction had a unique outcome; it was the only one to “prematurely detonate”.  According to the oral history of Emanuel Piore who worked for the office of Chief of Naval Operations, “we were the group that killed Joe Kennedy.” Piore, who worked over a decade prior in the labs of CBS and RCA, never mentioned any other personal involvement.
   Joe had the opportunity to leave England and go home the previous May. He wrote to his parents on May 8, “I have finished my missions…but volunteered to stay another month…” Biographer Leamer adds “Joe Jr..wanted to be there for D-Day…And so, on June 6, he flew as part of a massive grid protecting the invading forces from German submarines… not one ship..was lost to the German sub[s]… back home everyone expected his imminent arrival in time for his [30th] birthday on July 25… [but] Joe..knew that he would not be returning a hero…” [pp209-210, The Kennedy Men] It had been nearly a year since JFK stole the honors of War Hero in the PT-109 episode. In that ensuing year, the U.S. navy pilots at Dunkeswell grew accustomed to daily danger. “When he opened his letters from home, [Joe] discovered inevitably that Jack was the big news –Jack’s sickness, Jack’s appearances, Jack’s publicity, Jack’s future…” [p206]…”All that Joe Jr. wanted in family life was to be first…’In their long brotherly..rivalry, I expect this was the first time Jack had won such an ‘advantage’ by such a clear margin,’ Rose wrote in her autobiography.” [p196, ibid.] Sometime around the third week in July, “Joe..was..packing up his gear when he was called into the squadron office and told about an extraordinary secret mission code-named ‘Anvil’…[He] volunteered immediately… He figured that he had a fifty-fifty chance of surviving and those odds were good enough… Joe..transferred..to the base at Fersfield…”  Things went wrong from the start. “Training flights had gone astray. The project was raked with silly bureaucratic ineptitude. Serious warnings about the faulty electrical system had been smothered by the command. The whole project reeked… On the evening before the mission, one of the men..tried to warn Joe..that the arming panel..might blow up the plane… Joe Jr. admitted to another officer that he was sorry he had volunteered, but he believed that it was too late to do anything but go on.”  [p211-214, The Kennedy Men]  Twenty planes escorted the bomber from the Fersfield runways;  one of them carried FDR’s son Elliot Roosevelt, sent to capture the event on film. It was over in just a few minutes, as soon as the PB4Y reached travelling altitude. The flash shredded and blew the plane’s remains over the Suffolk countryside and “Then the light was gone.”
   “[T]hose who saw Joe [Sr.] said they had never seen a man suffer more and feel more deeply… ‘Joe’s death has shocked me beyond belief,’ Joe wrote James Forrestal, the secretary of the navy..” [p220, The Kennedy Men] As of July 1944, with the Anvil program going forward, Lewis Strauss took up daily residence in Forrestal’s office. “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946. The secretary assigned him specific projects, one after anotherStrauss..preferred this sort of work to the routine of managing subordinates.” [p76, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss was not only positioned to know the details of Anvil, but he was required to know  –the Chief of Naval Operations was a deputy office under the Secretary of the Navy. If Anvil was one of the projects Strauss worked on, it was still classified Top Secret information when he published Men and Decisions in 1962. Were he delivering a threat to the Kennedys, any reference to Anvil would have to have been oblique yet specific enough to arouse their attention –“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”; the machine that impersonally took the life of Joe Kennedy.
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The Kennedys’ tragedy was retrospectively compounded by the failure of Operation Aphrodite/Anvil. Joe’s mission was to strike the V-3 supergun site under construction at Mimoyecques, already successfully hit by the RAF five weeks earlier in June. The site never became operational. The few completed V-3 sites that did fire their fixed-position guns in 1945 were strategically useless and quickly abandoned. Strauss left one suggestive statement in his memoir forecasting Anvil and hinting at his participation: “Early in 1943..British intelligence..had heard of a project called ‘Athodyd’ reported to be a..pilotless aircraft to bomb Britain… Admiral Blandy read the message at a staff meeting..and it was the concensus opinion that this was most likely more of the ‘secret weapon’ propaganda…Captain Sam Shumaker and I, however, felt that there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
   The Athodyd program was real; these were the V-1 flying bombs against which the Navy’s VT proximity fuse-equipped missiles proved so indispensible –all about the same time period, just prior to Anvil. “The fuze was especially effective in destoying the V-1 bombs that Germany began to use against London on June 12, 1944…Approximately 500 heavy antiaircraft guns were moved to the Channel coast where they could engage the bombs before they reached..England…” [p349 (Navy Bureau of Ordnance document) http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Admin-Hist/USN-Admin/USN-Admin-8.html] Strauss was proud of his role in developing the VT fuse. “Next to the atom bomb, the proximity fuze represented in many respects the outstanding new weapon development of World War II… A tremendous amount of research and exploratory work was done [beginning in 1940]… Early in the war a number of high level scientists, including Dr. Albert Einstein, were employed by the Bureau under personal service contracts.[p326, Ordnance doc]…Information was furnished [to] the Bureau and the NDRC [National Defense Research Council] by the British technical mission, headed by Sir Henry Tizard which visited the United States in 1940 as to the status of proximity fuzes in Great Britain.” [p346, ibid.] Tizard also brought news of the MAUD committee, Britain’s prospectus on building a nuclear bomb. It’s generally believed that Tizard did not then know how far the American effort toward atomic weapons had already come but he was soon to learn about it while unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a supply of uranium oxide for the British project; ore from the Congo that was sitting on a dock by the Bayonne Bridge in New York. As far as the military was concerned, the attention of weapons development was mandated to war-winning munitions like the fuze and the all-important implementation of radar. The basic uncertainty of the ‘uranium problem’ was cause for marginal consideration. The massive VT-fuse program then became a bridge to next-generation armaments by establishing the fundamental nexus that eventually created guided-missile nuclear warheads.
   By 1940 radiological warfare was a promising reality even if the explosive potential of nukes could never be achieved. “Neutron and gamma radiation, radioactive dust scattered into the air could be as deadly as blast and heat… The MAUD group had known about these factors from the first..” [p156-157, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel]
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                                          _____________________________________
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Protocol No.1
[article 3]   It must be noted that men with bad instincts are more in number than the good and therefore the best results in governing them are attained by violence and terrorization…
[article 7]   In our day the power which has replaced that of the rulers..is the power of Gold… The despotism of Capital..is entirely in our hands…
[article 24]…by the doctrine of severity..we shall triumph and bring all governments into subjection to our super-government. It is enough for them to know that we are too merciless…
Protocol No.7
[article 5]…we shall show our strength to one of them.. and to all, if we allow..a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America or China or Japan.
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The Guns of Japan
   Going back to the money trail of the 1904 Russo-Japanese war: “The primary mover was Jacob Schiff..whose firm was brought into the consortium of Parr’s Bank and the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank by Lord Revelstoke and the shadowy Ernest Cassel… [A]fter the war had ended..the Rothschilds finally enter[ed] center stage… Lord Rothschild insisted that he replace Cecil Parr as head of the consortium… [Lord Rothschild wrote:] ‘The Japanese are a remarkable nation, they have proven themselves on land and sea… We have always had great faith in Japan, faith in their military and naval prowess… faith in the resources of their country and still greater faith in the..rulers’…” http://www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/articles/AR2006Japan.pdf
   A big winner in the conflict was Bethlehem Steel, later to become a Kuhn Loeb client under Strauss.  “In the..Russo-Japanese War, it was Bethlehem steel against Bethlehem steel with the company supplying guns and armor plate for warships to both Russia and Japan.”  The Japanese also “contracted with [Bethlehem’s] Fore River shipyard to build five small submarines, a weapon..just coming into its own.” http://thomascranelibrary.org/shipbuildingheritage/history/historyindex.html By WWI, Bethlehem was positioned  to become the  world’s largest munitions maker. “It made 65 percent of the..artillery..of the allied nations.http://www.mcall.com/all-bethsteel-c3p11,0,360664.story  Incidently, Joe Kennedy Sr. was hired by the Fore River (Quincy, MA) shipyard as assistant general manager just as the new ships slid off the docks and onto the surplus ledger, sold for pennies on the dollar by Albert Lasker. Kennedy likely had his first meeting at Fore River with the Asst. Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
   As an allied combatant in World War I, Japan’s navy roamed the Pacific and Indian oceans seizing territory from the Germans. “On August 7, 1914, the British government officially asked Japan for assistance …Japan..formally declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914..[and] quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East… [then]sought further to consolidate its position in China… [In] July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty whereby each pledged not to make a separate peace with Germany, and agreed to..common action should the territory..be threatened by an outside third party. This treaty helped further secure Japan’s hegemony in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_during_World_War_I
Among Japan’s new possessions, bestowed by the Paris Peace accords, were the South Sea Islands once known as the Spice Islands, including the Marshalls that were recaptured by the U.S. in 1944 and became the Pacific Proving Ground.
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The isolationist period of Japan ended in 1853 when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry sailed four warships into Tokyo Bay and threatened to fire on the shore unless the Japanese agreed to a trade treaty. He returned in the winter of 1854 for his treaty with eight ships. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opening_of_Japan Two prior attempts at opening Japan by Americans had failed; in 1846 and 1849, prompting a show of force.
    The Meiji government then “gave significant priority to naval construction… The Imperial Japanese Navy was modeled after the British Royal Navy… British advisors were sent to Japan..while students were in turn sent to the United Kingdom…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War  Japan’s first dozen gunships were made in Britain and France.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Japanese_Navy
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>>>Matthew Perry’s daughter Caroline married Rothschild banker August Belmont (Schonberg); Belmont’s sons were Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont,  Perry Belmont, and August Belmont Jr ;  August Belmont Jr, as an older widower, married stage actress Eleanor Robson in 1910, the first serious love interest of Strauss’s friend ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan (OSS). “Eleanor, also devoted much time to raising funds in aid of Belgian relief efforts and for the Red Cross, she made a number of trans-Atlantic trips as an inspector of United States Army camps.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Belmont,_Jr
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“..Kuhn Loeb..financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power, dominant over Korea and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great] As the heir to Jacob Schiff’s mission, Strauss wrote that “in 1926, I had retraced his steps, as told earlier. The then Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Baron Takahashi, and other gentlemen of Japan..had been very hospitable. I..continued a correspondence with most of these men…” [p122, Men and Decisions] “In consequence, my wife and I received a princely welcome… I had an audience with [the Prince Regent] at which the interpreter was a young naval officer, Commander Isoroku Yamamoto, who fifteen years later as admiral..ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor.” [p83, Men and Decisions]
   “The highlight of the trip was Strauss’s audience with the prince regent, Hirohito… soon to become emperor of Japan… Hirohito was about the same age as Strauss..[who] found Hirohito extremely well informed about..international politics and even the special relationship between Japan and Kuhn Loeb.” [p37, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss listed his contacts with the Imperial government who were in power at the start of WWII: “Mr. Yamagata, Ministry of Foreign Affairs…Tadeo Wikawa [alternately spelled Ikawa] Japanese Financial High Commissioner in New York…Juichi Tsushima, Bank of Japan… Baron [Takaharu] Mitsui… Eigo Fukai, H. Kashiwagi“..[bankers] and T. Okuboson-in-law- of my old friend Baron Takahashi who had been assassinated [by nationalists]..in 1936.” The names mean virtually nothing to American schoolchildren, but to the veterans alive in the 60s, some of them were synonymous with Japan’s worst war crimes.
   Takaharu Mitsui (b.1900–d.1983), for example, owned “Japan’s oldest and largest trading company [that] transported and used the greatest number of Allied POWs as slave laborers. Their mines, factories, and docks were considered among the most hellish… former POWs identified many Mitsui employees as sadists, torturers and murderers.” Mitsui had personally overseen much of the abuse and was never prosecuted.  http://americanpowsofjapan.blogspot.com/2011/10/mitsuis-liberation-dinners.html The “old friend” Takahashi (assassinated in 1936) was the foremost modern economist, “Japan’s Keynes”, who put the nation’s currency on the gold standard and its war bonds on the market. Fukai and Okubo were his successive representatives. Yamamoto, the main planner of Pearl Harbor who was shot down in combat in 1943, had gone to Harvard as a younger man to study the oil industry. Yamamoto was newly installed as a military diplomat in Washington D.C. at the time of Strauss’s trip, perhaps accompanying the Strausses as an escort as well as interpreter. He returned for a two-year duty in the U.S. (1926-1928).  All of these men were directed to receive the Maryknoll priests, Father Drought and Bishop Walsh, on their peace mission.
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Yamashita’s Treasure
   Japan’s emergence as a modern economic and military nation, as yet, had no history in peacemaking. The invasion of Korea in 1895 marked the beginning of a campaign to overrun and control its Asian neighbors as a hedge against the Chinese. Throughout this period, 1895-1945, according to authors Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (The Yamoto Dynasty and Gold Warriors), the concerted power bases of the Imperial Japanese launched merciless attacks of systematic looting and genocide to steal the wealth of Asia and hide it on the home islands. As WWII encircled the operations called ‘Golden Lily’ and choked off the transfers, hordes of gold and gems were buried in place or sunk into the sea. Most of the known caches, say the Seagraves, were left in the Philippines by General Tomoyuki Yamashita who was battling for territory against time. “Yamashita’s Treasure”, as it were, had been revealed to Douglas MacArthur through army intelligence from his aide Willoughby and Col. Edward Lansdale, and MacArthur came ashore expecting to find it. Accordingly, the recovered loot was worth a contemporary billion and  believed to be only a fraction of what remained. It was turned over as a private reparation that became the Black Eagle Trust: “..the [Seagraves state that] architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to..Roosevelt’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson: John J. McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense) and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury)… [in Sterling Seagraves’ words:]”..a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington… This fund remains in existence today… [T]he vast treasures..were used..to acquire newspapers, magazines, radio and later television throughout the world… [O]nce the..war loot was in the pipeline, drugs and the laundering of drug money replaced gold…” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=9196
                                                                                                                          
John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy (1895-1989) earned the “nickname of ‘Chairman of the Establishment’. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“…In 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.”
   “Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… Two younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..”[p60, The Chairman, by Kai Bird, 1992]..At Cravath’s firm, “McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads.” [p62, ibid.]
As a consequence of..business [in the mid-1920s] with Brown Brothers, McCloy met Robert Abercrombie Lovett..[whose] father [was] chairman of the Union Pacific [and] neighbor of..Cravath’s on Long Island… At Yale, one of [Lovett’s] best friends was F. Trubee Davison, the son of Henry Davison, the J.P.Morgan & Co. partner… Another ruch young man in this charmed circle was W. Averell Harriman..[who] inherited Union Pacific from his father, the legendary robber baron Edward H. Harriman [financed by Kuhn Loeb]. ” [p68, The Chairman]
http://polioforever.wordpress.com/john-j-mccloy/
   McCloy had an impressive list of job titles: Asst. Secretary of War (WWII), President of the World Bank (1947-49), High Commissioner of Germany (1949-52), Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1950-53), Chairman of the Ford Foundation (and Trustee, 1953-1965), Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-1970), Chairman of the Salk Institute (subrosa) and appointment to the Warren Commission (1964). Strauss and McCloy both formally resigned their business relationship with Kuhn Loeb at the same time, in 1946.
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A version of the Black Eagle Trust story goes like this:

Gold bullion confiscated from the Reich..was the original source of funding for this trust… [and] would be known by several names: Black Eagle Trust, the Marcos gold, Yamashita’s Gold, the Golden Lily Treasure, the Durham Trust or Project Hammer… The significance of the Nazi gold would pale in comparison to the confiscated  Japanese treasure…  Heidner presents..evidence to support his thesis that one of the main reasons for the [9-11] attacks was to cover up the laundering of
$240 billion dollars in covert and allegedly illegal  bonds, which appear to have been replaced with Treasury notes backed by U.S.  taxpayers in the aftermath of September 11
   “Lansdale’s operation in the Philippines gave birth to most of the common  features of modern covert operations for U.S. Intelligence: bribery, theft,  torture, and false flag operations. It would be Lansdale who would initiate a  bond between the US intelligence organizations and Israeli intelligence. It  would be Lansdale that would set precedents for the Intelligence community to retain the services of organized crime on U.S. soil. Lansdale would hire  American Mafia family heads Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky,  and Lucky Luciano in the U.S. war against Fidel Castro in 1961.”
[edited from:   http://wanttoknow.info/911/black_eagle_trust_fund] Um…this second paragraph smacks of misdirection but I do believe any number of somebodies got the mafia involved in moving weapons, cash and drugs. As far as retaining the Mob, the Office of Naval Intelligence enlisted the NY-NJ mobsters to guard the docks of New York Harbor after the USS Normandie incident in 1942. The Navy was abiding a common tradition in business already practiced for decades in America– hiring gang enforcer-protectors.
   The “old money” societies of Asia, Mid-East, Mediterranean and Europe were masterfully adept at integrating and insulating their hierarchies of organized crime and the process became distinctively visible in America during Prohibition. The mafia turf wars of 1933-34 appear to have favored the well-connected collaborators.
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   “…what’s striking about the [Seagraves’] meticulous research..in Gold Warriors is the way the authors singlemindedly pursue the trail of Japan’s pillaged loot from those caves in the Philippines to financing of military endeavors in the Middle East.” http://www.bowstring.net/text/review_gw_rk.pdf
    “Concerned that President Harry Truman was wobbly in his support for creating a new nation of Israel, [Meyer] Lansky reached out to the Kansas City underworld and they used their connections in the White House to persuade Truman, whose home state was Missouri…” www.fivefamilies.com/2010/05/meyer-lanskys-mafia-secrets-exposed-by.html
At War’s End
Bill Donovan, head of OSS, was in Kunming China north of Vietnam “when news came of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Donovan turned philosophical… there would be a ‘peaceful interlude’, but sooner or later America would have a showdown with the communist world…  Two months later, Donovan phoned Jackson [Justice Robert Jackson, organizer of the Nuremberg trials] and told him U.S. Intelligence had ‘incontestable proof’ the Soviets were ‘in complete possession of the secret of the atomic bomb’... The OSS would be needed in Europe to spy on the Russians..and in Asia to police the Japanese...” [p332, Wild Bill Donovan, by Douglas Waller, 2011]
   The ALSOS mission which had been sent into Europe to gather important scientists and documents in advance of occupation forces had a smaller counterpart organized for Japan. Unlike the multi-agency European Alsos made of intelligence delegations, led by Col. Boris Pash and physicist Samuel Goudsmit,  Alsos Japan dispatched a geologist to MacArthur in Manila in July of 1945. Don Leet was was no ordinary geologist but a Manhattan Project veteran and explosives expert.
   “There were 175 ‘imperial treasure sites hidden throughout the Philippines… According to Ray Cline [CIA] and others, between 1945 and 1947 the gold bullion..was moved discreetly to 172 accounts at banks in 42 countries… Washington had to insist, starting in 1945, that Japan never stole anything, and was flat broke and bankrupt when the war ended… [But] If American conservatives and Japanese conservatives were to ally effectively against communism, they had to begin by enlarging their financial resources for the Cold War.”  [the Seagraves] http://rense.com/general13/treasure.htm
Pictures of ‘Yamashita’ gold and bank documents http://yamashitatreasures.com/pixpage.html
Alsos Japan
Berkeley-trained physicist Philip Morrison was on Japan’s Alsos team sent to Tokyo after the surrender. Morrison had been part of the Chicago MED (Metallurgical Lab) working with particle accelerators and reactors: “..we were making plutonium, which is only a step to the bomb… I speak of it always as being a neutron engineer… [We had] plutonium made in the piles [reactors] by irradiating uranium with neutrons to turn U-238s into plutonium 239, which was a long-lived [25,000 year half-life], charge-rich nucleus with a very low fission threshold, so that slow neutrons could make it divide… [Anyway] I had acquired some intelligence interests..[and] when the time came for the project to break up..I was in Japan on the government’s business measuring..the site. [the site:Hiroshima/Nagasaki, along with ‘seismic prospector’ L. Don Leet]. We from Los Alamos were already out in Tinian Island..so they took whoever was nearby and said, ‘You go into Japan.’ The best we could do, you know. I couldn’t speak any Japanese but they gave me..a language officer..named John Congleton… he was our entire communication medium..and an ensign called Barney O’Keefe..[who] was our watcher and bodyguard... [A] week or two..I spent waiting in the hotels in Tokyo..before we were allowed to move out of the city by talking to the local scientists… A radiologist from the University of Tokyo..began to talk to me..that he knew of the radiation damage because he had worked in Pennsylvania hospitals five years..doing whole body irradiation [on animals]…[He]said ‘I know about radiation but you Americans carried it further.. You have done the human experiment.’ ..I had to agree with him…you know, to the murder..[of]making bombs against a whole city… [My] entire tour through Japan [lasted] for a month after the war.”  http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/30591_1.html

   “The Joint Chiefs..ordered on October 30..‘No research..on atomic energy shall be permitted in Japan.’…[In] November..American military teams proceeded to hack Japan’s five [known] cyclotrons..to pieces. The remains were dumped into the sea.” www.fortfreedom.org/w08.htm
   “In the immediate aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, an organizational unit to study atomic-bomb effects began taking shape, coalescing into the Committee on Atomic Casualties, led by Thomas Rivers.. bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute…   A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years…  ‘The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed.’ ” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/thomas-m-rivers/
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“Before the CIA, there was the Pond”
Unknown to the public after WWII was an officially sanctioned intelligence agency created by the War Department in 1942 called The Pond. It “existed for 13 years and was shrouded in secrecy for more than 50 years..operated under the cover of multinational corporations, including American Express, Chase National Bank and Philips, the Dutch-based electronic giant… [T]ens of thousands of once-secret documents found in locked safes and filing cabinets in a barn near Culpeper Virginia in 2001..portray a sophisticated organization obsessed with secrecy that operated a network..in 32 countries… The organization counted among its exploits..an effort to enlist..’Lucky’ Luciano..to assassinate..Mussolini; identifying..heavy water plants doing atomic research in Norway; and providing advance information on Russia’s first atomic bomb… The head of the Pond was Col. John  [Jean, “Frenchy”]V. Grombach..[whose] father was..in the French Consulate in New Orleans. The War Department had tapped Grombach to create the secret intelligence..as a foundation for a permanent spy service… Grombach wrote that the idea..was to use ‘observers’ who would build..relationships..[rather] than spies who bought secrets… In 1955 The Pond went off the books… [It had] laid the groundwork..to integrate its activities into the U.S. Rubber Co.’s business operations in 93 countries… The Pond also worked with..Remington Rand… [In time] Grombach began furnishing names to McCarthy on supposed security risks…[and] It wasn’t long before the..organization largely ceased to exist.” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/38470605/ns/us_news-security/t/cia-there-was-pond/
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   Files belonging to The Pond, when picked up in 2001, were in the possession of the Freedom Studies Center of the American Security Council Foundation (ASCF, est.1958), a private non-profit lobby group for the private American Security Council founded by John Morris Fisher in 1955. Mr. Fisher, then a resident of the town of Culpeper, was the Director for National Security of  Sears Roebuck & Co., the Rosenwalds vast holding, and just up the road from the town of Culpeper lay Brandy Rock Farm, Strauss’s 1600-acre estate bought in 1933. Fisher’s obituary reveals his proudest activity: president of the Culpeper Regional Hospital Foundation that also was organized in 1955 to build a medical center of which “Admiral Strauss [was] one of the founders.” http://www.culpeperhospital.org/foundationMain.aspx .
   Even without a personal connection, The Pond and the ASCF, beneficiary of its documents, bear the imprint of Strauss and his Kuhn Loeb/American Jewish Committee associates. The 1958 founding members of the ASCF include: Ray Cline (CIA, quoted by the Seagraves above), Thomas J. Dodd, Averell Harriman, Henry ‘Scoop’ Jackson, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Sam Rayburn, Nelson Rockefeller, Eugene Rostow, and others. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/American_Security_Council
   Origins of the Pond within Military Intelligence (Army G-2) began with the authorization given by General George Strong to Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner to establish “a perpetual, a far-seeing, a far-distant, continuing intelligence service…Kroner selected Grombach..’particularly because [he] could take such instructions..under the terms of the highest secrecy’… Kroner testified after the war that..’only those in the War Department and the State and the President’s office..[and] President himself..knew it existed… A few people at FBI headquarters were also in on the secret… the whole thing was well known to Mickey [D. Milton] Ladd, chief of the FBI’s Domestic Intelligence Division, an ally of Grombach.” https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol48no3/article07.html   The FBI’s Mickey Ladd, naturally, was later to be a prime conduit for the crosstalk in the Atomic Energy Double Agent Program.
   “..Convinced the OSS was infiltrated by the British, French and Russians, Strong set up..his own small espionage unit..secret from Donovan…’the Pond’..began infiltrating spies overseas under State Department and commercial cover…[p117, Wild Bill Donovan]…No one in the OSS could determine exactly what the Pond’s band of spies was doing for the Army’s G-2, but Grombach..kept popping up on Donovan’s radar screen… As near as Donovan’s officers could tell,  Grombach had operatives roaming Portugal, Sweden, Hungary and Romania..[and] was also trying to recruit former OSS officers with experience in Turkey and Greece… [He] also collected dossiers on hundreds of OSS officers. [p290, ibid.] Major General Clayton Bissell..replaced Strong..in early 1944..[and was just] as hostile to Donovan.” [p307, ibid.]
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“Two and a half weeks after President Truman declared victory, Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to the RCMP [Canadians]… On November 7th, Elizabeth Bently visited the FBI’s New York office and began to recount her role as a courier for two espionage rings in Washington D.C…. She identified as Soviet agents persons in the White House, the State Department, the War Department, [and] the OSS…” http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/highlights-of-history/articles/venona
   Elizabeth Bentley made her first approach to the FBI in August of 1945. Then on September 5, Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Embassy cipher clerk in Ottawa, Ontario, defected with documents concerning atomic weapons espionage. What Bentley and Gouzenko had in common was later to be ‘proved’ by decrypted radio intelligence (sigint) that was collected in Finland and brought to Stockholm in an operation known as Stella Polaris (Pole Star). “Stella Polaris was an evacuation of all the Finnish Intelligence officers and their families..to Sweden..[in] September 1944…at least 750 people and 500 pack[ing] boxes of equipment..and documents [were] carried over..on four cargo vessels” in the middle of the night. But “Stella Polaris is also known as a process about the burnt archives from 1946 until the 1950s… it was [not until] the 90s in the U.S. when the NSA started publishing secret spy telegrams which had been part of the..system VENONA during the Cold War. Much of the material was..sold in 1944 and 1945 in Stockholm… The Americans became unpleasantly surprised when the Finns revealed that they could read [U.S.] communications all the time.”  http://stellapolaris.net/english/20/what-was-the-operation-stella-polaris
   A reminder from the first part of this article is: ”war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this.” [Men and Decisions]
   The British, who trained and virtually ran the neophyte OSS, “would oversee operations in India, the Balkans, the Middle East, and [until1943] Western Europe. Donovan got control of mostly table scraps, such as China and Finland. But he would also run..North Africa.” [p130, Wild Bill Donovan]
   According to historian R. Harris Smith the “OSS had made its first Scandinavian inroads..in Finland. Since the Russian invasion..in November 1939, the Finns had considered their conflict..as a separate war.  After the German attack on Russia in July 1941, Finland became a ‘co-belligerent’..[with] Berlin in battling the Red Army. In December [’41], under pressure from Moscow, Churchill reluctantly declared war on Finland… Early 1942 saw the Nazis using Finnish territory as a base of operations against Russia.” [p198, OSS, R. Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press]
   Finland, as it turned out, became a great crossroads of mixed-purpose espionage and the OSS Stockholm duty evolved into an important listening post for Soviet activity.  A number of discussion threads on JFK assassination deal with the relationships generated around the Stockholm base and Stella Polaris operation; even the reasoned expectation that “OSS station [Stockholm] was in large part controlled by [Military] Secret Intelligence and..by Grombach… Olsen was a member of OSS Stockholm [and]identified as a member of Grombach’s Pond group… A suggestion could also be made that Richard Helms was a Grombach man.” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=2967&st=75  ; this next link, for example, includes Lee H. Oswald  http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=3981
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American Security Council
   Originally called the Midwest Research Library of Chicago, the few 1954 founding ASC incorporators included General Robert E. Wood of Sears Roebuck who notified J. Edgar Hoover with this note: “As you know, the Mid-American Research Library was organized by patriotic businessmen to preserve and expand the Harry A. Jung files. The name..has now been changed to the American Security Council…  Its primary mission is the gathering, correlation and dissemination of factual information on Communist strategy and tactics to its members… The Council has the largest and most complete private files on Communism in the country at its main office in Chicago..containing the names of over 1,ooo,ooo individuals and organizations provid[ing] information which the FBI cannot supply since its files are secret. ”  http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/tamwag/lazare_content.html
   The Jung files were held at the Chicago Tribune Tower where they took up the entire 26th floor of Robert McCormick’s newspaper offices. Jung was a former editor of The American Gentile, published by The Gentile Front, and is known for being “one of the first” distributors of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and founder of the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation.
   Hoover’s interest in the ASC was two-fold: as a rightwing organization under surveillance and as a pool for retired FBI agents, including D.Milton (Mickey) Ladd, Lee R. Pennington (associated to Watergate), W. Cleon Skousen, John Fisher, Kenneth Piper (VP of Motorola), etc.
>>>Pennington-Watergate connection:”Pennington went to [James] McCord’s house [and].. destroyed..documents linked to the Watergate break-in.” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=4567
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   The American Security Council adopted the motto “Peace Through Strength” and organized a Coalition for Peace Through Strength (CPTS) and a National Strategy for Peace Through Strength (NSPTS) by which it lobbied officers of government and business. “The ASC has a complex structure with many subsidiaries… Its boards of advisors and directors have..generous representation from military contractor firms [e.g. Lockheed, Boeing, General Dynamics]..defense intellectuals and rightest retirees of the military and intelligence establishment..including James Angleton (CIA), John Singlaub (USA)..Lyman Lemnitzer (USA), Albert Wedemeyer..[etc] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, ASC gained some notoriety when it was revealed that one of its affiliates, the Institute for American Strategy (IAS) has been used by the National Security Council as the vehicle for training military personnel..with help from the right-wing Richardson Foundation…  [A] veteran analyst of right-wing organizations has stated that ASC is ‘not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.’http://wikispooks.com/wiki/American_Security_Council,_extract_from_The%22Terrorism%22_Industry
>>>The Richardson Foundation (Smith Richardson), established 1935 by H. Smith Richardson, is a family-controlled trust endowed by the fortune from ‘Vick’s’ pharmaceuticals. Headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. the western point of the ‘Triad’ of central counties making up greater Raleigh-Durham.
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To Summarize…
Briefly to this point, World War II enabled Lewis Strauss and his associates to gain control of the largest known stocks of gold treasure, private ‘vigilante’ intelligence, and super-weapons expertise. For the next ten years (1945-1955) a slow motion coup d’etat rumbled beneath the American establishment, ending, arguably, in the last grab for resources –human resources– by way of a medical debacle in 1955 called Salk polio vaccine. The roots of the polio vaccine and its Cold War “success” is integral to the growth of nuclear weapons.
                        Crossroads      
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Atomic Energy Commission
   Before the Manhattan Project was turned over to the incoming Atomic Energy Commission, the military staged the first nuclear combat-era tests in the Marshall Islands: Operation Crossroads (July 1946). Strauss’s former boss from the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance, Admiral Blandy, led the proceedings as the head of the Joint Task Force. Strauss declined Blandy’s offer to join the staff and witness Crossroads up close, writing in his memoir, “I declined regretfully in order to..return to private business” which included a Bohemian Grove holiday with ex-Pres. Herbert Hoover “during the same week that the underwater, or ‘Baker’, test was scheduled at Bikini atoll..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Interrupted at the Grove, Strauss was handily summoned to Washington and offered the first slot on the AEC. Truman said, “As to why I have selected you,  I will tell you. I asked a number of people..to give me a slate of names of possible Commissioners and your name did not appear at the top of any list. But you were a common denominator– that is to say..on all of the lists.” [p212, ibid.]

   Only recently had Strauss acquired non-remunerative status as Lifetime Trustee of the American Cancer Society and an executive governorship over New York’s Sloan Kettering Institute along with a number of MED chiefs.  He was well on his way to being a common denominator in the fully expressed military-medical complex. The AEC counted its earliest successes in the radioactive isotope program, the industrial-scale byproducts made in the reactor “piles” of the weapons labs.
   “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies and clinics…  the AEC was, first and foremeost, a production agency itself… As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business’…In 1947..Congress earmarked $5million for AEC’s efforts in combatting cancer… the cancer program accounted for over 2,000 shipments [that year]… In addition, clinical cancer research hospitals were built at Argonne and Oak Ridge… By August 1949, three years after the first shipment..the AEC assembled a bibliography of 1,850 papers reporting scientific findings made with AEC isotopes –over 38% were in biology and medicine and were equally divided between human uses..and non-human… In 1950 alone, the AEC sent out more than 6,000 shipments of radioisotopes..[of which] three quarters..were used in biology and medicine…  Thus..[radioisotope use] flourished..in no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding…particularly through the National Institutes of Health.” http://www.academia.edu/302719/The_Industrialization_of_Radioisotopes_by_the_US_Atomic_Energy_Commission
Radioisotopes
   Over a decade of pre-war isotope research, thanks to Ernest O. Lawrence’s Berkeley cyclotrons, had enabled Americans to develop a small nuclear business that helped set a firmament for U.S. weapons and boost the physics curricula to run apace with Europeans. Isotopes and particle accelerators were clearly generators of nuclear weapons and Strauss capitalized on those facts in his stance as the sometimes “lone dissenter” on the AEC. Prohibitive radioisotope distribution was a forerunner to his later term at Commerce described by Richard Pfau “as a base from which to fight the Cold War.” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “This program..was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from..outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate..between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism… [R]adioisotopes..became political instruments in struggles over the control of the atom.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
   Atomic monopoly was a concept largely nurtured in the mind of Harry Truman who also thought the atomic bomb, prior to dropping, was “just a bigger bomb”.  Advisors had been telling Truman that the United States had a minimum two-to-five year headstart on bombs of the fission type and perhaps a ten year advantage on the ‘Super’.  Isotopes, on the other hand, were already outside the domain of US control, the surest means of proliferation, and the stickiest issue for hastening an international treaty and buttoning down the National Security State.
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One week after the Crossroads-Baker test at Bikini,  with Lewis Strauss on board as the first AEC Commissioner, Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 on August 1. The bill (known as the McMahon Bill for its sponsor, CT Senator Brien McMahon) declared “Government ownership of all fissionable material… No person shall have any title in or to any fissionable material… It shall be unlawful..to possess or transfer..export or import to..or directly or indirectly engage in the production of any fissionable material outside of the United States. [p6]… The Commission is authorized to purchase or otherwise acquire any fissionable material or any interest therein outside the United States..in the interest of the common defense and security… except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source materials which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant… Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate..any provision..with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction..be punished by death or imprisonment for life…[p20]” http://www.osti.gov/atomicenergyact.pdf
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An example of radioisotope developments in the 1930s outside the United States was given by historian Simon Turchetti who noted that Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his business partner Gabriello Giannini had patented 60 isotopes by 1936 “in various countries“, intended for research. Giannini was “responsible for trading the patents“.  Successful contracts were made with Philips Fabriken in Amsterdam, Sharp & Dohme, and the US corporations General Electric and Westinghouse. According to Turchetti, Giannini “partnered with the Dutch firm Philips..and..with L.V. Graner, a Philips engineer who lived and worked in New York.” By that time Giannini himself lived in the U.S. –he set up a business office at 30 Rockefeller Center and later found contractual wartime employment with Lockheed.  www.eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/4609/1/Slow.Neutrons.pdf  A potentially interesting aspect of the Giannini-Philips relationship is the primary sponsorship by Philips of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond intelligence.
   Whatever the case regarding the patents or any buy-back effort from the AEC,  U.S. weapons programs benefitted from cooperation with Philips, Giannini and Fermi. In December of 1938, Enrico Fermi took permanent leave of Italy on the occasion of receiving a Nobel Prize in Stockholm. From there he emigrated to New York and signed on to the Manhattan Engineer District. His assignments took him to Chicago, where he co-assembled the first nuclear reactor, and then to Los Alamos. Sometime in 1943, while contemplating the technical difficulties of bomb-making with Robert Oppenheimer, “Fermi took Oppenheimer aside..and suggested another way to kill large numbers of Germans. Perhaps, he said, radioactive fission products could be used to poison Germany’s food supply.” [p221, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin]
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   Strauss wrote in his memoir, “In 1946 the Soviet delegate to the United Nations let it be known that in..Communist Russia the facts about atomic energy were ‘very well understood’. But atomic energy was being employed by his country for peaceful purposes only…  Not everyone, however, accepted Soviet assurance… The first Atomic Energy Commissioners did not. The several Commissioners were confirmed by the Senate in April 1947.  At a meeting shortly thereafter we discussed a memorandum I had [prepared]..as to whether the intelligence arrangements of the Manhattan Project had made provision..for continuous monitoring of radioactivity in the atmosphere… [p201, Men and Decisions]…[The memo read] ‘If there is no such monitoring system in effect, it is incumbent upon us..to initiate it ourselves at once.’ There was unanimous agreement. [p202, ibid.] …It was important that the tests which the Atomic Energy Commission was planning..[at] Eniwetok in the spring of 1948 should be monitored in order that..reliable detection might be perfected. [p204] …By the time of our test series..in 1948 [Operation Sandstone] the system was ready to demonstrate and by the summer of 1949, vigilance was rewardedI was completely convinced that a [Soviet] weapon or an explosive device had been tested purposefully on or about August 29 [1949, and] that it might not have been the first such test by the Soviets.” [p216]
   The USSR, it appeared, became the third nation after the U.S.(1945) and U.K.(1947) to attain the bomb. The detection event, as it turned out, took weeks to confirm and was not without lasting controversy over the reliability of data –fallout analysis collected by aerial filters on a US military plane. Strauss reported it as “One of our planes operating in the Long Range Detection System collected a sample that was decidedly radioactive…“[p276, caption, Men and Decisions]. The Soviets, were it they, had a knack for timing. Secretary of Defense Forrestal, replaced earlier in March, fell to his death on May 22. Skirmishes over radioisotope shipments, lax security, missing plutonium and other AEC program flaws had reached a peak of rhetoric by summer. “..concerns about shipments of isotopes to Norway and Finland resulted in allegations that the Atomic Energy Commission’s distribution policy was undermining national security… Just a few months later, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb shattered any illusions..[about] nuclear monopoly. In addition, the governments of Britain and Canada began selling radioisotopes to foreign purchasers, with fewer restrictions…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454 Less than four months hence (Jan.1950), the government was informed that atomic-spy penetration during the war had fully compromised its most guarded secrets and a chorus of H-bomb boosters moved the administration to immediately authorize a crash program to build ‘Supers’. On January 31, 1950, Lewis Strauss, jubilantly celebrating a birthday-to-remember, submitted his resignation.
>>>Strauss’s first post as AEC Commissioner covered July 1946 to April 1950. He returned as Chairman in 1953, appointed by Eisenhower.
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Timeline NOTES: In 1946
–January 22, President Truman issues a Directive forming the Central Intelligence Group (CIG, renamed CIA in July of 1947 at the signing of the National Security Act)
–April, John F. Kennedy launches his campaign for congress and handily wins the June primary
–July 1, 1946—The cancer control program was established at the National Cancer Institute (http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NCI.htm) on the same day as Crossroads first test, “Able” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Crossroads
The NIH participated in Operation Crossroads providing experimental pharmaceuticals (‘sun’screen and vaccines) and personnel. –July 3, NIH lobbyists (Laskers, Mahoney, et.al.) succeeded in enacting the Mental Health Act
–August 1, signing of the Atomic Energy Act
— Austrian physicist Hans Thirring published a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb (2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict] http://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/
–G.M. Giannini and Philips Electronics filed lawsuits for the restoration of their patents and earnings; Giannini sued for $10 million and Philips for $20 million (suits were dropped in the ’50s)
–October 7, W. Averell Harriman appointed Truman’s Secretary of Commerce (Oct-7-46 to Apr-22-48)
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1947
January 29, 1947, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics program for the government was convened..[for] the Manhattan Project. The status of their mandate was stated: “No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter… the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined”  http://polioforever.wordpress.com/health-physics/
–March, John J. McCloy becomes second president of the World Bank (until June 1949), after Eugene Meyer
–April,  AEC Commissioners assume their offices.
–July, creation of the Division of Security and Intelligence of the Atomic Energy Commission
–Aug, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, former aide to Secretary Forrestal, is appointed Director of the Division of Security
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Particle Accelerators, Isotopes and Plutonium
   The isotope theory was first proposed by Englishman Frederick Soddy in 1912. An isotope is a variant of a particular element based on the mass of its nucleus. Before the concept of the neutron, the proton-containing nucleus of an atom was thought to have additional particles that altered its mass and produced isotopes, some of which are unstable and radioactive though chemically identical to each other. Isotope theory led to the discovery of the neutron, proposed by Ernest Rutherford and others as early as 1918. Existence of the neutron was experimentally confirmed by several physicists between 1928 and 1932, credited to another Englishman in 1932, James Chadwick, who worked at the Cavendish (Cambridge, UK) Lab with Rutherford and later joined the Manhattan Project.
   Between 1938 and 1940, two scientists at the Cavendish, Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher, used particle accelerators made by Philips to bombard uranium-238 with neutrons [“neutron capture” method] to cause fission and make plutonium-239.  Feather left an oral history of his work: “..it had been obvious..at least 18 months before January 1939 [the announcement of fission] that there was something very odd happening in these interactions of neutrons with the heavy elements…and it was quite clear that one could now produce trans-uranic elements..so people were bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons and they were collecting radioactive species..in great abundance. That was beginning to be known in ’37-’38..before the whole thing fell into place by the realization that what was happening was fission… very shortly afterwards Bretscher and I..identified iodine and hellurium amongst the fission products… Incidently the experiment..was done on the 1 MeV Phillips set… [In] December 1940..[we] put in a report..that if uranium-235 had the characteristics..suitable for a bomb..we believed 239 plutonium would have it..[and] might be less difficult than separating..235 uranium.” http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4599_2.html
>>>uranium-235, a rare isotope in u-238, was made for the MED by the gaseous diffusion method at the enormous Oak Ridge Tennessee facility. Oak Ridge became the center for postwar isotope production using reactors. Making plutonium for bomb cores with accelerators, however, was one of Ernest O. Lawrence’s most driven projects. The first US-made plutonium came from his Rad Lab in Berkeley. The “plutonium breakthrough” by Cambridge-Cavendish meant that any skilled operator with a sufficiently high-voltage accelerator and enough naturally-occuring uranium-238 and a separating method could produce their own bomb cores. Potentially, select hospital labs in virtually all modern nations had the equipment for the job.
>>>particle accelerators for medical use is covered in a 1974 Janeway Lecture given by Dr. Milford Schulz, published as “The Supervoltage Story” http://www.ajronline.org/content/124/4/540.full.pdf
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R. Gordon Arneson, secretary to the Interim Committee on atomic energy, said during an oral history interview that he was present at the Pentagon “shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki..[when] a message to be transmitted immediately to General MacArthur..[came with] the approval of General Groves. It called for the destruction of all the Japanese cyclotrons… They were destroyed in a matter of hours. We saved all the bits and pieces we could use and the rest was dumped in the ocean. Now..we’ve learned in recent years that the Japanese had a bit more of a program going than we thought… [Question: Was it true that you could hide the manufacture of a bomb behind the walls of another type of factory, that it was fairly easy to conceal the actual production of a bomb?] Maybe you could use smaller facilities..and eventually you might get enough… [Question: When you said ‘dangerous facilities’ did you mean facilities producing atomic bombs?] Producing nuclear fuel. [Question: Okay..which could be used for either weapons or peaceful applications?] Yes. [Question: There was no agreement on nuclear limitations, armament limitations, until 1963, I guess…That was the first time..?] Yes. The only one that made any difference… Over the years, I was persona non grata to Admiral Strauss. He considered himself a ‘majority of one’ on the Commission.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/arneson.htm
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Atomic Security
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Of the five members of the AEC, only Strauss possessed experience in decisions on national security..on which the survival of the United States might depend.  Strauss saw the Cold War with single-minded clarity… None of the other Commissioners shared his concern… He assigned his capable assisstant, William T. Golden..to follow up. When the Central Intelligence Group..estimated ‘that approximately two years will be required to locate, install, and operate the complete network of stations and facilities’ [needed for radiation monitoring] Strauss protested. ‘We cannot regard a two-year period as acceptable,’ he said…[p95, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss fought as hard to safeguard classified information as he did for long-range detection. He knew there was no ‘secret’ to the bomb. The American advantage lay in its lead..and its access to supplies of..uranium. Often he took his case outside the Commission…even to newspapers… The first issue was security…”  [p97, ibid.]
*                                                      Col. Boris Pash
Boris Pash
No single individual in the United States had more experience in atomic intelligence than the Chief of Security of the Manhattan Project, Colonel Boris T. Pash. “Pash..was director of security..[and] also the lead officer in the Alsos Mission which scoured Europe searching for German nuclear scientists…charged with finding..atomic and bacteriological weapons…” [Pash obit.] http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Colonel-Boris-T-Pash-3033038
   Boris ‘Pash’ Pashkovsky was a White Russian born in San Francisco (1901) while his parents were on an extended assignment for the Russian Orthodox Church. They took him back to Moscow as a child and years later “When the Bolsheviks seized power, Pash joined the counterrevolutionary White Army and fought in the 1918-20 civil war. He returned to America after marrying a Russian aristocrat. During the 1920s and ’30s, while employed as a highschool football coach, Pash spent his summers as a reserve US Army Intelligence officer… [During WWII] he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast and then was assigned [to] the Manhattan Project… Pash had little patience for bureaucracy [and] considered himself a man of action. While his admirers described him as ‘cunning and shrewd’, others regarded him as a ‘crazy Russian’. Pash considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy…” [p.190, American Prometheus]   …”On June 29, 1943..Col. Boris Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer [suspected of Communist sympathies] be denied a security clearance and fired… Groves’ new security aide, Lt.Col. John Lansdale, a smart thirty-one-year-old lawyer from Cleveland..did not recommend firing Oppenheimer…[p.233]…General Groves agreed with..Lansdale…[and] Pash..seethed at this decision.” [p.336, ibid.]…Pash had been..so antagonistic toward Oppenheimer as to finally lead Groves to conclude that Pash was wasting the Army’s time and resources… Groves decided that Pash’s talents could be put to better use elsewhere.” [p249, American Prometheus] He was assigned to Alsos.
   The first part of Alsos’ mission was to accompany the advance troops into Italy. “Four outstanding scientists were picked by Dr. [Vannevar] Bush at OSRD. Dr. James Fisk of Bell Telephone Company was in charge of the scientists. Only he and Pash would know about the atomic bomb part of their mission… They were flown to Algiers to report to Gen. Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Gen. [Walter] Bedell Smith. Only these two men were to know the details…” http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
   As a young man of 17, Jim Fisk (1910-1981) “enrolled in [M.I.T]..in the new pursuits of aeronautical engineering… [In] 1932, he went to Cambridge University where he worked with those who were probing the [atomic] nucleus [in the Cavendish lab]… After working on particle accelerators..he accepted a job on the faculty of physics at the University of North Carolina. In 1939..Fisk accept[ed] the invitation..to join Bell… He collaborated with William Shockley in the independent derivation of conditions for the critical mass and sustained chain reaction of an atomic pile… He was, in 1947, appointed the first director of research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission… He retired as chairman of Bell Laboratories in 1974, having served as executive vice-president from 1955 and president from 1959..thus directly responsible for all..programs pursued by Bell..for A.T.&T [which] included support of the national Apollo lunar exploration and close affiliation with the Sandia Laboratories in nuclear systems… [He] was uniquely prepared to work with President Eisenhower..in the formation of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House..[which he] served from 1957..to 1973.” http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1760&page=93 Fisk did not return to Alsos after the Italy assignment. The next mission was Alsos’ campaign into France and Germany on the heels of D-Day –their science director, picked by the OSRD, was Samuel Goudsmit. “Over..22 months they succeeded in seizing top German and Italian nuclear scientists and 70,000 tons of uranium and radium products that would be shipped to the U.S. for use in its own nuclear development… After the war..beginning in 1946 [Pash was posted] as the Chief of the Foreign Liason for MacArthur in Tokyo. In March 1949 he was detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination…” [the OPC]  http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
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FBI, CIA, ONI, G2…
The Atomic Energy Act charter tasked the FBI with the AEC’s security needs and consequently the official memoranda traffic was routed through the FBI, notwithstanding the significant stakeholding already in process by other agencies. Strauss wrote, “if any security whatever is to exist, there must be a recognized authority and a rule to which all must adhere.” [p248, Men and Decisions]
In August 1947, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich was appointed Director of the newly created Division of Security and Intelligence. Declassified FBI files on Gringrich show that at the time of his [AEC] appointment he was working closely with the Central Intelligence Group.” www.majecticdocuments.com/personnel/gingrich.php  The memoranda reveal Gingrich’s troubled tenure.
   July 1947, D.M. Ladd: Gingrich’s “principal job will be to cooperate with the FBI… The decision by the Commission to establish a combined security and intelligence division was based on security studies made over..five months..by Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers.. former Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence and..first head of the Central Intelligence Group…  the AEC program will head up in the unified office of Admiral Gingrich…”
   To D.M. Ladd from Victor P. Keay, Sep.9,1947:”[One] of our best [FBI] confidential contacts stated that Admiral Gingrich is very unpopular with the employees of the Security Division and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction and grumbling among them. He stated that Gingrich uses very high-handed methods…[and] that the Admiral has been giving [security] clearance for employment to persons who were recommended against by the Review Board..the General Manager and others… The Admiral in conversations with Special Agent [blank] has indicated that he doesn’t put much faith in the ability of his personnel, particularly [blank] of the Security Division… The Admiral also indicated..that he intended to rely heavily upon the Bureau rather than his own Security Division.”
   April 19, 1949, Gingrich handed in his resignation, effective May 1, and “pointed out that there was no centralized control and when he issued instructions..had no assurance that they would be carried out… He has had numerous problems and his division has been beset by many difficulties.”  http://www.majesticdocuments.com/pdf/john-edward-gingrich_fbifile.pdf
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Atomic Energy Dual (FBI) Agent
   The FBI stepped into the fray “To further discharge our responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act” and initiated discussion of “placing Bureau Agents in vital installations in undercover capacities.”  According to Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.” The Communist informant program appears to have endured while the dual-agent program fizzled: three Special Agent candidates were selected: “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by  AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to reconsider initiating the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”   http://www.governmentattic.org/4docs/FBIundercoverAECfacilities_1949-1964.pdf
   “During the Commission’s first three years there were occasions upon which I found myself at odds with a majority of  my colleagues… in the main..I was inclined to go along..if I could not bring them to see justice in my point of view.” –Lewis Strauss, p215, Men and Decisions.
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One of his fellow AEC commissioners said of him, “If you disagree with Lewis about anything, he assumes you’re just a fool at first. But if you go on disagreeing with him, he concludes you must be a traitor.” [p362, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin]

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Was Lee Harvey Oswald a “dual” atomic agent?

Read more: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/atomic-agent-oswald/

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Timeline NOTEs
1947 – “That spring, reports surfaced in the press that ‘secret files’ had been lost or stolen from the AEC’s laboratories. Critics of the AEC called for a military takeover of the agency on account of its ineptitude in managing security…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
uranium goes missing from the Argonne National Lab
–“the FBI was grilling..an ex-soldier who had been found in possession of highly classified photographs stolen from the atomic facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico..[he] had also worked..at Brookhaven… As he was being arraigned in federal court, it was noted that he’d been picked up just as he was about to flee the country.” http://articles.nydailynews.com/2000-09-26/news/18156295_1_atomic-energy-third-national-political-party-communist-party
July— [Albuquerque Journal] “The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers… A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the result of government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’…Officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments..[and] one of them added,’All we know is what we read in the papers.’…” http://www.abqjournal.com/roswell/rjpage1.htm
— In Socorro Dr. Irving Langmuir was initiating the first large-scale weather modification experiments;  Edward Teller wrote, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
1948
April/May, Operation Sandstone in the Marshalls; first tests conducted by the AEC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sandstone
May 14, Israel is founded, Palestine partitioned
–May 17, security breach reported, plutonium missing from Argonne. Bourke Hickenlooper calls for David Lilienthal’s resignation.
— Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine
— American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
— Sloan-Kettering opens for business
1949
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes”
–CIA initiates Project Bluebird, drug and psychology-based mind control http://www.examiner.com/us-intelligence-in-national/cia-behavior-modification-project-bluebird
– April 4, signing of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–May, Communist spy trials begin
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from 16th floor of Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets detonate first A-bomb; determined to already have the H-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–”November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium
1950
–Jan, Klaus Fuchs “confessed on 23rd January 1950” that he passed atomic secrets to the Soviets; Fuchs’ courier Harry Gold led the investigators to David Greenglass and his sister Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg  http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAfuchs.htm
— Jan 31, authorization of the ‘Super’ thermonuclear fusion H-bomb
— Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss resigned the AEC, effective April 15
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The H Bomb
Excerpt from the book Fallout, published in 1960:
…”The complications of the fusion [hydrogen] bomb arise from the fact that it takes a vast amount of energy to start the fusion reaction. To make deuterium nuclei fuse..they must be heated to about 100 million degrees Fahrenheit. Such energy can be provided by the explosion of a fission bomb, which can therefore serve as a trigger for a fusion bomb. But then comes the problem of how to pack enough hydrogen fuel into the bomb and how to hold it together long enough to allow it to fuse.
   “In the first attempt..the hydrogen was condensed to its liquid form. This meant that it had to be reduced to a very low-temperature –not far from absolute zero– and so our first hydrogen ‘bomb’ was a gigantic refrigerator, weighing some 65 tons. Its fuel was tritium (the hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons), which fuses more readily than deuterium. This was the device detonated on the island of Elugelab in the Marshalls on November 1, 1952. It yielded the equivalent of about three million tons of TNT –150 times the Hiroshima bomb– and obliterated the little island…  Having proved that a fission-fusion device would work, the AEC scientists attacked the problem of reducing it to something portable enough to be used as a bomb. Several scientists..suggested that the need for liquefying the hydrogen might be avoided by combining it with the light metal litium in solid form; e.g. in the compound lithium deuteride, composed of one atom of lithium and one of deuterium.” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
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Congressman John F. Kennedy
   “Truman talked of ‘free peoples who are resiting attempted subjugation’… In this darkening world, an enemy of the Soviet Union was a friend of the United States… The public mood was shifting..and Jack was entering a Congress in which politicians of both parties had begun to flay away at Communists… of all the newly elected members..[Kennedy] was the first to berate publicly a putative Communist..[Russell Nixon of United Electrical Workers]before the House Labor Committee.
   …Joe remained as isolationist as he had ever been..[and] opposed the Marshall Plan as a massive giveaway of American wealth. He was all for letting the tired peoples of Europe have their desperate fling with Communism if they chose… Jack was making a different sound. Congressman Kennedy was a lowly freshman..But that spring [of 1947]..he stated that he was in favor of aid to Europe… Jack supported whatever measures were necessary to contain a Soviet Union that he believed pushed relentlessly outward, driven..and fortified by Communist ideology… [Kennedy] envisioned..a possible nuclear Armageddon..’some twenty-five or thirty-five years from now.‘ [pp244-246, The Kennedy Men] …Jack thought the veterans should lead the nation with concern for policies that would maintain the peace and build a strong and prosperous nation… [He] was pleading for America’s veterans not to retreat into private life, leaving the public arena to the predators, the self-interested, and the narrow parochial interests…[p235]…Jack carried with him the bitter memories of a wartime capital full of what he considered the self-serving and the self-seeking… [W]hen he returned to Washington..[he] saw only the endless compromise… As the months went by, Jack became less and less a forceful advocate and more of an ironic, disinterested bystander. He brought the same emotional distance that he kept from everyone in his life to the world of politics. [p248] …[Kennedy] did not like confrontation. He found the endless battles between Democrats and Republicans not a real war but a wearisome and tedious routine. He had one of the worst attendence records in the House of Representatives… Only some [of the absences] could be attributed to his many illnesses. [p280, ibid.]
   “Jack needed these [cortisone] injections to live..[p253]…”Jack was crippled and he couldn’t walk well,’ [George]Smathers remembered…‘[and it]was a long walk [to the House floor] for a guy who had a bad hip and a bad back…So he would lean on me..[to] get over..[and] vote. So that’s really how we became very close friends…‘ [The] two bachelors had been relegated to the distant reaches of the House Office Building… Smathers’ office was just down the hall from Jack’s. [p249-250] ‘He had leukemia at one point,’ Rose told Robert Coughlin in an unpublished..autobiography. ‘I remember..there was one doctor who could cure it…[People] don’t get over that..very often.’ Jack’s..leukemia..was yet another secret that had to be carefully contained. No record of this adult illness exists… [p282] His great creation, then, was..a man of apparently endless vigor and health. He let no one stand close enough to his pain to betray his illusion. [p253] Joe..had taught his children that time was the rarest commodity in life…’Time is man’s dominant foe,’ he said. ‘All man has on earth is the present moment…‘ [p260]
   “Jack’s anticommunism was tempered by the terrible realities of war..as well as his own..ever-growing awareness of the complexities of the modern world…[p283] He and his colleagues had helped create an image of a Soviet monolith ready to strike, but now [1950] he had grasped the truths of nuclear detente. ‘Why should they [the Russians] take the risk of starting a war when the best they could get would be a stalemate during which they would be subjected to atomic bombing?’ he asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in February 1951. ‘Why should they throw everything into the game..[and] take risks they don’t have to –especially when things are going well in the Far East?’…’Stalin is an old man, and old men are traditionally cautious.’ ...[JFK] wanted to touch the world with his own mind…[p284]…Jack was attempting to understand the complex.. uncertain world of 1951. This was not easy in an America that adored simplicity. A dangerous new world was opening up... [p285, The Kennedy Men]
                                                            McMahon                Golden
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Private Citizen Strauss did not leave the AEC program:  The Chairman of Congress’ Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), Senator [James O’]Brien McMahon of Connenticut, appointed Strauss Chairman of the Atomic Plant Expansion Advisory Panel. [ref. p378, Men and Decisions]. Strauss assistant, William T. Golden concurrently promoted the creation of a Presidential scientific advisory to Truman ( the later-named PSAC in 1957).
William T. Golden, who died Oct. 7, 2007, a few weeks short of his 98th birthday, was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science…In 1946, he became an assistant to Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss and helped organize that federal agency… His first recommendation..to Truman on December 18, 1950, under the title, “Mobilizing Science for War,” was the establishment of the position of scientific advisor to the president…Golden searched among the first NSF director candidates for someone..[and] found the right candidate in Alan T. Waterman, a physicist who was then chief scientist for the Office of Naval Research  … After ending his service to President Truman, Golden embarked on a life of stewardship and philanthropy. He was a trustee, board member or officer of nearly 100 scientific, educational and non-profit organizations.http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=110493&org=OD&from=news Waterman was also the brother-in-law of H. Neil Mallon (1895-d.1983) of Dresser Industries (acquired by Halliburton in 1998) and a close friend of Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-d.1972).
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The Sea Change
By 1950, the Sandia base at Kirtland field in New Mexico, operated by Bell Laboratories of A.T.&T, advertized its ability to turn out two nuclear weapons per day. Pressing a fear that escalating hostility in Asia would cause the military to temporarily lose its Pacific Proving Ground in the Marshalls, it was decided run tests in Nevada. The Nevada Proving Ground had been authorized in 1943 with atomic munitions in mind. Operation Ranger, scheduled for Jan-Feb., became the first series at the NTS.  Up in Michigan, where the Public Health Service maintained one of its signal laboratories, radioactive snow was collected and measured that February.
   “In the twentieth century, the soldier and citizen have become interchangeable…[p9] …The atom bomb completes the evolution. It consecrates the use of any means against the entire population… By a logic that is paradoxical only in appearance, the country least warlike in its tastes and philosophy has thus played a decisive part in the advent of unlimited war… The United States will one day, according to certain experts, be more vulnerable to atomic attack than that of any other country.” [p155, The Century of Total War, by Raymond Aron, 1955] The Korean War, declared in June of 1950 was the first conflagration expected to go nuclear. On those grounds, an unprecedented series of three atomic operations were planned for 1951; Operation Ranger in Nevada (Jan-Feb), Operation Greenhouse in the Pacific (Apr-May), and Operation Buster-Jangle back at the NTS (Oct-Nov). The planners were preparing for “nuclear battlefield” simulations.
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Top Secret — Soviet H-bomb
“[T]he evidence is convincing that the Russians achieved not only the first experimental nuclear fusion on earth, but also produced the first deliverable hydrogen bomb.” –p263, Energy and Conflict, 1976, Blumberg and Owens, who wrote “our first solid evidence came from Major Theodore F. Walkowicz…[who told us] there was something chilly and strange in the debris samples… [More] evidence comes from Robert LeBaron who, in 1951, was chairman of the [AEC] Military Liason Committee, the link between the Pentagon and the AEC. LeBaron..confirmed Walkowicz’s statement that there was a hydrogen component in a Russian test in late 1950… He was asked, ‘Was the AEC, the GAC, Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller aware of this intelligence?’ LeBaron’s reply was rather astounding: ‘No, they were not notified. It was top secret..’ ” [pp269-270, Energy and Conflict]
1951 – Operation RANGER – Jan27-Feb06 – [activated] Nevada Test Site : 5 shots   …Science magazine published an article by W.W. Meinke on the radioactive snow observed in Ann Arbor, Michigan  —  http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/refs/113/2941/545?ck=nck
1951 – Operation GREENHOUSE – Apr08-May25 – Marshall Islands, Pacific : 4 shots
1951 – Operation BUSTER-JANGLE – Oct22-Nov29 – Nevada Test Site : 7 shots : operation Desert Rock, 6,500 troops on the ground http://web.archive.org/web/20080620044321/http://www.aracnet.com/~pdxavets/bustdoc.htm
      ………W.McD. Hammon tests gamma-globulin on Provo Utah children, Sept -Dec.1  http://polioforever.wordpress.com/atomic-weapons/
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Polio Vaccine and Fallout
The gamma globulin “polio” vaccine trial run by William McDowell Hammon out of Provo Utah during Buster-Jangle was the first major response to fallout involving the Public Health Service and the March of Dimes. As both an acute and latent byproduct of radiation injury, polio (brain infection) has gone unappreciated as a fallout hazard –part of our hidden nuclear history. It is a significant factor, however, in the transformation of soldier-citizens. Hammon’s field work in Utah, and later in Texas and Iowa, was an opportunity to harvest gamma globulin (immune-cell rich blood serum) from the radiation-exposed public. Interestingly, enough children were registered in these vaccine trials to provide serum for the Nevada test participants through 1953, when the gamma globulin trial ended and the Salk vaccine began. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/provo-utah/
    Lewis Strauss, as noted in part I, began his career in medicine as the president of the Rothschilds’ polio hospital –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases. Polio, the ‘disease’ entity, was being managed by the Rockefeller establishment for whom Strauss went to work between his posts with the Atomic Energy Commission. Hired by Laurance Rockefeller to be financier to the Rockeller Brothers Fund, Strauss became a founding incorporator in some of its many projects –among them, the Population Council.
                                Lasker           Mahoney    
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Birth control was a special interest of Albert and Mary Lasker. “[A]lmost from the moment they met, he and Mary addressed themselves to medical problems, and their long..struggle..still goes on productively today [1960]… The laskers worked..on at least four different fronts: (1) birth control; (2) medical research..;(3) the American Cancer Society; and (4) the Lasker Foundation. Mary, who admired Margaret Sanger greatly, had been active in the birth control movement… Overpopulation was, she thought, a major world problem… ‘Birth control,’ [Albert] said, was too negative a phrase; it connoted self-denial. He chose ‘Planned Parenthood’..[and] gave it $75,000…” [p315, Taken At The Flood, by John Gunther]
   Florence Mahoney, Mary Lasker’s lobbying companion-in-arms after the death of Albert (1952), remembered “‘The first time that I got interested in birth control was when I volunteered to work in the Crippled and Disabled Hospital in New York’…[S]he was asked to test the muscles of children who had polio… Mahoney did not actively participate in Sanger’s organization..but became an avid fan..using her political contacts to spread the Planned Parenthood word. [p29, Noble Conspirator]…Mental health reforms too, occupied her attention. [p31] ‘I was willing to suggest anything at anytime that I thought was going to help anybody,’ she said.” [p32, Noble Conspirator, by Judith Robinson, 2001]
   Albert Lasker also “never ceased doing things for people…[p300] One of his major preoccupations for a time was a proposal for converting the Federal Security Agency into full-scale Department of Welfare with cabinet status… He was almost as..interested in health matters as Mary, [writing] ‘I am certain..Congress..will pass a very big bill for aid to hospital building.’ Meantime, he kept his eye on events…” [p299, Taken At The Flood] Lasker was right. Congress turned the FSA into HEW (Health, Education and Welfare) and Nelson Rockefeller became its Asst. Secretary, credited to him as acting Secretary.
   Lasker, a longtime friend, colleague, and ‘elder’ to Strauss, pitched in when things needed changing at the Atomic Energy Commission. David Lilienthal, who had been Chairman from the AEC’s beginning, did not support the Super. “One of Lasker’s last friendships was with David Lilienthal, for many years chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and then of the [AEC]. They met toward the end of the decade, at Mary’s suggestion, when Lilienthal was on the point of leaving government. Lasker was impressed..by his devotion to the public good..and the constructive brilliance of his mind. Albert knew, too, that he..wanted to go into some private business. So Lasker approached Andre Meyer [of Lazard Freres] pointing out that Lilienthal..was..a good man to have around. Meyer..proceeded to create a position for Lilienthal and a company was formed to work out projects..[in] long-range regional planning –irrigation, reclamation, et cetera– all over the world. So Lilienthal set out on a new career in Colombia, the Punjab, and particularly Iran.” [p291, Taken At The Flood]
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 Timeline NOTEs: 1951-1953
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
1951
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–”Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill” http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983970,00.html (‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS; Operation Buster-Jangle
1952
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
–Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations with atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Nov, Kamchatka Earthquake and tsunami, magnitude 9.0 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1952_11_04.php
–most cases of US polio ever on record, approx. 60,000 http://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/ (diagnosis criteria begin changing, polio cases drop)
1953
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the ‘Project Sunshine’ PR campaign begins (1953-1957, to alleviate fear of fallout) for the Atomic Energy Commission under Chairman Lewis L. Strauss http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar05, Joseph Stalin is murdered; watch Juri Lina’s film In The Shadow of Hermes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuW-vNQsQI&feature=related
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS) http://eubios.info/EJ54/EJ54H.htm; later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (the marginalized HEW Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed becomes a republic
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mosaddegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax); installation of the Shah Pahlavi
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Between 1950 and 1953 a Uranium Boom was taking place in the American Southwest.
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to be continued in Part III: Israel gets the bomb; more on Pash, Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower,  nuclear testing, Oppenheimer case, relations with Israel, etc.
https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/03/13/lewis-strauss-and-jfk-part-iii/

December 22, 2011

JFK Conspiracy Con II

Part One of the JFK Conspiracy Con opens with a reference to the book Dr. Mary’s Monkey (DMM) by Ed Haslam as a starting point in my research on the JFK assassination. Haslam’s book, by his own account, is not about the assassination of JFK which he says is “incidental” to his theme –a theme I  call The Disease Continuum (the ‘DC’), inserted in the blog between JFK parts One and Two. I can’t say yet how many serial parts are needed to write out the JFK Conspiracy Con to a satisfying conclusion, but with certainty the DC belongs at the beginning. Ed and I both seem to have noticed that parallel activity in public medicine spirals around the JFK  story like the second spine of a DNA helix –not so “incidental” after all– but structurally essential in the telling.
    It’s the polio connection to Dr. Mary Sherman, and simultaneously to Ed’s own father in 1963 New Orleans, that brings a greater intrigue to author Haslam’s purposes. Several co-conspirators in the JFK assassination/coverup are firmly tied to the creation of the Salk Institute, a monumental reward to its namesake for the vaccine.
*
   Part One reintroduces two familiar characters in the plot to murder JFK; Nelson Rockefeller and Meyer Lansky, and mentions some less publicly known names; Lewis L. Strauss, Abe Feinberg, and Dewey D. Stone. Feinberg and Stone are known for getting the Jewish Vote to swing for Kennedy during his campaigns of 1952 (for the Senate) and the Presidency. 1952 is a very important year in this story– a true turning point in world history. The U.S. went “thermonuclear” with successful tests ( ultra-low temperature hydrogen fusion bombs with fission triggers), polio “peaked” with the highest case numbers on record, Israel started a secret bomb project, etc. etc., and the question that begs at these relationships over the next decade is asking if the composite assassination and disease picture is about nuclear trafficking to the benefit of Israel and Jewish world power. 
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PART TWO, for you who endure the soap opera, is going to highlight the chronological elements that move things along in self-evident style.  I apologize to regular readers for the slow delivery, the daily paragraph or two, and the bloggy way I’m going about this business.
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Uranium for the Manhattan Project
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  Lewis Strauss wrote that “the origin of our supply of the potent element begins..and revolves about the granitic figure of an engineer and industrialist, Sir Edgar Sengier…[who] controlled a mine in the Congo which was the world’s richest producer of uranium ore…[where] the concentration..was uniquely high. Despite all the prospecting that has occurred within the past twenty years, no other deposit has ever rivaled the Shinkolobwe mine for richness.
…”We had both [Sengier and Strauss] been connected with Hoover’s Commission for Relief of Belgium in World War I, and our friendship dated from those days…In the field of atomic energy, a special relationship thus existed between the United States and Belgium, and the two governments have closely co-operated ever since.” [p317, Men and Decisions, by Lewis L. Strauss, 1962] “Belgium was our mainstay in the beginning. Canada and South Africa later became important suppliers.” [p318]
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Edgar Sengier “arrived at the beginning of the European mining of Africa and over the next forty years he was to oversee Belgium’s large share in the world markets trading copper, cobalt, tin, diamonds and uranium. He came to manipulate and maneuver an enormous industrial empire of such complexity that very few ever came to know, let alone understand, how a deep uranium mine –called Shinkolobwe– in the heart of Africa could be the source of radium, a miracle cancer cure, and then become the piece of earth most wanted by the military for the nuclear armaments of World War II…  Sengier moved easily within the international business worlds of Brussels, Paris, London and New York and knew as soon as did the scientists around the world of the momentous scientific breakthrough… It was he who sent the uranium ore to a Staten Island warehouse. It was nearly two years before the Manhattan Project managers knew about that uranium ore and realised they needed it. M.Sengier spent the war years in New York City –and Saratoga Springs… He set up a branch of Union Miniere on Broad Street in Lower Manhattan –named African Minerals, to funnel uranium ore from the Belgian Congo through New York Harbor to Middlesex New Jersey and Port Hope Ontario on its way to a more pure existence in the bombs of America… The office of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Manhattan District was in Madison Square..about half way between Pregel’s office in the Rockefeller Center and Sengier’s near Wall Street –the three of them almost in a straight line… Sengier was the most critical supplier of all.” http://www3.amherst.edu/~mrhunt/uranium/scene2.htm
   The account of how one thousand or so tons of “yellowcake” (uranium oxide) sat on a warehouse dock in New York Harbor, packed in drums for two years, and nobody noticed, should be a good story when more of it comes to light. What we know so far is that in 1939 “Sengier was visited by [French scientists] Joliot-Curie, [Francis] Perrin and Halban..who suggested to him that the Union Miniere should join with them in making an experimental bomb in the Sahara. Sengier accepted this idea in principle and agreed to furnish..material and to bear part of the cost, but in September 1939 the outbreak of war ended the project.” [p316, Men and Decisions]
   So here we have an atomic bomb project underway in 1939 by French communists before the war. Strauss had to be making a special point when he published this is in 1962.
*
Boris Pregel, radium/uranium dealer mentioned above in the non-Strauss quote (not italicized), left a few words about the French:  “..The centralization was at the Institute Curie… It was also a kind of scientific monopoly. They did the whole thing…  they were the most important… In fact, the Institute of the Curies had tremendous quantities of radium all along… That’s why later also, when Joliot-Curie and Halban and Kowarski wanted to discuss the..application of atomic energy, they were received very well… [A] lot of the most important work was done in France, because of the establishment of the Institute… The point is, it was only for medical purposes.”  http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4833.html  The Curies Institute of Radium in Paris was established in 1919 while the city played host to the Peace Accords at Versailles and Lewis L. Strauss was invited by Mortimer Schiff (son of Jacob Schiff) to join the firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in New York. Schiff was in Paris “on a mission for the American Red Cross” and Strauss was there as a delegate with Herbert Hoover.
   Pregel says, “The whole thing has to begin at the beginning… [T]he discoveries..made by the Curies, at the end of the last century…[led to] some small industrial productions of radium, most of them laboratory type and not really industrial type. There were in France, sponsored by Rothschild, something which was extracted from the Madagascar ores… Most of [the ore] was in Czechoslovakia, of course… But the real development..came only when the Union Miniere stepped in.”
…”The Union Miniere understood very well that the development of their business depended largely on research and on therapeutic use of radium. At that time therapy was the main use… We [dealers] helped the creation of centers, medical centers throughout the world –hunting cancer centers– in which there was sometimes very large amounts of radium… [I]t’s still, in my opinion, the best of the radioactive substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes… it was a stepping stone to many other things..because it let the people see the isotopes of the different metals.”
*

    [wikipedia] “During World War II, Pregel was the agent for the Canadian Eldorado Mining & Refining Co. which supplied the Manhattan Project with nearly all the uranium mined in the North America.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_Pregel
In 1942, the Canadian government authorized purchase of Eldorado [Mining and Refining Ltd] shares. “Shortly after nationalization, the Minister [of Munitions and Supplies] became aware of serious management problems at Eldorado. [An] inquiry took two years [from 1945-1947] and led to fraud charges against Marcel Pochon and Boris Pregel, in charge of sales abroad. The case was settled out of court…
…”Intensified prospecting efforts by Eldorado led to the discovery in 1946 of new pitchblende deposits near Athabasca… Beaverlodge mine, started in 1952, led to the birth of Uranium City… Government control…relaxed somewhat…
   “In 1949, Eldorado became the only agent in Canada authorized to buy uranium ore and uranium concentrate… In 1959 uranium was the principal mineral export of Canada, and fourth in line among natural resource exports… The period of prosperity ended in 1959, when the US government announced that it would not renew uranium purchase contracts beyond 1962. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/public_mikan/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=393&rec_nbr_list=393
“The world’s first colbalt-60 cancer-therapy machine was built by Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd… Canada is now home to the world’s largest medical isotope industry.” http://www.cna.ca/curriculum/cna_can_nuc_hist/nrx_reactor-eng.asp?bc=NRXReactor&pid=NRXReactor
*
                                                        Beaverlodge mine outflow
*
Union Miniere du Haut Katanga  (UMHK)  “was created on October 28, 1906 as a result of a merger [between] a company created by Leopold II and Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. (a British company…) to exploit the mineral wealth of Katanga. It was jointly owned by the Societe Generale de Belgique, Belgium’s largest holding company..and Tanganyika Concessions Ltd…  In 1922, the UMHK built its first refinery for uranium ore, and by 1926 had a virtual monopoly of the world uranium market” http://www.aadet.com/article/Union_Mini%C3%A8re_du_Haut_Katanga
>>>Leopold II was the first cousin of both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (a marriage of first cousins of the Saxe-Coburg line) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I_of_Belgium
   The UMHK was not included in an article I wrote about early atomic development –at the time I didn’t know about the French project in the Sahara, which is a vital piece of information. Nonetheless, the guiding influences (“fathers of the bomb”) and key people (e.g. Herbert Hoover and Lewis Strauss) are here: https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/
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                                                               Saratoga Springs, NY
*
…”where America’s high society and the underworld mingled amidst the glamour of the racetrack and illegal casinos, like Piping Rock.. owned by mobsters Frank Costello, Joe Adonis and Meyer Lansky, who fronted for some of America’s socially privileged”…
*
Lansky owned at least two casinos in Saratoga Springs; The Piping Rock Inn (pictured below), burned in a 1954 arson fire, and the Arrowhead Inn, burned in 1969.
photo source http://www.timesunion.com/saratoga/slideshow/Historic-Saratoga-Around-town-16124.php#photo-1121940
“Sidney Robinson of Copacabana says there was no gambling on Saratoga premises, does not know Costello,..disclaims acquaintance with Adonis, Lansky…” http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10F13F73454107B93C0A81782D85F408485F9
In 1934 “Costello..was to accept Louisiana governor Huey Long’s proposal to put slot machines throughout Louisiana for 10% of the take. Frank Costello placed Kastel as the overseer of the Louisiana slot operation. Kastel had the assistance of..Carlos ‘Little Man’ Marcello [birth surname Minacore]…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Frank_Costello
“By the end of 1947, Marcello had taken control of Louisiana’s gambling network… Marcello was also assigned a cut of the money skimmed from Las Vegas casinos in exchange for providing muscle in Florida real estate deals. By this time Marcello had been crowned as the Godfather of the Mafia in New Orleans… He was to hold this position for the next 30 years. On March 24, 1959, Marcello appeared before the Senate Committee investigating organized crime. Serving as chief counsel to the committee was Robert F. Kennedy; his brother, Senator John F. Kennedy, was a member of the committee..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans_crime_family

A look at the interior of Piping Rock Lake House, one of the many places people would go for illegal gambling back in the 1930s and 40s. (Courtesy of Saratoga Springs Historical Museum, George S. Bolster collection) / AL

AFTER PEARL HARBOR
“Meyer’s activities, sanctioned by the government as part of ‘Operation Underworld’ included a..mobilization of Jewish American mobsters against Nazi sympathizers…when the cruise ship Normandie caught fire and capsized at Pier 88 in Manhattan in early February 1942. The Normandie, the largest luxury liner in the world, [had been] seized by the U.S. after France fell to the Nazis. It was being retrofitted..when it was destroyed… The Navy understood that the mafia controlled the waterfront…” http://spectator.org/archives/2011/09/14/operation-underworld/print/
…”U.S. Naval Intelligence approached Joe ‘Socks’ Lanza..who in turn deferred to Lucky Luciano… U.S. Attorney Frank Hogan approached Lansky as a go-between…”
“A meeting was arranged between Commander Charles Radcliffe Haffenden of the Third Naval District and Meyer Lansky at Longchamps restraurant… Domestic sabotage was a non-issue for the remainder of the war.”  http://spectator.org/archives/2011/09/14/operation-underworld/print/
…”Meyer was intensely proud of his service in World War II”…[He said] “I knew it was very necessary to watch the docks.” http://www.americanmafia.com/Feature_Articles_331.html  “After World War II, Lansky set up real-estate firms and invested in Florida and Caribbean real estate…”  http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1989-09-24/features/8903040939_1_al-capone-palm-island-miami-beach/2
 “In 1947 and 1948, [Lansky] pressured Jewish and Italian mobsters to raise money for Israel. Lansky also used his contacts on the New York waterfront to expedite forbidden arms shipments to Israel…” http://www.jewishaz.com/jewishnews/990305/lansky.shtml
…”between 1947 to 1951 a campaign eventually led by..Senator Estes Kefauver, exposed more than two decades of illegalities… Lansky and his associates..found a hospitable climate in Batista’s Cuba and even more opportunity in the..legalized..gambling in Las Vegas… by 1952 all major investment in gambling enterprises had been transferred to other localities.” http://www.hollywoodpolice.org/your_police/history.htm
*

Lansky and his compatriots Bugsy Siegel, Frank Costello, and Joe Adonis, were nutured by Arnold Rothstein during Prohibition: “The Reinfeld Syndicate -named after the Newark, New Jersey bootlegger and accused murderer Joseph Reinfeld -functioned as the middleman between the British liquor distilleries and the “Rum Rows” of Boston and New York. Its controlling shareholders were the four Bronfman brothers, Allan, Sam, Edgar, and Charles. The U.S. leg was handled by Reinfeld and Abner “Longie” Zwillman, later the boss of Atlantic City, and Rothstein’s gangs in New York…Under the auspices of Lansky and Torrio, Lucky Luciano succeeded in wiping out all recalcitrant godfathers…A special assassination bureau was set up by Meyer Lansky and Benjamin “Bugs” Siegel. The “Bugs and Meyer Gang” had been distinguished by the fact that they owed allegiance to no one (except maybe Arnold Rothstein); they had originally been used to protect Bronfman liquor shipments across the border against ‘freelance’ hijackers.” …”Arnold Rothstein, Yasha Katzenberg’s employer, was a product of the Rothschild ‘dry goods’ empire that included the Seligman, Wannamaker, and Gimbel families. During Prohibition, according to the Bronfman’s own testimony, Rothstein, Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano were the Bronfman’s main distributors…”  [ref. pp274-275 and 278, Dope Inc.]

“After World War II, Mr. Sam [Bronfman] established the National Conference of Israeli and Jewish Rehabilitation, using his considerable smuggling skills to run guns to the Haganah.”  [p281, Dope Inc]  http://lyndonlarouche.org/dope9.pdf

*

A point of interest about the Bronfman’s smuggling operations with Al Capone takes place in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, the “little Chicago” of Prohibition. The most well known health lobbyist of all time, Florence Mahoney, got her start in Moose Jaw. Mahoney teamed up with Mary Lasker of the American Cancer Society to become the most formidable duo in D.C. health politics. Mary Lasker, in turn, was the wife of Albert D. Lasker who was introduced to her husband-to-be by Lewis Strauss and friends, Bill (Wild Bill) Donovan of the OSS and Max Epstein. Here’s a link about Moose Jaw, Mr. Sam and Al Capone http://www.lonepinepublishing.com/cat/1-894864-11-5/gallery/excerpt

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*
Arthur Schlesinger Jr. wrote:
“In March of 1948 Robert Kennedy received his A.B. degree [from Harvard]… The next step..was a trip abroad… Robert set forth on the Queen Mary on March 5 accompanied by a college friend”. He met with his father’s friend, Lord Beaverbrook, aboard for dinner at Joe Kennedy’s request. “Robert remarked that he was going to the Middle East. Beaverbrook said that the United States was a ‘subjugated nation to a Jewish minority’. As for Britain, it had become a ‘satellite to the United States’… After [the first] few days in London, Robert and his companion went on to Cairo…
   “He met a young Jew from Tel Aviv who gave him letters to leaders of Haganah, the Jewish defense organization… The RKO Radio Pictures representative in Cairo, to whom Joseph Kennedy had entrusted the boys, told them they should not go to so agitated a land… On March 26, Good Friday, they flew to Lydda airport and traveled to Tel Aviv by armored car, with Haganah escort… Remembering [he was on] assignment for the Boston Post, Robert talked to everyone he could find –to Haganah soldiers who held the British responsible for everything… He talked to members of the Irgun..that had recently dynamited a British train and the King David Hotel… He visited a kibbutz through the kindness of a Jew who, forty years before, had made speeches in Boston for [RFK’s grandfather] Honey Fitz… he talked to a former major in the Russian army who believed that the Russian[s]..’as a whole are more anti-Semitic than the Germans’… He summed up Jerusalem: ‘Firing is going on at all times… More and more horrible stories pouring in… Correspondents all very jumpy…’  [The two] went on to Lebanon…
   “[Kennedy] was considerably impressed by the Jews. ‘They are different from any Jews I have ever known or seen..’  The Boston Post ran four articles from its ‘Special Writer’ in the Middle East on June 3-6. The first bore a headline guaranteed to sell papers in Boston: BRITISH HATED BY BOTH SIDES… His second piece revealed his own commitment. The Jews in Palestine, he wrote, ‘have become an immensely proud and determined people. It is already a truly great modern example of the birth of a nation with the primary ingredients of dignity and self-respect’… [He] praised the Jews in Palestine as ‘hardy and tough’, their ‘spirit and determination’ created not only by their desire for a homeland but by ‘the remembrance of the brutal inhuman treatment received..in the countries in Europe.’ He gave a lyrical account of his kibbutz visit… The Jews, he said, had ‘an undying spirit’ the Arabs could never have. ‘They will fight and they will fight with unparalleled courage.’
   “The third piece was sharply critical of British policy for its ‘bitterness towards the Jews’. As for the United States… We failed because we had been taken in by the British… The final piece dismissed the notion, then prevalent, that a Jewish state might go Communist. ‘That Communism could exist in Palestine,’ Robert Kennedy said, ‘is fantastically absurd. Communism thrives on static discontent… With the type of issues and people involved, that state of affairs is nonexistent. I am as certain of that as of my name.’ …If a Jewish state were formed, it might be the ‘only stabilizing factor’ in the Middle East. ‘The United States and Great Britain before too long a time might well be looking to a Jewish state to preserve a toehold in that part of the world… The United States, through the United Nations, must take the lead in bringing about peace in the Holy Land.’
   …”He did not evidently share his father’s view that the United States should stop minding other peoples’ business.” [pages 73-81, Robert Kennedy and His Times, by Arthur Schlesinger Jr., 1978]
   RFK moved on to law school at Charlottesville (Virginia): “He graduated in June 1951, fifty-sixth in a class of 124.” [p87]… “Congressman John F. Kennedy invited him and their sister Patricia to come along on a trip from Israel to Japan in early October. In Israel an old friend, Congressman Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., received all the attention..” [p91] Schlesinger wrote that “Seven weeks of arduous travel made them closer than ever before.”
   “At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents…[In] a short time Kennedy transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him –so much so that when his older brother decided to run for the Senate in Massachusetts, Robert, Kenneth O’Donnell later said, was really ‘out of touch with Jack and unaware of Jack’s problems’… The campaign, O’Donnell thought, was headed toward ‘absolute catastrophic disaster’. [O’Donnell] pleaded with Robert Kennedy in New York to come up and take over…
   “Franklin D. Rossevelt Jr. campaigned [for JFK] in Jewish areas where John Kennedy, because of his father’s reputation, was supposed to be weak… Kennedy won by 70,000 [votes]. It was a triumph for Robert as well… Their intimacy grew in the senatorial campaign… ‘All this business about Jack and Bobby being blood brothers has been exaggerated,’ their sister Eunice said. ‘They had different tastes… They didn’t really become close until 1952, and it was politics that brought them together.’ ” [pages 90-96, Robert Kennedy and His Times]
*
                                                     
“John Kennedy was the only Democrat running statewide in Massachusetts to have survived the Eisenhower sweep” –p99, Robert Kennedy and His Times
*
Joe McCarthy’s early political career pegged him as “a man of marked personality without known political principles”, according to Schlesinger, whose “crusade against Communists..[was] inadvertantly launched at Wheeling, West Virginia in February 1950.” [ref. p100, Robert Kennedy and His Times] This was literally days after Truman committed the U.S. to thermonuclear weapons, and then “The Korean War began four months after Wheeling.” Lewis Strauss, incidentally, was born near Wheeling, W.V. and though moving his base to Virginia, maintained a powerful ‘toehold’ himself over greater Virginia politics. After the election victories of 1952,  Joe Kennedy appealed to the up-and-coming McCarthy to hire Bobby.  McCarthy had been set up as the chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate’s Government Operations Committee. Lawyer Roy Cohn, “notable for anti-Communist zeal“, had already taken the top post. McCarthy “named young Kennedy an assistant counsel…[where he] undertook a more prosaic inquiry into the trade carried on by American allies with Communist China… Kennedy..pored over the Lloyds of London shipping index… In a couple of months they were able to demonstrate that, since the outbreak of the Korean War, 75 percent of all ships carrying goods to mainland China had sailed under western flags… The British role in the China trade appeared particularly reprehensible… Kennedy’s statistics also showed a large Greek role in the China trade.”
    …Robert’s job on McCarthy’s staff, published by the Boston Post, was “to work on ways to shut off strategic materials of war to countries in the Russian zone, including North Korea. He’ll continue to do so.”[pp101-103, Schlesinger]
*
   Korea was the ostensible incentive to re-activate the WWII Nevada Proving Grounds (renamed the Nevada Test Site, NTS) and bring atomic tests home to the desert on the premise that Pacific islands were precariously subject to hostile takeover. In a short time, the NTS proved out its strategic value as a ‘nuclear battlefield’ for imaginative tests of all kinds staged by all branches of the armed forces. The NTS initiated its first series in January of 1951: “All five [weapons] were fired in just eight days.” http://www.atomicarchive.com/Photos/LANL/Ranger.shtml  They were the first of nine-hundred-eighty-something (or more) detonations in Nevada during the “atmospheric” period (1951-1963). The radioactive fallout value of these tests has been recently estimated to be worth 40,000 Hiroshima bombs –but fallout was still a distant commodity in 1951.
   It was McCarthy’s epic Red Scare over the course of 1953 and 1954 that grabbed attention and set the stage for the legendary brotherly teamwork of Jack and Bobby Kennedy.
*
Meanwhile…
   The health sector was hastily addressing its fallout problem. In the immediate aftermath of the first Nevada blasts, radioactive snow was scooped up and measured from Ann Arbor to Schenectady. Jonas Salk had been set-to-task at the University of Pittsburgh since 1948, but he wasn’t ready. A colleague in the vaccine effort who came to Pitt to participate in the larger project suggested that the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP, the March of Dimes) throw its financial weight behind a trial of gamma globulin, the antibody-containing blood factors that confer passive immunity.  The March of Dimes was about to sponsor an historical first in human medicine.
   Dr. William McDowell Hammon, who suggested the trial, had been a medical missionary in the Congo before normalizing his career and gaining renown as the dean of medicine at the Univ. of California Berkeley (overseer of Los Alamos). Gamma globulin (‘GG’) had already shown promise against polio as much as two decades earlier. Hammon moved his small contingent of helpers out to Provo Utah and staged the first-ever “double-blind” trial on people (children) during the next Nevada series (Operation Buster-Jangle), smack in the fallout tracks of the previous test. Provo’s trial was “inconclusive”, they said.  Buster-Jangle’s many swaths cut paths over northern Iowa and southern Texas– the ‘GG’ trials moved along to Sioux City IA and Houston the next year.
   The odd epidemiological turn-of-events in Hammon’s GG trials was the way the vaccinators followed after the exposure. The requirements of the double-blind protocols meant that half of the inoculated kids were receiving placebo –saline, as noted. Blood was regularly drawn from everybody for the term of the trial. Curiously, the Nevada Test Site operations between ’51 and ’53 involved slightly less than half the number of total GG vaccinees.  They were Army troops and support staff, near 25,000 men, made to stand ready on the desert floor to witness and experience the A-bombs close up. There are no available records mentioning the Army as giving GG to soldiers at the NTS but by the end of 1953 the GG trials were over anyway. It was expensive and was never intended to be a viable polio vaccine for the public. The NFIP told the press it was organizational “practice”.
    Jonas Salk finally told the NFIP that he was ready, and during 1954, while Salk’s IPV (inactivated poliovirus) was launched on a massive scale, vaccinating 1.8 million schoolchildren in a double-blind trial, the NTS went quiet. There were no atomic blasts in Nevada. Washington, on the other hand, was exploding all over the place. 20 million witnesses watched for thirty-five days as the Red Scare melted down on national television with Robert Kennedy’s help.
   Six months after RFK was hired by McCarthy in ’53, he resigned: “he completed the only solid report ever issued by the committee [and] got out…. ‘With the filing in the Senate of the Subcommittee report on Trade With the Soviet Bloc,’ Kennedy wrote McCarthy formally, ‘the task to which I have devoted my time since coming with the Subcommittee has been completed. I am submitting my resignation’…” [pp106-107, Schlesinger]. For a while, Robert joined the Hoover Commission as his father’s assistant until “the mid-term elections in 1954 produced a Democratic majority in the Senate. John McClellan became chairman of the Investigations Subcommittee, and Robert Kennedy [came back as] chief counsel…[p115]…His brother, though now a member of the Government Operations Committee, was not on the Investigations Subcommittee. [p120] …’Bobby Kennedy’s job was to write out pertinent questions for the Democratic senators to ask at the hearing…He fed his questions to Senator [‘Scoop’] Jackson, who used them to fire a barrage of ridicule..’ [Roy Cohn’s account, p113]  …Later [Kennedy] commented,’Cohn and Schine took [McCarthy] up the mountain and showed him all those wonderful things. He destroyed himself for that –for publicity..’ [p105]…[RFK] said that he thought the Investigations Subcommittee would gradually return to its old function –looking into waste, fraud, corruption and mismanagement in government.” [p116]  And so it did. As 1955 progressed “The committee dropped out of the headlines… These were good years for the young Kennedys. [pp117-118, Robert Kennedy and His Times, by Arthur Schlesinger Jr.]
*
PART III,  still to come…Texas oil, “Peak Oil” declared in 1956 to the benefit of nuclear proliferation, Lewis Strauss in the nexus of JFK assassination events, comparison of ‘legacy papers’ in the creation of books, Oswald in New Orleans, the Rosenwalds, Freeport Sulfur (Freeport McMoRan) and more.
*
Additional events:
1951 – Ludwik Gross discovers the polyoma  ‘tumor’ virus, related to SV40 monkey virus; the HeLa cancer cells are taken from patient Henrietta Lacks in February 1951 after the Nevada Test Site’s Operation Ranger and become the culture medium of polioviruses grown for the Salk and Sabin vaccines http://polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/
*
1952-1953
Earl Warren’s appointment by Eisenhower as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during Warren’s third term as Governor of California
Christian A. Herter becomes the Governor of Massachusetts (later to become Undersecretary and Secretary of State, offering the ‘transition’ advice to Kennedy to press Israel for nuclear inspections)
–Death of 48-yr-old Senator Brien McMahon of Connecticut, Chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and his replacement by Prescott Bush, October-Nov 1952.” Prescott Bush was a most elusive, secretive Senator…http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/bush/bush4.htm  A little-known fact about Bush that unauthorized biographies don’t mention is his less-than-one-year assumption of McMahon’s seat on the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy committee (the JCAE), a committee so powerful and unbeholden that it was later ruled unconstitutional.
The Great Canadian Uranium Rush was on by 1952. The first commercial strike in 1930 in the Great Bear Lake region of the NWT (Saskatchewan) which launched the Canadian radium industry, turned an unprecendented tide of prospecting into the world’s biggest and best uranium finds. Gilbert LaBine, “Mr. Uranium”, discovered the Gunnar mine in July 1952, but “the best example..is the Algoma (Lake Elliot) discoveries in 1953… By the end of August more than eight thousand claims had been staked..[with] repercussions clear around the globe… giving Canada..the raw material of atomic energy.” http://db.world-nuclear.org/reference/grand.html
1953 — President Eisenhower publicly articulated his plans to promote ATOMS FOR PEACE
                                                        

January 5, 2011

Immortal Cancer

Reposted from www.polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/

Atomic testing and other sources of radiation put the population at risk for cancer. It’s an open question to this researcher if the polio vaccines were also intended to be cancer vaccines but the evidence weighs in favor of the assumption.  When human cancer cells (HeLa) were harvested and distributed in 1951 for research, their express initial purpose was for “polio vaccines”. Leo Szilard, of the Manhattan Project and Salk Institute, helped William Scherer and Jerome Syverton at the University of Minnesota design a method for culturing polioviruses on Hela cells.

Besides a predictable long-term rise in cancer from radioactivity, could the polio vaccines bearing viral “cancer genes” contribute to the escalation? Like the statements made by Judyth Vary Baker (page SV40 Monkey Virus, www.polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/  below**) in the quest for a cancer bioweapon, will injected “cancer genes” (if they exist) take in an immune-compromised person?

Dr. Nancy Banks writes in “AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire” on the subject of cancer, ..”new research suggests that ..[what] may be the primary cause of malignant growth..[is] the reduced efficiency of mitochondrial energy conversion as the result of oxidative/nitrosative stress… What is becoming imminently more difficult to suppress is the evidence that impaired mitochondrial metabolism, and specifically the Krebs cycle activity, may promote malignant growth… People diagnosed with AIDS are in a hypercatabolic low oxygen state where the body becomes exhausted in attempting to repair itself.” As she explains, “no virus need apply”. [p58]

                                                              HeLa [hee-lah]

“HeLa cells are a human epithelial cervical cancer, and the first human cells from which a permanent cell line* was established. On 9 February 1951, surgeon Lawrence Wharton Jr. removed the tissue from the patient Henrietta Lacks, a 31-year-old African American woman from Baltimore, in the Women’s Clinic of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The cells were from the carcinoma of the cervix…The patient died 8 months later… A portion of cells from the biopsy were sent to George Gey, the then head of the cell culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The cells were cultivated and propagated in cell culture so well that since they are widely used in research. The HeLa cells were used in the establishment of the first polio vaccine by Jonas Salk.” http://helacells.com/
*a cell line is a genetically identical type of cell used in research as a standard base for experimentation

History of HeLa S3 cells: http://scienceblogs.com/terrasig/2010/03/hela_s3_part_3.php

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Excerpts from The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, by Rebecca Skloot, 2010 Crown Publishers:
[The voice of Deborah Lacks, Henrietta’s daughter] “When I go to the doctor for my checkups I always say my mother was HeLa. They get all excited, tell me stuff like how her cells helped make my blood pressure medicines and antidepression pills and how all this important stuff in science happen cause of her. But they don’t never explain more than just sayin, Yeah, your mother was on the moon, she been in nuclear bombs and made that polio vaccine. I really don’t know how she did all that, but I guess I’m glad she did, cause that mean she helpin lots of people. I think she would like that.” [Prologue, p9]
“All it takes is one small mistake anywhere in the division process for cells to start growing out of control… Just one enzyme misfiring, just one wrong protein activation, and you could have cancer. Mitosis goes haywire”… [p3]
“It all started on January 17, 1912, when Alexis Carrel, a French surgeon at the Rockefeller Institute, grew his ‘immortal chicken heart’. Scientists had been trying to grow living cells since before the turn of the century, but their samples had always died. As a result, many reserchers believed it was immposible… But Carrel set out to prove them wrong… He hoped someday to grow whole organs in the laboratory, filling massive vaults with lungs, livers, kidneys, and tissues he could ship through the mail for transplantation.
…But Carrel wasn’t interested in immortality for the masses. He was a eugenicist… He dreamed of never-ending life for those he deemed worthy, and death or forced sterilization for everyone else. He’d later praise Hitler for the “eugenic measures” he took in that direction. Carrel’s eccentricities fed into the media frenzy about his work… Carrel was a mystic”… [pp 58-60]
“Not long after Henrietta’s death, planning began for a HeLa factory –a massive operation that would grow to produce trillions of HeLa cells each week. It was built for one reason: to help stop polio. By the end of 1951 the world was in the midst of the biggest polio epidemic in history.” [p93]
“..in April 1952, [George] Gey and one of his colleagues from the NFIP advisory committee –William Scherer, a young postdoctoral fellow from the University of Minnesota– tried infecting Henrietta’s cells with poliovirus. Within days they found that HeLa was, in fact, more susceptible to the virus than any cultured cells had ever been… they knew they’d found exactly what the NFIP was looking for”… “On Memorial Day 1952, Gey…sent Mary to the post office…When the package arrived in Minneapolis about four days later, Scherer put the cells in an incubator and they began to grow. It was the first time live cells had ever been successfully shipped in the mail.” …”When the NFIP heard the news that HeLa was susceptible to poliovirus and could grow in large quantities for little money, it immediately contracted Scherer to oversee development of a HeLa Distribution Center at the Tuskegee Institute… [p95] …it was the first-ever cell-production factory and it started with a single vial of HeLa that Gey had sent Scherer in their first shipping experiment, not long after Henrietta’s death. [p96]
…”Black scientists and technicians, many of them women, used cells from a black woman to help save the lives of millions of Americans, most of them white. And they did so on the same campus –and at the very same time– that state officials were conducting the infamous Tuskegee syphilis studies.
…At first, the Tuskegee Center supplied Hela cells only to polio testing labs.” [p97]
“HeLa was also being used in research that would advance the new field of human genetics” [p99]
“As the Cold War escalated, some scientists exposed Henrietta’s cells to massive doses of radiation to study how nuclear bombs destroyed cells… Scientists cut HeLa cells in half to show that cells could live on after their nuclei had been removed, and used them to develop methods for injecting substances into cells without destroying them.
…At the request of the U.S., Gey took Henrietta’s cells with him to the Far East in 1953 to study hemorrhagic fever… He also injected them into rats to see if they’d cause cancer” [p102]
–they did.
“[Researchers] mastered the techniques of cell culture and simplified them to such a degree that, as one researcher put it, they’d “made it possible for even the rank amateur to grow a few cultures” [p139]
“By the 1960s, scientists joked that HeLa cells were so robust that they could probably survive in sink drains or on doorknobs. They [Hela cells] were everywhere. The general public could grow HeLa at home using instructions from a Scientific American do-it-yourself article, and both Russian and American scientists had managed to grow HeLa in space. Henrietta’s cells went up in the second satellite ever in orbit…
When the first humans went into orbit, Henrietta’s cells went with them so researchers could study..how cancerous and noncancerous cells responded to zero gravity. What they found was disturbing; in mission after mission, noncancerous cells grew normally in orbit, but HeLa became more powerful, dividing faster with each trip. And HeLa cells weren’t the only ones behaving strangely. Since the start of the [1960s], researchers had been noticing two new things about all cultured cells. First, it seemed that all normal cells growing in culture eventually died or underwent spontaneous transformation and became cancerous. This phenomena was exciting for researchers trying to understand the mechanisms of cancer because it suggested that they might be able to study the moment a normal cell becomes malignant.
…The other unusual thing scientists had noticed about cells growing in culture was that once they transformed and became cancerous, they all behaved alike –dividing identically and producing exactly the same proteins and enzymes, even though they’d all produced different ones before becoming malignant. Lewis Coriell, a renowned cell-culturist, thought he might have an explanation. He published a paper suggesting that perhaps “transformed” cells behaved the same..because they’d been contaminated by something –most likely a virus or bacterium– that made them behave similarly. Almost as an aside, he pointed out..all transformed cells seemed to behave identically to HeLa, he wrote, which could mean that HeLa was the contaminant.” [p139]
“In September 1966, a geneticist named Stanley Gartler.. announced that he’d found ‘a technical problem’ in their field… Gartler..told [a conference] audience that, in the process of looking for new genetic markers for his research, he’d found eighteen of the most commonly used cell cultures..all contained a rare genetic marker called glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-A (G6PD-A) which was present almost exclusively in black Americans. And even among them it was fairly rare.
…Gartler knew he’d found the source of the problem…”they are all HeLa cell contaminants.”  …It turned out Henrietta’s cells could float through the air on dust particles. They could travel from one culture to the next on unwashed hands or used pipettes; they could ride from lab to lab on researchers’ coats and shoes, or through ventilation systems. And they were strong; if just one HeLa cell landed in a culture dish, it took over, consuming all the [nutrient] media and filling all the space. Gartler’s findings did not go over well.” [p153]
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“The serious problem of HeLa cell contamination in cancer and vaccine research is revealed in Michael Gold’s  ‘A  Conspiracy of Cells: One Woman’s Immortal Legacy and the Medical Scandal It Caused’.  Even Jonas Salk, who developed the legendary  Salk polio vaccine, was fooled when HeLa cells contaminated his animal cell lines. He admitted this years later in 1978 before a stunned audience of cell biologists and vaccine makers. In experiments performed in the late 1950s  on dying cancer patients,  Salk tried injecting them with a cell line of monkey heart tissue – the same cell line he used to harvest polio virus for his famous vaccine. He hoped the monkey cell injections would stimulate the immune system to fight cancer. However, when abcesses developed at the site of injections Salk began to suspect that he might be injecting HeLa cells rather than monkey cells,  and he stopped the experiment.
Mark Nelson-Rees, a HeLa cell expert and one of the 1978 conference attendees,  offered to test Salk’s line if it was still available. Salk graciously agreed and the monkey cells indeed proved to be HeLa cells which had invaded and taken over the monkey cell line. According to author Gold, Salk thought there were adequate ways to separate viruses from the tissue cell lines  they were harvested in, so that it really didn’t matter what kind of cells were used. Even  if vaccines weren’t filtered, and even if whole cancer cells were injected directly into a human,  Salk believed they would be rejected by the body and cause no harm. In those days doctors didn’t much believe in cancer-causing viruses. Nowadays, no researcher would dare try injecting cancer cells into a human being. But in the 1950s Salk had done it accidently. He had injected HeLa cells into a few dozen patients and it hadn’t bothered him a bit.”–Alan Cantwell MD ;    http://www.whale.to/m/quotes27.html 

Dr.  Banks treats readers to a quote from Peter Duesberg: “Even very few oncogenic retroviruses –those endowed with cancer genes– hardly play a role as carcinogens for two reasons. First, viral cancer genes accidentally acquired are never kept by retroviruses after they are generated because they are entirely useless to the virus… Second, even if a rare oncogenic retrovirus infects an immunocompetent animal, a small tumor will appear within days after the infection, only to disappear again as the animal develops antiviral immunity. Antiviral immunity kills both the virus and all virus-infected cells.” [p54, AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire]

From “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks”, pp 127-130: “Chester Southam had a frightening thought: What if Henrietta’s cancer cells could infect the scientists working on them? [George] Gey and several others had already shown that some rats grew tumors when injected with live HeLa. Why not humans?..’There is the possible danger’, Southam wrote, ‘of initiating neo-plastic disease by accidental inoculation during laboratory investigation, or by injection with such cells or cell products if they should be used for production of virus vaccine.’ Southam was a well-respected cancer researcher and chief of virology at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. He and many other scientists believed that cancer was caused by either a virus or an immune system deficiency, so Southam decided to use HeLa to test those theories… He told [cancer patients] he was testing their immune systems; he said nothing about injecting them with someone else’s malignant cells.
   “Within hours, the patients’ forearms grew red and swollen. Five to ten days later, hard nodules began growing at the injection sites. Southam removed some of the nodules to verify that they were cancerous, but he left several to see if patient’ immune systems would reject them or the cancer would spread…
   “Southam eventually removed most of the HeLa tumors, and those he didn’t remove vanished on their own in a few months. But in four patients, the nodules grew back. He removed them, but they returned again and again…
   “Since those patients all had cancer to begin with, Southam wanted to see how healthy people reacted to the injections, for comparison’s sake. So, in May 1956, he placed an ad in the Ohio State Penitentiary newsletter… Southam began injecting prisoners in June 1956 using HeLa cells that his colleague, Alice Moore, carried from New York to Ohio in a handbag… Soon tumors grew on the prisoners’ arms just as they’d grown in the cancer patients…Southam gave multiple cancer cell injections to each prisoner, and unlike the terminally ill patients, those men fought off the cancer completely. And with each new injection, their bodies responded faster, which seemed to indicate that the cells were increasing the inmates’ immunity to cancer.
   “In the coming years, Southam injected HeLa and other living cancer cells into more than six hundred people for his research, about half of them cancer patients. He also began injecting them into every gynecological surgery patient who came to Sloan-Kettering’s Memorial Hospital or its James Ewing Hospital. If he explained anything [to patients] he simply said he was testing them for cancer.”
 
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**Part of the JFK assassination conspiracy was a plot to kill Fidel Castro by giving him cancer with injections and xrays. In the words of Judyth Vary Baker (Lee Oswald’s girlfriend), during her film segment of the documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy, Ms. Baker revealed her role as a 19-year-old cancer researcher:

[from the episode “The Love Affair”, segments 3 and 4]
“I convinced Dr. Ochsner and others that the real thing we needed to do was pull down Castro’s immune system by using several ploys, and then when the cancer’s introduced into his body, it would be found in his blood system and they’d put him in front of the x-ray again and again and again. Supposedly he’d be getting treatments to kill the cancer when actually his immune system was getting destroyed. That could be done, in other words, Castro could be eliminated by using x-ray and they’ll think that it’s the side effects from lung cancer. And that was my idea” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBbe0jexWn4&NR=1
[the secret US ‘cancer’ team]..went to Jackson Mental Hospital..[with] these prisoners that were going to be injected…and at that time those prisoners received the injections that were necessary to begin that terrible round of injections and x-ray, injections and x-ray..that they hoped would actually kill these people.”

 

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