Jennifer Lake's Blog

January 28, 2016

JFK File: The Fallout Babies


January 20, 2015

JFK File: Signs of Traffick


December 7, 2011

The Disease Continuum

Of all the subject matter in this blog, the collective weight gathers on the topic of the Disease Continuum, so named as a manmade phenomenon of modern times. I’m challenging myself here to grasp its scope, locate its origins, describe its momentum and filter out a sensible narrative.

Like an exhausted competitor in an old-time Depression-era Dance Marathon, I’m leaning hard on my ‘partners’, relying on refreshment and support until the music stops. When it stops (if it stops), the grand prize will be survival –merely that– in a fiction of celebration designed for the desperate by the cruel. Thus, simply, stands my take on the practical medical ‘establishment’ paradigm.

In general terms, the mater materia of the Disease Continuum compares to the elements of the ancients [fire, water, earth, air]; four fundamental essences from which it’ s composed. By disease names they are influenza, polio, cancer and AIDS and together, they forge a Ring of Power in the kingdom of Public Health.

…”One Ring to rule them all and in the darkness bind them”

   Common to the four elements of the Continuum is the eugenical substrate on which they emerge in history; they are timely, political, and as inevitable as the science and industry that sustains them. It should interest us that they are characterized as viral and not the foreign biological intruders we suppose.
   “We have travelled a long way from the mysterious filtrable infective particle of..years ago… [W]e have even the evidence that..portions of certain..viruses can be dissociated and later recombined to form a reconstituted infective particle… Clearly discoveries of this sort are providing the basis for an understanding of the host-virus relationship… For virus multiplication is after all a special case of protein biosynthesis… We seem thus to have reached a point at which biochemical and biophysical studies of viruses have really come into their own and offer the greatest prospects of advance.”
–Sir Charles Harington, March 1956,
Ciba Foundation Symposium at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Mill Hill London [ref. The Nature of Viruses, 1956, Little Brown & Co.]
From the same publication, Sweden’s polio researcher Sven Gard wrote, “The question of the kinetics of chemical virus inactivation has become a problem of more than academic interest after the occurrance in the USA of inoculation poliomyelitis in children vaccinated with formalin-treated virus… Salk (1956) has repeatedly stated that inactivation of polio virus by formaldehyde (F) runs the course of a first order reaction.  At the Third International Poliomyelitis Conference in Rome in 1954 I pointed out that the Swedish observations did not conform with this statement (Gard, 1955). On the contrary, we had found a systematic and consistently reproducible deviation...”
   Work on polioviruses helped to prove that intestinal “Enteroviruses can infect all tissues of the human body. The tropism of each virus for certain tissues is not well understood…”. Reconstituting pathogens in the form of gut bacteria and viruses was learned early. Simon Flexner designed experiments in 1897 to alter the properties of harvested human colon bacilli and turn them virulent several years before he became the director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Flexner’s cadavers in 1890s Baltimore, taken to the labs of the newly medicalized Johns Hopkins University, were mostly victims of pneumonia and influenza, a ready surfeit of bodies that littered the northern port cities of industrial America.
Dr. Nancy Banks writes in AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire on cancer and AIDS, ..”new research suggests that ..[what] may be the primary cause of malignant growth..[is] the reduced efficiency of mitochondrial energy conversion as the result of oxidative/nitrosative stress… What is becoming imminently more difficult to suppress is the evidence that impaired mitochondrial metabolism, and specifically the Krebs cycle activity, may promote malignant growth… People diagnosed with AIDS are in a hypercatabolic low oxygen state where the body becomes exhausted in attempting to repair itself.” As she explains, “no virus need apply”. [p58]
… “There is no scientific data validating the contention that what is currently referred to as HIV is, in fact, a virus! …The goal was perception management… [and] the proteins claimed to be specific for HIV are universally present in everyone.” [pp306-308]
… Dr. Banks treats readers to a quote from Peter Duesberg: “Even very few oncogenic retroviruses –those endowed with cancer genes– hardly play a role as carcinogens for two reasons. First, viral cancer genes accidentally acquired are never kept by retroviruses after they are generated because they are entirely useless to the virus… Second, even if a rare oncogenic retrovirus infects an immunocompetent animal, a small tumor will appear within days after the infection, only to disappear again as the animal develops antiviral immunity. Antiviral immunity kills both the virus and all virus-infected cells.” [p54, AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire]
   So all is not peace and harmony in the Disease Continuum. But we should remember the words of H.R. Shepherd, 1993 founding chairman of the Sabin Vaccine Institute:  “Vaccines are the most powerful tool available to equalize the health of human beings in every corner of the world. Enlightened leaders understand the power of vaccines to help bring peace and opportunity to the most troubled places…”
   No story of great or worldly achievement in the 20th century seems complete or soluble without a reconciliation to public medicine. It electrifies the most compelling events of our time like the JFK assassination.
   Edward Mandell House, the intimate alter-ego and adviser to Woodrow Wilson, was reputed to have said (prior to WWI), “Very soon, every American will be required to register their biological property in a national system designed to keep track of the people… They will be our chattel… stripped of their rights and given a commercial value…”
   Without this knowledge can we know anything about the new designs of peace and opportunity planned for the 21st?
 As is my recent posting custom, this article is going to grow long and thick expositioning currents of power and change in the methods of modern disease.
For a blog review that covers a lot of disease-continuum content, read here
“Throughout history, infectious diseases have killed more soldiers than have weapons… It has always been very hazardous to be a soldier.. but in recent decades the greatest risk seems to be carried by civilians… In 1993, the World Bank provided one of the first attempts to combine both death and suffering into a single number to represent the burden of disease (Disability Adjusted Life Years, or DALYs)… They found in 1990 a total of 1.4 billion DALYs lost in the world. Twenty-four different conditions each accounted for more than one percent of that total. Five of these 24 conditions involved violence: automobile injuries, falls, homicide, suicide, and war… The five violence conditions were second only to respiratory diseases..” –pages 4-5, War and Public Health, 1997, editors Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel
So, there’s your commercial value –the unit measure of productivity representing your (everyone’s) worth.
INFLUENZA, notoriously lethal as the 1918 Spanish Flu, became a very interesting disease in the pandemic of 1889-1893, known as the Russian Flu: “The pandemic spread rapidly, taking only 4 months to circumnavigate the planet, peaking in the United States 70 days after the original peak in St. Petersburg.”
An 18 page document describing the collective experiences of doctors with 6,000 Philadelphia patients notes that “The most important symptoms were undoubtedly those connected with the nervous system, and it is a serious question whether all the symptoms were not due primarily to derangement of that system.”
…”The duration varied from one week to three months of more…The sputum..was frequently noticed to be quite black from minute particles resembling soot or coal dust… Insane ideas were acknowledged by many…Fear of going crazy was excessively frequent… Vertigo was common… Violent headache..often continued for months… Cases which were left with local or general paralysis were subject as a premonitory symptom to exceptionally violent headache… Sight was often temporarily lost… We noted numbness of the limbs… A sudden loss of power in the limbs was sometimes an initial symptom… In many cases power was lost for long periods– ten months or a year, and sometimes it seems, permanently… For months after apparent recovery, fatigue or exposure would bring on exhaustion… Sustained thought was often utterly impossible… in effort there was a sudden slowing down of the heart… Heart-failure caused most of the deaths in the earlier part of the first year’s epidemic… The influenza type seemed to be stamped upon all diseases, modified them, and caused confusion in diagnosis… In what light are we to regard the persistent occurrance of innumerable paralyses of involuntary muscles? The list is too full to be accidental –bronchial, vesicular, ocular, intercostal, cardiac, gastric, biliary, hepatic, vascular, intestinal and rectal. These occur at once to the mind, and do they not indicate some disorder, some disarrangement, some alteration or possession of the nerve-centres and nerve-trunks concerned in the vital processes of the economy?”
   Spanish Flu was another complex of neurological, hemorrhagic, and mixed illnesses confounded in wartime with lingering and permanent disabilities in survivors. I wrote of it here as an additional consequence of nitrate toxicosis, opening material for this blog as the H1N1 was advancing. My look back in history then, at influenza, was also looking like polio and AIDS moreso than any respiratory disease. Spanish Flu was a special case, rather a complicated set of conditions, and could not be a beginning for the “DC” but its extension. The pandemic of 1889, however, distinguishes itself with consistency as a conumdrum of “confusion in diagnosis”. The Philadelphians wrote, “The initial nasal cartarrh so associated with the name of influenza as to be popularly synonymous with it, often failed to appear early and was manifested later amid other affectations… vertigo and unsteady gait [was how] some cases began their attacks (in the first year) and in relapses these symptoms were often forerunners of renewed attack… The influenzal poison, whatever its nature, exhibits in protracted cases a likeness to malarial poisoning in symptoms and length of duration… The most severe and protracted cases were generally in the educated classes… Influenza cannot be a filth disease, as its initial outbreak was among the wealthy rather than the poor.
   Suggestive of something malaria-like, the Pennsylvania doctors concluded uncertainly that they were dealing with a bloodborne agent vectored similarly (by mosquitos) in a fashion of today’s West Nile Virus. Interest in the Russian Flu has revived since 2009 “reinforced by..the work of French epidemiologist Alain-Jacques Valleron from the Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale in Paris.”  Valleron’s research is visualized in a short (and silent) video clip displaying a progressive ground-zero approach to the spread of 1889 Russian Flu:
   What is most interesting to me about the flu pandemic is that it followed so closely on the heels of the world’s first major polio epidemics in Sweden, which occurred in Stockholm shortly after modern vaccination practices came into being. Vaccination’s foremost advocate, Pasteur, found an institutional home in Paris during 1887-1888 with an international cast of fellows and more interesting still, the first credited scientist to isolate virus with disease-transmitting filtrate, Dimitri Ivanovsky, joined the University of St. Petersburg in 1887. By 1892, botanist Ivanovsky had proved his transmissable”virus” theory with the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, marking the birth of virology in history.
   The next year, 1893, with the Russian Flu still circulating, the United States had its first recorded outbreaks of epidemic polio.
POLIO (poliomyelitis) was a bugaboo of unknown causes when it emerged in the 19th century, called infantile paralysis for its most recognizable signs as a children’s disease. In this “golden age” of medicine (referring to the next link), a sparse timeline which appears dedicated to polio demonstrates the importance attached to it, retrospectively.
   “Confusion in diagnosis”, however, is polio’s outstanding historical feature. Even as late as the public distribution of Salk’s polio vaccine (the IPV) in 1955, polio was often diagnosed as grippe –the French-language equivalent of influenza– with significant intestinal involvement. Albert Sabin proved in 1947 that (enough) polioviruses caused grippe. For the longest time what could not be proven was that polioviruses caused polio.
   Researcher/author Jim West writes, “Mainstream science admits that most viruses are harmless, yet the word “virus ” adds to a biased and highly promoted language of fear regarding natureearly virus studies considered virus filtrates to be a poison… My site has several articles by the Nobel Laureate Alexis Carrel regarding injections of highly dilute poisons, similar to formaldehyde in Salk vaccine, which was 1:4000 concentration. Carrel injected carcinogens at 1:5000 to 1:250000 and caused reliably, cancer in chickens… Central nervous system diseases other than polio continue in the U.S. and throughout the world: acute flaccid paralysis, chronic fatigue syndrome, encephalitis, meningitis, muscular sclerosis… The unique correlations between CNS disease and CNS toxins present a variety of research opportunities not only in medical science, but political science, philosophy, media studies, psychology, and sociology.
   Mr. West’s well made and far-reaching point, unfortunately, is just not far-reaching enough. Janine Roberts, too, followed the West path, augmenting the polio resources and writing, “I had begun my research by looking at the many contaminants in the vaccine, but finally was forced to conclude: 1) that polio..was not primarily caused by the nominated ‘poliovirus’ –but primarily by human environmental pollution, particularly..insecticides… 2) that the disease was not stopped by the vaccine, but many cases were deliberately hidden by relabelling it –this led to the vaccine being attributed with a fictitious victory…[and]… 3) that polio might well be curable –if it is treated as a toxin-caused disease.”  Broadly speaking, all diseases not classed as genetic in origin are toxin-caused. The statements above are a benign way of not being wrong but they’re also a clever way of not being forthright. Perhaps for some researchers it’s a beginning –not my beginning– that ‘settles’ prematurely.
The first recorded U.S. outbreak was in 1841 in West Feliciana, Louisiana (10 cases, no deaths). There was a half-century gap until the next cluster, in 1893 in Boston (26 cases, no deaths). Then, in 1894, came what is widely regarded as the first major epidemic, in Rutland and Proctor, Vermont (132 cases, 18 deaths). Thirty more outbreaks – from such seemingly disparate locations as Oceana County, Michigan, and California’s Napa Valley — were reported in the United States through 1909. The worst by far was New York in 1907, with 2,500 cases and a five percent mortality rate, a harbinger of the 1916 epidemic… Setting aside for now the 1841 Louisiana outbreak, reported retrospectively, something seems to have happened around 1890 to launch The Age of Polio in the United States. And something else must have changed around the end of World War II to create the large modern epidemics seared into the minds of older Americans, thousands of whom are poliomyelitis survivors and almost all of whom know someone who was afflicted.”
  The authors and editors of ‘age of autism’, Dan Olmstead and Mark Blaxill, cite West and Roberts in an exemplary description of early pesticide-caused polio (from 1893 onwards, incriminating the poisons arsenic, lead, mercury and DDT) and then appear to lose track of the subject –polio– and follow pesticides, venturing conclusions that neither West nor Roberts suggest: “To summarize our theory: Polio is a virus, contagious like all viruses… When it is introduced into the human body, it has the capacity to enter the nervous system when nerves are damaged. Damage can occur many ways: mechanically through needle puncture or surgery, or, we propose, biochemically via pesticidal or other toxic exposure. Once the virus enters the nervous system, it becomes dangerous..[and] spreads through the nervous system via “retrograde axonal transport… lead[ing] to paralysis or death.”
   The failures and limitations of polio researchers presented so far unanimously neglect to actually follow the occurrence of the disease –if they did, they would fall over a body of evidence that associates polio with influenza and the most potent of co-factors that is a cause on its own, radiation. This was my beginning, and it immediately opened not just a door on disease, but a dimension. Welcome to the continuum…
THE POLIO TIMELINE is an expanding resource that initially listed polio incidence but is growing to accommodate the confluence of factors in the DC:

“We have the capacity to ignore the obvious, to become fatalistic about what we do not understand, and to accept because of familiarity what should not be acceptable” –p3, War and Public Health

(post in progress– I’ve been temporarily diverted by Manipulative Extraterrestrials
but I will return…)

May 11, 2011

The Minimal Genome Project

“Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’..”
“The search for the ‘smallest autonomous self-replicating entity,’ which subsequently became the search for the smallest cell genome, was begun in the late 1950s by Harold Morowitz… This led to studies of the mycoplasmas, showing that these microorganisms have the smallest reported cell and genome sizes [as of 1996]. The DNA sequence of the smallest known mycoplasma genome, that of Mycoplasma genitalium, recently was determined… The nature of selective pressure for repeated genome not known..[but] have been suggested to be due to selection for faster (hence, smaller) replicating genomes to produce greater progeny..yields, selection for smaller genomes to reduce the energy limiting nutrient environments, and loss..[due to] deleterious mutations… Since the early days of molecular biology, the search for the minimal genome has been the ‘Holy Grail’… subtracting the minimal gene set from an organism’s total gene inventory should reveal genes for the phenotype characters that make each organism unique.”
Harold J. Morowitz:
Oral History Interview, March 16, 2005 — “This interview chronicles Morowitz’s scientific career in detail, beginning with his education in physics, his transition to biophysics, to his ongoing attempt to apply..information theory to..biological problems. His a valuable insight of how and why physicists after WWII came to be interested in..biological problems…[and] illustrates the reciprocal interaction between scientific Yales’s biophysics program..and the Atomic Energy Commission’s promotion of the peaceful use of atomic energy (e.g. nuclear fallout debate)..”

Remember SARS in 2003? Looking back on SARS led me to something dubbed the Minimal Genome Project which I found a lot of experimental documentation for between 1998 and 2000, including the creation of completely new amino acids –until this, every biological entity that has ever existed used the same available 20 amino acids. SARS patients were found to be infected with a novel corona virus and, coincidently, a novel corona virus was created in a lab with a new amino acid in 2001. Since the original outbreak, the SARS creature seems to have disappeared. Was it part of an experiment to create a new “minimal genome organism” ?  Indirect evidence is tantalizingly suggestive that it could be the case.  First, consider this research news in the right time window, and I’ll add more to this post supporting a proof-of-concept. This link, within Sweating the Small Stuff states that coronavirus is the largest known genome in nature –ripe for a take-away project, I suppose. Since the 2003 outbreak new information about coronavirus is being published, such as this statement from August 2004: “The coronavirus replicase-transcriptase was recently predicted to contain RNA-processing enzymes that are extremely rare or absent in other RNA viruses” –in other words, the researchers have made a novel discovery about their specimen. In this case, the studied coronavirus is generating a unique protein that has an ability to preferentially cleave double stranded RNA (dsRNA): . This feature of the SARS virus is creating a handy new enzyme tool for genetic engineers.

Minimal genomes are a boon to living DNA computers:“Human cells and computers process and store information in much the same way… ‘If you look inside the cell, you find a bunch of amazing little tools,’ said Adelman, who made the first DNA-based computation in 1994. ‘The cell is a treasure chest.’ ”; Leonard Adelman is employed by George Mason University and the MITRE Corporation, producer of the JASON reports for the DoE, DoD, etc.; Leonard Adelman says “Late one evening, while lying in bed reading Watson’s text, I came to a description of DNA polymerase. This is the king of enzymes – the maker of life. Under appropriate conditions, given a strand of DNA, DNA polymerase produces a second “Watson-Crick” complementary strand, in which every C is replaced by a G, every G by a C, every A by a T and every T by an A. For example, given a molecule with the sequence CATGTC, DNA polymerase will produce a new molecule with the sequence GTACAG. The polymerase enables DNA to reproduce, which in turn allows cells to reproduce and ultimately allows you to reproduce. For a strict reductionist, the replication of DNA by DNA polymerase is what life is all about… DNA polymerase is an amazing little nanomachine, a single molecule that “hops” onto a strand of DNA and slides along it, “reading” each base it passes and “writing” its complement onto a new, growing DNA strand.; ; simpler genomes are helping this process along. Adelman’s counterpart in Israel, Ehud Shapiro, works on a project at the Weizmann Institute called “The Human Cell Lineage Tree** Flagship Initiative” An accomplishment of Shapiro and colleagues in 2004 illustrates a DNA computer at work: “Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated..allowing both input and output…. Such computers, using biological molecues as input data and bilogically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for ‘logical’ control of biological processes… As proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of..cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule after an anticancer drug.”

There it is: cell surveillance and cancer ‘self’ control.

With DNA polymerase to “process”, restriction enzymes to “cut” and ribozymes to “paste”, the working parts of DNA computers look to be on hand with the exception maybe of genetically stable, high-fidelity replicators.
I speculate that cancer cells are very useful for this purpose with their immortal qualities, and in so many cases, engineered recombinant microbes (i.e. viruses) in current therapy use end up causing cancers, that the cancer cells, and controlling the cells, in the first place is the most useful approach. Minimal genomes, real and artificial, look like other lines of pursuit running apace for the ultimate creation of DNA computer life. This general field of study is called bioinformatics and another of its Holy Grails is finding perfect cell-based delivery systems. The DNA computer ‘proof of principle’ by the Israelis (above) used a “stochastic molecular automaton” to provide the computer input, meaning a precise-targeting agent –I’m perusing the literature to find the exact agents– but this fundamentally defines the action of viruses. And the genetically small ones, like SV40 monkey virus and polioviruses are already human-adapted and under intense ‘quantitative’ experimentation to see how well they deliver genetic information.
**Human Cell Lineage Tree Project collaborators in the U.S. are Shimon Weiss of UCLA  and Stephen Quake at *Stanford; for more ‘flagship’ programs see this


Chalk this up to spooky things scientists say.
November 22, 2002 — “Craig Venter’s ‘minimal genome’ project announced Wednesday is not about creating a new life form…[that comes later with Synthia]. The high profile project was just funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) with $3 million going to the Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives (IBEA), one of the nonprofit research institutes Venter founded after leaving..Celera Genomics early this year.
   “The question of the minimal genome for an organism [–the base gene set required for life–] is always ‘minimal in which environment,’ said Francisco J. Silva of the University of Valencia in Spain. Silva and colleagues..are studying the genome of the insect endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which appears to have an even smaller genome than that of the parasite Mycoplasma genitalium, Venter’s organism of choice.
   “..pathogenic bacteria usually have more genes than their harmless relatives do..but the disease-related genes are not essential to life, so they could be the first catagory of genes a scientist would jettison from a minimal genome organism… ‘A minimal genome organism’ [Silva] said, ‘will be a prisoner of the laboratory dish where it lives, and will be unable to compete with the outer world.’
   “The minimal genome organism now being planned..will be further crippled so that it cannot survive wihout laboratory coddling. The strategy is to synthesize an artificial chromosome containing the presumptive minimal gene set, remove all existing genetic material.. and then insert the synthetic chromosome into the vacant cell… The long-term goal..will be to help the world solve some of its environmental problems. That’s why the funding is coming from DoE, where recent genetics projects have focused on bioremediation…”
>>>In June 2010, Venter announced “Synthia” –“a synthetic cell from scratch” and “a hitherto unseen lifeform…To do this, he read the DNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, a bug that infects goats, and recreated it piece by piece. The fragments were then ‘stitched together’ and inserted into a bacterium of a different species… he claimed the breakthrough had changed his views on the definition of life. ‘We have..the first synthetic cell powered and controlled by a synthetic chromosome and made from four bottles of chemicals,’ he said..”–wipe-humanity.html
“The constraints of the genetic code are history”
Feb. 14, 2002 – ” ‘The constraints of the genetic code are history,’ proclaims Peter Schultz of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California…’At least in bacteria, the genetic constraints..are gone.’ Dr. Schultz’s statement is no idle boast…[His] laboratory, along with another team of chemists based in Japan, are introducing completely new strands [of DNA]…If successful, they will fabricate..a new sort of living thing… [C] developed unnatural versions of all the ingredients in this process: the bases, the DNA, the RNAs and the amino acids. The result is a protein that could never have existed in nature… By exposing..unnatural bacteria to the sort of conditions believed to have prevailed on the early might be possible to observe whether bacteria with 21, 22, or even more amino acids might win out over those with the standard complement… Back in the present, the next order of business is to apply the research to mammals. Dr. Wang says that a certain strain of monkey cells has shown a promising tendency to incorporate unnatural amino acids. Within a year, he thinks, the group should have made mammalian cells equipped with 21 amino acids.”
>>>Dr. Lei Wang is on the faculty of the Salk Institute; it certainly seems like the Schultz team was eager to know if their creations would ‘compete’ outside the lab.
   In July 2002, Eckard Wimmer of SUNY, in conjunction with the Pentagon, announced the result of his DARPA-funded project to create viruses from scratch:
“This is the first time that a working biological entity has been made using chemicals alone…But poliovirus is easier to build than many others. It has a short and simple genome and assembles itself directly from a DNA template… More complex viruses could be synthesized, Wimmer believes, by additional chemical steps or by putting synthetic genes into living cells..”
Commenting on Wimmer’s achievement: ” ‘This work should never have been done, funded, or published,’ said J.Craig Venter…’Somehow the whole system broke down here.’ ..The work, [Wimmer] said, was intended to serve as a warning of what is now possible.”
2004— “Several attempts have been made to identify the minimal set of genes that is required for life using computational approaches… These experiments resemble those already performed by nature; a few hundred million years ago an ancestor of E. coli was domesticated by aphids which resulted in the elimination of 70-75% of the original bacterial genome. Amazingly, the small genomes of the imprisoned bacteria are more stable than those of their free-living relatives.
   ..”Obligate host-associated bacteria have among the smallest genomes known in nature… Two different scenarios have been proposed to explain the process of genome shrinkage in B. aphidicola… that the minimization..was continuous, with genes being lost individually through a large number of small deletion events..[or] that many genes were lost simultaneously at an early stage of the internalization process..through the elimination of large blocks of DNA spanning multiple genes…
 …”as computational analysis becomes more refined and the data sets grow larger, fewer genes remain that are conserved among all taxa…[and] the few remaining genes are organized in a surprisingly similar manner… The lack of..sequences..reduces rearrangement possibilities…
   “The next few years will tell whether..the..endosymbiont genomes are self-sustainable… An interesting question for the future is to determine whether the dependent partner will be ‘allowed’ to stay as a ‘silent parasite’ if the need for its functions is lost during evolution, or if such a loss will cause it to deteriorate and collapse.”
Error Catastrophe
Too many mutations, too rapid a pace and/or too few genes leads to a potential species collapse in a  nose-diving degenerative process that microbe researchers in the lab call “error catastrophe”; virus experimenters document the fundamental principle, noting, “There is an intrinsic limit to the maximum variability of viral genetic information before it loses meaning and if an RNA virus quasispecies goes beyond that mutation limit, the population will no longer be viable. The phenomenon that occurs when the loss of genetic fidelity results in a lethal accumulation of errors has been termed ‘error catastrophe’. Most cellular organisms have evolved a number of sophisticated processes to maintain their genetic information with high fidelity and stay far away from the threshold of error catastrophe. In contrast, it has been predicted that RNA viruses with high mutation frequencies exist close to the edge of error catastrophe and can be forced into error catastrophe by a moderate increase in mutation rate… We also describe direct evidence that the error catastrophe theory applies to poliovirus.”
“One very important fact to remember is that radiation increases the spontaneous mutation rate” — Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) power plant training manual on the effects of ionizing radiation
   Another important fact is that viruses are not organisms or cells and have no strategies for survival! The authors of the ‘error catastrophe’ paper are really telling us that the “edge of viability” on which polioviruses (and others) exist needs maintenance to prevent their extinction. Circulating polioviruses were determined in 2000 to be all vaccine-derived, and the buzz around the conference tables of the WHO and other agencies brought up the issue of stopping the inoculation programs. Very soon thereafter
a complete scratch poliovirus made from mail-order chemicals blitzed the science headlines invoking a new threat from terrorists. As a mode of comparison, organisms do have an array of survival strategies.

March 12, 2011

The Fallout Is Coming

Filed under: radiation — jenniferlake @ 4:48 pm
Tags: , , , , ,


Canada’s record of Chernobyl fallout:

“A large number of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor were detected in air and river water samples collected in the Quebec region of eastern Canada. Analysis of the data supports the view that three waves of airborne radioactivity entered eastern Canada between 6 May 1986 and the end of June 1986. The first two waves would have followed an Arctic route and arrived over Quebec on 6 May and around 14 May respectively. The third wave would have been carried by the prevailing westerly winds across the Pacific Ocean and arrived over Quebec around 25–26 May. On 25 June and thereafter, Chernobyl radioactivity was undetectable in our airfilters but was still being detected in the St Lawrence river in March 1987.” … a3f5135048

(from Canada, thanks Jack!)

UPDATE: March 23 (my last update on this post, for now, because the Fukushima reactor crisis is going to continue for years to come) Follow the updating fallout news here; tracking HAARP, earthquakes and weather

“U.S. officials announced a block on Japanese dairy and other produce from the region… The crisis is emerging as the world’s most expensive… The latest reported food data showed sharp increases in radioactivity levels in a range of vegetables. In one area about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northwest of the plant, levels..measured 82 times the government’s limit for radioactive cesium…”
[CNN, video report] “high levels of radiation have been detected in tap water in Tokyo…the limit for children is 100..the level is 210 [measured in becquerels per liter]
“How long does it take [before] a contaminated area can be inhabited again?

[Renowned radiation biologist Edmund Lengfelder:] There is a rule of thumb: For a nuclide such as cesium-137, the half-life of 30 years. It takes ten half-lives, so you can populate an area again, making a total of 300 years. But in Japan is still added a difficulty: the nuclear fission process, radioactive substances, it is called the radioactive inventory of a reactor. In a boiling water reactor in Fukushima this inventory is 30 to 40 times as high as in Chernobyl, it can thus escape much more radiation. If we summarize it: In Japan, more people are concerned because the population density is higher than in Chernobyl and there is a higher contamination.” [posted 3-21]

Hazards of Low Level Radioactivity : Dr. Ernest Sternglass explains: “When the radiation from such isotopes as strontium-89 and 90 in the bone marrow mutates an existing virus that invades the T-cells of the immune system and kills them in the process of replication, the stage is set for the complete collapse of the immune defenses, and resulting death from opportunistic infections or cancer.” (“The Implications of Chernobyl for Human Health”, International Journal of Biosocial Research, p. 19, July 1986)


“In l997 former US Defense Secretary, William Cohen,while engaged in a News Briefing at the University of Georgia, spoke the following words while talking in general about weapons that various terrorists groups might be building: ‘Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.’ ”

Since 03-11-11 to 03-23-11 there have been 731 earthquakes… Japan is one giant volcano”. Can HAARP do this?


Israeli Security Firm in Charge at Japanese Nuke Facilities Prior to Disaster   …cameras recording Japanese nuclear core…

STUXNET computer worm –Fukushima’s smoking gun?

“Never before has a computer virus been able to manipulate devices in the physical world as would human hands. Stuxnet is a computer worm –or virus– that was developed for the purposes of manipulating and sabotaging industrial controls inside factories, power plants and electric utilities that use Siemens SIMATIC, WinCC (Windows) and PCS7 control systems. As such, CNET describes it as ‘the first-ever control system malware’…believed to be industrial espionage of the most sophisticated order… In reality, very little is known for certain about Stuxnet –with its unique ability to subvert every known security system and physically manipulate its surroundings– has ushered humankind into a potentially scary new age where computer viruses can interact with the material world like they own the place.”


               “Pictures appear to confirm the worst – that deadly spent fuel rods were exposed to blasts”

                     Newly Released Images Show Devastated Nuclear Reactors 160311top1

                     Paul Joseph Watson

Fukushima Flyover video



March 12 – News, at this writing, is that the reactor building of Unit 1 has exploded, injuring 4 people. The evacuation area has expanded from a 6-mile to a 12-mile radius. Edwin Lyman of the Union of Concerned Scientists made a statement to CNN that the accident could be “far worse” than expected. By the evidence, a meltdown at Fukushima is underway.
We never get the truth from officials about nuclear accidents. If they admit an accident, they deny the danger, but explosions (venting) and evacuations are nothing less than the minimum requirement of a major accident-in-progress. The mainstream news is already announcing that there is no damage to Japan’s “reactor itself”, contradicting the widespread notice of confirmed melting fuel.

In 1979, Three Mile Island did not explode. We were told there had been a partial meltdown and elevated levels of fallout were not significant enough to cause a public risk, but a group of Japanese visitors who came specifically to learn about TMI found a very different situation. 

Excerpt from the Fallout page, :

Three Mile Island: The People’s Testament , Aileen M. Smith  March 27, 1989

…”Interviewees said on the day of the accident, and for the next couple of days, a powdery ash fell and collected on everything. From the first day, Wednesday March 28, a strong and nauseating metallic taste began affecting them. People and animals stumbled and fell. They felt numbness in their legs and tingling or burning, sometimes a peppery rash. Veterinarian Robert Weber reported in his recollection made in 1982, “Immediately after the accident at TMI, we had many sheep and goats that couldn’t get up. Also, we had troubles with sheep just being found dead. Goats just being found dead…through that summer of 1979.” Weber said there were high numbers of stillbirths and an inability of the pregnant animals to deliver. Local farmers often went through him and filed reports with the Agriculture bureau, only to learn later from officials that no such reports existed. By 1982, he said “Cancer is our big deal now…We are finding the cancers in the uterus, the mammary systems, the lymphatics…I see this curve”.

Betty Fawber said of her animals, “After the accident happened…we’d go up and there’d be chickens that were dead. Just one at a time. Unexplained. We had maybe about six like that…The chickens started dying like that, I’d say, maybe 6 months after the accident…I had two rabbits and one had a litter of 7 bunnies, but they were all born dead. They looked perfect but they were dead.” Betty was sensitive to the ‘venting’, as were others, developing a burning rash on her skin and in her throat and sinuses. She said,” The first year..there were about 47 times when this burning happened….45 times..we accounted [in the newspaper] that they did vent….Last year [1982] sometime..we saw or heard that they were deliberately venting each day”…

Because of the “combined” incomprehensible destruction in Japan, effects like those at TMI will not be observable as radiological hazards. Fallout emanating from Fukushima will be masked by chemical and biological threats which will be enhanced by radiation.
   Published medical studies about enhanced effects from irradiation are ‘clean’ experiments in comparison to the very complex combinations found in fallout, usually performed with x-rays and UV. This link shows how radiation doubles sensitivity to nitric oxide:  Nitric oxide alone reduced survivor rate by 10%; with added irradiation the rate reduced to

President Obama called for the construction of 45 new nuclear power plants. The U.S. is in the midst of an ideological “nuclear renaissance” –officials have every reason NOT to tell us of radioactive fallout danger.  During the 1950s, when “peaceful atoms” were to justify the creation of weapons and usher in the age of global cooperation, an intense climate of suppression and secrecy surrounded the medical findings of scientists. The public propaganda of the Atomic Energy Commission under the leadership of Lewis L. Strauss, gave us the “Sunshine” campaign. In reality, the Health Physics researchers were desperately collecting and arranging new data.   Dr. John Gofman, former Manhattan Project scientist and Establishment defector, spread the news that the AEC policy stating  “the solution to pollution is dilution” was unofficially official

   During the Chernobyl crisis, there was political currency in reporting a fallout threat, and still the world waited a decade, and longer, to learn more about what happened. Many people have said that the Chernobyl accident forced the USSR into the policy of Glasnost with its neighbors and contributed greatly to the dissolution of the Soviet system. Nuclear accidents are everybody’s business.


The Fukushima explosion Special U.S. ‘radiation units’ of the military are en route to Fukushima and they probably have something you don’t have:, developed with Project BioShield funds.

Dr. Edwin Lyman, who made an alarming statement on CNN, Saturday 3-12-11, about an accident-in-progress, is familiar with the Fukushima reactors and the potential for disaster.
   “In 1999, quality data on MOX fuel made by BNFL in Britain for the Japanese..proved to be falsified. Belgonucleaire (BN) in Belgium, which made MOX fuel for the now also accused of falsification of its quality control data. In August 2000 [a coalition] started a court action in the Fukushima District Court seeking an injunction against Tepco… Dr. Koyama stated he found irregularities in four of fourteen MOX fuel assemblies for Fukushima 1-3… A second study was publshed in December 2000.. done by Dr. Edwin Lyman, scientific director for the Nuclear Control Institute (NCI) in Washington D.C…. The report claims that the MOX fuel made by Belgonucleaire for Tepco is tainted. It says the MOX fuel is made in an old facility with poor production and quality control standards, which are even below the standards of BNFL’s old MOX plant at Sellafield…  If Tepco loads MOX fuel in their reactors, it will significantly increase the risks of a nuclear accident with catastrophic effects involving the release of large amounts of deadly plutonium particles into the atmosphere, said Frank Barnaby of the Oxford Research Group, co-author of the study.”
 Did they?
Updated confirmation has come from Japanese authorities that Fukushima is venting.
“Already the coverup is going on at very high levels in Washington and Tokyo” —Yoichi Shimatsu, former editor of Japan Times, CCTV News
Statements from mainstream sources on March 13 indicate two “likely partial meltdowns”
Unprecedented MULTIPLE  MELTDOWNS  and accidents waiting to happen
“Tepco owns 17 nuclear reactors, 10 in Fukushima and 7 in Niigata Kashiwazaki Kariwa [world’s largest plant]…”
1999 – “Fifteen of Japan’s 17 key nuclear facilities have inadequate health and safety measures, according to a report by the Labor Ministry. The facilities were inspected between October 1 and October 22–just after the accident at Tokaimura.” 
Dec-11-02 – “It was confirmed that dishonest acts had taken place, including injecting air into the primary containment vessel in order to lower the leak rate”
Dec-20-04 – [shutdown]”trouble that could lead to a water leakage”
Major Incidents At Japanese Nuclear Facilities 2005-2006
July 16, 2007 – EARTHQUAKE -“After a deadly earthquake struck northwestern Japan last week, the nation was stunned when a nuclear power plant near the earthquake’s center suffered widespread damage, including minor radiation leaks, ruptured pipes, flooding and a fire that belched black smoke for more than an hour on live television.”
“the basic policy stated in the revised Seismic Guide is that all buildings and structures must be installed on ground having enough support performance. There can be no doubt now that the ground of the site of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant does not fulfill this requirement. This was proved by the damage to many structures” 
[Feb?]02-6-09 – “suspended the operation of its No.2 reactor.. indicating problems with reactor..system pumps”
[Sep] 9-02-09 – “Tepco shuts down Fukushima reactor after radiation leak”
[reported shutdown,Nov 11-02-10 to Dec 22] “problem in a pump”
—This list above was a brief nonredundant search—
*Radiation levels increase 400 times in quake-hit province, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, March 13, 2011 at 2:41 am EST
“Typical dose near Chernobyl reactor 4 and its fragments, shortly after explosion: 10-300 millisievert per hour… Highest reported radiation beside reactor 3 at Fukushima: 400 millisievert per hour”  
March 14, 2011 [headline]  Radiation Level Up at Japan Fukushima Daiichi nuke plant
In this image made off Japan's NTV/NNN Japan television footage, smoke ascends from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant's Unit   3. (AP/NTV/NNN Japan)
…”The morning explosion in Unit 3 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant was felt 25 miles (40 kilometers away)… fuel rods at another reactor, Unit 2, were fully exposed..”
” At 11:01 a.m., two consecutive hydrogen explosions occurred at Unit 3…Unit 3 is one of several reactors in Japan that is currently using mixed oxide fuel, or MOX, which is part of a program to recycle used nuclear fuel. At this time, TEPCO cannot determine whether the MOX fuel is associated with the inability to control pressure and cooling at Unit 3.”

Rising fallout reaching the jetstreams travels ahead of weather. This map shows windspeeds at 80-100 miles per hour.

‘Air’ distances between the world’s major cities; Tokyo to Los Angeles 5,433 miles;  Fallout in the jetstream can potentially reach the West Coast in as few as  54 hours. This will likely stay aloft for a long time, perhaps years. Lower altitude fallout will travel with the weather.

March 14:  a third blast at the Fukushima plant (No.2) was reported just after 17::00 hours EDT, March 14. The Navy vessel USS Ronald Reagan, 100 miles offshore at Fukushima earlier today was required to move out of the area and discontinue fly-over attempts after 17 crew members aboard helicopters were exposed.

“The blast tore through the unit 2 structure at the Fukushima Daiichi complex and a hole has been found in the container…there is also currently a fire in unit 4 reactor [fuel pool]. Prime minister Naoto Kan said radiation has spread from the reactors..”

“..this could become Chernobyl on steroids

“Afer Three Mile Island, strontium was detected 150 miles away from the reactor. That ends up in cows’ milk and doesn’t go away for 300 years. The releases from [Fukushima’s] plants will last for a year and will contain elements that will remain in the environment for 300 years even in the best case.” –Arnold Gunderson

(March 15) — Contamination is at dangerous levels locally in Japan with plumes of radiation feeding a fallout cloud that is dispersing whichever way the winds blow. High altitude fallout should already be streaming over North America at low levels. Radioactivity levels will pick up as fallout pushes out of the jetstream and lower altitude currents reach populations on the ground. Americans on the West Coast should take precautions today. Fallout is NOT like a “chest x-ray”–it’s a chemically dirty mix of biologically incompatible radioisotopes, many toxic for days, some for weeks, and others for months and years. Take an appropriate iodine supplement to prevent the uptake of radioactive iodine 131. The best prevention is to limit outdoor activity and wear long pants/sleeves; change and put the clothes in the laundry. Store a drinking water supply for a minimum of 30 days. Stay out of the rain. Curtail or postpone plans for voluntary x-rays or other non-necessary medical proceedures, at least for the coming month and as long as dangerous levels of fallout are emitted, adding 2 weeks. Nuclear fallout is a cumulative poison. Preventing avoidable exposure NOW will help us when exposure and contamination is unavoidable.

Taking iodine:

Vaccines and antibiotics should particularly be avoided for 30 days following even low-level radiation exposure.

UPDATE: March 16, ..”a surge in radiation made it too dangerous for workers to remain at the facility…’So the workers cannot carry out even minimal work at the plant right now’…Experts say exposure of around 1,000 millisieverts is enough to cause radiation sickness… Officials said they would use helicopters and fire trucks.”

“High radiation levels prevented a helicopter from flying to the site to drop water into the No. 3 reactor to try to cool its fuel rods…The plant operator described No. 3 as the “priority.” No more information was available, but that reactor is the only one at Daiichi which uses plutonium in its fuel mix… water was being poured into reactors No. 5 and 6, indicating the entire six-reactor facility was now at risk of overheating…”This is a slow-moving nightmare,” said Dr Thomas Neff, a physicist and uranium-industry analyst at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.”

VIDEO – “Use the Chernobyl option”, Michio Kaku and Joseph Cirincione

Economic Meltdown – “World-changing events are now underway…For decades, the world has been running its own nuclear-style reaction, only in the currency and debt markets where exponenially-accelerating piles of debt and money have spun about faster and faster… With any interruption to smooth flow of money through this pile, it will immediately become unstable… Banks begin to fail again, global trade falls off, unrest continues to build, and then it happens –a currency crisis. Everything changes. Fastr than you think.”  
March 17 
 “A United Nations forecast projects the radioactive plume from the Fukushima facility would reach the Aleutian Islands on Thursday [today] and hit Southern California late on Friday, the New York Times reported. The projection.. gives no information about actual radiation levels”.. Pacific jetstream is currently flowing due east directly toward the United States. In the event of a major meltdown and continuous large-volume radioactive release, airborne particles will be carried across the ocean in bands that will cross over the southern halves of Oregon, Montana and Idaho, all of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, the Dakotas, northern Nebraska and Iowa and ending in Wisconsin and Illinois, with possible further eastward drift depending on surface wind direction.”

Don’t miss this page :

March 18 – Fluctuations in radiation levels range from 271 millisievert per hour to 1472 “Typical dose near Chernobyl reactor 4 and its fragments, shortly after explosion: 10-300 millisievert per hour”

Updating newswire from Japan

Two days ago this video of a radiation meter, off the scale, was posted after the man holding it fled the Fukushima area:

“Radiation…reaches California” 

Below is a circulating email alert:

RADIATION ALERT! First Cloud Reached California! [16-17 March] & Radiation Leak in Canada!!!
I am really sorry to say this, but the first radiation cloud reached California (dangerous radiation from the explosion of Fukushima’s first reactor).
Radiation Danger is above 126. It stayed at 235 for over 20 minutes:

Video Comment:
Its 5:30pm CST March 16, now.. this was reported over 2 hours ago.. im taping up my windows now and running some extra water into jugs. back in a few.. better safe than sorry in my opinion.

From a commenter:
“General surgeons of Québec will give free iodine tablets for resident of Bécancourt,? ?
Matipq 32 minutes ago.”

Here is a readout to show past activity with this station which verifies the LARGE spike in radiation :
Measure radiation here:
Here is the other radiation monitoring site for continental US:
Watch the clouds and storm track now.. from bakersfield CA.

Here is the other radiation monitoring site for continental US: :

Possible Danger Zones:
Utah, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, California Bakersfield, Oregon, Washington State, Colorado, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Idaho, Quebec, Arkansas.

CLICK HERE FOR Live Radiation Monitoring from West LA!!!



March 20
“radiation was found in spinach grown up to 75 miles (120 kilometres) from the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant…Japanese shoppers picked groceries with care Sunday after the discovery of contamination in spinach and milk…”
March 21
“WHO warns of ‘serious’ food radiation in disaster-hit Japan… radiation in food..was more serious than previously thought… Japan’s health ministry has urged some residents near the plant to stop drinking tap water after high levels of radioactive iodine were detected…” [residents were evacuated, right?] ..At Fukushima, 300 engineers have worked around the clock inside an evacuation zone to contain the worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl..”
“Meeting in Washington for an update on conditions at Fukushima, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission said units 1, 2 and 3 have all seen damage to their reactor cores… ..’they’re going to have to take some decisions quickly in Japan to shut down and stop food being used completely from zones.. affected,’ said WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl. ..The crisis has brought renewed scrutiny to Tokyo Electric, a wealthy, politically influential utility that has been accused in the past of safety violations. Days before the disaster, a NISA report criticized Tokyo Electric for failing to inspect crucial equipment related to cooling systems at Fukushima…” 
“Top U.S. offcal hints that radioactive material ‘has been deposited on the ground’ “*

August 1, 2009

The X-Ray

Medically useful X-rays were developed in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen who successfully x-rayed his wife’s hand after a 15 minute exposure. The news went around the world in December and by January of 1896, x-ray machines were being built by any and everyone with enough electrical know-how to produce them. X-ray practitioners immediately began offering treatments and therapy and it was not uncommon to receive an x-ray lasting 30 minutes to an hour. The dosages of radioactivity at that time were unknown. You were just as likely to get your ‘treatment’ from an electrical engineer as from a doctor. In 1896 Chicago, Emil Grubbe and R. Ludlum ran a treatment course of 18 x-ray sessions for breast cancer. Today, thanks to the contemporary work of John Gofman, we know that x-rays cause breast cancer, but in the 1890s the novelty of x-rays caught on like wildfire.
In April of 1897, the first professional journal appeared, the Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy. Shortly after, the American X-ray Journal began publishing. In 1900, the newly formed American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) published its own magazine, the American Journal of Roentgenology and within two years the ARRS was dominated by members of the American Medical Association. Treatments ranged over the common and minor ailments as well as the severe; headaches, stomach aches, ulcers, arthritis, sore joints, acne, rashes, facial hair, moles, earaches and fatigue. Patients of all ages and pregnant women were encouraged to seek treatment. Despite early warnings from doctors who were witnessing horrific side-effects, x-ray applications increased. By 1907, at least 11 devastating deaths in the research community induced by x-rays were on the record, including Clarence Dally, Thomas Edison’s glass-blower and technician.
The discovery of radium, and the broad news of it in 1903, followed a similar course in medical applications although the associated radioactivity was known and documented by its discoverers, the Curies and Henri Becquerel in France. Within a span of less than two decades, complementary technology with ‘radiotracers’ was further advancing the cause of nuclear medicine. The James Lind Library maintains early records of radium use but both X-ray and radium treatment were mostly delivered in the private setting of doctors’ offices, remaining unregulated with no particular requirements of reporting, and therefore unaccountable. In the 1980s, wide surveys to assess the competency and accuracy of x-ray equipment and technicians turned up an amazing degree of disparities. Irregular dosages, inadequate training and sloppy safety measures are still a primary issue in this field.
Beyond the history of abusive and extensive use of x-rays in medical treatment is the application of this technology for industrial research purposes. Chemists and biologists unendingly explored the interaction of x-rays with every known substance of matter. Chemical analysis and the mapping of molecules with x-rays developed into the study of “crystallography”. Radiologists were trained to perfect imaging techniques for a wide range of study in chemistry, physics and medicine with seemingly infinite possibilties of discovery in 3 dimensions. Breakthroughs in electricity and engineering allowed the x-ray machine model to serve new inventions in radio transmission, lighting, and the “cyclotrons” that became centerpieces in physics research, but beyond the familiar conveniences are the less publicly known experiments involving biology.
Bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, serums, filtrates, cells and tissue cultures were all subjects of irradiation with X-rays. The object of these experiments was to observe the effects on microscopic organisms. Mutations were observed very early as  dosage and intensity became understood and monitored in the laboratories. As larger and more powerful x-ray machines were built and tried for medical imaging, large lab animals became the subjects of “dose” experiments. In a three-part paper published in Rockefeller’s Journal of Experimental Medicine, a fatal dose of x-rays given to a dog in 1919 revealed the following:
[collagen-forming]”fibroblasts were paralyzed for a long time and unable to build up new tissue”…”it is possible that the (emigrated) lymphocytes are destroyed by the x-rays rapidly and in an explosive manner in 24 to 48 hours, as in the lymph node or thymus”…”researches of O. Hertwig and his school have proved beyond doubt that of all the parts of a cell, the nucleus with its chromatin is affected most”…”nuclei in mitotic division are especially sensitive and lose..their capacity for normal mitosis; they either do not undergo division at all or they show pathological mitosis”…”fibroblasts attain an enormous size,..appear paralyzed and incapable of mitosis or divide abnormally.” Damage to the dog was especially acute in the intestines; it died on day four. JEM, pub. 1922, “Roentgen Ray Intoxication” series,
Genetics research, enabled by X-rays, began to flower in the 1920s. Behind the famous researchers, in the root layers of the written experiments, are the mutant lifeforms that taught the experimenters other ways of manipulating living matter. A new simulated ‘evolution’ based on characteristic selection was brought into being. Mutants became industrial workhorses as well as fascinating subjects of observation, selected for qualities of “high yield” replication and other peculiar properties of chemistry. Mutant bacteria provide the marketplaces of the world with a variety antibiotics, vitamins, and solvents. In the 1950s it was projected that mutant yeasts would provide a high-protein food source that would solve problems of world hunger. In my article, “The Vegan Conspiracy”, I address some potential drawbacks in feeding the world on mutant yeasts.
Other drawbacks, not yet addressed, are the possibilities that mutated lifeforms bring new diseases into the world. I have yet to find a major experimental disease that does not involve the historic use of x-ray mutated organisms. It’s been simply a matter of accessing enough source material.
In upcoming posts on “Bacteriophage”, I’ll include links from the experiments to highlight the use of x-rays in biological research. Two researchers previously mentioned were adepts in physics. Max Delbruck was trained as a nuclear physicist and as he tells his own story, encouraged by Niels Bohr and Wolgang Pauli to take up “radiation biology”. Salvador Luria, who attained an MD after a long mediocre school performance, trained as a radiologist after med school and joined the team of Enrico Fermi at the University of Rome for a year before the pressing War split the group apart in 1938.
Here’s more information on X-rays and radiation and here are some examples of historic citations from the George Washington University ‘national security’ archive:  (

Searching the GWUNSA database: citations are listed in documents and can be searched with key words, such as  those from these entries:
“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H..  
  Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904.
Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
“Muller, H.J.. 
   Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science
“Stern, S..                                                                                    
   Report of thirtyone cases of therapeutic abortion induced by
roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal
Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
[see the case of Buck v. Bell in this context]
“Sandstrom, O.. 
   Subsequent degenerations after fractional protracted roentgen
irradiation.  1943.  Acta Radiologica 24: 289-294..##”
“Gratzek, F.R., Holmstrom, E.G., and Rigler, L.G..
Postirradiation bone changes.  1945.  Am. J. Roentgen.Radium
Ther. 53;  pp.  62-76.##

“Miller, R.W.  University of Rochester. 
   Some Potential Hazards of the Widespread Use of Roentgen Rays
in Pediatrics.  University of Rochester.  Atomic EnergyProject,
1952.  UR-191 report published March 13, 1952″

“Hammer-Jacobsen, E.  . 
   Therapeutic abortion on account of xray examination
duringpregnancy..  1959, 1963.  Danish Medical Bulletin 6;
pp.113-122, 1959.  (Nuclear Science Abstract 17, 38779, 1963)..##”
How to design and build abnormal brains using radiation during
development. In Disorders of the Developing NervousSystem,
Fields, W.S. and Desmond, M.M., eds..  Springfield, Ill:Thomas,
1961.  Also available as US Atomic Energy Comm TID6159:1-28, Jun
60;   pp. 60-97.##”

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