Jennifer Lake's Blog

February 26, 2014

Blog Note: Hair of the Dog

Filed under: 1 — jenniferlake @ 6:12 pm

Pardon my long absence of late but it’s fated to continue– possibly another six months give or take– while I adjust to new routines and responsibilities. Blogging certainly has made my heart grow fonder, especially of the subjects covered in the bulk of previous posts. I’m carrying on offline and will post when I can… so ya know.

October 28, 2013

School Days

Filed under: education,Eugenics,Rockefeller Science — jenniferlake @ 12:38 am
Tags: ,

“From the beginning, there was purpose behind forced schooling…forged out of what a highly centralized corporate economy and system of finance bent on internationalizing itself was thought to need… School was looked upon..as a branch of industry and a tool of governance…  By 1917, the major administrative jobs in American schooling were under control of a group referred to in the press of that day as ‘the Education Trust.’ The first meeting of this trust included representatives of Rockefeller, Carnegie, Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago, and the National Education Association. The chief end, wrote the British evolutionist Benjamin Kidd in 1918, was to ‘impose on the young the ideal of subordination.’

…”Arthur Calhoun’s 1919 Social History of the Family notified the nation’s academics what was happening. Calhoun declared that the fondest wish of utopian writers was coming true: The child was passing from its family ‘into the custody of community experts.’ He offered a significant forecast, that in time we could expect to see public education ‘designed to check the mating of the unfit.’

…”The 1920s were a boom period for forced schooling… William Kirkpatrick boasted in Education and the Social Crisis that the whole tradition of rearing the young was being made over by experts.”

   “Meanwhile, at the project offices of an important employer of experts, the Rockefeller Foundation, friends were hearing from president Max Mason that a comprehensive national program was underway to allow, in Mason’s words, ‘the control of human behavior.’ This dazzling ambition was announced on April 11, 1933. Schooling figured prominently in the design.

   “Rockefeller had been inspired by the work of Eastern European scientist Hermann Muller to invest heavily in genetics. Muller had used X-rays to override genetic law, inducing mutations in fruit flies. This seemed to open the door to the scientific control of life itself. Muller preached that planned breeding would bring mankind to paradise faster than God… Muller would win the Nobel Prize, reduce his proposal to a 1,500-word Geneticists’ Manifesto, and watch with satisfaction as 22 distinguished American and British biologists of the day signed it. The State must prepare to consciously guide human sexual selection, said Muller. School would have to separate worthwhile breeders from those slated for termination…”

   “Thirty-odd years later, between 1967 and 1974, teacher training in the US was covertly revamped through coordinated..key state education departments..which in time, impacted every school in America… The Behavioral Science Teacher Education Project identified the future as one ‘in which a small elite’ will control all important matters, one where participatory democracy will largely disappear. Children are made to see through school experiences that their classmates are so cruel and irresponsible, so inadequate..and so ignorant that they need to be controlled and regulated for society’s good. Under such a logical regime, school terror can only be regarded as good advertising…”

–John Taylor Gatto, “Some Lessons From The Underground History of American Education” [pp274-287, Everything You Know Is Wrong, 2002]

*
   Using falling literacy statistics dating from 1840 and 1940, J.T. Gatto makes his point about the success of educational failure:   “…abundant data exist from states like Connecticut and Massachusetts to show that by 1840 the incidence of complex literacy in the United States was between 93 and 100 percent… According to the Connecticut census of 1840, only one citizen out of every 579 was illiterate… By 1940, the literacy figure for all states stood at 96 percent for whites [and] 80 percent for blacks… Six decades later..the National Adult Literacy Survey..say[s] 40 percent of blacks and 17 percent of whites can’t read at all. Put another way [since 1940], black illiteracy doubled and white illiteracy quadrupled… think of this: We spend three to four times as much real money on schooling as we did 60 years ago, but 60 years ago virtually everyone..could read…
   “If you have a hard time believing this…meet William Torrey Harris, US Commissioner of Education from 1889 to 1906… Harris standardized our schools and Germanized them… Listen as he speaks in 1906: “Ninety-nine [students] out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths, careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial education, which, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual… The great purpose of school can be realized better in dark, airless, ugly places… It is to master the physical self, to transcend the beauty of nature. School should develop the power to withdraw from the external world.’
…”Since Aristotle, thinkers have understood that work is the vital theater of self-knowledge. Schooling in concert with a controlled workplaceis the most effective way ever devised to foreclose the development of imagination… Hegel was sold to America in large measure by William Torrey Harris who made Hegelianism [the provoking of crises] his lifelong project, and forced schooling its principal instrument in its role as a peerless agent provocateur.
   “Harris was inspired by the notion that correctly managed mass schooling would result in a population so dependent on leaders that schism and revolution would be things of the past… The psychological tool was [is] alienation. The trick was to alienate children from themselves so they couldn’t turn inside for strength, to alienate them from their families, religions, cultures, etc. so no countervailing force could intervene…
   “Alexander Inglis, author of Principles of Secondary Education..wrote that the new schools were being expressly created to serve a command economy and command society, one in which the controlling coalition would be drawn from important institutional stakeholders in the future. According to Inglis, the first function of schooling is adjustive, establishing fixed habits of reaction to authority. This prepares the young to accept whatever management dictates when they are grown. Second is the diagnostic function. School determines each student’s ‘proper’ social role…to justify the next function, sorting. Individuals are to be trained only so far as their likely destination in the social machine, not one step beyond.

   “Conformity is the fourth function. Kids are to be made alike…so future behavior will be predictable, in service to market and political research. Next is the hygenic function…the health of the ‘race’… and last is the propaedutic function, a fancy word meaning that a small fraction of kids will slowly be trained to take over management of the system…
    “And there you have the formula: adjustment, diagnosis, sorting, conformity, racial hygiene, and continuity…”
*
               _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
*
Gatto,JTGattoProgram(youtube)
“The Ultimate History Lesson”, 2011 interview
*
                                                                                                          HermannMuller(wiki)
Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs… In 1914, Julian Huxley offered Muller a position at the recently founded William Marsh Rice Institute, now Rice University; he hurried to complete his Ph.D. degree and moved to Houston for the beginning of the 1915-1916 academic year…
…1926 marked the beginning of a series of major breakthroughs. Beginning in November, Muller carried out two experiments with varied doses of X-rays, the second of which used the crossing over suppressor stock (“ClB”) he had found in 1919. A clear, quantitative connection between radiation and lethal mutations quickly emerged. Muller’s discovery created a media sensation after he delivered a paper entitled “The Problem of Genetic Modification” at the Fifth International Congress of Genetics in Berlin; it would make him one of the better known public intellectuals of the early 20th century. By 1928, others had replicated his dramatic results, expanding them to other model organisms such as wasps and maize. In the following years, he began publicizing the likely dangers of radiation exposure in humans…
In September 1932, Muller moved to Berlin to work with the Russian expatriate geneticist Nikolay Timofeeff-Ressovsky, a trip intended as a limited sabbatical stretched into an eight-year, five-country journey. In Berlin, he met two physicists who would later be significant to the biology community: Niels Bohr and Max Delbrück…  In 1933, Muller ..moved..to Leningrad…  In the USSR, Muller supervised a large and productive lab, and organized work on medical genetics. Most of his work involved further explorations of genetics and radiation. There he completed his eugenics book, Out of the Night, the main ideas of which dated to 1910… ” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Joseph_Muller
*
The ideas Muller laid out for the development of a practical eugenics program differed from those of the American Eugenics Society, particularly his emphasis on ‘positive eugenics’ and the importance of a classless society as a precursor to a eugenics program. ‘Positive eugenics’ was Muller’s theory which promoted the perpetuation of good genes rather than the removal of bad genes from society (‘negative eugenics’).” [Galtonian eugenics was of this 'positive' type] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory archives http://cshlarchives.blogspot.com/2007/12/e.html

September 8, 2013

Just Checkin With Ya

Filed under: 1 — jenniferlake @ 10:21 pm

Some few of you have noticed a long break in the posting here –it wasn’t intentional exactly– a short break gone wild.
I feel much better now.
GRRR!

May 11, 2013

Twitter Time in the Gray Box

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 3:37 pm
Tags:

Posted 2008:

“Most bloggers know about the WordPress timestamp that allows you to publish posts at a later date. This is a very handy feature if you’re going to be away for a few days but would like new posts to keep flowing. The timestamp allows you to write a bunch of posts in advance and then have them go live at a predetermined time. Thanks to a site called Tweet Later, you can now do that with your Twitter tweets. Tweet Later allows you to keep the tweets flowing even if you’re not in front of your computer or iPhone. If you know you’re going to be stuck on an airplane that doesn’t have Net access you can timestamp a tweet that say[s] ‘Stuck on an airplane that doesn’t have Net access’ and have it go live at the time you’re on the plane… Timestamped tweets can go out at a specific time or set to go evenly throughout the day.” http://www.johnchow.com/how-to-timestamp-your-twitter-tweets/     ….in other words, you can approximate a future event and insert the simulation into the real time stream.

In normal reality, “the uniqueness of time dimension is that you can travel only forward in it, not backward. This fact has profound implications. It protects causality, that is the law of cause and effect… cause should precede effect and it should not be the other way round…” http://www.buzzle.com/articles/does-the-4th-fourth-dimension-of-time-exist.html

*

Posted April 24, 2013: “If you followed the Boston Marathon news last week on Twitter, you likely read lots of false information. Many users tweeted the name of one ‘suspect’ who wasn’t and there were endless ‘this is happening now!’ assertions about events that (again) weren’t, from folks listening to scanners. As a result, there [are] a few red faces this week, embarassed they tweeted such things – and kind of angry, it seems, at Twitter .”  http://www.mediabistro.com/alltwitter/tag/editing-tweets  Turns out it was the independent journos tweeting information, “wrong” information, from police sources. They asked for Twitter’s help: “…it is in Twitter’s interest..to give us the tools to clean things up. Otherwise it risks becoming a cesspool of untruths and rumors. Twitter needs a way to reel bad information back in… an edit button, a correction process.” Apparently, these guys didn’t see the instructions on how to “edit tweets” that I saw.

Twitter on some level agreed. There was a lot of causality showing. Soon, Twitter said, they’ll be rolling out their new security and verification protocols. Until then, like the mild rebuke from “alltwitter” warns, the tweeters should model some better behavior. After that Twitter ought to change their motto too, “Find out what’s happening right now…”, and model some better behavior themselves. But truth-in-advertising is not my problem today.

The same “alltwitter” source has a standing post about timestamps that states “On Twitter.com …time is local time to you, depending on your Twitter timezone settings…  sometimes you’ll want to know exactly when a tweet was posted, certainly if you’re tracing the chain of events of an important story. It can also help you determine who was the first person to break a story on any given day… and who is claiming credit for somebody else’s work… We know that Twitter [..is] based in San Francisco, which is PDT. PDT is GMT minus 8 hours…” http://www.mediabistro.com/alltwitter/tweet-timestamps_b14609

Timestamps have since all been rationalized to Pacific time no matter what timezone you’re in or when the tweet was posted. When did Twitter do that? Was it between September and December of 2012, after its Emergency drill in Japan? Any tweeters out there taking notice?

TwitterEmerg.ServiceTestedInJapanSep2012

Why didn’t Twitter adopt the world standard, Greenwich Mean Time, when it gives out the GMT adjustment which it doesn’t use? I can think of a day in December when a clandestine fix of the timezone feature from Eastern to Pacific would make three hours of time disappear from the East.  Said another way, it would add 3 hours of Twitter time, unnoticed perhaps, if it never happened again. Bear with me and I’ll explain.

_____________________________________________________

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“How social media is rewriting the rules of modern warfare”

“Software that tracks people on social media created by defence firm”

…..SocMediaRewritingRulesOfWarfare         TrackingOnSocialMedia

“Will Twitter war become the new norm?”

“Can the US military fight a war with Twitter?”

………………………………TwitterFightingWar,TwitterGuardingTruth “Twitter’s Efficient Role in Guarding the Truth”

…..Military Approves IPhones And IPads  “…a new era!!! US Military approved iPhones and iPads for military networks”

………………………………………………….MayTheCrowdBeWithYou “May the Crowd be With You”

__________________________________________________________________________

The Gray Box   “…the gray box is the command-and-control device used to direct operations in complex computer-regulated automation. In February of 2011, a code expert named Ralph Langner gave a TED Talk about his discovery of the Stuxnet virus altering the functions of gray boxes and creating a “man in the middle” which can deceive the monitoring operator at the computer console by showing a systems-normal screen image.  The interoperable communications of the mass-notification emergency system use similar gray boxes.” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/sandy-hook-early-birds

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“Twitter Broke the Story on the Boston Marathon Bombing”  http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/05/07/the-boston-twitter-run/

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Editing Old Tweets
On December 19, 2012, Twitter blog announced that old tweets can be downloaded. This is the key to “editing old tweets” according to eHow instructions (that are undated), which requires uploading the edits afterwards. Twitter blog doesn’t mention editing tweets, in fact denies the capability as a matter of honest record-keeping. Tweets can be deleted after posting but not edited, says alltwitter.
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“Wednesday, December 19, 2012
Today, we’re introducing the ability to download your Twitter archive, so you’ll get all your Tweets (including Retweets) going back to the beginning. Once you have your Twitter archive, you can view your Tweets by month, or search your archive to find Tweets with certain words, phrases, hashtags or @usernames. You can even engage with your old Tweets just as you would with current ones… If you don’t see that option in Settings today, know that it’s on the way! We’re rolling out this feature slowly, starting today with a small percentage of users whose language is set to English. Over the coming weeks and months, we’ll make it available to all users around the world..” https://blog.twitter.com/2012/your-twitter-archive
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“…you can download your old tweets and then edit their content in a few simple  steps…” http://www.ehow.com/how_8327724_edit-old-tweets.html

May 7, 2013

The Boston Twitter-run

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 7:02 pm
Tags:
“Twitter Broke the Story on the Marathon Bombing”
…”Twitter users quickly started disseminating details including number of injuries and even raw video… The tragedy also helped demonstrate the value of the Twitter hashtag. One of these, #BostonMarathon, was the highest trending topic on Twitter much of the day. It started as a hashtag simply used to follow the day’s race news.  Later, it became the main channel for breaking news of the disaster as it happened… Twitter, while sometimes enabling the spread of rumors that inevitably occur immediately after a tragedy, also helped dispel rumors.  For instance, one report held that cell phone networks in Boston had been shut down supposedly to prevent remote detonation of additional bombs.  That report appeared later to be false…  It all serves as a reminder:  in a breaking situation or public tragedy, turn to Twitter and other social media for on-the-scene reports”

………BMB, 556am, BigDay 5:56 am……… Racers Start times [Eastern Daylight]: Mobility Impaired: 9 a.m…   Elite Men & Wave One: 10 a.m…  Wave Two: 10:20 a.m…  Wave Three: 10:40 a.m…

………Marathon Winners announced                               MarathonWinnersAnnounced,746to921

…………………………………………..Boston1039amRunnersAtFinish,SteveSilva10:39 am

. 1151am, BMBreportOfTwoHugeExplosions  11:51 am   BMB,1155amWhatHappened2explosions 11:55

*BMB, 1159am,PolicePouringIn 11:59 am, “Police pouring into Boylston finish line area”

*

BMB,1200pm,OhGodGiantExplosion 12:00, “Oh my God… A giant explosion just blew the glass out of my building. Someone tell me what is going on!”

*

BMB,1157to1201,WBZ-TVBoston 11:57 to 12:01     BMB, 1202pm, reportsOfExplosions “Folks in the explosion are being told to stay off their phones as they could trigger more bombs”

*

…………… BMB, 1203,SawAndFeltExplosion 12:03…”just saw and felt a huge explosion, multiple deaths, legs blown off.”

……………………BMB,1204pm,MediaLockdownHotel 12:04, “We’re apparently on lockdown at the marathon media hotel. No one is allowed to leave”

.BMB, 1212pm,BrunoSaysHorrific 12:12, “I saw people’s legs blown off. Horrific…”

…………………………….BMB,1214,OnTVLooksHorrific 12:14, “Marathon official tells us we’re still in lockdown, no official information…. scene looks pretty horrific on TV”

…………………..BMB,216pmNoNewsReportsAnywhere  12:16, “keep sharing. no news reports anywhere.”

……………………………………………BMB, 1225, ShirtsBlownOff,ToldToRun 12:25, “Spectator..”I saw people with bloody heads, people with their shirts blown off.”

BMB,1238pm,CannotAccessBostonNews 12:38, “Cannot access any Boston News website right now. This is insane….”

“Twitter’s the only thing that works….”

…………………………………………………………..BMB,1241,LenoxHotelEvacuating 12:41, “Lenox Hotel is being evacuated”

*BMB, 1249pm,GlobeWebsitesDown 12:49, “The Globe’s websites are down…”

*

………………………………………….BMB, 1250pm,ObamaNotifedOfExplosion 12:50.pm, “…Obama has been notified…”

…………………………..BMB, 1251,TriageSettingUpOnBoylston,thousandsOfPolice 12:51, “Boston EMS is setting up triage on Boylston, thousands of police and emergency personnel on scene”

BMB, 1254,ControlledExplosion600BlockBoylston 12:54, “Breaking News: Police will have controlled explosion on 600 block on Boylston Street”

…………………………………BMB,1259pm,PhotoFromOurJohn,SecondSite 12:59, “Photo from our John Tlumacki of Explosion on #Boylston”

***** BMB, 102pm150FeetAwaySawInjuries  1:02, “I was 150 feet away when the..#explosion went off. I saw a young girl laying on the ground with multiple injurys.”

……………………BMB,106pm SmallHomemadeBombSaysNBC 1:06, “Small homemade bomb is preliminary cause of explosion…law enforcement officials tell NBC”

…………………………………………..BMB, 109pmFlightRestrictionsTemporary 1:09, “FAA is issuing a temporary flight restriction over Copley Square.”

………………………………BMB, 114pm,RunnersDiverted,ShockedAndBewildered 1:14, “Runners are walking down Comm. Ave…looking shocked and bewildered.”

BMB, 115pm,2dead,22injured  1:15, “..Police reporting 2 dead 22 injured”

BMB, 137pm, PoliceAskingForVideo  1:37, “Boston Police asking for everyone who has taken video of finish line to let them know, could have clues of activity.”

……………………………….. BMB, 145pm,BostonGlobeTollRises 1:45, “…64  wounded…”

………………………..BMB, 157pmNBCsaysRunnersRunToHospitalGiveBlood 1:57, “..Runners that crossed finish line..continued to run to Mass General Hospital to give blood to victims.”

BMB, 202to206,AuthoritiesSaySaudiSuspect  2:02, “Authorities ID suspect as Saudi national…”

…………………………..BMB.203pmJFLLibraryBlastInjury 2:03, “..adult male w/injuries seen running from JFK library area after blast in trash barrel..”

………………………………………………………….BMB, 205pmCellServiceCancelled 2:05, “..cellphone service has been shut down…”

BMB, 215pm,GovTweetsCopleySecure  2:15, MA Governor, “Copley Square is safe and secured. I am asking everyone to stay away from Copley Square and let the responders do their jobs.”

************************************************************************************************

“The first explosion occurred at 2:50 PM ET, according to

the Boston Police, when an unidentified device detonated on the north

side of Boylston Street…”

***********************************BMB,Shockwave Puffs Base Of Banner1st explosion in full flash; blue fence banner puffs and people start reacting –watch:  https://vine.co/v/bFdt5uwg6JZ       Observe a near simultaneous flash next to the scaffolding where the smoke is rising by the streetlight.

*BMB, 250pm,ExplosionVideoCirculating 2:50 pm, “Explosions caught on video by Boston Globe. Amazing.”

Mile26, Boston

BMB, 26 acts of kindness

………………………………BMB,Apr16,WitnessBlastFromStorefront “witness: I initially thought it came from the storefront but a police officer told me it came from a trash can”

…………….BMB, WitnessSaysRunningInOppositeDirection………….BMB,BeforeRace,IncreasedSecurity

“Witness: ‘All of a Sudden Everyone Turned Around and Was Running in the Opposite Direction’”

“Veteran marathon runner noticed increased security before race started”

…………….Apr16,ForceBlewHumansAndBabyCarriagesAcrossStreet “Witness: The force of the bombs ‘blew human beings and baby carriages across the street’ “

***********************************************************************************************************

…..Boston,IPAWSEffective  “…..IPAWS alerts used effectively in Boston during Manhunt”

*

JUNE Update: Boston Globe reports that an “eerily similar” Operation Urban Shield exercise was in the planning:

“The scenario had been carefully planned: A terrorist group prepared to hurt vast numbers of people around Boston would leave backpacks filled with explosives at Faneuil Hall, the Seaport District, and in other towns, spreading waves of panic and fear. Detectives would have to catch the culprits. Months of painstaking planning had gone into the exercise, dubbed “Operation Urban Shield,” meant to train dozens of detectives in the Greater Boston area to work together to thwart a terrorist threat. The hypothetical terrorist group was even given a name: Free America Citizens, a home-grown cadre of militiamen whose logo would be a metal skull wearing an Uncle Sam hat and a furious expression, according to a copy of the plans obtained by the Boston Globe…  The planned exercise has eerie similarities to the police investigation that led to the capture of the alleged Boston Marathon bombers…   Officials from a dozen agencies had been meeting for months to plan the scenario. They behaved much like movie producers, recruiting students from Northeastern University and the Boston Police Academy to play the parts of terrorists and witnesses… The basic plot was this: Half a dozen members of Free America Citizens..would plant hoax devices, then stay on the scene to watch and record the bomb squad and detectives as they responded, as a dry run to a larger attack…

http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/06/07/before-police-could-plan-for-terrorist-attack-real-thing-happened/ufxjb9O0RXyzVZNPFyGkiI/story.html

*

Sandy Hook, Boston, where is it leading….

AUDIO podcast, recorded May 1, 2013: thanks to Sofia Smallstorm and Jim Fetzer for letting me sit in

http://nwopodcast.com/fetz/media/jim%20fetzer%20real%20deal-smallstorm%20lake%20sandy%20hook.mp3

May 1, 2013

Sandy Hook Early Birds

Filed under: Psychological War — jenniferlake @ 4:30 pm
Tags:

*NewtownBeeShootingWebCaptureOn12-13-12Newtown Bee NewtownBeeShootingReport,12-14                                                  A web crawler timestamped the Bee’s shooting article on December 13, 2012

……………………………………….DawnHochsprungTold theBeeAMaskedManEnteredTheSchool (original) “Sandy Hook School Principal Dawn Hochsprung told the Bee that a masked man entered the school with a rifle and started shooting…”

*

What Time is it? Eastern or Pacific? Could it be both? For an explanation of Twitter timestamps see “Twitter Time in the Gray Box” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/05/11/twitter-time-in-the-gray-box/; the gray box is the command-and-control device used to direct operations in complex computer-regulated automation. In February of 2011, a code expert named Ralph Langner gave a TED Talk about his discovery of the Stuxnet virus altering the functions of gray boxes and creating a “man in the middle” which can deceive the monitoring operator at the computer console by showing a systems-normal screen image.  The interoperable communications of the mass-notification emergency system use similar gray boxes. A ‘gray box’ alteration is not a necessary ingredient in this story –merely a possibility– if the accomplishment can be achieved simply by deactivating the published timezone feature.

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Tweet Tweet!                                          651amJanyTweet   6:51am and 6:56am     702amHartfordCourant, police responding  7:02 ……..709amNBCDahlemOnTheWayToNewtown 7:09

714amSchoolShootingInNewtown 7:14

7:02 (Hartford Courant), “Newtown school officials confirm police are responding to a report of a shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School”

7:09, “Breaking news: On our way to Newtown. State police confirm shooting at Sandy Hook..”

7:14, “Follow *%*%*%..for all the latest info on the school shooting in Newtown!”

2newsTweetsNear730am  7:24, “Breaking: According to the #Newtown Emergency Director, all parents should stay by their phone. Do not go to school.”

………734am,Breaking, two shooters possibly,Unclear injuries 7:34, “Elementary school locked down, two shooters possibly inside. ‘Unclear number of injuries.’ “

7:37, “state police received call on Newtown shooting at 9:47, numerous shots fired near room #9. 40 troopers now clearing the school.”

3AltimariTweets(first)730am           8amTweet7:46 am

7:40, “State Police SWAT team already on scene, bomb squad also will be called… unclear if shooter is still on the loose.”

7:51, “one shooter is confirmed dead… there may have been two shooters.”

3AltimariTweets730am     828amGunmanDead

*8:22 and 9:11      822amWFSBliveChopperTweet      911amGovOfficeTweet                                               934amMediaSettingUpTweet   9:34 am, “Media’s staging at Treadwell Park…”

Everybody ready?

__________________________________________________________________

Wikipedia:

“At about 9:35 am, using his mother’s Bushmaster XM15-E2S rifle, Lanza shot his way through a locked glass door at the front of the school. He was wearing black clothing, earplugs and an olive green utility vest, carrying magazines for the rifle. Initial reports that he had been wearing body armor were incorrect. Some of those present heard initial shots on the school intercom system, which was being used for morning announcements…”

*

…………..tweet,police called 9am 10:47 am, “Very brief press conference… They did mention that police were called to the school around 9 am”

__________________________________________________________________

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”
― Edward Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud. Quoted from Bernays’ 1928 book “Propaganda”
*
The virtual School Shooter scenario above was a test of FEMA’s Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, the media messaging network that uses Common Alerting Protocols (CAP) to set the physical resources of multiple agencies into motion. The combined drill which enacts the full use of resources is called a CAPSTONE event. The participants are required to generate “real documentation” in alignment with their respective roles, hence all the conflicting news reports and “bad actors” in the videos, suggesting improvisation in the scenario.
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IPAWS tests Interoperability
“Philadelphia, PA, USA; 1 February 2010 –  The public and private sectors will join to conduct an interoperability standards demonstration at the Technologies for Critical Incident Preparedness (TCIP) conference, 2-4 February in Philadelphia. The event will showcase the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) suite of standards including the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP), Distribution Element (DE), and Hospital Availability Exchange (HAVE) standards. Simulating an incident defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the demo will show how authorities, responders, broadcasters, and other services providers can use EDXL to enact a concerted, coordinated emergency response… The Geo-Targeted Altering System (GTAS) will also play a key role in the interop. GTAS is a joint development effort between NOAA and FEMA’s Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). GTAS allows alerts and warnings to be targeted to geographic areas. The CAP IPAWS Profile message format will be used to demonstrate notification to the Emergency Alert System (EAS). “
*

“On November 9th, 2011, the first-ever nationwide Emergency Alert System (EAS) Test was conducted across the United States and territories at 2:00 PM Eastern time. The purpose of the test was to assess the readiness and effectiveness of the system for the President to address the public during times of extreme national emergency. Radio and television broadcasters, cable, satellite, and wireline providers across the country (commonly known as EAS participants) participated in the test.

FEMA originated an Emergency Action Notification (EAN) simultaneously to 61 Primary Entry Point (PEP) stations that serve as national-level relay points. These PEP stations rebroadcasted the message in their coverage area to local primary stations and other monitoring stations…   Additional testing of EAS will incrementally integrate other technologies that are Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)-based for a more resilient and effective system…

The test revealed several successes:

All PEP stations were connected during the test and over 90 percent were able to receive and relay the EAS message…

The EAS community took a proactive role in informing a FEMA IPAWS EAS Best Practices Guide…

*Regular and frequent testing of EAS is essential… Improving the EAS..takes time and requires a coordinated effort of diverse participants at multiple levels with varying roles and responsibilities…” http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system

*

Integrated Capstone Event (ICE):“Integrating multiple courses into a combined event is extremely important because it replicates what will happen in an actual community” http://www.emsworld.com/article/10716209/femas-integrated-capstone-event-expands-training-for-responders

The IPAWS mass-notification system required national technical compliance, enforced through the FCC, by June of 2012. In August 2012 it began testing its “geo-targeting” capabilities in a program called “Reaching the Whole Community”. Newtown’s Sandy Hook prepared for its role in future drilling by hosting Homeland Security training (HSEEP) at the Riverside Rd. Firehouse on Sept.22: “This blended approach will give participants hands-on experience that readily  translates to real-world exercise skills. Activities include creating exercise documentation, conducting exercise planning conferences and briefings, and  practicing exercise evaluation… Additionally, the HSEEP Training Course will briefly cover other DHS initiatives…” –like IPAWS. http://www.ct.gov/demhs/ical/eventDetail_page.asp?date_ID=CBC7CBCBCC83CDC9CC. While no one in authority is claiming that the Sandy Hook Shooting was a CAPSTONE event, it continues to bear the requisite details of just such an expansive drill, including the known priorities of the DoD an DHS.

….DHS, S&Tpriorities published April 17, 2007

–Biometrics

–Human, Social, Cultural and Behavioral Modeling

–Clandestine Tagging, Tracking, and Locating

etc., etc.

*

Kindergarten teacher Janet Vollmer (to CNN’s Anderson Cooper): “..there were noises that didn’t sound correct. So, there was no– anyone telling us it was a drill. We just thought something was not right.”

*

Sandy Hook and Beyond was the media evaluation held April 22 at Columbia University’s Dart Center for Journaism & Trauma. During this day long program a number of clues in the statements of participants appear indicative of an IPAWS drill:
VanceLearnsFromPress “Lt.Paul Vance: The first call I got about the shooting was from a member of the press…”
LlodraSeesMedia20MinutesAfter [Newtown Mayor] “Llodra: When I arrived at the firehouse, the media was already there…”
*
The Tweeter of these statements, who was a guest speaker himself at Sandy Hook and Beyond, is an National Public Radio administrator based in New York. NPR is the principal alert originator and disseminator in the IPAWS network.
*
At 9:53 AM, no more than ten minutes after the reported shooting ceased, the Associated Press published a story, “Official with Knowledge of Connecticut School Shooting Says 27 Dead, Including 18 Children.”  AP and the Washington Post have since removed the story from their websites…” http://memoryholeblog.com/2013/01/01/sandy-hook-the-illusion-of-tragedy/#more-1437
According to the audio record of the police scanner at 9:53, suspect gunmen were afoot and being pursued on the premises, “reporting one suspect down. The building has not been cleared.” The announcement of any given number of casualties was not stated over the scanner until 10:31. “Roger. One of the places is in the kitchen. There’s a teacher and eighteen kids there.” [transcript] www.sandyhookresearch.com
………………………………………………Scan,Dec14,947amTo955am
*
On December 14, a mother picking up her child at the Sandy Hook firehouse gave a brief interview to  CT Channel 2:
Reporter: How did you find out about this terrible tragedy?
Mother:”..um. We got an automated call from the town that there had been a shooting… Nothing about where the shooting was and that the schools were on lockdown… And then I got another text from, uh, CBS that it was on Dickinson…”
*
………SHTwitterPrayForNewtown,CreatedNovember2012Twitter account “Pray For Newtown” created November 16, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJ-yJj2X7sI
*
“As of the time of this writing, if you search on Google for the URL of the United Way Sandy Hook fundraising page (see instructions, below), you will get a Google search result saying the page was created on December 11, 2012… I did some checking around and found that one Google engineer says the date is a “glitch.” That seems odd, since Google’s date property seems to be accurate for everything else I can find… So I’m not sure why Google search results would be correct about seemingly all the others pages it indexes, but somehow wrong by three days on the United Way Sandy Hook fundraising page… Historically speaking, this is all very relevant because we’ve seen this before with 9/11. As the following video shows, in 2001 a BBC news reporter stood on camera and announced that the World Trade Center 7 building had collapsed even while it was still standing directly behind her!… Increasingly, Sandy Hook looks like it might have been staged as well…” http://www.riseearth.com/2013/01/sandy-hook-fundraising-relief-page.html

March 13, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, Part III

Part I: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/11/23/lewis-strauss-and-jfk/

Part II: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/01/23/lewis-strauss-and-jfk-part-ii/

Israel Gets The Bomb

Israel was the first of the ['pariahs'] to..develop a nuclear arsenal… Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David Bergmann..an organic chemist..expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany he emigrated to Palestine where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] Bergmann, apparently, did not stay long in Palestine.

    “Bergmann’s father was one of the most eminent rabbis in Berlin and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann..then living in England…  In 1933..Weizmann arranged for young Bergmann to join him on the faculty of Manchester University..[where he] came to the attention of Frederick A. Lindemann, later [dubbed] Lord Cherwell, a German-born Oxford scientist… [The] Zionist movement in Palestine asked Weizmann in 1936 for a chemist to..produce high explosive for..[the] war against the Arabs and the British… Weizmann assigned the mission to Bergmann…” [p25, The Samson Option] Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: ‘He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it…’”[p26, ibid.]
*
   “..Hebrew University’s Israel Dostrovsky [came to] play a key role in Israel’s..atomic weapons. Born in Russia in 1918, his family emigrated to Palestine the next year. His studies in..chemistry took him to London [where he was] awarded..a doctorate in 1943. After spending the next five years in England, [Dostrovsky] returned to Palestine in 1948 where he founded the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann [renamed from Sieff]. At the same time..[being] a major in the IDF Science Corps, he established Hemed Gemel, a special branch of the corps..[that made]..its first projects..sending geologists into the Negev desert in search of uranium.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb]
   Bergmann used his ‘guest scholar’ status in England to make high-explosives for the Hagannah to use against the British — he left the UK in 1940 for the United States and reconnoitered in New York with his ‘old friends’. Herman Mark, ‘father of polymer science’ who worked closely with Bergmann and became the dean of Brooklyn Polytechnic, had “turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. ‘The whole gang came to America,’ said Mark. [p25, The Samson Option] “ ‘Bergmann was anxious..’ said Mark,’that there shouldn’t be too much talk [about Israel's bomb]. It was super-secret –just like the Manhattan Project.’ There was at least one early occasion, however, when Bergmann couldn’t resist sharing what he knew. Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy New York businessman and ardent advocate of statehood for Israel, was one of Ben-Gurion’s most important and trusted allies in the United States. By 1947, Feinberg was playing a major –and highly discreet– role in fundraising and White House lobbying [Truman's admin.] for Israel..[and] the Democratic Party. He would operate at the highest levels between Washington and Jerusalem for the next two decades… One night over dinner, added Feinberg,’Bergmann’s eyes lit up and he said, ‘There’s uranium in the desert’. There was no question about the message –that a path was now cleared for Israel to develop the atomic bomb. Feinberg was astonished at such indiscreet talk: ‘I shushed him up,’” [p27, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh]
 *
   Dostrovsky “joined the Weizmann in 1948, shortly before its dedication. Immediately upon joining the staff of Weizmann, he was appointed director of the isotope research department, a position he held for 17 years…” Over the early course of those responsibilities, Dostrovsky also became “chairman of the desalination committee.”  http://www.jpost.com/HealthAndSci-Tech/ScienceAndEnvironment/Article.aspx?id=189590
Bergmann and the French not only got it done in the Negev..but they kept it secret.” [p23, The Samson Option] “No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist [who worked on the Manhattan Project]..and expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction.[p30]…His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family…  Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Bergmann for a memorable meeting with Ben-Gurion..in the Negev…[footnote:] ‘We had a long discussion about atomic energy,’ Goldschmidt recalls. ‘Ben-Gurion asked me how long would it take for nuclear desalination to make the Negev desert bloom? –a favorite Ben-Gurion question. I said fifteen years. He started scolding me..we could do it much faster.’” [p31, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh]
*
   Israeli collaboration with the French appears at the initiation of Francis Perrin: “Perrin was important… A socialist who fled [France] to England in 1940… he became friendly with Bergmann..and traveled to Tel Aviv in 1949. It was after that visit that some Israeli scientists were permitted..[in] Saclay..atomic research center near Versailles.”[p29, The Samson Option] Unmentioned by Hersh is that Francis Perrin was part of the small team attempting an atomic bomb in the Sahara in 1939 with the backing of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. Perrin used his 1940 entree in England as a way station to the US where he resettled in New York with his family, including his father, Jean Baptiste Perrin, a once scientific rival of Pierre Curie. Some years after Curie’s death, Jean Perrin was supported with Rothschild funding to establish the Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the Sorbonne. Friendship with Bergmann was likely to have evolved in New York during the war.
>>>see Part II ‘comments’ for more about the death of Pierre Curie.
   Attaining nuclear weapons in either France or Israel was dependent on removing obstacles as in the US: “The French debate revolved around..Frederic Joliot-Curie [a noted French Communist]..who was opposed to a French role in NATO and any French link to nuclear weapons. In 1950, [Joliot] was the first to sign the Stockholm Appeal, a Soviet-backed petition [issued by the World Peace Council] calling for a ban on all nuclear weapons…  Joliot-Curie was dismissed after signing the Appeal..[and] replaced by Pierre Guillaumat [..French secret intelligence]..and Francis Perrin, [who was] the first to publish a formula for calculating the critical mass of uranium...  A critical decision..came in 1951 when..[Pierre] Guillaumat authorized..a natural uranium-fueled reactor capable of producing..about twenty-two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year… The decision to produce..plutonium would irrevocably propel France down the road to a nuclear bomb, as..the Israelis had to know.” [p29, The Samson Option]
*
And so it began –an isotope research program for use in water desalination and reclamation.
*
JFK
Kennedy was a third-term congressman in October 1951 when he left for a 7-week junket to Asia with a first stop in Paris “at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)..on October 3” to meet Eisenhower. From there, along with his brother Bobby, sister Pat, and Congressman Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., the party traveled on to Palestine. “The two brothers had never spent such an extended period together, and these weeks defined their relationship for the rest of their lives.” [p284, The Kennedy Men] “In Israel both Jack and Bobby kept extensive diaries, and there is scarcely any overlap in their accounts. Jack stood back from the..hatreds and emotions… As always with Jack, the omnipresent threat in the world lay in the Soviet empire… One evening in Jerusalem, [they] went to the modest home of Prime Minister..Ben-Gurion for dinner… [JFK] was an observer of men, and by the evidence of his diary, he did not impose himself on this evening as much as take the measure of those around him, including the American ambassador, Monnett Bain Davis, several other Israeli ministers, and..Roosevelt Jr… Like his mother, he was considered a friend of Israel. FDR’s namesake was the center of this evening, not Jack… ‘It was almost as if we weren’t there,’ Bobby recalled…  Roosevelt asked the inevitable question: Could there be a real peace between Arab and Jew? ‘It depended..on the peoples wishes,’ the prime minister said. ‘Present government [is] not concerned with peace’… Ambassador Davis boldly told Ben-Gurion that the Arab states were afraid of Israel. ‘How could Egypt with its large population be frightened,’ Ben-Gurion replied with rhetorical flourish. ‘We wouldn’t want to go back to Egypt again. We had enough the first time.” [p286, ibid.]
>>> 1952 –July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
   “In this part of the world,” wrote Kennedy biographer Leamer, “history was written with blood and vengeance, and a man who entered politics knew that he might die…   Four days after Jack and Bobby met with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan, he was assassinated. In his diary Jack noted that ‘assassinations have taken a heavy toll of leaders in Middle and Far East,’ and then made a list of some of the murders. Jack tallied seventeen assassinations in the past four years alone. From Mahatma Gandhi in India to Folke Bernadotte in Palestine, murders..changed history the way few laws or mandates ever could.” [p288, The Kennedy Men]
*
NOTE: Israel Dostrovsky achieved a succession of appointments in his government’s atomic weapons program including chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) followed by the vice-presidency of the Weizmann Institute under Albert Sabin, creator of the oral (OPV) polio vaccine. Sabin was president of the Weizmann Institute over the course of 1971-1972 when the biology programs there were exploring the uses of SV40 monkey virus as a transgenic (mutation) agent. Dostrovsky succeeded Sabin as Weizmann president in 1972. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists published Dostrovsky’s article describing his water program –an evidently perfect cover for the activities at Dimona to which the Israelis acknowledged (‘desalination’), finally, to the Kennedy administration. “Water For Israel”, which includes ‘cheap water’ from cloud seeding and the total capture of Palestine’s water supply, is an instructive read: http://books.google.co.il/books?id=4gsAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=
*
At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents, real and fancied. After a short time [RFK] transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him… He loved what he was doing…” Nevertheless, Robert Kennedy answered the call to “come up and take over” JFK’s campaign for the Senate. ” ‘We couldn’t win relying on the Democratic political machine,’ Robert said later,’so we had to build our own machine.‘ ” [p94, Robert Kennedy and His Times, Schlesinger]
   The Democrats, nationally, were taking the hit for not merely tolerating but employing communist subversives at high levels of  government: “Harry Dexter White ['a Russian spy!'] assistant secretary of the Treasury under Roosevelt [Morganthau] had died in 1948 while the House Un-American Activities Committee was searching his past for evidence of espionage. According to [Atty. Gen. Herbert] Brownell both Democratic presidents had appointed White..despite warnings from the FBI.” [p149, No Sacrifice Too Great]
    “National politics and national security are always to some extent interrelated, but in the years of the Truman presidency the relationship became problematic. Trust leeched out of the political system, loyalties waned, betrayal became common. Communism..achieved astonishing influence not in its own right, much less on its own behalf, but as an agent for poisoning American politics.” –Daniel Patrick Moynihan, http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/m/moynihan-secrecy.html
Meanwhile…
Machinery of other sorts were rolling onto the battleground. Colonel Boris Pash, formerly “Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast.. [who] spent much of his career hunting communists… considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy.”[p190, American Prometheus] After his ALSOS Europe mission and following attachment to MacArthur in Tokyo, Pash’s next assignment came “In March 1949.. detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination where he oversaw programs in West Germany for three years. Pash then ran special forces planning..in Austria from 1952-1953“… http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
   During this time, Pash organized a special operations unit for the CIA called PB7, said to be an assassination squad. Pash, years later before a congressional committee, denied it conducted assassinations.  Mr. Pash:It was not an assassination unit. In the first place..I was never an employee of the Agency. I was detailed from the Army for a normal tour of duty to the Agency..and then I was assigned and left for Austria in 1952 as Special Forces Unconventional Warfare Planning Officer. In 1954..[to] early ’56 I was in the Presidio of San Francisco as a deputy G-2 in charge of security..” Mr. Baron:“Let me ask you a particular question..brought to our attention by Artie Lazarus… He said that when he first joined you in PB7, you asked him to read the charter of PB7… [He] said it contained some specific language about PB7 being responsible for assassinations, kidnappings and other such functions as may be assigned by higher authority. Now do you recall that part of the charter of PB7?” Mr. Pash:I don’t recall that particular wording…It could have been there without my recalling it…” Mr. Baron: “..were you aware of any assassination plans or attempts?” Mr. Pash:No, I never heard that. There was a small incident..[with a] group of branch chiefs or something like that in Plans and Policy…a discussion with regard to denying the Soviets certain types of individuals…This woman gets out and says why don’t we murder them?…And that’s allMr. Baron: “But it would be your testimony that..you never heard such a plan with such a request?” Mr. Pash: “..No, never….[In 1954] I said that the only time..assassination would be justified was if somebody could categorically state that if it was not done..the safety of the United States was at stake..in other words, if you don’t do it the United States is destroyed..and you have no other way to stop [it]..I think it’s all right…” www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?docId=1430&relPageId=23
   Pash seemingly had good recall on when he thought assassination became “all right”. Throughout 1953 he was helping Lewis Strauss and J.Edgar Hoover construct a disloyalty case against Robert Oppenheimer, brought to an AEC tribunal in 1954. During the war, “On June 29,1943, ..Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer be denied a security clearance and fired.” [p233, American Prometheus]. He agitated against Oppenheimer to such an extent that he was given an overseas assignment –AlSOS.
*
As usual, the Education Forum members have interesting notes about Pash: “Pash’s subordinate, Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa for a number of years”….”Is that Pash [ marked 'unknown man' in the photo] standing next to LBJ at Parkland Hospital?”….”I found that Pash, postwar, maintained an office at Oak Ridge”….”There’s a Boris Pash/Sidney Gottlieb connection with the Health Alteration Committee”….etc. http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=3868&st=15
    A further note on Pash to illustrate (and belabor) a previously mentioned point of using medical institutions to cover for weapons development occurred during ALSOS’s decisive 1944 push into the Nazis’ last holdouts. “The rumours.. [about a Nazi A-bomb] continued to circulate until November when the advancing Allied forces took Strasbourg. It was here that they believed a number of eminent physicists, including von Weizacker and Fleischmann, had been working on the bomb…Within hours, Pash and his ‘Strasbourg Task Force’ had located the university’s physics laboratory. It was in the wing of a local hospital and [the] physicists were found there posing as doctors.” [p109, Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds, by Peter Goodchild]
   In the United States, they did not merely “pose” as doctors but practiced.
*
Strauss’s assistant William T. Golden prepared this memo about Sloan-Kettering in 1950: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius "Dusty"] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants… He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.” http://archives.aaas.org/golden/doc.php?gold_id=80
   At some future point on this blog, I hope to write up my thought experiments on the Peaceful Uses of Cancer as a complementary enterprise to the Peaceful Uses of the Atom. In this early ’50s window of time, however, it constitutes future-pacing a problem which was then manisfesting as poliomyelitis.
   The Health Physics field chartered itself in 1947 with the tasks of ”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys… studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains..eaten and metabolized by higher forms… Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods… [concluding that] Large scale biological work is mandatory” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/health-physics/
*
Radiation
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes [polio] myelitis:   http://www.doh.wa.gov/hanford/publications/health/mon9.htm  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed…. Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure… When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.”
A Radiation effects source document used by military planners describes damage: “The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage.. has been well documented… [S]peculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system… …hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation… vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS… ….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation… “It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…” http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil/outreach/pdf/tmm/chapter7/chapter7.pdf .
Some the of materials in the above are cited in the National Security Archives, a project of George Washington University
Listed in http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/research/pubs/titles.txt are additional entries such as these:
–“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H.. Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904. Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
–“Muller, H.J.. Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science 66:84-87.##”
–“Stern, S.. Report of thirty-one cases of therapeutic abortion induced by roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
Note the years: 1904, 1927, 1928
*
Hmm….fallout vaccine, anyone?
*
Stacking the Commission
By the end of Strauss’s [first] term, the other commissioners, many members of the AEC staff, and most scientists regarded him as a tough, obstinate, and tenacious opponent of the free exchange they desired. For these people, Strauss was the symbol of narrow realism; he, on the other hand, had identified J. Robert Oppenheimer as a symbol of those who, whether disloyal or merely naive, did not support the fight against Communism with full enthusiasm.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss stood One-to-Four against his fellow commissioners in the fall of 1949. They were not willing to endorse building H-bombs which were already being touted in the press as 1,000 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The GAC (General Advisory Committee), nine-member body of scientists that counseled the AEC of which Oppenheimer was its de facto spokesman, were nearly unanimous against the Super. Strauss allies, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarez, and Edward Teller, flew in to Washington and launched a counteroffensive of intense lobbying. No one had yet been officially told about the  atomic spy-ring in Los Alamos. According to Moynihan’s essay on ‘Secrecy’, Truman was never told about the Venona radio decrypts.
*
   “On Sunday, November 7, as the Strausses relaxed in their suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Senator McMahon [on the Joint Congressional Committee for Atomic Energy] telephoned..[and] brought the welcome news that Commissioner Gordon Dean, whom McMahon had placed on the AEC, had been converted into an advocate of the super. Now the AEC was divided three to two… On November 23, when the debate over the superbomb was at its height, the White House announced that Chairman Lilienthal planned to resign… Washington gossip identified Strauss as a possible replacement for Lilienthal.” [pp118-119, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss, too, had already planned to resign. “‘I don’t want you to resign,’ [Truman told Strauss] …[but] did not press Strauss to remain [rather] asked who the new chairman should be; Strauss endorsed Gordon Dean, the first to join him in favor of the super…” [p125, ibid.] Like Lilienthal’s promotion out of the AEC, acquired with the help of Albert Lasker, Strauss himself arranged for Chairman Dean to join Lehman Brothers on his exit (in 1953).
*
“[W]hen the  time came to seek a replacement for his own seat on the AEC, Strauss remembered  the 45-year old Case president. While some of the Democratic Congressmen involved in the search preferred the appointment of AEC General Counsel Joseph A. Volpe Jr., Strauss used his connections in the White House and the Pentagon to secure Glennan’s appointment…”
   T. Keith Glennan, later, NASA’s first chief, was recruited by Strauss. [Glennan interview:]”Needell: Tell me about Strauss… He’s a rather strong character, I understandGlennan: “Strong and strange… [I was] asked if I would permit my name to be considered for a post as a Commissoner of the AEC. I said, “You must be crazy. I don’t know the first thing about an atom. I don’t know about a reactor. I don’t know anything about nuclear energy…  [AEC used the] building originally built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It was the first one they were in, on Constitution Avenue, right next to the Federal Reserve Board… I got there in 1 October, 1950″…  http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/TRANSCPT/GLENNAN4.HTM
   “Before Strauss left the AEC, he was offered a place on the Federal Reserve Board, which he turned down as too routine.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Brien McMahon arranged a post on the Atomic Plant Expansion panel and Laurance Rockefeller hired him to manage the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where he co-incorporated The Population Council. At the outbreak of the Korean War, a 3-billion-dollar appropriation was assigned to the AEC for development.
*
GLENNAN: “..it was not a very collegial Commission at that time… I remember Tom Murray calling me names. Things of that kind… We searched for a man to replace [AEC General Manager] Carroll Wilson and finally came up with a Vice President of Esso [Exxon, or Standard Oil of New Jersey]– Marion Boyer– who worked out well..as..Wilson’s replacement… [The] general manager from then on took part in all of [the] executive sessions…  There was Sumner Pike and [Henry] Smythe and [Gordon] Dean and Tom MurrayEugene Zuckert replaced Sumner Pike…He came I think from the Air Force, Assistant Secretary to Symington over there…  We were concerned with increasing our ability to turn out the weapons grade materials… While I was there, we made the deal with South Africa to take the tailings from the gold cyaniding process, which ultimately provides a lot of uranium… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum.  NEEDELL: Did you meet regularly with people like Lawrence? GLENNAN: Yes. Lawrence saw to it that we did. He was an aggressive person… he came in and lobbied the Commission. He’d spend a lot of time alone with Gordon Dean… NEEDELL: You opposed the MTA. [Materials Testing Accelerator, heart of the Livermore Lab] GLENNAN: Yes, just on an engineering basis… The things we were short of were enrichment plants and raw materials and the rest of the fuel cycle. NEEDELL: Now, the MTA was going to be a production facility… you had to somehow meet the challenge of getting more production facilities. GLENNAN: Exactly… Teller wanted to do it and Lawrence wanted to do it. That was the argument…  I got along well with Ernest. With Teller.. not well. I found myself opposing him… and I finally said, “Balls, Edward–all you want is another chance to have some tests to improve the weapons… We got into arguments…  COLLINS: You indicated that one of your interests as a Commission member was somehow working out that government-industry relationship. GLENNAN:”..I finally reasoned that the people who were really doing the work were industry. The scientists had the General Advisory Committee…The public had the Congress, and industry got.. a lot of complaints. … If, as we all then believed, nuclear power was going to be useful and possible, they ought to be in on the ground floor with it… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum, for just this purpose, at a meeting of the Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, on 25 November, 1952. I proposed it in just the way I’ve been discussing it now, that industry really ought to get in with both feet and play a part in the development of a nuclear power industry, and not simply take what came out of the interests of scientists.http://airandspace.si.edu/research/dsh/TRANSCPT/GLENNAN4.HTM
Atomic Industrial Forum: “The AIF was formally incorporated on April 10, 1953 in New York and marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. The first Executive Director of AIF was Charles Robbins… As a nonprofit trade association the AIF advocated the peaceful uses of atomic energy and increasing the role of the private sector in its development. Its first order of business was to advocate revising the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to allow and foster the commercial ownership of non weapons nuclear facilities, such as production of radioactive isotopes and nuclear power plants.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Industrial_Forum
“Mr. Robbins, who helped found the forum in the late 1940′s, was a former member of the national advertising staff of The New York Times and had been with Bozell & Jacobs, a New York advertising firm.”  [Bozell was a family affair; Leo Bozell Jr., Robbins nephew, married the sister of William F. Buckley] http://www.nytimes.com/1989/08/11/obituaries/charles-e-robbins-executive-83.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Brent_Bozell_Jr.; “Robbins had been the managing editor of the Wall Street Journal and later the president of the Atomic Industrial Forum.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Frederick_Robbins
William F. Buckley, “son..of a Texas oil millionaire..joined the Central Intelligence Agency [in 1951]” and became a writer and publisher. His second “book, coauthored with Bozell, was an unabashed attempt to defend a family friend: Joe McCarthy… In September 1960, Buckley, Douglas Caddy and Marvin Liebman established the far right group Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)..to [oppose] John F. Kennedy in the forthcoming presidential election.” http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/mobile/JFKbuckleyW_full.htm (sumitted as an example of dot-connecting, typical of Lewis L. Strauss’s relationship hierarchy)
*
When Strauss, who like other retired commissioners was a consultant to the Joint Committee [the JCAE, with McMahon as chair] saw the report of the panel [General Advisory Committee]..chaired by Oppenheimer in December 1950, he concluded Oppenheimer was working against the United States.. [p131, No Sacrifice Too Great] Whether consciously or not, Oppenheimer was helping the Soviet Union… In the interest of national security, Strauss concluded, he must safeguard the AEC from Oppenheimer’s influence. Strauss started his campaign..[on] Fevruary 9, 1951…his purpose was clear: the AEC must get rid of Oppenheimer.” [132, ibid.]
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Brien McMahon and Prescott Bush
James O’Brien McMahon, a Yale educated lawyer,  first came to Washington in 1933 as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General. He resigned Justice in 1939, but stayed in D.C. to practice law until persuaded by fellow Democrats to run for the Senate in 1944 from his home state of Connecticut. Known for his energy and eloquence, McMahon authored the compromise (to the May-Johnson) bill that granted civilian control over atomic weapons and power, adopted as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. “[A] real fight began..when it was suggested that McMahon head the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. It was unheard of to allow a freshman senator to chair a Congressional Committee….   In 1952 Brien McMahon decided to run for President of the United Stateshis main platform was to insure world peace through fear of atomic weapons. The campaign was cut short however when it was discovered in June 1952 that McMahon was terminally ill with cancer. On July 27, 1952, despite that he had withdrawn his candidacy and despite his inablity to attend the Democratic National Convention the delegates from the state of Connecticut unanimously nominated McMahon as their choice for President of the United States. The following morning Brien McMahon fell into a coma and died…” at the age of 48. http://www.library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/mcmscope.htm
Had he lived, McMahon would have been John F. Kennedy’s most formidable Democratic presidential challenger.
*
“Shortly after” Prescott Bushwon a special Senate election in 1952 (which was called to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Brien McMahon)  …Prescott Bush was not known as a conservative Republican in Washington.” http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1988-12-14/news/8802250340_1_george-bush-sen-prescott-bush-reagan-democrats; Bush had been a Greenwich, Connecticut resident since joining W.A.Harriman &Co. in 1926 where he was made the international director of Harriman-controlled U.S. Rubber –along with Philips Electronics, a sponsor of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond, secret intelligence. (see part II).
   In 1928, the Harriman’s bought out Dresser Industries and “installed an old friend, H. Neil Mallon, at the helm.” [p24, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker] Two years after that, they merged with Brown Brothers. Prescott, “At Yale in 1916..had become close friends with his classmate Roland ‘Bunny’ Harriman…Both Harrimans, like Prescott Bush, were initiates of..Skull and Bones.” [p16, ibid.] ..”In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation [from Cleveland] to Dallas which..was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite. Though a virtual unknown on his arrival, Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the nonprofit Council on World Affairs…a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations…  Mallon’s Dallas Council..may have had some kind of sanction at the highest levels. [p29] Following Ike’s decisive victory..the administration was filled with Bush allies, including national security advisor Gordon Gray, a close friend of Prescott’s…” [p30, Family of Secrets] Prescott also pitched his first political campaign for the Senate in 1950 and lost, rejected by Connecticut voters. His appointment to McMahon’s office kept him from having to run again until 1956.
   The fact of Prescott Bush taking McMahon’s seat on the Joint Committee for Atomic Energy, whether or not he also took the power, is being/has been scrubbed off the record. According to Baker, “the extended Bush clan truly represented a kind of private-public business combine. For example, within months of Prescott being named to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, [George Herbert Walker Jr., Poppy's uncle] formed a partnership to invest in commercial nuclear energy businesses.” [p33, Family of Secrets]
   Another of Poppy’s uncles, brother of G.H. and Dorothy Walker, Dr. John M. Walker, became the President of Sloan Kettering Institute in 1965 (to 1974). Ironically “Walker had a private practice [Greenwich, CT] until he was diagnosed with polio in 1950…he would eventually need a wheelchair.” The Walkers also lost a daughter to polio in 1955.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_M._Walker
>>>The vast Harriman fortune, just as a reminder, resulted when “Jacob Schiff joined forces with Harriman to reorganize the Union Pacific” and takeover a number of other railroads. http://www.raken.com/american_wealth/Bankers_Gilded_Age/Kuhn-Loeb_5.asp
>>>Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Elisha Walker, if not a close relative of George Herbert Walker, was still in business with him: both Walkers were directors of American International Corp. (est.1915) along with Otto Kahn, Percy Rockefeller, Pierre duPont, et.al. http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/53/belgrano.html; Elisha Walker was also a joint owner of Julius Kayser and Co., later merged (c.1943) and owned by Kennedy campaign fundraiser Abraham Feinberg. (see stock certificate http://scripophily.net/julkaycospec.html; is that Eugene Meyer listed as the first of five owners?)
Elisha Walker was chairman of Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32 and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32 [founder Amadeo Giannini]; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist at Memorial Hospital [Sloan Kettering], N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)” http://www.smokershistory.com/PHoffman.htm
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Politics
Kennedy, in the meantime, was compelled to run the Massachusetts race against Eisenhower’s presidential campaign manager, the ‘very busy’ Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., winning by a 3% margin. “The Massachusetts representatives did tend to emphasize the plight of United Fruit…  the region ‘has made a specialty of Latin America’ and..’over 90% of New England’s foreign investment is in Latin America, a large part being..United Fruit Company… this investment was being threatened by the Communists…[and] Guatemala had developed into a ‘situation of great peril’… Thomas Dudley Cabot..had been..president [1948-49] of United Fruit and its registrar bank, the First National Bank of Boston…” [p117, The CIA in Guatemala, Richard H. Immerman]
>>>Thomas Dudley Cabot (1897-1995), CEO of Cabot Corporation 1922-1960 [chemicals, aerogels, drilling fluids]; worked for Truman’s State Department “in charge of a U.S. program arming allies throughout the world…In 1953, Cabot also served as a consultant on a special development mission in Egypt [coups in Egypt and Iran 1953]… Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.[was] also..a director of United Fruit.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Dudley_Cabot
    With James Forrestal dead, Eisenhower’s Republican rival was Strauss’s old friend from “Hoover’s Relief” days, Robert A. Taft. “Strauss supported his friend Bob Taft..[whose] strong points were similar to Strauss’s…[except that Taft]..clung to an isolationism…more suited to the 1920s’..” [p136, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   As the 83rd Congress convened, Robert Taft led the Majority Republicans and Lyndon Johnson was elected to lead the Democrats. “In 1953, the convergence of unusual circumstances gave the Democrats the plurality of the Senate’s membership while the Senate Republicans maintained their majority party status.”– go figure. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/People_Leaders_Knowland.htm; Taft soon relinquished party leadership to California’s William Knowland.
 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was appointed by Eisenhower, on his third day in office, to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (held to Sep. 1960).
   “The day after the election, the Scripps-Howard newspapers interviewed McCarthy [R-Wis.] and were told that he planned ‘an entirely different role’ for himself..[p187, Senator Joe McCarthy, Richard Rovere] In what remained of the Truman years, McCarthy was nothing but an engine of denunciation… he denounced and accused and blamed and insulted and vilified and demeaned. He was a pure delight now..and the Republican organizations were in hot competition to have him come in with a load of documents on anyone who was giving them trouble.” [p179,ibid.] ..”They planned to take advantage of the atmosphere McCarthy had helped so greatly to create and at the same time to control McCarthy by directing his attention… I [Rovere] remember being told exactly this by Senator Taft early in January of 1953… Taft knew that McCarthy was dangerous..,” [p187, ibid.]..[but] felt he had engineered a brilliant coup by bottling McCarthy up in Government Operations, where he would spend his days studying reports…and by letting the furor over Communism expire under the deadening [mediocre] touch of Jenner and Velde. ‘We’ve got McCarthy where he can’t do ant harm,’ [Taft] said. He went on to say that..he himself had never thought that Communists represented half as serious a menace as the Left liberals and welfare-statists.” [p188, Senator Joe McCarthy]
   “Taft was a tall and large-framed man who posessed exceptional physical stamina and good health until April 1953. Family and colleagues were stunned when..a widespread and rapidly advancing cancer..claim[ed] his life by the end of July.” http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Robert_Alphonso_Taft.aspx
   “Taft’s bottle for McCarthy had never been corked. McCarthy simply poured himself out.” [p190, Senator Joe McCarty]
*
   “On February 10, 1953, three weeks after Eisenhower entered office, AEC Chairman Dean submitted his resignation…shortly after Dean announced his resignation, John A. Wheeler, a physicist at Princeton [IAS], who was consultant to the AEC, lost a copy of a highly classified, extensively technical description of..thermonuclear weapons. Obviously, the AEC must tighten up security; who better than Strauss, with his reputation for protecting secrets, to do so. Senators Taft, Byrd, and Hickenlooper all urged Strauss to accept.” [p137, ibid.]
*
As soon as he took office, Eisenhower searched for some way to bring home the awful realities of the nuclear age to the American people… and in July, when he appointed Lewis Strauss to head the Atomic Energy Commission… on the day that Strauss was sworn in, Eisenhower took him into the Oval Office..and said: ‘Lewis, let us be certain about this; my chief concern and your first assignment is to find some new approach to the disarming of atomic energy… The world simply must not go on living in the fear of the terrible consequences of nuclear war.’…[In] August 1953, [Eisenhower] learned that the Russians had detonated their first hydrogen explosion…” [p111, Eisenhower and the Cold War, by Robert A. Divine]
>>>according to AEC liason Robert LeBaron, the Soviets detonated an H-bomb in 1950 or ’51, prior to the successful Teller-Ulam tests of 1951-52. Teller required the help of his Los Alamos assistant Frederick de Hoffman, later the founder of General Atomics (1957) and longtime president of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
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Chairman of the AEC
Strauss brought a new style of management to the Atomic Energy Commission… he replaced the informal, rambling seminars of his predecessors Lilienthal and Dean with crisp, formal sessions designed to produce quick decisions rather than slowly evolving concensus. Forceful, determined, and impatient once he had made up his own mind, Strauss dragged the other commissioners along… Eisenhower’s defense policy rested on the deterrent power of the hydrogen bomb… aggression by threatening to strike the Soviet Union with overwhelming force… called ‘massive retaliation’ or the ‘New Look’…” [p144, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss’s style of management [dictated that] At each meeting Strauss announced what he planned to do, then addressed each commissioner in turn for comments. In this atmosphere, none of them dared oppose Strauss…”  [p175, ibid.]
Whoever mastered a thermonuclear explosion employing a dry isotope of hydrogen [instead of the super-cooled liquid] would have the first deliverable [H]bomb.” [p145, ibid.]
   The return of LLS to the AEC chair was the fulfillment of a three-year campaign: by February of 1951 “he warned [Gordon] Dean that the thermonuclear program was not moving quickly enough. He accused Oppenheimer of ‘sabotaging the project’ and added that ‘something radical’ must be done…[he] did not suggest what, but his purpose was clear.” [p132, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “The Greenhouse test [Marshall Islands, April and May 1951] proved the Teller-Ulam design would work, but considerable technical effort remained… Teller and Strauss hoped the AEC would establish a second laboratory [the Livermore, CA lab] to further work on fusion..[and] remove the hydrogen bomb from Los Alamos where they believed Oppenheimer exercised excessive influence… Among the many influential men who thought so were Strauss, Teller, AEC Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, GAC [advisory panel] member Willard F. Libby and Berkeley Dean Kenneth S. Pitzer. All but Strauss voiced their suspicion of Oppenheimer..to the FBI..” [p133, ibid.]
   The October tests of 1952, Operation Ivy’s ‘Mike’ shot, “Three years plus a month after Strauss first called for a hydrogen bomb, ['Mike'] transformed the atoll of Elugelab in the Eniwetok chain into a coral crater” by aerosolizing 100 million tons of soil and water. Biographer Pfau wrote, “the process obviously worked… By this time, only five [of nine] members of the GAC that had followed Oppenheimer..in 1949 remained… his two closest..allies, Lee A. DuBridge and James Conant..stepped down… the other two veterans –Isidor I. Rabi and Oliver E. Buckley– backed away from Oppenheimer’s advocacy..to become at least lukewarm supporters of the fusion weapon.” [p134, ibid.]
>>>Buckley was the president (1940-1951) of Bell Laboratories. Isidor Rabi was later sent to Israel’s Dimona plant as a U.S. inspector.
*
    The significance of the Oppenheimer case, and the way in which Strauss handled it, is an indispensable display of method prior to the JFK assassination. Oppenheimer was proposing in essence the policy of flexible response eventually recommended to, and adopted by Kennedy.  “Strauss would use every resource he could mobilize to win the case.” [p160, No Sacrifice Too Great] and having an appropriate Commander-in-Chief on his side was required.
   “Taft’s opponent was General Dwight D. Eisenhower..[and] the contest was very close, but Eisenhower won..[helped] especially by a group from Texas that Taft was accused of stealing. The contested delegations helped put Eisenhower over the top…” [p136, ibid.]. It was also the refusal of the presidentially ambitious Earl Warren of California, who lost early in the convention polls, to cede his supporters to Robert Taft.
   Eisenhower assumed office, AEC Chairman Dean resigned, John Wheeler lost his H-bomb manual, and Strauss “quietly took control of atomic policy.” [p138, No Sacrifice Too Great] “On March 30, 1953, he presented a set of recommendations to the National Security Council.. [in] the context of the president’s desire to reduce the size of the federal budget [with] proposed savings of half a billion dollars in the atomic energy program by paring away nonessential spending… [He] pointed out that the stockpile of nuclear weapons..[had] potential for great benefit… [T]he fissionable material in the bombs could be converted into fuel for reactors. So, it was a good policy to continue the manufacture of weapons… Strauss recommended major reductions in spending in three areas: the cost of security, to be achieved by declassifying as much data as possible; the cost of weapons tests…and the cancellation of $200 million allocated for a reactor to drive..an aircraft carrier. The National Security Council and the president approved all of Strauss’s recommendations. By canceling the large ship reactor..he left [Adm. Hyman] Rickover angry.” [p149, ibid.]
   “Eisenhower nominated Strauss [to the AEC chair]..on June 24..and three days later the full Senate confirmed him without a ripple of dissent. On July 2, surrounded by family and friends in the president’s office, Strauss took the oath of office again. [p141] Strauss had marked the Bible on which he took the oath at a well-known passage… Micah 4:3,And He shall judge between many peoples and shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” [p142]
   “There was a poignant note to the ceremony: Bob Taft was making his last visit to the White House where he had lived as a boy and where he hoped to live as a man… Three separate medical examinations [at Walter Reed, NYU, and Sloan Kettering] confirmed..a fast growing cancer had reached its final stage, but he insisted on attending..limping painfully on crutches. Taft died within the month.” [pp143-144, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Strauss wrote: “Only a few weeks earlier, I had sat with him at his home in Georgetown, where, behind closed doors..I brought him a final and terrible verdict from Dr. Cornelius Rhoads of Memorial Hospital in New York. It was the diagnosis that multiple metastases of a cancer would take his life… After a long silence, he asked if there was anything to be done… I told him..odds were very long against..his case.” [p335, Men and Decisions]
Had he lived, Robert Taft would have challenged Eisenhower’s second term.
*
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and Strauss claimed to have first met each other in the course of picking Japanese targets in mid- 1945.  About this same time, LLS replaced Lessing J. Rosenwald on the Board of Trustees of Princeton IAS, “and when Frank Aydelotte prepared to retire as director, Strauss headed the committee to select his replacement.” [p92, No Sacrifice Too Great] “At first, Strauss and Oppenheimer appeared to get along well..[p93]” but soon “fought over atomic policy, at first secretly and then openly beginning in the summer of 1947. One issue was atomic power. Whereas many people expected atomic energy to lead mankind into a golden age of cheap, plentiful electricity, Oppenheimer..sought to quell such unrealistic hopes…and warned that nuclear power would not provide ‘any considerable portion’ of the world’s electricity for [at least] twenty years.” [p99, ibid.]
*
On his return to the AEC, “Strauss attached only one condition to his acceptance, he told [Eisenhower]: Oppenheimer could not be ‘connected in any way’ with the AEC.” [p139, No Sacrifice Too Great] “In June of 1953 McCarthy was considering an attack on Oppenheimer. As soon as Strauss learned [of it] he wrote Senator Taft that it would be ‘ill-advised and impolitic’ for McCarthy to proceed. His reasons..were that ‘some of the so-called evidence will not stand up…and the present is not the time.’ FBI Director Hoover and Vice-President..Nixon also helped turn McCarthy away from Oppenheimer…” [p140, ibid.] …”While Strauss..looked for proof of Oppenheimer’s disloyalty, he sponsored an increase in Oppenheimer’s salary...[which] may have been designed to keep Oppenheimer from recognizing the depth of Strauss’s hostility toward him.” [p148, ibid.]
   Oppenheimer was less than right this time on the power issue –it took longer. Even though a commercial plant was opened in Shippingport, PA in 1955, the US taxpayers footed its operations for years while it served as a model for attracting private operators to nuclear power generation. The Shippingport operators sold the electricity and kept the earnings.
   On July 7, 1953, five days after his swearing-in, Strauss “acted quickly to cut off Oppenheimer’s access to the AEC’s secrets… [He] ordered the AEC Security Division to phase out the classified library that Oppenheimer maintained [at Princeton's IAS] and replace it with a new facility under the commission’s direct charge..and control..” [p145, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss also wrote to the FBI and requested a reinvigoration of the atomic dual-agent program: memos from August indicate that “if the Director felt it advisable, Strauss..had certain programs in mind which would incidentally, if put into effect, require additional appropriation for the FBI.” Director Hoover politely responded to Strauss of the necessity for the AEC to get its own house in order. These were the last memos made available until 1964; the very last memo concerning the fate of the whole dual-agent correspondence.   http://www.governmentattic.org/4docs/FBIundercoverAECfacilities_1949-1964
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William T. Golden
    Golden, who was “assistant to Admiral Strauss exclusivelyI was the only assistant; the other commisioners didn’t have assistants“, gave an oral history in 1989 [at age 80] on his recollections: [Question:] “Was Oppenheimer under a cloud yet in 1950?” [Golden:] “No, but yes. Oppenheimer had always been suspectBut Groves used Oppenheimer very effectively. They were a marvelous team…but at any rate, no charges had been brought..at the time…” [Question:] Oppenheimer was not in favor of a “new OSRD” [Strauss's Office of Naval Research]…apparently..very much in favor of a strong grants program in the NSF [National Science Foundation].. [Golden:] Yes… [Question:] You submitted a memorandum to Robert Lovett [Brown Brothers Harriman] Deputy Secretary of Defense about the Research and Development Board…and you recommended George Merck as a new chairman of the RDB and the one to reorganize it… [Golden affirms:]..gradually the feeling has become one of increasing recognition of peaceful uses of atomic energy..and that atomic weapons should never be used again… [Question:] Right. Nuclear energy for electrical power… [Golden:] ..there had been..great enthusiasm for that, and especially for the breeder reactors… It was looked on as a wonderful development for society. And there was not much worry given to the..dangers, and how to avoid them. [Question:] Nuclear waste was not an issue? [Golden]..not a big issue…it was not regarded as the big problem that it has in fact become.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/goldenw.htm
   Early on, Golden had been a Wall Street securities analyst for ten years before induction into the Navy in 1941. He was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and given the rank of Lt. Commander, the same rank as Strauss — virtually shadowing Strauss on his way up the ladder. Golden was another, along with Robert Taft and Arthur Krock, to give Strauss first council on accepting Truman’s offer of AEC commissioner [in July 1946]. Golden remembered,”I couldn’t think of anything more exciting than the AEC.” He remained Strauss’s shadow with special assignments, returning with him to the AEC “part time”, he said, through 1958.
   There is at least one easy-to-find (lawsuit) record of Golden’s business dealings (1953-54) helpful to Abraham Feinberg and Israel: a stock sale that enabled Feinberg to fold his textile holdings into the larger company which he controlled, Julius Kayser & Co. The transfer brought more centralized control of a base of manufacturing plants in Greensboro, North Carolina; by happenstance a base for the Smith Richardson Foundation– connected to the American Security Council (see part II)– alleged to have trained private paramilitary for sensitive National Security ops . Golden and others in the sale “were directors of..Kayser” who then “resigned as directors” so that Feinberg and friends could be “elected as directors.” http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/224/753/146185/
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Abraham Feinberg
   Feinberg and his associates were already well known and heavily documented by FBI counterintelligence as smugglers of arms and people. At least 70 people in Los Angeles were in the files.  “Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States… [and] more recently..in undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy… Ben-Gurion noted in his diary [in 1958] a conversation ‘he had with Abraham Feinberg’..to raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among ‘benedictors’ in the United States… [Feinberg's] close associate, David Wahl,..among other Feinberg associates, was a longtime undercover Soviet agent (beginning in the 1930s…)” http://www.irmep.org/ila/feinberg/
   Feinberg had initially sought his political influence through Robert Hannegan, FDR’s Commissioner of Internal Revenue, “responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelt’s running mate in 1944.” Hannegan by then was the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hannegan  Feinberg said, “I realized that it became important for me to know the people around Truman..[e.g.] David Niles… Through him I became friendly with Matt Connelly…  Eddie Jacobson..of the B’nai B’rith.. [who] had been a partner of Truman and a very close friend…  [Jews] around the country..understood that without Truman, Israel would have had very difficult days..to even come into existence… He often said, ‘If not for my friend Abe, I couldn’t have..been elected.’http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/feinberg; In 1960 Feinberg founded AIPAC and funded JFK: “I think [Truman] was a better statesman than Kennedy, although you can’t tell because Kennedy had no chance.
*
By 1953, the scientific team at the Weizmann Institute had developed the improved..mechanism for producing heavy water and a more efficient method for mining uranium. Both concepts were sold to the French..[which] led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research that was signed by the two nations…  Goldschmidt [the Rothschild family plutonium expert] was serving as director of chemistry for France’s Atomic Energy Commission… [p31, The Samson Option] Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam ‘at will’...  [Goldschmidt explained:] ‘We weren’t really helping them [the Israelis]…We were just letting them know what we knew –without knowing where it would lead’… Bergmann had made the..point..’It’s very important to understand that by developing atomic energy energy for peaceful uses, you reach the nuclear option. There are no two atomic energies. [p.26, ibid.] …The intellectual spokesman for the French nuclear program..Pierre Gallois..[said it] came down to this: ‘When two nations are armed with nuclear weapons, even if they are unequally armed, the status quo is unavoidable.’ Gallois was taken very seriously by the Israelis.” [p.40, The Samson Option]
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The U-2
Eisenhower came into the presidency in 1953 concerned about the lack of aerial intelligence..and ordered the CIA to do something about it. A Photographic Intelligence Division was promptly set up… Eisenhower’s next major step was to authorize a daring reconnaissance program –primarily targeted at the Soviet Union– and assign the development of [a] revolutionary airplane..jointly to the CIA and the Air Force..[to be] built under cover by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Burbank California, and known as the U-2.” [p.47, The Samson Option]
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Polaroid
   When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada (Jan.1951), Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He [Land] knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…”  For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land's Polaroid] http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/10/24/morgification/
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak, in which Strauss not only owned stock but matched to the inventors of Kodachrome, became a significant  collaborator in the U-2; the laboratory that Kuhn Loeb partners Strauss & Wiseman urged George Eastman to provide for Kodachrome development in 1922 may have been the actual premises of Kodak’s Hawkeye Works, the CIA’s photo analysis branch. A proprietary interest is clear. Kodak and Polaroid held each others’ stock.
   [From part I:] …”Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates… In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making..the first 16mm movie camera.” http://www.city-net.com/~fodder/16mm/film.html Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.”
   “George Eastman [d.1932, by suicide] funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” ” Flexner then founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study in 1930…and “[Rochester became the] headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides [isotopes] and fluorine.” Among those experiments at Rochester were outdoor night-time hijinks by scientists spraying radioactive liquids around the school and medical campuses.
*
Fallout and Weather
   Albert Lasker died of stomach cancer in 1952, but his widow Mary carried on the couple’s special interests. This included sponsorhip of Israel’s cloud seeding program, evident in at least 3 boxes of Mary Lasker’s papers at Columbia showing multi-party correspondence from 1953 to 1958. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eresources/archives/rbml/Lasker/
   A point about weather control from 1952 to 1955 is that many countries, eventually numbering around 50 or so, started cloud seeding operations:
   Due to the British program called ‘Cumulus’, “one of the worst flash floods ever to have occurred in Britain” devastated the town of Lynmouth on August 15, 1952. The discovery of a cloud seeding cause emerged from documents uncovered in a BBC investigation showing that Cumulus ran operations from 1949 to 1955 before it too [the program] disappeared. The UK government denied seeding clouds before 1955. ”The documents also talk of rainmaking having a potential ‘to explode an atomic weapon in a seeded storm system or cloud. This would produce a far wider area of radioactive contamination than in a normal atomic explosion.”
>>>The U.S. program was called ‘Cirrus’ and officially canceled in 1953 although records of ongoing work extend through 1957.
    Rockets and missiles, as they came available, were tools of the trade in cloud seeding– so imagine them carrying small nuclear warheads or clad explosives. Could they be distinguished from lightning and thunder inside a storm? How likely is it that no country ever tested this method of radiological warfare when it stands as a ‘white paper’ by the British? The U.S. and U.K. were staging joint atomic operations from 1952 onwards.
    My first conventional view of radioactive rain, measured widely in the U.S. in 1953, was that cloud seeding reduced detectable atmospheric radiation and hid the extent of  U.S. testing from other countries, though it’s certainly possible that large tests were actually masking localized weather war. Princeton IAS was running a cutting edge weather program during this time with the help of John von Neumann’s supercomputer; Strauss was the IAS chairman and Von Neumann later became an AEC commissioner. Ernest Lawrence, Strauss’s greatest ally for building the Super, was also the loudest proponent among scientists for radiological war.
U.S. cloud seeding technologies were evolved by high-explosive experts. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/17/weather-control/
*
In June 1946..before Oppenheimer’s arrival at the Institute [IAS], Johnny von Neumann had begun to build a high-speed computer in the boiler room basement of Fuld Hall. Nothing so practical had ever existed [there, or] so expensive. The trustees initially gave von Neumann $100,000…And then, in a rare departure from Institute policy he was allowed to obtain additional funding from the Radio Corporation of America… Oppenheimer and von Neumann formally unveiled the Institute computer in June 1952. At the time it was the fastest electronic brain in the world…” [p376, American Prometheus]…”Von Neumann was unusual…And, like Edward Teller, he was rabidly anti-Soviet. One night at a party..discussion of the..Cold War..von Neumann said quite matter-of-factly that it was obvious: The United States should launch a preventive war and annihilate the Soviet Union… [Von Neumann]wrote to Lewis Strauss in 1951..’the USA-USSR conflict..will very probably lead to an armed ‘total’ collision and maximum rate of armament is therefore imperative.’ [p378, ibid.]
*
Oppenheimer’s Tribunal
By September of 1953, after the dual-agent FBI/AEC memos fizzle, Strauss initiated the FBI’s active surveillance of Oppenheimer–he was followed, bugged and wiretapped, and by December, the bugs extended to his home and lawyers’ offices. “Strauss elevated his scheme to end Oppenheimer’s influence… He told the AEC’s..counsel..that ‘if this case is lost, the atomic energy program..will fall into the hands of left-wingers… it will mean another Pearl Harbor… if Oppenheimer is cleared, then ‘anyone’ can be cleared…” [p.491, American Prometheus] “Strauss [then] turned his attention to selecting the judges. He needed three men…[and] settled on Gordon Gray to chair the board. Gray was..president of the University of North Carolina..whose family money came from the R.J.R. Tobacco Company…[he was also a close friend of Prescott Bush]… Strauss [next] selected..Thomas Morgan, chairman of the Sperry Corporation… For the third member, Strauss chose..Dr. Ward Evans, whose..qualifications were..science..and his unblemished record of voting to deny clearances on previous AEC hearing boards… From Strauss’s point of view, they were the perfect empty vessels.” [p.492, ibid.]
   Before the proceedings against Oppenheimer were to begin in April, the AEC had scheduled a  major thermonuclear test series in the Marshall Islands –Operation Castle– six high-yield H-bombs tested with the intention of seeking “radsafe” levels of exposure.
Castle-Bravo
At 6:45 on the morning of 1 March 1954, eight years after the testing in the Marshall Islands began, the US detonated a bomb codenamed ‘Bravo’ on the island of Bikini..equivalent to 17 megatons of TNT, 1,300 times the destructive force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima… That morning the wind was blowing in the direction of two inhabited atolls, Rongelap and Utrik, roughly 100 and 300 miles from Bikini. During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin] “Bravo was an unecessarily dirty bomb– it delivered huge quantities of fallout… it detonated low off the ground and the fireball scooped up..Bikini’s coral reef…”[p.59, ibid.] “[D]octors on the ground didn’t even keep records… When the Rongelapese were taken to Kwajalein their urine samples were analyzed only as a pool sample instead of individually…The Atomic Energy Commission averaged the values of radionuclides found in land, fish, and fruits..thus concealing the expected effect on..an individual…[p54]

   “Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said]‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’ [p61, Day of Two Suns]
   “[A] magistrate on Rongelap..tells what happened… ‘The next day..we noticed the water turned to yellow. I warned the people not to drink from..water catchments, and told them to drink only [coconut milk]. The people began to get sick with vomiting, aches all over..and fatigue…’ [p25] It was two days before the Navy arrived to pick up the Rongelap islanders and US personnel– two days in which they breathed, slept and ate the fallout. [p26] ‘After two days..my fingernails came off and my fingers bled. We all had burns..and our hair began to fall out’..[p27, ibid.]
   Strauss was there– Castle was the only test series he was known to attend. The next day, “March 2, 1954, [Oppenheimer lawyers] Garrison and Marks themselves appeared in Strauss’ office and confirmed that Oppenheimer was willing to accept [submitting his resignation]… Strauss, confident of victory, dismissed this..as ‘out of the question’.” [p.496, American Prometheus]. According to Strauss’s own memoir, he was still in the Pacific: “On my return from Eniwetok on March 29, 1954, I reported to President Eisenhower on the Castle..series. The President had been greatly concerned over the reports of..fall-out..on the atolls of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Uterik and on a Japanese fishing vessel… The next morning..the President..asked me to tell the press substantially what I reported to him… The shot was fired, the wind failed to follow the predictions, shifting south..and the little islands..were in the path of the fall-out.” [pp410-411, Men and Decisions]
>>>Operation Castle lasted from March 1  to May 14: two shots in each of the three months (6 shots)
*
The Polio Shots
one shot in each of the three months (three shots)
*
Small-scale human testing of the new Salk “inactivated” polio vaccine (IPV) began in 1953, overlapping Dr. Hammon’s G.G. program in Iowa and Texas. Author Jane S. Smith wrote that “during the summer of 1953..the mass distribution of gamma globulin [G.G.] became a rehearsal for the polio vaccine field trials expected for the following year. [The NTS was running Operation Upshot-Knothole from March to June of 1953, all kiloton range]. The National Foundation [for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP, or 'March of Dimes'] had developed valuable experience in mass purchasing and distribution, the public had been introduced to the idea that you cured polio by lining up for injections at schools or other public areas, and the administrators of the Public Health Service had realized that they had to step in or let [the NFIP] create..in effect, a shadow network of health services.” [p.250, Patenting the Sun] “Tom Rivers..put it squarely; ‘The Public Health Service would eventually have to license the vaccine,’ he said, ‘and nobody in the Public Health Service knew anything about polio… we had an awful time teaching them about polio.’ ” [p.251, ibid.] “In November [1953], Basil O’Connor..announced that the trial would begin no later than the first week in February [1954]. By February they were hoping for early March.” [p.253] “…the journalistic blitz was on. The New York Times Magazine had featured Salk in January… Life..made the vaccine its cover story on February 22. Time featured..Salk surrounded by..crutches, leg braces and syringes on the cover of its March 29 issue… Better Homes and Gardens, victim of an early deadline..featured a story in its March issue..as though the trial had actually started in February, complete with fabricated quotations from children... [p255, ibid] …By this time, the start of the field trial had been postponed yet again, to April 26.” [p.258, Patenting the Sun] The vaccine trial, postponed even further, did not begin until late May. The Castle tests ended on May 14.
>>>Thomas Milton Rivers, “Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute” spent his entire adult life working for the Rockefellers. “Between 1922 and 1955, Rivers molded Rockefeller into the preeminent laboratory for research on viruses“. In 1945 he was assigned to oversee the Atomic Bomb Casulaty Commission. There is no indication that oversight of the ABCC (or its successor) was temporary: “studies..suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years.”  Rivers’ work for the Salk vaccine trial put him in close contact with the man who ran the program, Dr. Thomas Francis. Dr. Francis, who was Jonas Salk’s mentor and Rockefeller Hospital alumnus, was hired to reorganize the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after completion of the polio vaccine trials in April of 1955. The ABCC project became the “Lifespan Study” of Japan’s atomic survivors who lived past 1950 and had no leukemia (solid tumors only). Following that, Francis undertook “large population surveys” gathering health data from his base at the University of Michigan, just as the Health Physics mandate recommended. The Ford Foundation built him a “peaceful uses” nuclear reactor in 1957: “The reactor operated from September 1957 until July 3, 2003http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Nuclear_Reactor
*
So, the Salk polio vaccine trials were supposed to be timed for coordination with Operation Castle (March to May of 1954) –as the Provo G.G. trials coordinated with Nevada’s Buster-Jangle (Oct-Nov 1951)– but, perhaps the exceptionally dirty Bravo test caused the delay and put fear into the designers, since no amount of additional time was going to improve the vaccine.
   “What had made the bomb so dirty? The answer was discovered by K. Kimura, one of the Japanese scientists who analyzed the fallout on the Lucky Dragon’s deck. In this debris from the bomb he found a substantial amount of a rare isotope of uranium –uranium 237. It happened that Dr. Kimura himself was the original discoverer of this isotope; he had created it in the laboratory 14 years before [as].. a product of the bombardment of the common uranium isotope 238 by neutrons… The bomb must have had a thick blanket of uranium 238 surrounding its fission-fusion core; fast neutrons from the fusion reactions fissioned the U-238 blanket and thus multiplied the force of the bomb –and also the output of fission products. In short the weapon builders had found a way to use the neutrons that would otherwise have gone to waste: they had made a fission-fusion-fission bomb in which common uranium 238 was added to the fuel… One can immediately see a great gain in economy over the ‘primitive’ Hiroshima bomb. To produce a 20 megaton explosion with only the original fuel, uranium 235, would require 11,000 pounds..of this rare isotope, separated so laboriously from U-238, and cost about a hundred million dollars. Using U-238 as fuel, however, we can get our 20 megatons at the bargain-basement price of a quarter of a million dollars. (The same size of explosion with TNT would cost ten billion dollars!)http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
*
The Salk IPV trials, which took place across the U.S., Canada, and Helsinki Finland, dodged a major bullet by waiting. (The city of Helsinki still thinks of itself as the former “spy capital of the world”).  With less tweaking than was probably anticipated, the delayed trial data proved a success. Controversial as the subject must be, the radiation vaccine got the go-ahead and postponed its reckoning to the next year during 1955′s Operation Teapot –Nevada’s first full-scale thermonuclear series. In areas where fallout was intensified by weather, post-vaccine polio increased as much as 700% from the previous year –oops– blamed on faulty vaccine preparation.
*
Private Ownership of nuclear fuels and energy facilities was amended to the atomic charter in August of 1954: “the Commission may issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, import, or ex-port under the terms of an agreement for cooperation..” http://nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/treaties/atomic-energy-act/trty_atomic-energy-act_1954-08-30.htm Strauss continued to exert expanded authority over this trade in his one-year pro-tem office as Secretary of Commerce (June 1958-June 1959)
*
Oasis in Israel
   Before 1954 was through, Strauss proposed his diplomatic agenda as the spokesman of Atoms-for-Peace: “he recommended a solution for the Arab-Israeli dilemma built around the use of atomic power to operate desalinization plants along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. All Countries in the Middle East could share the fresh water..[and] replace tension with amity. By this time, Strauss..supported the nation of Israel.” [p.223, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss and Eisenhower called it The Oasis Plan. Of course, Strauss always supported Israel– the Zionist v. non-Zionist debate among Jews in the U.S. was based primarily on U.S. immigration policy, a holdover from the WWI era when non-Zionists, like Jacob Schiff, sought restraint from incoming Russian Jews.  U.S. Zionists favored unrestricted immigration.  By WWII, and in Palestine particularly, the situation reversed; Zionists, like Weizmann, wanted tight immigration controls and non-Zionists, like Feinberg, wanted free entry.
*
Overflight
The first Soviet two-stage hydrogen bomb was successfully tested in 1955… The first U-2 flights [1956] over the Soviet Union provided dramatic evidence that the Soviets were not nearly as advanced in conventional arms as the Pentagon assumed. There was no “bomber gap” or “missile gap”… The administration’s truth-teller continued to be the U-2, whose pilots, including Gary Francis Powers, later to be shot down, were usually assigned to overfly the Soviet Union. But there were other standing U-2 targets in sensitive areas…and that description fit the Middle East in 1958… Gary Powers and his colleagues, who had continued intermittently to overfly the Middle East, were now steadily back at work in the area. The CIA’s photo interpreters were suddenly seeing a lot of activity at an Israeli Air Force..range south of Beersheba…” [pp.50-51, The Samson Option]
   “The U-2 went operational from a secret base in West Germany on July 4, 1956… It was a spectacular asset… [p.48, ibid]… Among the inevitable by-products of the [nuclear] manufacturing process are radioactive gases which are vented into the atmosphere. The analysts of the early U-2 photography learned to look for..distinctive chimneys…” [p.52, The Samson Option] The U-2 planes also carried particle filters mounted in air scoops as earlier detection flights had done.  By the time Dimona started taking shape (1957-58), “the U-2 continued to overfly the Negev. Lundahl [chief of photo analysis] also relayed the findings on Dimona to Lewis L. Strauss..who [was]..cleared for U-2 intelligence.” [p.54, ibid.]
*
Dimona
[apologetics from Seymour Hersh:]
Strauss certainly knew as much about Dimona as as anybody in the intelligence community… There is no evidence, however, that he raised questions about the Israeli weapons progam while in government; nor was he known to have ever discussed Dimona after leaving office. Strauss chose not to talk..because, as a Jew with deep feelings about the Holocaust, he approved of it… He was insistent on continued nuclear testing… At the same time, he championed Atoms for Peace..[on] the assumption, which turned out to be dreadfully wrong, ..that smaller nations once supplied with.. a nuclear power plant, would have no incentive or desire to develop nuclear weapons… Strauss’s activities on behalf of a Jewish homeland apparently were not known… At some point in his AEC career [believed to be the 1955 Geneva meeting on the Peaceful Uses of the Atom] Strauss met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann…Neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis..knew that the two had met [but].. in the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get Bergmann..as a visiting fellow at the..Institute for Advanced Study… rules were bent for Strauss. [The IAS's new director at the time said] ‘It became clear that [Bergmann] and Strauss were close, and also clear that he was working on [the Israeli nuclear] weapons program.’ …Strauss..did not tell anyone..about Dimona. Fair or not, the issue of ‘dual loyalty’ –exemplified by Strauss’s actions– has been a very real concern…” http://www.american-buddha.com/lit.samsonoptionhersh.7.htm
   Hersh’s writing career, as noted in the JFK Conspiracy Con, was underwritten by Julius Rosenwald’s grandson, Philip Stern, from a family centrally tied to the creation of Lee Harvey Oswald’s “legend” and secretly invested in nuclear technology.  It is the Sterns’s business partner, Zalman Shapiro, who appears as the object of Hersh’s exoneration in the The Samson Option, and yet it’s Strauss’s legend that gets the most fortification from Hersh. “Holocaust guilt”, or guilt of any kind, is a wash. Strauss exuded neo-Maccabean pride, built agencies in service to it, and regretted only that he could not do more– an expression easily twisted into holocaust guilt. Without a Holocaust there would have been no Bomb.
    The problem is not ‘dual loyalty’ but loyalty to the mental poison of duality and absolutism.  Hersh and others, continually hiding Strauss’s early medical background in Rothschild employ and his lifelong association to biological warfare, dissemble on the real nature of the game –the self-canceling schism of rival degeneracy. Very gnostic and very “Protocols”. The exceptionalism in it, and the place where Strauss assumed his power and profit, was in the middle of it all where the ends are bent to form an apex –the node of dialectical form: summit of a pyramid.
*
                                                                       
…to be continued: epilogue, story timeline and JFK assassination events…

January 23, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, part II

The second installment of this piece is aimed to faithfully carry on the rough chronology of part I –all of it being supplemental to the JFK Conspiracy Con which posits nuclear trafficking, legal and not, on top of the list of motives for Kennedy’s assassination. It’s well-known that by the middle of his term, Kennedy was expressing persistent concern over the dangers of radioactive fallout. That fact alone made his “natural enemy” the former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Lewis Strauss, the No.1 nuclear dissembler, who dismissed the fallout hazard as no more dangerous than sunshine and less threatening than an X-ray. Strauss’s friend and ally physicist Edward Teller famously attempted to inform JFK in 1961 that radiation is healthful (and was rebuffed). It’s also possible that Kennedy sons, John Jr. and Patrick, were afflicted with radiation-induced disease and the parents became aware of it. In addition, it’s my personal operating belief that JFK was chosen as early as 1952 for the inevitable nuclear showdown-to-come, as long as the candidate didn’t self-destruct. He seemed always on the verge– Phil Graham of the Washington Post said during the 1960 campaign, when consulted on a choice of vice-president, that whomever Jack Kennedy took for a running mate would soon be President.

                    Eugene Meyer, owner Washington Post, P.G.’s father-in-law (d.1959)

Phil Graham killed himself with a shotgun on August 3, 1963. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKgrahamP.htm

*                                                                                  Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1895-1974)

The contributions to JFK assassination research about the participant groups, either with foreknowledge or working relationships, point to common threads in the nuclear industry; what we must think of as a gateway to more advanced technologies coming from the same contractor pool (General Dynamics under the ownership of Henry Crown is a good example) and their corporate heirs. By 1960, as Hans Bethe claimed, the weaponolgy of H-bombs had reached its peak. There wasn’t much more to be done developmentally to improve on bombs for military use. Even Teller left his statement that bombs over 10 megatons (10 million tons of TNT force) lost their excess energy to space. Tests of these behemoths, done through the 1950s and onward, amounted to mass terror and biological warfare in the hands of what Pierre Curie called “the great criminals” (Nobel Prize speech of 1903). Ernest Rutherford added a rejoinder in 1904: his wish to have nuclear experimentation postponed to some enlightened future time (in other words, probably never). Rutherford was an obstacle. Both men died prematurely from radiation-related disease.

Lewis Strauss remained a stalwart for testing to the very end. In 1964 he was back on Capitol Hill stumping for a reversal of the Limited Test Ban, working the dialectic, publishing articles and assembling pressure groups. He had been making public claims about fallout-free weapons since 1954, ironically when the levels of radioactivity began skyrocketing. As his biographer Richard Pfau noted, “more than any other individual, Lewis Strauss shaped the atomic energy policy of the United States…[p219]…It would not be exaggeration to call Strauss the father of the nuclear power industry…  Strauss’s position on weapons tests had been consistent.”[p220, No Sacrifice Too Great] Consistency, fortunately, has been good currency in this case, rewarding the investigation with solid information, sense and plausibility when there was little to go on. Unfortunately, the ramifications are dire: radiological warfare on ourselves, and presently getting worse. Dr. Rosalie Bertell called it our “death crisis”. Lewis Strauss had something to say about death “four months before [dying]..Strauss wrote ..[that] good and evil struggled incessantly, and..everyone was ‘enjoined to choose between good and evil, between life and death’ ” [p252, No Sacrifice Too Great]  For his  part, Strauss was autocratically consistent in his righteousness. His wife told the biographer “in a rare written comment, Strauss had developed an emotional attachment to the power he wielded over policy.” [p216, ibid.] In effect, it was obvious from the time that his activities became a matter of public record during World War II. Strauss thought of his war duty as “public service” and called his Pentagon period under Forrestal “these days of grace.” He not only lobbied for the Office of Naval Research, he shaped its operations and recruited staff. “The ONR proceeded to work out a program by which contracts were made with universities for basic research… Men who had vowed..[to] never do any work after the war for either Armed Service found themselves doing so” [p148, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962]

Wartime extended Strauss’s influence further to leadership at Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study [IAS] and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research [SKI]. He became a lifetime trustee of the American Cancer Society under Lasker control. He was still an active leader of Kuhn Loeb &Co., a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and its subsidiary-like Business Advisory Committee, an executive of the American Jewish Committee and “the Jews’ War President”. The next step for Strauss on the Atomic Energy Commission forbade him by law to engage in “any other business” –he was required to resign his partnership in Kuhn Loeb– to which he readily acceded. The initial contentiousness that flourished on the original Commission chaired by David Lilienthal evaporated under the chairmanship of Lewis Strauss:  “Strauss was to have unlimited power… there would be lavish funds and inordinate publicity…  great gifts Strauss was able to channel to his friends after he remade the Atomic Energy Commission in 1953-54.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, by Nuel Pharr Davis, 1968]

On his comeback as AEC Chairman in 1953, Strauss also began to forge a relationship on-the-record with J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. The men planned to cultivate special secret agents paid by the FBI but answerable to the AEC chairman. Since 1947 occasional high-profile security breaches had threatened the civilian AEC with military intervention. Little had changed with respect to missing materials. The new approach with joint FBI/AEC agents to spy on operations as embedded employees was intended to preserve the AEC’s autonomy. The joint special agent program is made to look like a flop, even after two years of activity (1953-54), but is one of the most intriguing elements bearing on Lee Harvey Oswald’s profile. The FBI/AEC recruits were specifically of his type. Oswald was getting paid by the FBI. Was he working for Strauss? Whatever the answer might be, the joint special agent program fizzled or disappeared at an interesting time in 1954, the year that Strauss infamously went on a vindictive campaign to oust Robert Oppenheimer from the nuclear establishment. With full cooperation from J.E. Hoover and the FBI, Strauss erected an unlawful net of wiretaps and had the agents tailing Oppenheimer’s every move. Many of the people involved thought Strauss was exploiting McCarthy’s Red Scare but he appears to have planned it following the triumphant approval of the ‘Super’ (H-bomb) crash program by President Truman in January of 1950. Oppenheimer was deeply opposed to the Super. Strauss and Oppenheimer in the meantime still had to work together as administrative colleagues at Princeton’s IAS; Strauss, as IAS board president, had in fact hired Oppenheimer to direct the Institute in 1946. He laid in wait at least 4 years, if not longer, to bring the man to ruin.

Strauss’s one respite from pursuing Oppenheimer in early ’54 was a trip to the Marshall Islands to witness the thermonuclear  ‘Bravo’ test (Castle series), the only test he ever attended. Castle-Bravo is possibly the most controversial of all U.S. nuke tests; Japanese fishermen died and local Marshallese were irradiated and displaced. It was not an accident. “During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin, 1988]…”“Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said] ‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’” [p61, Day of Two Suns]    Strauss wrote, “It was the first time, so far as I am aware, that public attention had been called to the subject of fallout…” [p410, Men and Decisions] “people began to worry about the risks from radiation that followed such tests. So well did the resulting outcry fit Soviet objectives to eliminate nuclear weapons that Strauss suspected the Japanese fishermen might have been Soviet agents.” [p190, No Sacrifice Too Great] He enlisted the CIA to investigate.

As far as I know, the plight of the Marshalls or the responsibility of the AEC chairman was not included in the charges against Strauss during the  1959 Senate hearings for his confirmation as Secretary of Commerce. Fallout, however, was an issue. “According to [Clinton] Anderson, the administration actually was augmenting the fallout content of bombs in the existing stockpile.” [p217, No Sacrifice Too Great] The biographer wrote, “He probably should have turned down the president’s offer to join the cabinet…” [p242, ibid.] To the contrary, Strauss held out for the post and rejected a series of offers that included “permanent chairman” of the AEC and White House Chief of Staff. “When Strauss declined this offer, the president asked whether he might like to replace Secretary Dulles… Finally, Eisenhower suggested..secretary of commerce… Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it… Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War..” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]

After the vote-down from Congress,  “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued his parting statement…[p240, No Sacrifice Too Great] He soon followed up with his semi-autobiographical Men and Decisions –perhaps the real parting statement which closes with these words: “Now, we are told, we stand at the threshold of an era when it will be possible for man to abdicate both the right and responsibility of free decision and to delegate it to the machine… thereupon decisions will emerge which are to send us to war or lull us to sleep. They will be decisions for which no man will bear responsibility –decisions as coldly impersonal as..the device… For what machine can ever apply the considerations of compassion and justice..that affect his future in the world and in the universe?” [p430, Men and Decisions]

*

I wonder how Strauss’s readers in 1962 perceived his enigmatic closer. Taking liberties with the last paragraph, I edited out the specific references to hardware (“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”) because they are not definitions of a machine, although his allusion to electronics is very interesting and significant to his meaning.  No pile of hardware, obviously, makes decisions or ever will. Our government is a machine. But Strauss was fighting “tomorrow’s war today”. His machine, the device of his devising that he spent all his life energy on, was “coldly impersonal” and he remained its decider, or so one assumes. There’s not much in the memoirs to suggest exactly how Strauss fit into the hierarchy of the greater machine in which he was part, but in the largest measure that’s the point here; to discern what part of “decisions for which no man will bear responsibilty” can be ascribed to him.  Part II chronology picks the details back up with the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. who died from a mishap with electronic remote control.

                                        Harry Byrd Sr.

*

Joe Kennedy Jr.
Joe Jr. graduated from Choate in the spring of 1933..the exemplar of what a Choate graduate should be… [He] might have headed to Harvard in the fall, but his father had a different idea…[JPK Sr.] enrolled Joe at the London School of Economics, a fervidly intellectual atmosphere full of Socialists and others who fancied themselves on the cutting edge of economic and political theory.” [p81, The Kennedy Men, by Laurence Leamer, 2001] “[Harold] Laski saw that young Joe had character and an incomparable zest for life… ‘He had set his heart on a political career,’ Laski recalled. ‘He..often sat in my study and submitted..his determination to be nothing less than President of the United States.’ “[p82, ibid.] Joe Jr. stayed the year in London, finished his courses and set off in the summer of 1934 for a tour of Europe.
   Back in Washington D.C., Joe Kennedy Sr. was assuming his duties as chairman of the new Securities and Exchange Commission, the circumstance which brought him under the scrutiny of Arthur Krock of the New York Times. “I had encountered Joseph P. Kennedy several times in the entourage that accompanied Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt..in 1932..But not until 1934, when President Roosevelt appointed Kennedy to the..[SEC]..did I become really acquainted with him.” [p330, Memoirs, Arthur Krock, 1968] Krock described meeting Joe Sr. “to take the measure of the man” on the recommendation of “two friends..Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.” [p331, ibid.] The Wall Streeters were worried about Kennedy. By 1935 Krock “began to be an intimate of the family under the sponsorship of the patriarch, Joseph Patrick himself… In their feudal family structure the eldest son..was designed by the patriarch to be the first Roman Catholic President of the United States, and it was only because of his fatal valor in the Second World War that the quest descended to the second son.” [p328-329, ibid.]
   The ‘Anvil’ mission that killed Joe Jr. and his copilot on August 12, 1944 was the seventh in a series (of 15) operations under the Army Air Force called ‘Aphrodite’, but the first to be run by the Navy.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Aphrodite .
Kennedy’s bomber malfunction had a unique outcome; it was the only one to “prematurely detonate”.  According to the oral history of Emanuel Piore who worked for the office of Chief of Naval Operations, “we were the group that killed Joe Kennedy.” Piore, who worked over a decade prior in the labs of CBS and RCA, never mentioned any other personal involvement.
   Joe had the opportunity to leave England and go home the previous May. He wrote to his parents on May 8, “I have finished my missions…but volunteered to stay another month…” Biographer Leamer adds “Joe Jr..wanted to be there for D-Day…And so, on June 6, he flew as part of a massive grid protecting the invading forces from German submarines… not one ship..was lost to the German sub[s]… back home everyone expected his imminent arrival in time for his [30th] birthday on July 25… [but] Joe..knew that he would not be returning a hero…” [pp209-210, The Kennedy Men] It had been nearly a year since JFK stole the honors of War Hero in the PT-109 episode. In that ensuing year, the U.S. navy pilots at Dunkeswell grew accustomed to daily danger. “When he opened his letters from home, [Joe] discovered inevitably that Jack was the big news –Jack’s sickness, Jack’s appearances, Jack’s publicity, Jack’s future…” [p206]…”All that Joe Jr. wanted in family life was to be first…’In their long brotherly..rivalry, I expect this was the first time Jack had won such an ‘advantage’ by such a clear margin,’ Rose wrote in her autobiography.” [p196, ibid.] Sometime around the third week in July, “Joe..was..packing up his gear when he was called into the squadron office and told about an extraordinary secret mission code-named ‘Anvil’…[He] volunteered immediately… He figured that he had a fifty-fifty chance of surviving and those odds were good enough… Joe..transferred..to the base at Fersfield…”  Things went wrong from the start. “Training flights had gone astray. The project was raked with silly bureaucratic ineptitude. Serious warnings about the faulty electrical system had been smothered by the command. The whole project reeked… On the evening before the mission, one of the men..tried to warn Joe..that the arming panel..might blow up the plane… Joe Jr. admitted to another officer that he was sorry he had volunteered, but he believed that it was too late to do anything but go on.”  [p211-214, The Kennedy Men]  Twenty planes escorted the bomber from the Fersfield runways;  one of them carried FDR’s son Elliot Roosevelt, sent to capture the event on film. It was over in just a few minutes, as soon as the PB4Y reached travelling altitude. The flash shredded and blew the plane’s remains over the Suffolk countryside and “Then the light was gone.”
   “[T]hose who saw Joe [Sr.] said they had never seen a man suffer more and feel more deeply… ‘Joe’s death has shocked me beyond belief,’ Joe wrote James Forrestal, the secretary of the navy..” [p220, The Kennedy Men] As of July 1944, with the Anvil program going forward, Lewis Strauss took up daily residence in Forrestal’s office. “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946. The secretary assigned him specific projects, one after anotherStrauss..preferred this sort of work to the routine of managing subordinates.” [p76, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss was not only positioned to know the details of Anvil, but he was required to know  –the Chief of Naval Operations was a deputy office under the Secretary of the Navy. If Anvil was one of the projects Strauss worked on, it was still classified Top Secret information when he published Men and Decisions in 1962. Were he delivering a threat to the Kennedys, any reference to Anvil would have to have been oblique yet specific enough to arouse their attention –”transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”; the machine that impersonally took the life of Joe Kennedy.
*
The Kennedys’ tragedy was retrospectively compounded by the failure of Operation Aphrodite/Anvil. Joe’s mission was to strike the V-3 supergun site under construction at Mimoyecques, already successfully hit by the RAF five weeks earlier in June. The site never became operational. The few completed V-3 sites that did fire their fixed-position guns in 1945 were strategically useless and quickly abandoned. Strauss left one suggestive statement in his memoir forecasting Anvil and hinting at his participation: “Early in 1943..British intelligence..had heard of a project called ‘Athodyd’ reported to be a..pilotless aircraft to bomb Britain… Admiral Blandy read the message at a staff meeting..and it was the concensus opinion that this was most likely more of the ‘secret weapon’ propaganda…Captain Sam Shumaker and I, however, felt that there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
   The Athodyd program was real; these were the V-1 flying bombs against which the Navy’s VT proximity fuse-equipped missiles proved so indispensible –all about the same time period, just prior to Anvil. “The fuze was especially effective in destoying the V-1 bombs that Germany began to use against London on June 12, 1944…Approximately 500 heavy antiaircraft guns were moved to the Channel coast where they could engage the bombs before they reached..England…” [p349 (Navy Bureau of Ordnance document) http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Admin-Hist/USN-Admin/USN-Admin-8.html] Strauss was proud of his role in developing the VT fuse. “Next to the atom bomb, the proximity fuze represented in many respects the outstanding new weapon development of World War II… A tremendous amount of research and exploratory work was done [beginning in 1940]… Early in the war a number of high level scientists, including Dr. Albert Einstein, were employed by the Bureau under personal service contracts.[p326, Ordnance doc]…Information was furnished [to] the Bureau and the NDRC [National Defense Research Council] by the British technical mission, headed by Sir Henry Tizard which visited the United States in 1940 as to the status of proximity fuzes in Great Britain.” [p346, ibid.] Tizard also brought news of the MAUD committee, Britain’s prospectus on building a nuclear bomb. It’s generally believed that Tizard did not then know how far the American effort toward atomic weapons had already come but he was soon to learn about it while unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a supply of uranium oxide for the British project; ore from the Congo that was sitting on a dock by the Bayonne Bridge in New York. As far as the military was concerned, the attention of weapons development was mandated to war-winning munitions like the fuze and the all-important implementation of radar. The basic uncertainty of the ‘uranium problem’ was cause for marginal consideration. The massive VT-fuse program then became a bridge to next-generation armaments by establishing the fundamental nexus that eventually created guided-missile nuclear warheads.
   By 1940 radiological warfare was a promising reality even if the explosive potential of nukes could never be achieved. “Neutron and gamma radiation, radioactive dust scattered into the air could be as deadly as blast and heat… The MAUD group had known about these factors from the first..” [p156-157, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel]
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                                          _____________________________________
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Protocol No.1
[article 3]   It must be noted that men with bad instincts are more in number than the good and therefore the best results in governing them are attained by violence and terrorization…
[article 7]   In our day the power which has replaced that of the rulers..is the power of Gold… The despotism of Capital..is entirely in our hands…
[article 24]…by the doctrine of severity..we shall triumph and bring all governments into subjection to our super-government. It is enough for them to know that we are too merciless…
Protocol No.7
[article 5]…we shall show our strength to one of them.. and to all, if we allow..a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America or China or Japan.
*
The Guns of Japan
   Going back to the money trail of the 1904 Russo-Japanese war: “The primary mover was Jacob Schiff..whose firm was brought into the consortium of Parr’s Bank and the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank by Lord Revelstoke and the shadowy Ernest Cassel… [A]fter the war had ended..the Rothschilds finally enter[ed] center stage… Lord Rothschild insisted that he replace Cecil Parr as head of the consortium… [Lord Rothschild wrote:] ‘The Japanese are a remarkable nation, they have proven themselves on land and sea… We have always had great faith in Japan, faith in their military and naval prowess… faith in the resources of their country and still greater faith in the..rulers’…” http://www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/articles/AR2006Japan.pdf
   A big winner in the conflict was Bethlehem Steel, later to become a Kuhn Loeb client under Strauss.  “In the..Russo-Japanese War, it was Bethlehem steel against Bethlehem steel with the company supplying guns and armor plate for warships to both Russia and Japan.”  The Japanese also “contracted with [Bethlehem's] Fore River shipyard to build five small submarines, a weapon..just coming into its own.” http://thomascranelibrary.org/shipbuildingheritage/history/historyindex.html By WWI, Bethlehem was positioned  to become the  world’s largest munitions maker. “It made 65 percent of the..artillery..of the allied nations.http://www.mcall.com/all-bethsteel-c3p11,0,360664.story  Incidently, Joe Kennedy Sr. was hired by the Fore River (Quincy, MA) shipyard as assistant general manager just as the new ships slid off the docks and onto the surplus ledger, sold for pennies on the dollar by Albert Lasker. Kennedy likely had his first meeting at Fore River with the Asst. Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
   As an allied combatant in World War I, Japan’s navy roamed the Pacific and Indian oceans seizing territory from the Germans. “On August 7, 1914, the British government officially asked Japan for assistance …Japan..formally declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914..[and] quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East… [then]sought further to consolidate its position in China… [In] July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty whereby each pledged not to make a separate peace with Germany, and agreed to..common action should the territory..be threatened by an outside third party. This treaty helped further secure Japan’s hegemony in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_during_World_War_I
Among Japan’s new possessions, bestowed by the Paris Peace accords, were the South Sea Islands once known as the Spice Islands, including the Marshalls that were recaptured by the U.S. in 1944 and became the Pacific Proving Ground.
*
The isolationist period of Japan ended in 1853 when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry sailed four warships into Tokyo Bay and threatened to fire on the shore unless the Japanese agreed to a trade treaty. He returned in the winter of 1854 for his treaty with eight ships. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opening_of_Japan Two prior attempts at opening Japan by Americans had failed; in 1846 and 1849, prompting a show of force.
    The Meiji government then “gave significant priority to naval construction… The Imperial Japanese Navy was modeled after the British Royal Navy… British advisors were sent to Japan..while students were in turn sent to the United Kingdom…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War  Japan’s first dozen gunships were made in Britain and France.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Japanese_Navy
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>>>Matthew Perry’s daughter Caroline married Rothschild banker August Belmont (Schonberg); Belmont’s sons were Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont,  Perry Belmont, and August Belmont Jr ;  August Belmont Jr, as an older widower, married stage actress Eleanor Robson in 1910, the first serious love interest of Strauss’s friend ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan (OSS). “Eleanor, also devoted much time to raising funds in aid of Belgian relief efforts and for the Red Cross, she made a number of trans-Atlantic trips as an inspector of United States Army camps.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Belmont,_Jr
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“..Kuhn Loeb..financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power, dominant over Korea and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great] As the heir to Jacob Schiff’s mission, Strauss wrote that “in 1926, I had retraced his steps, as told earlier. The then Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Baron Takahashi, and other gentlemen of Japan..had been very hospitable. I..continued a correspondence with most of these men…” [p122, Men and Decisions] “In consequence, my wife and I received a princely welcome… I had an audience with [the Prince Regent] at which the interpreter was a young naval officer, Commander Isoroku Yamamoto, who fifteen years later as admiral..ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor.” [p83, Men and Decisions]
   “The highlight of the trip was Strauss’s audience with the prince regent, Hirohito… soon to become emperor of Japan… Hirohito was about the same age as Strauss..[who] found Hirohito extremely well informed about..international politics and even the special relationship between Japan and Kuhn Loeb.” [p37, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss listed his contacts with the Imperial government who were in power at the start of WWII: “Mr. Yamagata, Ministry of Foreign Affairs…Tadeo Wikawa [alternately spelled Ikawa] Japanese Financial High Commissioner in New York…Juichi Tsushima, Bank of Japan… Baron [Takaharu] Mitsui… Eigo Fukai, H. Kashiwagi“..[bankers] and T. Okuboson-in-law- of my old friend Baron Takahashi who had been assassinated [by nationalists]..in 1936.” The names mean virtually nothing to American schoolchildren, but to the veterans alive in the 60s, some of them were synonymous with Japan’s worst war crimes.
   Takaharu Mitsui (b.1900–d.1983), for example, owned “Japan’s oldest and largest trading company [that] transported and used the greatest number of Allied POWs as slave laborers. Their mines, factories, and docks were considered among the most hellish… former POWs identified many Mitsui employees as sadists, torturers and murderers.” Mitsui had personally overseen much of the abuse and was never prosecuted.  http://americanpowsofjapan.blogspot.com/2011/10/mitsuis-liberation-dinners.html The “old friend” Takahashi (assassinated in 1936) was the foremost modern economist, “Japan’s Keynes”, who put the nation’s currency on the gold standard and its war bonds on the market. Fukai and Okubo were his successive representatives. Yamamoto, the main planner of Pearl Harbor who was shot down in combat in 1943, had gone to Harvard as a younger man to study the oil industry. Yamamoto was newly installed as a military diplomat in Washington D.C. at the time of Strauss’s trip, perhaps accompanying the Strausses as an escort as well as interpreter. He returned for a two-year duty in the U.S. (1926-1928).  All of these men were directed to receive the Maryknoll priests, Father Drought and Bishop Walsh, on their peace mission.
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Yamashita’s Treasure
   Japan’s emergence as a modern economic and military nation, as yet, had no history in peacemaking. The invasion of Korea in 1895 marked the beginning of a campaign to overrun and control its Asian neighbors as a hedge against the Chinese. Throughout this period, 1895-1945, according to authors Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (The Yamoto Dynasty and Gold Warriors), the concerted power bases of the Imperial Japanese launched merciless attacks of systematic looting and genocide to steal the wealth of Asia and hide it on the home islands. As WWII encircled the operations called ‘Golden Lily’ and choked off the transfers, hordes of gold and gems were buried in place or sunk into the sea. Most of the known caches, say the Seagraves, were left in the Philippines by General Tomoyuki Yamashita who was battling for territory against time. “Yamashita’s Treasure”, as it were, had been revealed to Douglas MacArthur through army intelligence from his aide Willoughby and Col. Edward Lansdale, and MacArthur came ashore expecting to find it. Accordingly, the recovered loot was worth a contemporary billion and  believed to be only a fraction of what remained. It was turned over as a private reparation that became the Black Eagle Trust: “..the [Seagraves state that] architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to..Roosevelt’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson: John J. McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense) and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury)… [in Sterling Seagraves' words:]“..a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington… This fund remains in existence today… [T]he vast treasures..were used..to acquire newspapers, magazines, radio and later television throughout the world… [O]nce the..war loot was in the pipeline, drugs and the laundering of drug money replaced gold…” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=9196
                                                                                                                          
John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy (1895-1989) earned the “nickname of ‘Chairman of the Establishment’. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“…In 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.”
   “Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… Two younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..”[p60, The Chairman, by Kai Bird, 1992]..At Cravath’s firm, “McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads.” [p62, ibid.]
As a consequence of..business [in the mid-1920s] with Brown Brothers, McCloy met Robert Abercrombie Lovett..[whose] father [was] chairman of the Union Pacific [and] neighbor of..Cravath’s on Long Island… At Yale, one of [Lovett's] best friends was F. Trubee Davison, the son of Henry Davison, the J.P.Morgan & Co. partner… Another ruch young man in this charmed circle was W. Averell Harriman..[who] inherited Union Pacific from his father, the legendary robber baron Edward H. Harriman [financed by Kuhn Loeb]. ” [p68, The Chairman]
http://polioforever.wordpress.com/john-j-mccloy/
   McCloy had an impressive list of job titles: Asst. Secretary of War (WWII), President of the World Bank (1947-49), High Commissioner of Germany (1949-52), Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1950-53), Chairman of the Ford Foundation (and Trustee, 1953-1965), Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-1970), Chairman of the Salk Institute (subrosa) and appointment to the Warren Commission (1964). Strauss and McCloy both formally resigned their business relationship with Kuhn Loeb at the same time, in 1946.
*
A version of the Black Eagle Trust story goes like this:

Gold bullion confiscated from the Reich..was the original source of funding for this trust… [and] would be known by several names: Black Eagle Trust, the Marcos gold, Yamashita’s Gold, the Golden Lily Treasure, the Durham Trust or Project Hammer… The significance of the Nazi gold would pale in comparison to the confiscated  Japanese treasure…  Heidner presents..evidence to support his thesis that one of the main reasons for the [9-11] attacks was to cover up the laundering of
$240 billion dollars in covert and allegedly illegal  bonds, which appear to have been replaced with Treasury notes backed by U.S.  taxpayers in the aftermath of September 11
   “Lansdale’s operation in the Philippines gave birth to most of the common  features of modern covert operations for U.S. Intelligence: bribery, theft,  torture, and false flag operations. It would be Lansdale who would initiate a  bond between the US intelligence organizations and Israeli intelligence. It  would be Lansdale that would set precedents for the Intelligence community to retain the services of organized crime on U.S. soil. Lansdale would hire  American Mafia family heads Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky,  and Lucky Luciano in the U.S. war against Fidel Castro in 1961.”
[edited from:   http://wanttoknow.info/911/black_eagle_trust_fund] Um…this second paragraph smacks of misdirection but I do believe any number of somebodies got the mafia involved in moving weapons, cash and drugs. As far as retaining the Mob, the Office of Naval Intelligence enlisted the NY-NJ mobsters to guard the docks of New York Harbor after the USS Normandie incident in 1942. The Navy was abiding a common tradition in business already practiced for decades in America– hiring gang enforcer-protectors.
   The “old money” societies of Asia, Mid-East, Mediterranean and Europe were masterfully adept at integrating and insulating their hierarchies of organized crime and the process became distinctively visible in America during Prohibition. The mafia turf wars of 1933-34 appear to have favored the well-connected collaborators.
*
   “…what’s striking about the [Seagraves'] meticulous research..in Gold Warriors is the way the authors singlemindedly pursue the trail of Japan’s pillaged loot from those caves in the Philippines to financing of military endeavors in the Middle East.” http://www.bowstring.net/text/review_gw_rk.pdf
    “Concerned that President Harry Truman was wobbly in his support for creating a new nation of Israel, [Meyer] Lansky reached out to the Kansas City underworld and they used their connections in the White House to persuade Truman, whose home state was Missouri…” www.fivefamilies.com/2010/05/meyer-lanskys-mafia-secrets-exposed-by.html
At War’s End
Bill Donovan, head of OSS, was in Kunming China north of Vietnam “when news came of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Donovan turned philosophical… there would be a ‘peaceful interlude’, but sooner or later America would have a showdown with the communist world…  Two months later, Donovan phoned Jackson [Justice Robert Jackson, organizer of the Nuremberg trials] and told him U.S. Intelligence had ‘incontestable proof’ the Soviets were ‘in complete possession of the secret of the atomic bomb’... The OSS would be needed in Europe to spy on the Russians..and in Asia to police the Japanese...” [p332, Wild Bill Donovan, by Douglas Waller, 2011]
   The ALSOS mission which had been sent into Europe to gather important scientists and documents in advance of occupation forces had a smaller counterpart organized for Japan. Unlike the multi-agency European Alsos made of intelligence delegations, led by Col. Boris Pash and physicist Samuel Goudsmit,  Alsos Japan dispatched a geologist to MacArthur in Manila in July of 1945. Don Leet was was no ordinary geologist but a Manhattan Project veteran and explosives expert.
   “There were 175 ‘imperial treasure sites hidden throughout the Philippines… According to Ray Cline [CIA] and others, between 1945 and 1947 the gold bullion..was moved discreetly to 172 accounts at banks in 42 countries… Washington had to insist, starting in 1945, that Japan never stole anything, and was flat broke and bankrupt when the war ended… [But] If American conservatives and Japanese conservatives were to ally effectively against communism, they had to begin by enlarging their financial resources for the Cold War.”  [the Seagraves] http://rense.com/general13/treasure.htm
Pictures of ‘Yamashita’ gold and bank documents http://yamashitatreasures.com/pixpage.html
Alsos Japan
Berkeley-trained physicist Philip Morrison was on Japan’s Alsos team sent to Tokyo after the surrender. Morrison had been part of the Chicago MED (Metallurgical Lab) working with particle accelerators and reactors: “..we were making plutonium, which is only a step to the bomb… I speak of it always as being a neutron engineer… [We had] plutonium made in the piles [reactors] by irradiating uranium with neutrons to turn U-238s into plutonium 239, which was a long-lived [25,000 year half-life], charge-rich nucleus with a very low fission threshold, so that slow neutrons could make it divide… [Anyway] I had acquired some intelligence interests..[and] when the time came for the project to break up..I was in Japan on the government’s business measuring..the site. [the site:Hiroshima/Nagasaki, along with 'seismic prospector' L. Don Leet]. We from Los Alamos were already out in Tinian Island..so they took whoever was nearby and said, ‘You go into Japan.’ The best we could do, you know. I couldn’t speak any Japanese but they gave me..a language officer..named John Congleton… he was our entire communication medium..and an ensign called Barney O’Keefe..[who] was our watcher and bodyguard... [A] week or two..I spent waiting in the hotels in Tokyo..before we were allowed to move out of the city by talking to the local scientists… A radiologist from the University of Tokyo..began to talk to me..that he knew of the radiation damage because he had worked in Pennsylvania hospitals five years..doing whole body irradiation [on animals]…[He]said ‘I know about radiation but you Americans carried it further.. You have done the human experiment.’ ..I had to agree with him…you know, to the murder..[of]making bombs against a whole city… [My] entire tour through Japan [lasted] for a month after the war.”  http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/30591_1.html

   “The Joint Chiefs..ordered on October 30..‘No research..on atomic energy shall be permitted in Japan.’…[In] November..American military teams proceeded to hack Japan’s five [known] cyclotrons..to pieces. The remains were dumped into the sea.” www.fortfreedom.org/w08.htm
   “In the immediate aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, an organizational unit to study atomic-bomb effects began taking shape, coalescing into the Committee on Atomic Casualties, led by Thomas Rivers.. bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute…   A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years…  ‘The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed.’ ” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/thomas-m-rivers/
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“Before the CIA, there was the Pond”
Unknown to the public after WWII was an officially sanctioned intelligence agency created by the War Department in 1942 called The Pond. It “existed for 13 years and was shrouded in secrecy for more than 50 years..operated under the cover of multinational corporations, including American Express, Chase National Bank and Philips, the Dutch-based electronic giant… [T]ens of thousands of once-secret documents found in locked safes and filing cabinets in a barn near Culpeper Virginia in 2001..portray a sophisticated organization obsessed with secrecy that operated a network..in 32 countries… The organization counted among its exploits..an effort to enlist..’Lucky’ Luciano..to assassinate..Mussolini; identifying..heavy water plants doing atomic research in Norway; and providing advance information on Russia’s first atomic bomb… The head of the Pond was Col. John  [Jean, "Frenchy"]V. Grombach..[whose] father was..in the French Consulate in New Orleans. The War Department had tapped Grombach to create the secret intelligence..as a foundation for a permanent spy service… Grombach wrote that the idea..was to use ‘observers’ who would build..relationships..[rather] than spies who bought secrets… In 1955 The Pond went off the books… [It had] laid the groundwork..to integrate its activities into the U.S. Rubber Co.’s business operations in 93 countries… The Pond also worked with..Remington Rand… [In time] Grombach began furnishing names to McCarthy on supposed security risks…[and] It wasn’t long before the..organization largely ceased to exist.” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/38470605/ns/us_news-security/t/cia-there-was-pond/
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   Files belonging to The Pond, when picked up in 2001, were in the possession of the Freedom Studies Center of the American Security Council Foundation (ASCF, est.1958), a private non-profit lobby group for the private American Security Council founded by John Morris Fisher in 1955. Mr. Fisher, then a resident of the town of Culpeper, was the Director for National Security of  Sears Roebuck & Co., the Rosenwalds vast holding, and just up the road from the town of Culpeper lay Brandy Rock Farm, Strauss’s 1600-acre estate bought in 1933. Fisher’s obituary reveals his proudest activity: president of the Culpeper Regional Hospital Foundation that also was organized in 1955 to build a medical center of which “Admiral Strauss [was] one of the founders.” http://www.culpeperhospital.org/foundationMain.aspx .
   Even without a personal connection, The Pond and the ASCF, beneficiary of its documents, bear the imprint of Strauss and his Kuhn Loeb/American Jewish Committee associates. The 1958 founding members of the ASCF include: Ray Cline (CIA, quoted by the Seagraves above), Thomas J. Dodd, Averell Harriman, Henry ‘Scoop’ Jackson, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Sam Rayburn, Nelson Rockefeller, Eugene Rostow, and others. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/American_Security_Council
   Origins of the Pond within Military Intelligence (Army G-2) began with the authorization given by General George Strong to Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner to establish “a perpetual, a far-seeing, a far-distant, continuing intelligence service…Kroner selected Grombach..’particularly because [he] could take such instructions..under the terms of the highest secrecy’… Kroner testified after the war that..’only those in the War Department and the State and the President’s office..[and] President himself..knew it existed… A few people at FBI headquarters were also in on the secret… the whole thing was well known to Mickey [D. Milton] Ladd, chief of the FBI’s Domestic Intelligence Division, an ally of Grombach.” https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol48no3/article07.html   The FBI’s Mickey Ladd, naturally, was later to be a prime conduit for the crosstalk in the Atomic Energy Double Agent Program.
   “..Convinced the OSS was infiltrated by the British, French and Russians, Strong set up..his own small espionage unit..secret from Donovan…’the Pond’..began infiltrating spies overseas under State Department and commercial cover…[p117, Wild Bill Donovan]…No one in the OSS could determine exactly what the Pond’s band of spies was doing for the Army’s G-2, but Grombach..kept popping up on Donovan’s radar screen… As near as Donovan’s officers could tell,  Grombach had operatives roaming Portugal, Sweden, Hungary and Romania..[and] was also trying to recruit former OSS officers with experience in Turkey and Greece… [He] also collected dossiers on hundreds of OSS officers. [p290, ibid.] Major General Clayton Bissell..replaced Strong..in early 1944..[and was just] as hostile to Donovan.” [p307, ibid.]
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“Two and a half weeks after President Truman declared victory, Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to the RCMP [Canadians]… On November 7th, Elizabeth Bently visited the FBI’s New York office and began to recount her role as a courier for two espionage rings in Washington D.C…. She identified as Soviet agents persons in the White House, the State Department, the War Department, [and] the OSS…” http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/highlights-of-history/articles/venona
   Elizabeth Bentley made her first approach to the FBI in August of 1945. Then on September 5, Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Embassy cipher clerk in Ottawa, Ontario, defected with documents concerning atomic weapons espionage. What Bentley and Gouzenko had in common was later to be ‘proved’ by decrypted radio intelligence (sigint) that was collected in Finland and brought to Stockholm in an operation known as Stella Polaris (Pole Star). “Stella Polaris was an evacuation of all the Finnish Intelligence officers and their families..to Sweden..[in] September 1944…at least 750 people and 500 pack[ing] boxes of equipment..and documents [were] carried over..on four cargo vessels” in the middle of the night. But “Stella Polaris is also known as a process about the burnt archives from 1946 until the 1950s… it was [not until] the 90s in the U.S. when the NSA started publishing secret spy telegrams which had been part of the..system VENONA during the Cold War. Much of the material was..sold in 1944 and 1945 in Stockholm… The Americans became unpleasantly surprised when the Finns revealed that they could read [U.S.] communications all the time.”  http://stellapolaris.net/english/20/what-was-the-operation-stella-polaris
   A reminder from the first part of this article is: ”war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this.” [Men and Decisions]
   The British, who trained and virtually ran the neophyte OSS, “would oversee operations in India, the Balkans, the Middle East, and [until1943] Western Europe. Donovan got control of mostly table scraps, such as China and Finland. But he would also run..North Africa.” [p130, Wild Bill Donovan]
   According to historian R. Harris Smith the “OSS had made its first Scandinavian inroads..in Finland. Since the Russian invasion..in November 1939, the Finns had considered their conflict..as a separate war.  After the German attack on Russia in July 1941, Finland became a ‘co-belligerent’..[with] Berlin in battling the Red Army. In December ['41], under pressure from Moscow, Churchill reluctantly declared war on Finland… Early 1942 saw the Nazis using Finnish territory as a base of operations against Russia.” [p198, OSS, R. Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press]
   Finland, as it turned out, became a great crossroads of mixed-purpose espionage and the OSS Stockholm duty evolved into an important listening post for Soviet activity.  A number of discussion threads on JFK assassination deal with the relationships generated around the Stockholm base and Stella Polaris operation; even the reasoned expectation that “OSS station [Stockholm] was in large part controlled by [Military] Secret Intelligence and..by Grombach… Olsen was a member of OSS Stockholm [and]identified as a member of Grombach’s Pond group… A suggestion could also be made that Richard Helms was a Grombach man.” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=2967&st=75  ; this next link, for example, includes Lee H. Oswald  http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=3981
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American Security Council
   Originally called the Midwest Research Library of Chicago, the few 1954 founding ASC incorporators included General Robert E. Wood of Sears Roebuck who notified J. Edgar Hoover with this note: “As you know, the Mid-American Research Library was organized by patriotic businessmen to preserve and expand the Harry A. Jung files. The name..has now been changed to the American Security Council…  Its primary mission is the gathering, correlation and dissemination of factual information on Communist strategy and tactics to its members… The Council has the largest and most complete private files on Communism in the country at its main office in Chicago..containing the names of over 1,ooo,ooo individuals and organizations provid[ing] information which the FBI cannot supply since its files are secret. ”  http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/tamwag/lazare_content.html
   The Jung files were held at the Chicago Tribune Tower where they took up the entire 26th floor of Robert McCormick’s newspaper offices. Jung was a former editor of The American Gentile, published by The Gentile Front, and is known for being “one of the first” distributors of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and founder of the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation.
   Hoover’s interest in the ASC was two-fold: as a rightwing organization under surveillance and as a pool for retired FBI agents, including D.Milton (Mickey) Ladd, Lee R. Pennington (associated to Watergate), W. Cleon Skousen, John Fisher, Kenneth Piper (VP of Motorola), etc.
>>>Pennington-Watergate connection:”Pennington went to [James] McCord’s house [and].. destroyed..documents linked to the Watergate break-in.” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=4567
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   The American Security Council adopted the motto “Peace Through Strength” and organized a Coalition for Peace Through Strength (CPTS) and a National Strategy for Peace Through Strength (NSPTS) by which it lobbied officers of government and business. “The ASC has a complex structure with many subsidiaries… Its boards of advisors and directors have..generous representation from military contractor firms [e.g. Lockheed, Boeing, General Dynamics]..defense intellectuals and rightest retirees of the military and intelligence establishment..including James Angleton (CIA), John Singlaub (USA)..Lyman Lemnitzer (USA), Albert Wedemeyer..[etc] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, ASC gained some notoriety when it was revealed that one of its affiliates, the Institute for American Strategy (IAS) has been used by the National Security Council as the vehicle for training military personnel..with help from the right-wing Richardson Foundation…  [A] veteran analyst of right-wing organizations has stated that ASC is ‘not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.’http://wikispooks.com/wiki/American_Security_Council,_extract_from_The%22Terrorism%22_Industry
>>>The Richardson Foundation (Smith Richardson), established 1935 by H. Smith Richardson, is a family-controlled trust endowed by the fortune from ‘Vick’s’ pharmaceuticals. Headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. the western point of the ‘Triad’ of central counties making up greater Raleigh-Durham.
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To Summarize…
Briefly to this point, World War II enabled Lewis Strauss and his associates to gain control of the largest known stocks of gold treasure, private ‘vigilante’ intelligence, and super-weapons expertise. For the next ten years (1945-1955) a slow motion coup d’etat rumbled beneath the American establishment, ending, arguably, in the last grab for resources –human resources– by way of a medical debacle in 1955 called Salk polio vaccine. The roots of the polio vaccine and its Cold War “success” is integral to the growth of nuclear weapons.
                        Crossroads      
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Atomic Energy Commission
   Before the Manhattan Project was turned over to the incoming Atomic Energy Commission, the military staged the first nuclear combat-era tests in the Marshall Islands: Operation Crossroads (July 1946). Strauss’s former boss from the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance, Admiral Blandy, led the proceedings as the head of the Joint Task Force. Strauss declined Blandy’s offer to join the staff and witness Crossroads up close, writing in his memoir, “I declined regretfully in order to..return to private business” which included a Bohemian Grove holiday with ex-Pres. Herbert Hoover “during the same week that the underwater, or ‘Baker’, test was scheduled at Bikini atoll..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Interrupted at the Grove, Strauss was handily summoned to Washington and offered the first slot on the AEC. Truman said, “As to why I have selected you,  I will tell you. I asked a number of people..to give me a slate of names of possible Commissioners and your name did not appear at the top of any list. But you were a common denominator– that is to say..on all of the lists.” [p212, ibid.]

   Only recently had Strauss acquired non-remunerative status as Lifetime Trustee of the American Cancer Society and an executive governorship over New York’s Sloan Kettering Institute along with a number of MED chiefs.  He was well on his way to being a common denominator in the fully expressed military-medical complex. The AEC counted its earliest successes in the radioactive isotope program, the industrial-scale byproducts made in the reactor “piles” of the weapons labs.
   “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies and clinics…  the AEC was, first and foremeost, a production agency itself… As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business’…In 1947..Congress earmarked $5million for AEC’s efforts in combatting cancer… the cancer program accounted for over 2,000 shipments [that year]… In addition, clinical cancer research hospitals were built at Argonne and Oak Ridge… By August 1949, three years after the first shipment..the AEC assembled a bibliography of 1,850 papers reporting scientific findings made with AEC isotopes –over 38% were in biology and medicine and were equally divided between human uses..and non-human… In 1950 alone, the AEC sent out more than 6,000 shipments of radioisotopes..[of which] three quarters..were used in biology and medicine…  Thus..[radioisotope use] flourished..in no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding…particularly through the National Institutes of Health.” http://www.academia.edu/302719/The_Industrialization_of_Radioisotopes_by_the_US_Atomic_Energy_Commission
Radioisotopes
   Over a decade of pre-war isotope research, thanks to Ernest O. Lawrence’s Berkeley cyclotrons, had enabled Americans to develop a small nuclear business that helped set a firmament for U.S. weapons and boost the physics curricula to run apace with Europeans. Isotopes and particle accelerators were clearly generators of nuclear weapons and Strauss capitalized on those facts in his stance as the sometimes “lone dissenter” on the AEC. Prohibitive radioisotope distribution was a forerunner to his later term at Commerce described by Richard Pfau “as a base from which to fight the Cold War.” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “This program..was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from..outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate..between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism… [R]adioisotopes..became political instruments in struggles over the control of the atom.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
   Atomic monopoly was a concept largely nurtured in the mind of Harry Truman who also thought the atomic bomb, prior to dropping, was “just a bigger bomb”.  Advisors had been telling Truman that the United States had a minimum two-to-five year headstart on bombs of the fission type and perhaps a ten year advantage on the ‘Super’.  Isotopes, on the other hand, were already outside the domain of US control, the surest means of proliferation, and the stickiest issue for hastening an international treaty and buttoning down the National Security State.
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One week after the Crossroads-Baker test at Bikini,  with Lewis Strauss on board as the first AEC Commissioner, Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 on August 1. The bill (known as the McMahon Bill for its sponsor, CT Senator Brien McMahon) declared “Government ownership of all fissionable material… No person shall have any title in or to any fissionable material… It shall be unlawful..to possess or transfer..export or import to..or directly or indirectly engage in the production of any fissionable material outside of the United States. [p6]… The Commission is authorized to purchase or otherwise acquire any fissionable material or any interest therein outside the United States..in the interest of the common defense and security… except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source materials which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant… Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate..any provision..with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction..be punished by death or imprisonment for life…[p20]” http://www.osti.gov/atomicenergyact.pdf
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An example of radioisotope developments in the 1930s outside the United States was given by historian Simon Turchetti who noted that Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his business partner Gabriello Giannini had patented 60 isotopes by 1936 “in various countries“, intended for research. Giannini was “responsible for trading the patents“.  Successful contracts were made with Philips Fabriken in Amsterdam, Sharp & Dohme, and the US corporations General Electric and Westinghouse. According to Turchetti, Giannini “partnered with the Dutch firm Philips..and..with L.V. Graner, a Philips engineer who lived and worked in New York.” By that time Giannini himself lived in the U.S. –he set up a business office at 30 Rockefeller Center and later found contractual wartime employment with Lockheed.  www.eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/4609/1/Slow.Neutrons.pdf  A potentially interesting aspect of the Giannini-Philips relationship is the primary sponsorship by Philips of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond intelligence.
   Whatever the case regarding the patents or any buy-back effort from the AEC,  U.S. weapons programs benefitted from cooperation with Philips, Giannini and Fermi. In December of 1938, Enrico Fermi took permanent leave of Italy on the occasion of receiving a Nobel Prize in Stockholm. From there he emigrated to New York and signed on to the Manhattan Engineer District. His assignments took him to Chicago, where he co-assembled the first nuclear reactor, and then to Los Alamos. Sometime in 1943, while contemplating the technical difficulties of bomb-making with Robert Oppenheimer, “Fermi took Oppenheimer aside..and suggested another way to kill large numbers of Germans. Perhaps, he said, radioactive fission products could be used to poison Germany’s food supply.” [p221, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin]
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   Strauss wrote in his memoir, “In 1946 the Soviet delegate to the United Nations let it be known that in..Communist Russia the facts about atomic energy were ‘very well understood’. But atomic energy was being employed by his country for peaceful purposes only…  Not everyone, however, accepted Soviet assurance… The first Atomic Energy Commissioners did not. The several Commissioners were confirmed by the Senate in April 1947.  At a meeting shortly thereafter we discussed a memorandum I had [prepared]..as to whether the intelligence arrangements of the Manhattan Project had made provision..for continuous monitoring of radioactivity in the atmosphere… [p201, Men and Decisions]…[The memo read] ‘If there is no such monitoring system in effect, it is incumbent upon us..to initiate it ourselves at once.’ There was unanimous agreement. [p202, ibid.] …It was important that the tests which the Atomic Energy Commission was planning..[at] Eniwetok in the spring of 1948 should be monitored in order that..reliable detection might be perfected. [p204] …By the time of our test series..in 1948 [Operation Sandstone] the system was ready to demonstrate and by the summer of 1949, vigilance was rewardedI was completely convinced that a [Soviet] weapon or an explosive device had been tested purposefully on or about August 29 [1949, and] that it might not have been the first such test by the Soviets.” [p216]
   The USSR, it appeared, became the third nation after the U.S.(1945) and U.K.(1947) to attain the bomb. The detection event, as it turned out, took weeks to confirm and was not without lasting controversy over the reliability of data –fallout analysis collected by aerial filters on a US military plane. Strauss reported it as “One of our planes operating in the Long Range Detection System collected a sample that was decidedly radioactive…“[p276, caption, Men and Decisions]. The Soviets, were it they, had a knack for timing. Secretary of Defense Forrestal, replaced earlier in March, fell to his death on May 22. Skirmishes over radioisotope shipments, lax security, missing plutonium and other AEC program flaws had reached a peak of rhetoric by summer. “..concerns about shipments of isotopes to Norway and Finland resulted in allegations that the Atomic Energy Commission’s distribution policy was undermining national security… Just a few months later, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb shattered any illusions..[about] nuclear monopoly. In addition, the governments of Britain and Canada began selling radioisotopes to foreign purchasers, with fewer restrictions…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454 Less than four months hence (Jan.1950), the government was informed that atomic-spy penetration during the war had fully compromised its most guarded secrets and a chorus of H-bomb boosters moved the administration to immediately authorize a crash program to build ‘Supers’. On January 31, 1950, Lewis Strauss, jubilantly celebrating a birthday-to-remember, submitted his resignation.
>>>Strauss’s first post as AEC Commissioner covered July 1946 to April 1950. He returned as Chairman in 1953, appointed by Eisenhower.
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Timeline NOTES: In 1946
–January 22, President Truman issues a Directive forming the Central Intelligence Group (CIG, renamed CIA in July of 1947 at the signing of the National Security Act)
–April, John F. Kennedy launches his campaign for congress and handily wins the June primary
–July 1, 1946—The cancer control program was established at the National Cancer Institute (http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NCI.htm) on the same day as Crossroads first test, “Able” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Crossroads
The NIH participated in Operation Crossroads providing experimental pharmaceuticals (‘sun’screen and vaccines) and personnel. –July 3, NIH lobbyists (Laskers, Mahoney, et.al.) succeeded in enacting the Mental Health Act
–August 1, signing of the Atomic Energy Act
— Austrian physicist Hans Thirring published a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb (2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict] http://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/
–G.M. Giannini and Philips Electronics filed lawsuits for the restoration of their patents and earnings; Giannini sued for $10 million and Philips for $20 million (suits were dropped in the ’50s)
–October 7, W. Averell Harriman appointed Truman’s Secretary of Commerce (Oct-7-46 to Apr-22-48)
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1947
January 29, 1947, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics program for the government was convened..[for] the Manhattan Project. The status of their mandate was stated: “No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter… the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined”  http://polioforever.wordpress.com/health-physics/
–March, John J. McCloy becomes second president of the World Bank (until June 1949), after Eugene Meyer
–April,  AEC Commissioners assume their offices.
–July, creation of the Division of Security and Intelligence of the Atomic Energy Commission
–Aug, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, former aide to Secretary Forrestal, is appointed Director of the Division of Security
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Particle Accelerators, Isotopes and Plutonium
   The isotope theory was first proposed by Englishman Frederick Soddy in 1912. An isotope is a variant of a particular element based on the mass of its nucleus. Before the concept of the neutron, the proton-containing nucleus of an atom was thought to have additional particles that altered its mass and produced isotopes, some of which are unstable and radioactive though chemically identical to each other. Isotope theory led to the discovery of the neutron, proposed by Ernest Rutherford and others as early as 1918. Existence of the neutron was experimentally confirmed by several physicists between 1928 and 1932, credited to another Englishman in 1932, James Chadwick, who worked at the Cavendish (Cambridge, UK) Lab with Rutherford and later joined the Manhattan Project.
   Between 1938 and 1940, two scientists at the Cavendish, Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher, used particle accelerators made by Philips to bombard uranium-238 with neutrons ["neutron capture" method] to cause fission and make plutonium-239.  Feather left an oral history of his work: “..it had been obvious..at least 18 months before January 1939 [the announcement of fission] that there was something very odd happening in these interactions of neutrons with the heavy elements…and it was quite clear that one could now produce trans-uranic elements..so people were bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons and they were collecting radioactive species..in great abundance. That was beginning to be known in ’37-’38..before the whole thing fell into place by the realization that what was happening was fission… very shortly afterwards Bretscher and I..identified iodine and hellurium amongst the fission products… Incidently the experiment..was done on the 1 MeV Phillips set… [In] December 1940..[we] put in a report..that if uranium-235 had the characteristics..suitable for a bomb..we believed 239 plutonium would have it..[and] might be less difficult than separating..235 uranium.” http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4599_2.html
>>>uranium-235, a rare isotope in u-238, was made for the MED by the gaseous diffusion method at the enormous Oak Ridge Tennessee facility. Oak Ridge became the center for postwar isotope production using reactors. Making plutonium for bomb cores with accelerators, however, was one of Ernest O. Lawrence’s most driven projects. The first US-made plutonium came from his Rad Lab in Berkeley. The “plutonium breakthrough” by Cambridge-Cavendish meant that any skilled operator with a sufficiently high-voltage accelerator and enough naturally-occuring uranium-238 and a separating method could produce their own bomb cores. Potentially, select hospital labs in virtually all modern nations had the equipment for the job.
>>>particle accelerators for medical use is covered in a 1974 Janeway Lecture given by Dr. Milford Schulz, published as “The Supervoltage Story” http://www.ajronline.org/content/124/4/540.full.pdf
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R. Gordon Arneson, secretary to the Interim Committee on atomic energy, said during an oral history interview that he was present at the Pentagon “shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki..[when] a message to be transmitted immediately to General MacArthur..[came with] the approval of General Groves. It called for the destruction of all the Japanese cyclotrons… They were destroyed in a matter of hours. We saved all the bits and pieces we could use and the rest was dumped in the ocean. Now..we’ve learned in recent years that the Japanese had a bit more of a program going than we thought… [Question: Was it true that you could hide the manufacture of a bomb behind the walls of another type of factory, that it was fairly easy to conceal the actual production of a bomb?] Maybe you could use smaller facilities..and eventually you might get enough… [Question: When you said 'dangerous facilities' did you mean facilities producing atomic bombs?] Producing nuclear fuel. [Question: Okay..which could be used for either weapons or peaceful applications?] Yes. [Question: There was no agreement on nuclear limitations, armament limitations, until 1963, I guess...That was the first time..?] Yes. The only one that made any difference… Over the years, I was persona non grata to Admiral Strauss. He considered himself a ‘majority of one’ on the Commission.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/arneson.htm
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Atomic Security
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Of the five members of the AEC, only Strauss possessed experience in decisions on national security..on which the survival of the United States might depend.  Strauss saw the Cold War with single-minded clarity… None of the other Commissioners shared his concern… He assigned his capable assisstant, William T. Golden..to follow up. When the Central Intelligence Group..estimated ‘that approximately two years will be required to locate, install, and operate the complete network of stations and facilities’ [needed for radiation monitoring] Strauss protested. ‘We cannot regard a two-year period as acceptable,’ he said…[p95, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss fought as hard to safeguard classified information as he did for long-range detection. He knew there was no ‘secret’ to the bomb. The American advantage lay in its lead..and its access to supplies of..uranium. Often he took his case outside the Commission…even to newspapers… The first issue was security…”  [p97, ibid.]
*                                                      Col. Boris Pash
Boris Pash
No single individual in the United States had more experience in atomic intelligence than the Chief of Security of the Manhattan Project, Colonel Boris T. Pash. “Pash..was director of security..[and] also the lead officer in the Alsos Mission which scoured Europe searching for German nuclear scientists…charged with finding..atomic and bacteriological weapons…” [Pash obit.] http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Colonel-Boris-T-Pash-3033038
   Boris ‘Pash’ Pashkovsky was a White Russian born in San Francisco (1901) while his parents were on an extended assignment for the Russian Orthodox Church. They took him back to Moscow as a child and years later “When the Bolsheviks seized power, Pash joined the counterrevolutionary White Army and fought in the 1918-20 civil war. He returned to America after marrying a Russian aristocrat. During the 1920s and ’30s, while employed as a highschool football coach, Pash spent his summers as a reserve US Army Intelligence officer… [During WWII] he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast and then was assigned [to] the Manhattan Project… Pash had little patience for bureaucracy [and] considered himself a man of action. While his admirers described him as ‘cunning and shrewd’, others regarded him as a ‘crazy Russian’. Pash considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy…” [p.190, American Prometheus]   …”On June 29, 1943..Col. Boris Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer [suspected of Communist sympathies] be denied a security clearance and fired… Groves’ new security aide, Lt.Col. John Lansdale, a smart thirty-one-year-old lawyer from Cleveland..did not recommend firing Oppenheimer…[p.233]…General Groves agreed with..Lansdale…[and] Pash..seethed at this decision.” [p.336, ibid.]…Pash had been..so antagonistic toward Oppenheimer as to finally lead Groves to conclude that Pash was wasting the Army’s time and resources… Groves decided that Pash’s talents could be put to better use elsewhere.” [p249, American Prometheus] He was assigned to Alsos.
   The first part of Alsos’ mission was to accompany the advance troops into Italy. “Four outstanding scientists were picked by Dr. [Vannevar] Bush at OSRD. Dr. James Fisk of Bell Telephone Company was in charge of the scientists. Only he and Pash would know about the atomic bomb part of their mission… They were flown to Algiers to report to Gen. Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Gen. [Walter] Bedell Smith. Only these two men were to know the details…” http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
   As a young man of 17, Jim Fisk (1910-1981) “enrolled in [M.I.T]..in the new pursuits of aeronautical engineering… [In] 1932, he went to Cambridge University where he worked with those who were probing the [atomic] nucleus [in the Cavendish lab]… After working on particle accelerators..he accepted a job on the faculty of physics at the University of North Carolina. In 1939..Fisk accept[ed] the invitation..to join Bell… He collaborated with William Shockley in the independent derivation of conditions for the critical mass and sustained chain reaction of an atomic pile… He was, in 1947, appointed the first director of research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission… He retired as chairman of Bell Laboratories in 1974, having served as executive vice-president from 1955 and president from 1959..thus directly responsible for all..programs pursued by Bell..for A.T.&T [which] included support of the national Apollo lunar exploration and close affiliation with the Sandia Laboratories in nuclear systems… [He] was uniquely prepared to work with President Eisenhower..in the formation of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House..[which he] served from 1957..to 1973.” http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1760&page=93 Fisk did not return to Alsos after the Italy assignment. The next mission was Alsos’ campaign into France and Germany on the heels of D-Day –their science director, picked by the OSRD, was Samuel Goudsmit. “Over..22 months they succeeded in seizing top German and Italian nuclear scientists and 70,000 tons of uranium and radium products that would be shipped to the U.S. for use in its own nuclear development… After the war..beginning in 1946 [Pash was posted] as the Chief of the Foreign Liason for MacArthur in Tokyo. In March 1949 he was detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination…” [the OPC]  http://huachuca-www.army.mil/files/History_MPASH.PDF
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FBI, CIA, ONI, G2…
The Atomic Energy Act charter tasked the FBI with the AEC’s security needs and consequently the official memoranda traffic was routed through the FBI, notwithstanding the significant stakeholding already in process by other agencies. Strauss wrote, “if any security whatever is to exist, there must be a recognized authority and a rule to which all must adhere.” [p248, Men and Decisions]
In August 1947, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich was appointed Director of the newly created Division of Security and Intelligence. Declassified FBI files on Gringrich show that at the time of his [AEC] appointment he was working closely with the Central Intelligence Group.” www.majecticdocuments.com/personnel/gingrich.php  The memoranda reveal Gingrich’s troubled tenure.
   July 1947, D.M. Ladd: Gingrich’s “principal job will be to cooperate with the FBI… The decision by the Commission to establish a combined security and intelligence division was based on security studies made over..five months..by Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers.. former Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence and..first head of the Central Intelligence Group…  the AEC program will head up in the unified office of Admiral Gingrich…”
   To D.M. Ladd from Victor P. Keay, Sep.9,1947:”[One] of our best [FBI] confidential contacts stated that Admiral Gingrich is very unpopular with the employees of the Security Division and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction and grumbling among them. He stated that Gingrich uses very high-handed methods…[and] that the Admiral has been giving [security] clearance for employment to persons who were recommended against by the Review Board..the General Manager and others… The Admiral in conversations with Special Agent [blank] has indicated that he doesn’t put much faith in the ability of his personnel, particularly [blank] of the Security Division… The Admiral also indicated..that he intended to rely heavily upon the Bureau rather than his own Security Division.”
   April 19, 1949, Gingrich handed in his resignation, effective May 1, and “pointed out that there was no centralized control and when he issued instructions..had no assurance that they would be carried out… He has had numerous problems and his division has been beset by many difficulties.”  http://www.majesticdocuments.com/pdf/john-edward-gingrich_fbifile.pdf
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Atomic Energy Dual (FBI) Agent
   The FBI stepped into the fray “To further discharge our responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act” and initiated discussion of “placing Bureau Agents in vital installations in undercover capacities.”  According to Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.” The Communist informant program appears to have endured while the dual-agent program fizzled: three Special Agent candidates were selected: “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by  AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to reconsider initiating the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”   http://www.governmentattic.org/4docs/FBIundercoverAECfacilities_1949-1964.pdf
   “During the Commission’s first three years there were occasions upon which I found myself at odds with a majority of  my colleagues… in the main..I was inclined to go along..if I could not bring them to see justice in my point of view.” –Lewis Strauss, p215, Men and Decisions.
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One of his fellow AEC commissioners said of him, “If you disagree with Lewis about anything, he assumes you’re just a fool at first. But if you go on disagreeing with him, he concludes you must be a traitor.” [p362, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin]
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Timeline NOTEs
1947 – “That spring, reports surfaced in the press that ‘secret files’ had been lost or stolen from the AEC’s laboratories. Critics of the AEC called for a military takeover of the agency on account of its ineptitude in managing security…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923454/
uranium goes missing from the Argonne National Lab
–”the FBI was grilling..an ex-soldier who had been found in possession of highly classified photographs stolen from the atomic facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico..[he] had also worked..at Brookhaven… As he was being arraigned in federal court, it was noted that he’d been picked up just as he was about to flee the country.” http://articles.nydailynews.com/2000-09-26/news/18156295_1_atomic-energy-third-national-political-party-communist-party
July– [Albuquerque Journal] “The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers… A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the result of government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’…Officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments..[and] one of them added,’All we know is what we read in the papers.’…” http://www.abqjournal.com/roswell/rjpage1.htm
– In Socorro Dr. Irving Langmuir was initiating the first large-scale weather modification experiments;  Edward Teller wrote, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
1948
April/May, Operation Sandstone in the Marshalls; first tests conducted by the AEC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sandstone
May 14, Israel is founded, Palestine partitioned
–May 17, security breach reported, plutonium missing from Argonne. Bourke Hickenlooper calls for David Lilienthal’s resignation.
— Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine
– American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
– Sloan-Kettering opens for business
1949
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes”
–CIA initiates Project Bluebird, drug and psychology-based mind control http://www.examiner.com/us-intelligence-in-national/cia-behavior-modification-project-bluebird
– April 4, signing of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–May, Communist spy trials begin
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from 16th floor of Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets detonate first A-bomb; determined to already have the H-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–”November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium
1950
–Jan, Klaus Fuchs “confessed on 23rd January 1950″ that he passed atomic secrets to the Soviets; Fuchs’ courier Harry Gold led the investigators to David Greenglass and his sister Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg  http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAfuchs.htm
– Jan 31, authorization of the ‘Super’ thermonuclear fusion H-bomb
– Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss resigned the AEC, effective April 15
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The H Bomb
Excerpt from the book Fallout, published in 1960:
…”The complications of the fusion [hydrogen] bomb arise from the fact that it takes a vast amount of energy to start the fusion reaction. To make deuterium nuclei fuse..they must be heated to about 100 million degrees Fahrenheit. Such energy can be provided by the explosion of a fission bomb, which can therefore serve as a trigger for a fusion bomb. But then comes the problem of how to pack enough hydrogen fuel into the bomb and how to hold it together long enough to allow it to fuse.
   “In the first attempt..the hydrogen was condensed to its liquid form. This meant that it had to be reduced to a very low-temperature –not far from absolute zero– and so our first hydrogen ‘bomb’ was a gigantic refrigerator, weighing some 65 tons. Its fuel was tritium (the hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons), which fuses more readily than deuterium. This was the device detonated on the island of Elugelab in the Marshalls on November 1, 1952. It yielded the equivalent of about three million tons of TNT –150 times the Hiroshima bomb– and obliterated the little island…  Having proved that a fission-fusion device would work, the AEC scientists attacked the problem of reducing it to something portable enough to be used as a bomb. Several scientists..suggested that the need for liquefying the hydrogen might be avoided by combining it with the light metal litium in solid form; e.g. in the compound lithium deuteride, composed of one atom of lithium and one of deuterium.” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/
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Congressman John F. Kennedy
   “Truman talked of ‘free peoples who are resiting attempted subjugation’… In this darkening world, an enemy of the Soviet Union was a friend of the United States… The public mood was shifting..and Jack was entering a Congress in which politicians of both parties had begun to flay away at Communists… of all the newly elected members..[Kennedy] was the first to berate publicly a putative Communist..[Russell Nixon of United Electrical Workers]before the House Labor Committee.
   …Joe remained as isolationist as he had ever been..[and] opposed the Marshall Plan as a massive giveaway of American wealth. He was all for letting the tired peoples of Europe have their desperate fling with Communism if they chose… Jack was making a different sound. Congressman Kennedy was a lowly freshman..But that spring [of 1947]..he stated that he was in favor of aid to Europe… Jack supported whatever measures were necessary to contain a Soviet Union that he believed pushed relentlessly outward, driven..and fortified by Communist ideology… [Kennedy] envisioned..a possible nuclear Armageddon..’some twenty-five or thirty-five years from now.‘ [pp244-246, The Kennedy Men] …Jack thought the veterans should lead the nation with concern for policies that would maintain the peace and build a strong and prosperous nation… [He] was pleading for America’s veterans not to retreat into private life, leaving the public arena to the predators, the self-interested, and the narrow parochial interests…[p235]…Jack carried with him the bitter memories of a wartime capital full of what he considered the self-serving and the self-seeking… [W]hen he returned to Washington..[he] saw only the endless compromise… As the months went by, Jack became less and less a forceful advocate and more of an ironic, disinterested bystander. He brought the same emotional distance that he kept from everyone in his life to the world of politics. [p248] …[Kennedy] did not like confrontation. He found the endless battles between Democrats and Republicans not a real war but a wearisome and tedious routine. He had one of the worst attendence records in the House of Representatives… Only some [of the absences] could be attributed to his many illnesses. [p280, ibid.]
   “Jack needed these [cortisone] injections to live..[p253]…”Jack was crippled and he couldn’t walk well,’ [George]Smathers remembered…‘[and it]was a long walk [to the House floor] for a guy who had a bad hip and a bad back…So he would lean on me..[to] get over..[and] vote. So that’s really how we became very close friends…‘ [The] two bachelors had been relegated to the distant reaches of the House Office Building… Smathers’ office was just down the hall from Jack’s. [p249-250] ‘He had leukemia at one point,’ Rose told Robert Coughlin in an unpublished..autobiography. ‘I remember..there was one doctor who could cure it…[People] don’t get over that..very often.’ Jack’s..leukemia..was yet another secret that had to be carefully contained. No record of this adult illness exists… [p282] His great creation, then, was..a man of apparently endless vigor and health. He let no one stand close enough to his pain to betray his illusion. [p253] Joe..had taught his children that time was the rarest commodity in life…’Time is man’s dominant foe,’ he said. ‘All man has on earth is the present moment…‘ [p260]
   “Jack’s anticommunism was tempered by the terrible realities of war..as well as his own..ever-growing awareness of the complexities of the modern world…[p283] He and his colleagues had helped create an image of a Soviet monolith ready to strike, but now [1950] he had grasped the truths of nuclear detente. ‘Why should they [the Russians] take the risk of starting a war when the best they could get would be a stalemate during which they would be subjected to atomic bombing?’ he asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in February 1951. ‘Why should they throw everything into the game..[and] take risks they don’t have to –especially when things are going well in the Far East?’…’Stalin is an old man, and old men are traditionally cautious.’ ...[JFK] wanted to touch the world with his own mind…[p284]…Jack was attempting to understand the complex.. uncertain world of 1951. This was not easy in an America that adored simplicity. A dangerous new world was opening up... [p285, The Kennedy Men]
                                                            McMahon                Golden
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Private Citizen Strauss did not leave the AEC program:  The Chairman of Congress’ Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), Senator [James O']Brien McMahon of Connenticut, appointed Strauss Chairman of the Atomic Plant Expansion Advisory Panel. [ref. p378, Men and Decisions]. Strauss assistant, William T. Golden concurrently promoted the creation of a Presidential scientific advisory to Truman ( the later-named PSAC in 1957).
William T. Golden, who died Oct. 7, 2007, a few weeks short of his 98th birthday, was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science…In 1946, he became an assistant to Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss and helped organize that federal agency… His first recommendation..to Truman on December 18, 1950, under the title, “Mobilizing Science for War,” was the establishment of the position of scientific advisor to the president…Golden searched among the first NSF director candidates for someone..[and] found the right candidate in Alan T. Waterman, a physicist who was then chief scientist for the Office of Naval Research  … After ending his service to President Truman, Golden embarked on a life of stewardship and philanthropy. He was a trustee, board member or officer of nearly 100 scientific, educational and non-profit organizations.http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=110493&org=OD&from=news Waterman was also the brother-in-law of H. Neil Mallon (1895-d.1983) of Dresser Industries (acquired by Halliburton in 1998) and a close friend of Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-d.1972).
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The Sea Change
By 1950, the Sandia base at Kirtland field in New Mexico, operated by Bell Laboratories of A.T.&T, advertized its ability to turn out two nuclear weapons per day. Pressing a fear that escalating hostility in Asia would cause the military to temporarily lose its Pacific Proving Ground in the Marshalls, it was decided run tests in Nevada. The Nevada Proving Ground had been authorized in 1943 with atomic munitions in mind. Operation Ranger, scheduled for Jan-Feb., became the first series at the NTS.  Up in Michigan, where the Public Health Service maintained one of its signal laboratories, radioactive snow was collected and measured that February.
   “In the twentieth century, the soldier and citizen have become interchangeable…[p9] …The atom bomb completes the evolution. It consecrates the use of any means against the entire population… By a logic that is paradoxical only in appearance, the country least warlike in its tastes and philosophy has thus played a decisive part in the advent of unlimited war… The United States will one day, according to certain experts, be more vulnerable to atomic attack than that of any other country.” [p155, The Century of Total War, by Raymond Aron, 1955] The Korean War, declared in June of 1950 was the first conflagration expected to go nuclear. On those grounds, an unprecedented series of three atomic operations were planned for 1951; Operation Ranger in Nevada (Jan-Feb), Operation Greenhouse in the Pacific (Apr-May), and Operation Buster-Jangle back at the NTS (Oct-Nov). The planners were preparing for “nuclear battlefield” simulations.
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Top Secret — Soviet H-bomb
“[T]he evidence is convincing that the Russians achieved not only the first experimental nuclear fusion on earth, but also produced the first deliverable hydrogen bomb.” –p263, Energy and Conflict, 1976, Blumberg and Owens, who wrote “our first solid evidence came from Major Theodore F. Walkowicz…[who told us] there was something chilly and strange in the debris samples… [More] evidence comes from Robert LeBaron who, in 1951, was chairman of the [AEC] Military Liason Committee, the link between the Pentagon and the AEC. LeBaron..confirmed Walkowicz’s statement that there was a hydrogen component in a Russian test in late 1950… He was asked, ‘Was the AEC, the GAC, Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller aware of this intelligence?’ LeBaron’s reply was rather astounding: ‘No, they were not notified. It was top secret..’ ” [pp269-270, Energy and Conflict]
1951 – Operation RANGER – Jan27-Feb06 – [activated] Nevada Test Site : 5 shots   …Science magazine published an article by W.W. Meinke on the radioactive snow observed in Ann Arbor, Michigan  —  http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/refs/113/2941/545?ck=nck
1951 – Operation GREENHOUSE – Apr08-May25 – Marshall Islands, Pacific : 4 shots
1951 – Operation BUSTER-JANGLE – Oct22-Nov29 – Nevada Test Site : 7 shots : operation Desert Rock, 6,500 troops on the ground http://web.archive.org/web/20080620044321/http://www.aracnet.com/~pdxavets/bustdoc.htm
      ………W.McD. Hammon tests gamma-globulin on Provo Utah children, Sept -Dec.1  http://polioforever.wordpress.com/atomic-weapons/
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Polio Vaccine and Fallout
The gamma globulin “polio” vaccine trial run by William McDowell Hammon out of Provo Utah during Buster-Jangle was the first major response to fallout involving the Public Health Service and the March of Dimes. As both an acute and latent byproduct of radiation injury, polio (brain infection) has gone unappreciated as a fallout hazard –part of our hidden nuclear history. It is a significant factor, however, in the transformation of soldier-citizens. Hammon’s field work in Utah, and later in Texas and Iowa, was an opportunity to harvest gamma globulin (immune-cell rich blood serum) from the radiation-exposed public. Interestingly, enough children were registered in these vaccine trials to provide serum for the Nevada test participants through 1953, when the gamma globulin trial ended and the Salk vaccine began. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/provo-utah/
    Lewis Strauss, as noted in part I, began his career in medicine as the president of the Rothschilds’ polio hospital –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases. Polio, the ‘disease’ entity, was being managed by the Rockefeller establishment for whom Strauss went to work between his posts with the Atomic Energy Commission. Hired by Laurance Rockefeller to be financier to the Rockeller Brothers Fund, Strauss became a founding incorporator in some of its many projects –among them, the Population Council.
                                Lasker           Mahoney    
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Birth control was a special interest of Albert and Mary Lasker. “[A]lmost from the moment they met, he and Mary addressed themselves to medical problems, and their long..struggle..still goes on productively today [1960]… The laskers worked..on at least four different fronts: (1) birth control; (2) medical research..;(3) the American Cancer Society; and (4) the Lasker Foundation. Mary, who admired Margaret Sanger greatly, had been active in the birth control movement… Overpopulation was, she thought, a major world problem… ‘Birth control,’ [Albert] said, was too negative a phrase; it connoted self-denial. He chose ‘Planned Parenthood’..[and] gave it $75,000…” [p315, Taken At The Flood, by John Gunther]
   Florence Mahoney, Mary Lasker’s lobbying companion-in-arms after the death of Albert (1952), remembered “‘The first time that I got interested in birth control was when I volunteered to work in the Crippled and Disabled Hospital in New York’…[S]he was asked to test the muscles of children who had polio… Mahoney did not actively participate in Sanger’s organization..but became an avid fan..using her political contacts to spread the Planned Parenthood word. [p29, Noble Conspirator]…Mental health reforms too, occupied her attention. [p31] ‘I was willing to suggest anything at anytime that I thought was going to help anybody,’ she said.” [p32, Noble Conspirator, by Judith Robinson, 2001]
   Albert Lasker also “never ceased doing things for people…[p300] One of his major preoccupations for a time was a proposal for converting the Federal Security Agency into full-scale Department of Welfare with cabinet status… He was almost as..interested in health matters as Mary, [writing] ‘I am certain..Congress..will pass a very big bill for aid to hospital building.’ Meantime, he kept his eye on events…” [p299, Taken At The Flood] Lasker was right. Congress turned the FSA into HEW (Health, Education and Welfare) and Nelson Rockefeller became its Asst. Secretary, credited to him as acting Secretary.
   Lasker, a longtime friend, colleague, and ‘elder’ to Strauss, pitched in when things needed changing at the Atomic Energy Commission. David Lilienthal, who had been Chairman from the AEC’s beginning, did not support the Super. “One of Lasker’s last friendships was with David Lilienthal, for many years chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and then of the [AEC]. They met toward the end of the decade, at Mary’s suggestion, when Lilienthal was on the point of leaving government. Lasker was impressed..by his devotion to the public good..and the constructive brilliance of his mind. Albert knew, too, that he..wanted to go into some private business. So Lasker approached Andre Meyer [of Lazard Freres] pointing out that Lilienthal..was..a good man to have around. Meyer..proceeded to create a position for Lilienthal and a company was formed to work out projects..[in] long-range regional planning –irrigation, reclamation, et cetera– all over the world. So Lilienthal set out on a new career in Colombia, the Punjab, and particularly Iran.” [p291, Taken At The Flood]
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 Timeline NOTEs: 1951-1953
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
1951
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–”Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill” http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1983970,00.html (‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS; Operation Buster-Jangle
1952
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
–Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations with atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Nov, Kamchatka Earthquake and tsunami, magnitude 9.0 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1952_11_04.php
–most cases of US polio ever on record, approx. 60,000 http://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/ (diagnosis criteria begin changing, polio cases drop)
1953
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the ‘Project Sunshine’ PR campaign begins (1953-1957, to alleviate fear of fallout) for the Atomic Energy Commission under Chairman Lewis L. Strauss http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar05, Joseph Stalin is murdered; watch Juri Lina’s film In The Shadow of Hermes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuW-vNQsQI&feature=related
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS) http://eubios.info/EJ54/EJ54H.htm; later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (the marginalized HEW Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed becomes a republic
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mosaddegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax); installation of the Shah Pahlavi
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Between 1950 and 1953 a Uranium Boom was taking place in the American Southwest.
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to be continued in Part III: Israel gets the bomb; more on Pash, Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower,  nuclear testing, Oppenheimer case, relations with Israel, etc.
http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2013/03/13/lewis-strauss-and-jfk-part-iii/

November 23, 2012

Lewis Strauss and JFK

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                                                                 LewisStraussSmile Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss
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Last year I posted a five-part series called the JFK Conspiracy Con introducing my way in to the subject of the JFK assassination. For me, it was a long outgrowth on the theme of militarized medicine– an intriguing and unexpected turn-of-events in pursuit of the biological hazards of radioactive fallout.
   Merging of JFK assassination events with all-things-nuclear, in retrospect, is as natural as the convergence of rivers on their way to the sea. Thanks to intrepid research across a broad range of topics, I’ve been able to navigate into the main current with the certainty of being carried on the strongest course. It takes no special talent to ride with a torrent –merely a skill to maintain position and allow the flow to work for you. While this describes my experience with the assassination it also, keenly, describes the career of the subject of this post, Lewis L. Strauss, who mastered his gratuitous position atop the military complex, or the military-industrial-medical complex as I’m obliged to say. To the best of my present knowledge, there is no record of any direct personal interaction between John F. Kennedy and Lewis L. Strauss. What does exist is a dazzling set of facts that fit a context of qualifiers demonstrating that Strauss had the capacity to plan, execute, and cover-up the assassination of our president as an ultimate sort of inside man.
   There are many published investigators into the JFK assassination who suppose we will never know the names of the shadowy perpetrators; that they are shielded in a hierarchy of structure that seals them forever beyond the reach of inquiry and evidence. A fascinating observation of concealed power is the fact that Strauss’s job as the Atomic Energy Commission chairman, his long years prior as a Kuhn Loeb & Co. banker, Naval Intelligence officer and admiral, and a man of great wealth and international influence has resulted in but one (one!) biography sanctioned by the Strauss family. James B. Conant, a Manhattan Project leader of the highest rank, called the AEC chair “the most important job in the world” and expected it to be offered to himself. It never was. Eisenhower wished to designate Lewis Strauss the “permanent chairman” of the AEC, according to biographer Richard Pfau. Strauss declined the offer in favor of his next appointment as Secretary of Commerce, a pro-tem assignment for which Congress rejected him a year later: “He never got over it.” Officially, Commerce was his last public service with a government paycheck and Strauss went on to wrap his career as a pro-nuclear ambassador and political activist until dead in 1974.
    I find it a stunning testament to Fear and Loathing that an apologist’s screed, written to offset the ridiculously “blameless life” of Strauss’s own autobiographical memoir, stands for commentary on his most interesting contribution to history. The very lack of accessible narrative makes these recordings more acutely incisive for the bareness of cutting edges. References to Strauss are virtually everywhere touched by the Cold War. He dominates the long-stewing events of the JFK assassination with the charm and presence of the Elephant in the Room –malodorous and darkening, with the potential to bring down the house. 
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Protocol 15
[article 4 and 5]
“The class of people who most willingly enter into secret societies are..careerists, and in general people mostly light-minded, with whom we shall have no difficulty in dealing and in using to wind up the mechanism of the machine devised by us. If this world grows agitated, the meaning of that will be that we have had to stir [it] up in order to break up its too great solidarity. But if there should arise in its midst a plot, then at the head of that plot will be no other than one of our most trusted servants.
[article 9]
Death is the inevitable end for all. It is better to bring that end nearer to those who hinder our affairs than to ourselves, the founders of this affair…
Protocol 18
[article 2] It must be remembered that the prestige of authority is lessened if it frequently discovers conspiracies against itself… we have broken the prestige of the Goy kings by frequent attempts upon their lives through our agents…
[article 8]
With the establishment of official defense, the mystical prestige of authority disappears…
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The Maccabee

Rosa Lichtenstein’s first child, born in 1896, was the “apple of her eye“. In that same year, Theodor Herzl wrote, “I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again.http://www.zionism-israel.com/js/Jewish_State.html
   Twenty-two years later, returned from Europe on a junket to the Paris Peace convention as a newly minted banker with Kuhn Loeb Company, Lewis Strauss wrote a poem “For Mother” saying, “the blood of Maccabees runs in my veins and courses hot past throbbing temples calling me to rise and smite the foes of God and Righteousness” [p49, No Sacrifice Too Great]…”Strauss always believed that his life embodied some plan of God’s…[p22] As he grew toward that ministry in the ’30s, New York’s Temple Emanu-El made him their president, a member scriving “The Jews of the world are in a state of war. Lewis Strauss is our wartime president.” [p55, ibid.]
Temple Emanu-El: “Its landmark building on Fifth Avenue is the largest Jewish house of worship in the world… The congregation was founded by 33 mainly German Jews who assembled for services in April 1845″ http://www.nyc-architecture.com/UES/UES039.htm
   Rosa L. Strauss from Richmond, VA, may have been by her son’s side as he fulfilled her great ambition for him. The historical record is clear that she died of cancer in 1935, yet in one of Edward Teller’s possibly famous indiscretions, Teller told a pair of his own biographers about meeting Strauss’s mother after a speech at the Temple Emanu-El in 1948, the year Strauss resigned his 10-year wartime presidency there. The recollection was vividly made by Teller in the 1976 book Energy and Conflict who seemed amused by the incident. Mrs. Strauss wanted so much to introduce the physicist to her son, the president. Teller and Strauss had already become great allies in the battle to build H-bombs. Was Teller grossly indiscreet in the wake of Lewis Strauss’s passing (’74), or does the record of Rosa Strauss’s 1935 cancer death provide the crucially public motive for her son’s indefatigable activity as a cancer fighter? The motive was to impel the transfer and import of pre-weapons technology, radioactive substances like radium, and the scientists themselves. In one of the most obscure references to Strauss, he was also tersely noted as a member of a secretive medical research group called the Maccabee Club, presumably unrelated to any other known or traceable group by that name. The medical Maccabees remain a mystery.
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Rosa Strauss expected Lewis to earn a fortune and then devote himself to public service…[p6]…She criticized his father’s lack of drive so often that..Strauss would recall that, ‘Father was totally devoid of ambition’…[p7]…Her husband was, in her words, ‘still a child’, satisfied with his limited world. She hoped her eldest son would escape his father’s..life, and [Herbert] Hoover would be a superb role model, if only she could attach her son to him. Strauss shared his mother’s twin motives. ‘My idea,’ he wrote at the time [c.1917], ‘is to serve under Hoover..and..study this great man’s methods.’ ” [p10, No Sacrifice Too Great] Hoover had recently gained fame in the United States for first aiding the safe passage home of thousands of Americans stranded in Europe by the war, and secondly, for leading a war-zone food distribution known as the Commission for the Relief of Belgium (CRB). When the U.S. entered the war in April of 1917, Hoover was called away from his business in London by President Wilson to head a new agency, the U.S. Food Administration. Rosa Strauss hung Hoover’s portrait in the family living room and urged her son to go and meet him in Washington.
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To keep Germany in the war, Paul Warburg, head of the Federal Reserve System, hastily arranged for credits to be routed to his brother, Max Warburg, through Stockholm to M.M. Warburg Co. Hamburg. Food presented a more difficult problem. It was finally decided to ship it directly to Belgium as “relief for the starving Belgians”. The supplies could then be shipped over Rothschild railway lines into Germany. As director for this “relief” operation, the Rothschilds chose Herbert Hoover. His partner in the Belgian Relief Commission was Emile Francqui, chosen by Baron Lambert, head of the Belgian Rothschild family.  The plan was so successful that it kept World War I going for an additional two years,  allowing the U.S. to get into the “war to end wars”. ” –Eustace Mullins  http://whale.to/b/mullins46.html#The_Career_of_Herbert_Hoover__
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What no memoir (yet found) records about Lewis Strauss at this time is his apparently simultaneous acceptance of a post as the president of the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD). The hospital was originally set up in 1905 inside a Rothschild family residence at 588 Lexington Avenue (Manhattan) New York as a drug dispensary, run by the brothers (in-laws) Henry and Herman Frauenthal. Henry Frauenthal later published the most extensive medical manual on the crippling disease of polio up to its time, in 1914. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/henry-frauenthal/ . Henry Frauenthal, who survived the fated sinking of the Titanic in 1912 with his family, was married to Clara Heinsheimer, sibling of Kuhn Loeb & Co. partners, niece and nephews of the founding Loebs, related by marriage to Schiffs, Warburgs, and Seligmans.
   Young Strauss held his hospital presidency for 8 years or longer (1917-1925), but his experience on the job is no more than a dot in an historical document issued by the Montefiore-NYU medical complex that came to absorb the hospital. Were it not for a minor notation,  Strauss’s years at the HJD would be rendered invisible.  And those were boomtimes. The Frauenthals’ orthopedic business increased so greatly that a new 8-story building was needed with an entire floor (at the top) dedicated to X-ray/radiology. Strauss was the documented leader during this expansion. Not bad for a young man whose personal interests were “physics and photography”.
   Polio too was undergoing a great expansion: 1916 New York endured the highest case rate of concentrated polio in its history– 9,000 cases, nearly a third of them fatal. The epidemic erupted in August just days after a major explosion rocked the NY Harbor railhead known as Black Tom Island off the Jersey shore. News reports told of more than 50 deaths on the New Jersey side. The shipping goods, all European-bound materiels for the Allies, were completely incinerated– Black Tom Island burned for 2 weeks and was determined to have been German sabotage. Prosecution was delayed more than a decade and became part of the additional reparations demanded from Germany before WWII. The case also made the reputation of an up-and-coming lawyer named John J. McCloy, who, among other things, helped establish and serve the Salk Institute and the Warren Commission.
   In 1917, director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR), Simon Flexner, had procured the first experimental polioviruses from dead post-Black Tom polio victims. The virus type was dubbed “mixed virus” (MV, ‘mixed’ in the brains of living monkeys), a dangerous neurotrope that frightened many of the lab workers who came in contact with it. HJD personnel were accustomed to sharing the labs at the RIMR, which today bills its founding mission as the study of poliomyelitis and the pasteurization of milk. HJD became a renown polio center, perhaps the only polio hospital in the world at the time; Strauss was part of it, and they were well placed to know of polio’s significance as a radiation-induced disease that can emerge months or years after irradiation. The poliovirus made in labs has been called “the perfect human off-switch” and a “guided missile headed straight for the brain”.
   If I had to guess about the medical Maccabees, who they were and what interested them, I wouldn’t need to look further than the HJD and RIMR, a force combination of Rothschilds and Rockefellers. A last note on the Hospital for Joint Diseases here concerns the resident polio expert Henry Frauenthal after this WWI timeframe.  Not long after Lewis Strauss resigned in 1925 and signed up for Naval Intelligence, on March 11, 1927, Henry Frauenthal plunged to his death from the top of the hospital and Clara Heinsheimer Frauenthal was commited to an asylum for the rest of her life.

Hoover’s Relief

“..Less than a month after he first reported to the Food Administration [May 1917], Lewis Strauss became the private secretary to Herbert Hoover –’the Chief’ as his closest subordinates called him,” ascending in a subterfuge that got the former secretary fired, “thus opening the job Strauss wanted.” [p13, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Hoover had parlayed his successes with Belgian Relief, run from the offices of Societe Generale Bank by his mining partner Emile Franqui, into an invitation to direct the U.S. Food Administration, which did not exist until the Food and Fuel Control Act passed on August 10. “The task assigned to the USFA was to regulate the supply, distribution, and conservation of foods… The USFA bought and sold..through two subsidiaries: the Food Administration Grain Corporation (U.S. Grain Corporation) and the U.S. Sugar Equalization Board, Inc.” http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww1/cou/us/food/w1cus-usfa.html [note in this link the Food Administration art poster with a caption that reads "designed in 1915 or 1916"]
   “Two of Hoover’s principal assistants were a former lumber shipping clerk from the West Coast, Prentiss Gray, and Julius H. Barnes, a grain salesman from Duluth. Both men became partners in J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation in New York after the war, and amassed large fortunes, principally in grain and sugar… Another J. Henry Schroder partner, G. A. Zabriskie, was named head of the U.S. Sugar Equalization Board. Thus the London Connection controlled all food in the United States through its grain and sugar “Czars” during the First World War… After the war, the partners of J. Henry Schroder company found that they now owned most of Cuba’s sugar industry.” –Eustace Mullins http://www.whale.to/b/m_ch7.html
   As for Hoover, “little of the man himself was known. Long periods of his life were utterly blank… His business career and operations were carefully guarded and elaborately obscured.” http://www.monmouth.com/~colonel/hoover.html
   These were not the only methods studied and adopted by Strauss. “Two years with Hoover not only led smoothly to Strauss’s job with Kuhn Loeb but left their mark on Strauss’s personality as well. A loner since his shoe-selling days [after highschool], Strauss now hid himself further behind a shield of coldly polite formality very much like Hoover’s own…. Strauss also found in Hoover a model of impatient leadership, unwilling to compromise, who bossed rather than led. Like him, Strauss assumed that once he had thought a question through to a conclusion..others must follow simply because he was right. This..would carry him ahead quickly in banking.” [p27, No Sacrifice Too Great] But earlier, before he had congealed in his Chief’s style, and about to leave for Britain on the first mission of the USFA, “Felix Warburg called on him… Warburg told Strauss..Hoover’s private secretary could perform a great service to his people… Strauss leapt at the opportunity…[p16, ibid.]..and he also saw that if he did his work well, he could not fail to impress Warburg…[p17] Strauss had agreed to serve the JDC [Joint Jewish Distribution Committee]..before he left New York. He became administrative coordinator, trouble shooter, and financial agent for a network of JDC workers who fanned out into the cities of Warsaw, Prague, Vienna, and the surrounding countryside…[p23] All cables from the JDC headquarters in New York passed through his office, as did reports from JDC agents in the field. Strauss located surpluses in the depot of the U.S. Army, organized transportation, and arranged for payment… In addition, under the auspices of the JDC, Strauss..fought against overt anti-Semitism...[p24]…Strauss’s work for the Joint Distribution Committee led directly to his next career. Felix Warburg..and Harriet Loewenstein, the head of the JDC’s team in Europe, saw a bright future for the intelligent, ambitious young man. They thought about bringing him into their firm, Kuhn Loeb & Co, where Warburg was a partner and Loewenstein an accountant.” [p26, No Sacrifice Too Great]. Mortimer Schiff, on Red Cross business in Paris during the 1919 Versailles negotiations, delivered the offer.
   At the time, Lewis Strauss was living with his “uncle” Oscar Straus and “aunt” Sarah in their Paris mansion, rescued from the “elegant Hotel Crillon” where the lesser staff legations were housed along with the 200-person entourage of Colonel Edward Mandell House. “Oscar and Sarah..took care of him like blood relatives… They treated him like a son, and he relished the relationship. [p21] The Strauses took him to museums, horse races, and the opera, showing him the rewards enjoyed by those who could afford them, and they stimulated his ambition for money. [p22, No Sacrifice Too Great] Meanwhile, “Europe was desperate.
   On this second and long leg of the mission in Paris, while Strauss was flexing his cultural muscles with the Strauses and running the operations of the JDC, his daily tasks were focused on the post-war work of the American Relief Administration (ARA) which recast the wartime USFA into a reconstruction project. The USFA ceased to exist upon the signing of the armistice, November 11, 1918. “Hoover established the ARA, like the Food Administration, without organization charts or ponderous bureaucracies. He..found a way to staff the ARA cheaply by using American soldiers..who could not return..because of the shortage of ships. He took on 2,500 men..paid by the army and navy and hence cost the ARA nothing. Hoover organized them..with a simple mandate: ‘Set up the machinery of economic rehabilitation.’…The ARA rebuilt and managed a railroad system…cleared and opened ports, canals, and the Danube River; and..stepped in to operate the mines on a supranational basis. When typhus began to spread..killing 100,000 people a week, the ARA set up a containment line, stopped movement..across it, and then sent delousing teams..to stamp out the epidemic… Strauss worked at the center of the ARA. From the original two rooms at the Hotel Elysee-Palace the headquarters grew to fifty offices… As in Washington, Strauss controlled access to the Chief, drafted letters, and supervised execution of the Chief’s orders.” [pp 18-19, No Sacrifice Too Great] He even participated in high-level doings: “Strauss spent some time in conferences with President Wilson and other key officials” [p21]. “Strauss served as intermediary for a diplomat from Finland, Rudolf Holsti…Strauss became Hoslti’s benefactor and Finland’s champion.” [p20] “.. the country of Finland, which he..helped establish in 1919.” [p60, ibid.] Are Finnish schoolchildren taught that Lewis L. Strauss is a founding father of their country? It may have an unappreciated significance to Americans that many of the anti-communist Russians who banded together in Dallas Texas and extended their friendship to Lee and Marina Oswald had originally been funneled through Finland on their flight to the United States.
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   The match with Hoover, Strauss wrote himself [published 1962], “has endured. There has scarcely been a month in the half a thousand months which have elapsed that I have not visited him.” [Forward, Men and Decisions] Hoover endorsed Strauss’s decision to turn down the job of Controller of the League of Nations. Strauss recalled, “my friend Justice Brandeis..had [written] to say that he had hopes of a career in public service for me…[but]Now more than ever, I was dedicated to the idea of making my way in the world of business… I returned ahead of Mr. Hoover..to report for work at the offices of Kuhn Loeb.. and sailed..on the S.S. Finland… We landed in New York on September 19 (1919).” [p51, Men and Decisions]
   “Strauss joined Kuhn Loeb at the perfect time to make a fortune quickly.” [p29, No Sacrifice Too Great] And “before the end of 1919 Herbert Hoover began a run for the Presidency.”[p30, ibid.]
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World War I,  NOTES: “The JDC‘s resources came from funds collected by the American Jewish Relief Committee (est.) 25 October, 1914 and headed by wealthy Reform Jews of German origin, including Louis Marshall (who served as president), Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg… By the end of 1917, the JDC had transferred $2,532,000 to Russia, $3 million to German occupied Poland and Lithuania..[etc.]…During the emergency relief period of 1919-1920, the JDC expended more than $22 million..abroad… The Society for Safeguarding the Health of the Jewish Population formed in 1921.” http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/American_Jewish_Joint_Distribution_Committee
“..midsummer of 1914…The beginning of the European hostilities..found J.P. Morgan & Co. fortuitously appointed fiscal agent in the United States for the British and French governments. As such it took charge of the vast war purchases of the Allies…[and] crisis for the banking house was averted…. Most of the war’s cost was financed by pledging the government’s credit, i.e. the people’s credit, and this pledge at the end of the war amounted to nearly $30 billion, or more than 30 times the prewar national debt.” http://www.vlib.us/wwi/resources/archives/texts/t041226.html
“The First World War helped transform the American Red Cross into a powerful social force. At the outset of the war, the ARC had 562 chapters and about 500,000 members… by the end of the war, there were 3,724 chapters, 17,000 branches, and over 31 million members… The main tasks of the [ARC] War Council were to raise great sums of money..to run the Red Cross..transforming it into an efficient arm of the government.” http://www.redcross.org/museum/history/00-19_b.asp; “The chairman of its Central Committee was Wilson’s presidential predecessor William Howard Taft...” [p128, The Great Influenza, by John M. Barry] Spanish Flu, the pandemic begun in February of 1918, ravaged the American delegation at Versailles; Colonel House sickened with it 3 times and Pres. Wilson’s bout caused him to “lose his fire”. Wilson suffered a major stroke later in 1919 to the detriment of his policies such as Prohibition, which he opposed.
   The American Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Adolphus Simeon Solomons, agent of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and chartered by the Swiss headquarters in 1892. Clara Barton became the chapter’s president and Solomons served as vice-president. Barton and Solomons attended the 1894 Geneva Convention in which Solomons was elected to the vice-presidency of the International Red Cross.
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The two relationships of greatest publicly claimed importance to Strauss from USFA experience were with Hoover and Robert A. Taft, the son of William Howard Taft and grandson of Alphonso Taft (1810-1891), co-founder of Yale’s Shull & Bones who was a Cincinnati judge and cabinet member under U.S.Grant as Atty.Gen and Secretary of War. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphonso_Taft
By the 1950s, Senator Robert Taft “was widely regarded as the most powerful man in Congress.” He opposed sending Americans to fight in Indo-China. In his last speech before dying of cancer in 1953 he said, ‘I have never felt that we should send American soldiers to the Continent of Asia’…In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of their greatest Senate predecessors… Kennedy would profile him in his book Profiles In Courage.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Alphonso_Taft
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Kuhn Loeb & Co.
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Kuhn, Loeb & Co. started out in Indiana as a dry goods merchant, trader, pawn, and promissary note exchange, establlished in 1867 as the firm of Kuhn, Netter, Loeb and Wolff. In 1885 Solomon Loeb’s son-in-law, Jacob Henry Schiff, bought out Abraham Kuhn for proprietary control and became president.
   “In its early years, intermarriage among the German-Jewish elite was common. Consequently, the partners..were closely related by blood and marriage to the partners of J.& W. Seligman, Speyer & Co., Goldman Sachs & Co., Lehman Brothers, and other..German-Jewish firms… a particularly close relationship existed between the partners of Kuhn Loeb and M.M. Warburg & Co. of Hamburg Germany, through Paul and Felix.” http://tristencosgroveblog.blogspot.com/2011/05/kuhn-loeb-co.html
Kuhn Loeb put the big money on railroads; e.g. Chicago and Northwestern, Pennsylvania, Chicago Milwaukie & St, Paul.
   In 1901, with Kuhn Loeb funding, Edward H. Harriman “famously battled James Jerome Hill and J.P. Morgan to acquire control control” of the Union Pacific Railroad. Kuhn Loeb “also joined a partnership with Rockefeller in 1911 to gain control of [Morgan's] Equitable Trust Company which was later to merge and become Chase Bank.” Incidently, in 1911, the Equitable Building in New York had a fire that burned the Union Pacific’s records.
   But turning the clock back to Kuhn Loeb’s financial rise reveals its central role in the founding of Marxist Communism: “Jacob Schiff even in 1890 organized and financed training for Jewish revolutionaries from Russia. It was B’nai B’rith..that planned the instruction for those training courses.” [p141, Under the Sign of the Scorpion, by Juri Lina] “From 1890, the First of May..[became] the date when communists and socialists across the world celebrate under Rothschild’s red flag, which symbolizes the permanent revolution.. [p86]…On the 31st of October, Vladimir Ulynov [Lenin] arrived in the capital St. Petersburg, where he began his subversive activity… In March 1898, the leading Jewish social democrats gathered in Minsk..and propagated the founding of a Zionist state. [p100] …Jacob Schiff…a minion of the Rothschilds, took care of the contacts between the revolutionary movement in Russia and the B’nai B’rith. (ref. Gerald B. Winrod..) [p136] The [Jewish] war began with a Japanese attack on Port Arthur (now Lushun) on the 9th of February 1904… All possibility of credit was shut off to Russia while Japan had unlimited credit. The most important Jewish loanshark, Jacob Henry Schiff in the United States..supported the Japanese military forces with a loan of $200 million dollars. [p139] …In December 1911, the American president William Howard Taft nullified the Russo-American trade agreement. [p149] In the archives of the State Department there is a document, No. 861.00/5339, which reveals how Jacob Schiff, who was very influential..within..B’nai B’rith, and his companions Felix Warburg, Otto Kahn, Mortimer Schiff, Isaac Seligman, [Jerome Hanauer] and others had made plans as early as 1916 to overthrow the Russian Tsar. [p151] …During the First World War…Trotsky lived in France…[then] was deported to Spain..[and] sent away to the United States of America. He landed in New York on January 13, 1917. [p150]…Some powerful forces had exactly the same interest in using the revolutionaries. It was primarily the American International Corporation, with John Pierpont Morgan Jr. (1867-1943) at the head, who tried to gain control of those international..adventurers… It was above all Jacob and Mortimer Schiff, Felix Warburg, Otto H. Kahn, Max Warburg, Jerome J. Hanauer, Alfred Milner and the copper family Guggenheim who financed the Bolsheviks…Two further names are mentioned in [the State Dept.] document: Max Breitung and Isaac Seligman. All those people were Jews and freemasons.” [p182, Under the Sign of the Scorpion]
   “The rabbi Isaac Wise (1819-1900), chairman of the B’nai B’rith Lodge in Cincinnati, has explained: ‘Freemasonry is a Jewish institution whose history, degrees, charges, passwords and explanantions are Jewish from beginning to end.’…[p204]…It has been calculated that the international financial elite made a total of 208 billion dollars on the war.” [p215] Mr. Lina suggests multiplying by 100 for a current valuation. The revolution “cost a lot of money, which mostly came from the United States. Jacob Schiff declared publicly in April 1917 that it was through his financial support that the revolution in Russia had succeeded. The freemasons exploited the food shortage.” [p189, ibid.]
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“The pace of banking then was slow. Each deal tooks weeks to complete…and Strauss found many long days with little to do but write a single letter that moved a developing negotition forward a small step… Luckily, he could spend the slow time learning..from two of the masters. Partners Otto H. Kahn and Jerome J. Hanauer carried the load for Kuhn Loeb in the twenties, and Strauss was..apprenticed to them. Kahn was flamboyant… [p29, No Sacrifice Too Great] Hanauer, on the other hand, was quiet, patient, and generally unnoticed; everything about him was carefully in place, and..he looked after the details of the business.” [p30, ibid]
   “As one of the most eligible Jewish bachelors in New York, Strauss found no end of social life. He centered his activities on ‘Uncle’ Oscar and ‘Aunt’ Sarah Straus, his hosts in Paris, and their circle of friends.” [p33, ibid]
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Other Strauses
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The Strauss family tree is another area in which privacy (obfuscation or blankness) prevailed. Lewis Strauss named no other family than his parents, brother, and son. He mentioned a “rich uncle in New York”. The biographer included his grandparents and acknowledgement to LLS’s descendents. Going further is a matter of guesswork, however, if records of correspondence are any guide, Lewis Strauss had made significant contact with the extended Straus clan (alternately spelled with two ‘s’s) as a teenager, several years before his meeting Oscar and Sarah in Paris. The families had much in common with both patriarchs arriving as latecoming “48″ers, fleeing the Marx-inspired Revolutions of 1848. They came from the same region south of Frankfurt (between Darmstadt and Karlsruhe) and started out as dry-goods peddlers with “horse, buggy, and benefactor” in the rural countryside until they each afforded purchasing a store. Leopold Strauss (Lewis’s grandfather) settled in Culpeper Virginia. Lazarus Straus (Oscar’s father) settled in Talbotton Georgia, coming to the U.S. under slightly different circimstances –at an older age than Leopold, with a wife and five children. Leopold was about 18 years old and unattached; he married his benefactor’s daughter, Caroline Lowenthal, and raised 11 children.
   Oscar Solomon Straus (1850-1926) was 46 years older than Lewis Strauss, the youngest of his four siblings, with 3 older brothers. Two of them made their indelible marks on history; Isidor (1846-1912) and Nathan (1848-1931), who co-owned R.H. Macy’s and  Abraham & Straus department stores. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isidor_Straus; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathan_Straus ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_Straus_(politician) Isidor and his wife, Ida Blun Straus, were killed with the sinking Titanic, leaving the stores largely to their sons. Nathan, who retired after Isidor’s death, achieved renown for his Zionism and worldly effort to pasteurize milk. Nathan’s laboratory in Palestine became the manifest anchor establishment of the Weizmann Institute for Scientific Research. The two brothers had owned their Abraham & Straus property jointly with Simon F. Rothschild, whose older brother Louis Frank Rothschild (married to Cora Guggenheim) was the lifetime executive treasurer of the Hospital for Joint Diseases.
   It’s a plausible theory  that Leopold and Lazarus were brothers, descended from large merchant families of traveling salesmen who sent their offspring into the countryside to stake out territories for themselves and their own families. The greater Strausses from southwest Germany, relocated to the U.S. between 1840 and 1860 would have been “cousins” and second cousins. They are still painstakingly rediscovering each other today from meager stories of the past. Back then, some would have fled the revolutions as armed combatants deliberately veiling their origins –perhaps, especially, Leopold Strauss.
    Lewis Strauss may have been expected to court a suitable “cousin” when he came of age–  he certainly appeared to be “courted” by the Strauses. His mother, of course, was not a Strauss. She held a high ambition for the “right” marriage for her son, a dynastic marriage, fulfilled to her pleasure when Lewis L. Strauss married Alice Hanauer in March of 1923. Nonetheless, important alliances were forged among them. For example, Nathan Strauss collaborated with Lewis Strauss, Samuel Untermeyer, and journalist Herman Bernstein to bring a high-profile defamation/libel suit against Henry Ford; Ford’s crime– publishing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in the Dearborn Independent. In Bolshevik Russia, possession of the Protocols meant getting shot on sight. The acceptable Soviet reading material, it seems, was a copy of Colonel E.M. House’s “Philip Dru, Administrator.”
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“During 1915 and 1916, Wilson kept faith with the bankers who had purchased the White House for him, by continuing to make loans to the Allies. His Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, protested constantly, stating that “Money is the worst of all contraband.” By 1917, the Morgans and Kuhn, Loeb Company had floated a billion and a half dollars in loans to the Allies. The bankers also financed a host of “peace’ organizations which worked to get us involved in the World War. The Commission for Relief in Belgium manufactured atrocity stories against the Germans, while a Carnegie organization, The League to Enforce Peace, agitated in Washington for our entry into war. This later became the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, which during the 1940s was headed by Alger Hiss. One writer* claimed that he had never seen any “peace movement” which did not end in war.” –Eustace Mullins http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/hardtruth/federal_reserve_secrets3.htm
Oscar S. Straus became president of the New York Peace Society, creator of the League To Enforce Peace, organized under the rubric of the Lake Mohonk conferences on International Arbitration. http://microformguides.gale.com/Data/Download/8379000C.pdf
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Rising Star
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   The training days of Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss in which he did his job well, to summarize, began in 1917 with dual appointments; the hidden executive of a Rothschild medical enterprise and their special envoy in war organization. Alliances forged through these experiences became the significant relationships of his professional life. Proof of Strauss’s mettle as a prince of Maccabees was rewarded with riches and marriage. He then acceded to numerous high-ranking offices such as the executive of the American Jewish Committee and the Jewish Agricultural Society. Next step was an officer’s commission in military intelligence as a Lieutenant Commander in the Naval Reserve, assigned to the New York district under the command of Paul Foster.  Foster and Strauss became “close friends”.
   Of greatest import was the role he was being groomed to fill, following in the footsteps of Jacob Schiff. Certainly, in time, he would have been expected to exercise the same audacious kind of authority if not by the same means.  “Jacob Schiff declared publicly in April 1917 that it was through his financial support that the revolution in Russia succeeded….[p189, Under the Sign of the Scorpion]….The order to murder the Tsar and his family actually came from New York…Yakov Sverdlov..had received orders from Schiff to liquidate the Tsar and his entire family.” [p276, ibid.]
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Only thirty years old in 1926, Strauss was well on his way to the top of Kuhn Loeb… Each time the partners increased Strauss’s responsibility, he responded superbly. This rising star was thus the obvious choice to represent Kuhn Loeb on a trip to Japan. The firm had served as bankers to the Japanese government for decades. Most significant was the $200 million loan that financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power..and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria. In 1907..Jacob Schiff had made a tour of Japan…[and] In 1926, Strauss set out to renew the personal ties on which Kuhn Loeb’s special relationship with Japan depended.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   He was, by now, a most trusted servant. “A promotion greeted Strauss in his return from Japan. As of December 31, 1926, he held sole power of attorney. His signature alone on a contract or check could commit Kuhn Loeb…His compensation for 1927 exceeded $120,000… enhanced authority meant that he negotiated on his own… [H]e began to make contacts among the managers of [steel producers] Youngstown, Bethlehem, Cleveland Cliffs, Inland and National…. Strauss was clearly a young man to watch…” [p37] And “when Herbert Hoover made another bid for the presidency, Strauss threw himself into the campaign… He took charge of..the South…then moved quickly to mobilize support for Hoover among southern bankers” [p38, ibid], resulting in a “great victory” celebrated at the Hoover home in Palo Alto.
   “After the election Strauss learned that another promotion awaited him, and on January 1, 1929, he became..a full member of the inner circle. In only ten years, and at an incredibly young age, he had become one of the leaders in the world of banking, marked out to carry on the future of Kuhn Loeb.” [p40, No Sacrifice Too Great]
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Autobiographical Notes
 from Men and Decisions (published 1962):
[p53] “During Mr. Hoover’s service in the cabinets of Harding and Coolidge [as Secretary of Commerce], my contacts with him were less frequent. The banking business absorbed my interest and my time. I was succeeded as his assistant by Christian A. Herter, [from Hoover's USFA staff] who had been secretary of the U.S. Peace Commission in Paris in 1918-19, where he had impressed everyone… He served Mr. Hoover with distinction during the period when the Department of Commerce was raised to a degree of usefulness to the economy which it had never before attained. Mr. Herter later entered politics, served..the House of Representatives, as Governor of..Massachusetts and was appointed Under Secretary of State, and later Secretary [of State, 1959] by President Eisenhower.”
[p55]..”Mr. Hoover did not settle in Washington, but established his headquarters at 42 Broadway in New York, where his overseas relief activities were centered… my office was at the corner of William and Pine streets, only a few blocks distant…
>>>Christian Archibald Herter was a descendent of “48″-ers (named Hagerlocher) who immigrated to New York’s Lower East Side and established an exclusive furniture business catering to industrial nouveau riche. Christian’s uncle, also named Christain A. Herter, was an experimental biologist who inspired J.D.Rockefeller Jr. to an interest in medicine. Uncle C.A. Herter died in 1910 at age 45 of a neurological wasting disease, thereafter bearing his name (Gee-Herter disease). As Eisenhower’s second Secretary of State, C.A. Herter provided the crucial ‘nuclear briefing’ to president-elect John F. Kennedy.
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[p83] “The twenty-seven years with Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were fortunate ones for me, as I came under the tutelage of men who were among the wisest..experts of their day…”
[p85] “The aggregate..financing in which I was involved totals many hundreds of millions of dollars and included adventurous projects such as building a steel plant in Detroit… the laying of a new transatlantic cable…financing the ideas of inventors and other enterprises that were off the beaten course of banking…”
[p85] “[During the 1920s] I came to know Leopold and Philip Block of Chicago, Ernest Weir of Pittsburgh, George Humphrey, George Fink, Tom Girdler, Frank Purnell, and other powerful figures in the world of steelmaking. Eventually I handled the banking for their companies; Inland, National, Great Lakes, Youngstown, Republic and other steel companies. At one point, all but two of the large independent steel manufacturers were my clients.”
[p94] “.. during a visit to London..in October and November of 1933 [where] on November 1 I had lunch at New Court, the impressive and venerable Rothschild banking establishment… At the table, with my Rothschild hosts Anthony and Lionel, were Sir Robert Waley Cohen, Lord Melchett and other figures… Mr. Lionel..said, ‘Mr. Strauss, I suppose you know.. your government has been buying gold and this morning your President Roosevelt has set a price of $32.28 for it. Can you tell us why the President would suddenly jump the price to that particular figure?’ To this I replied, ‘Maybe he just pulled the figure out of a hat.’…It might as well have been drawn out of a hat, as I so lightly advised the Rothschilds and their friends.”
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[p97] “As a boy, photography had been a major interest…”
[p98] “In 1922, Everett Somers [military aide]..introduced two young musicians, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky… [They conceived a method of making photographs in color with one exposure on a single film..using an ordinary camera…  I arranged for the necessary money to pay for patent applications and attorney fees and to rent and staff a small laboratory. The Eastman Kodak Company co-operated by furnishing required sensitizers, dyes, and other materials, but brushed the process itself aside… [until] I decided to go over the head of [Kodak] officers.. and traveled to Rochester with Sir William Wiseman [of British Intelligence], one of my associates, ..to George Eastman himself.. which resulted in marketing the product called Kodachrome. Annually it earns many millions for the Kodak Company and until the patents finally expired in 1952, was highly profitable to the young inventors and to all concerned.”
>>>George Eastman (1854-1932) committed suicide by a gunshot to the heart on March 14, 1932
…”Another decision was to back a young inventor, Edwin H. Land, who was introduced to me..by his camp counselor, Julius Silver… Land impressed me at once, a fact of which I am proud… Land has many inventions to his credit.. some of them of a classified character… He is best known perhaps for the Polaroid Land Camera.”
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Eastman Kodak was one of the great corporate success stories of the 20th century and George Eastman was in the top 25 of richest Americans by WWI. Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates. In 1912, Dr. C.E. Kenneth Mees, “acquired” through merger with a British firm and made vice-president, established the Kodak Research Laboratories. Mees was a pioneer in aerial photography technology, and by his efforts Kodak participated in defense work using a Rochester lab on the Genesee River called “Hawkeye“. In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making the Barnes camera (developed by plant manager F.W.Barnes), the first 16mm movie camera. http://www.city-net.com/~fodder/16mm/film.html Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.
   Two years before Strauss met Godowsky and Mannes (1920) George Eastman funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “one of the most astute medical statesmen and administrators the United States has ever produced–Dr. Abraham Flexner, at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” http://www.lib.rochester.edu/index.cfm?PAGE=2326  Abraham Flexner was not a doctor though his older brother Simon Flexner had earned the title through a one-year medical course in Louisville Kentucky, the very kind of school that the Flexners sought to shut down. Abraham, the educator, wrote a national medical school survey report called the “Flexner Report” (1910), used by the AMA, Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations to leverage compliance to ‘standards’ in exchange for funds. The new Rochester school was to be a model of Flexnerian innovation emphasizing research. During WWII, Rochester M & D and Strong Memorial were the headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides and fluorine.
>>>Grand Rapids, Michigan was the first U.S. city to institute fluoridation…Gerald R. Ford was Grand Rapids’ congressional representative from 1949 to 1973 ..(and also on the Warren Commission)…[read more about fluoride http://polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/]; a third Flexner brother, Bernard Flexner, lawyer and protege to Kuhn Loeb lawyer Louis Brandeis, was a leader of the 1917 Red Cross Mission to Russia and Roumania and 1922 founder of the Palestine Economic Corporation.
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The Strange Career of Hoover
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Herbert Hoover’s “famed mining career began in the goldfields of western Australia (‘Sons of Gwalia’ gold mine) in 1897 where he also co-founded the Zinc Corporation (Rio-Tinto-Zinc Ltd) in 1905” –so begins a blurb on Hoover written two years ago in a post called “Atomic Power, No Contest” about the early preparations made in the 1920s for World War II and the coming atomic bombs. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/ At the time, I knew little about the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Commerce, but it was still clear to me that Hoover was constantly operating outside of his jurisdiction, focused on local and regional power utilities, for example. Within his jurisdiction, however, were unique opportunites relating to trade and traffic. He took office during an agricultural depression brought on by WWI, bearing directly on the Food and Relief Administration programs of overproduction, capitalization, and fixed pricing.  Hoover’s time as Sec. of Commerce and then President also ranged over nearly the entire period of Prohibition, and some of this activity was taken note of by journalists as Hoover’s unpopular presidential policies in the deepening Great Depression stirred national discontent. [reference this essay on Hoover's presidency http://www.americanheritage.com/content/wrong-man-wrong-time?page=2]
   “During Hoover’s presidency Strauss played an important role in the illegal use of naval intelligence for a partisan political purpose… On May 21, 1930, Strauss received Commanders Paul Foster and Glenn Howell in his office at the Kuhn Loeb building. Foster, Strauss’s first chief at the Naval Intelligence District, had become a close friend, and Howell was the incumbent chief.” [p41, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss told the men that a man named O’Brien was collecting documents about “unsavory episodes” in Hoover’s past and intended to have them published. ” ‘Strauss is authorized by the President to utilize the services of any of our various secret services,’ Howell believed [and wrote in his personal diary]… Using as a cover story the premise that foreign agents threatened the United States, Howell enlisted the aid of the man whose office adjoined O’Brien’s… obtained an impression of [O'Brien's] lock…made a key, and early on a Monday morning quietly entered O’Brien’s office, only to find..O’Brien had moved out with all his furniture and, of course, the documents...” O’Brien was collaborating with Mr. John Hamill, and they did indeed give Strauss the slip and published a book called The Strange Career of Herbert Hoover Under Two Flags. The biographer Richard Pfau continued,”What this incident showed about Strauss was his willingness to employ the clandestine skills of counterintelligence for a political purpose. He probably justified the illegal activity on the ground that it necessary to protect the presidency. Like Watergate…this was a wanton abuse of power. It shows that for Strauss..no sacrifice was too great, even though it violated the law, if he could convince himself it was necessary for the nations’s security.” [p42, ibid.] The 1930 break-in on James J. O’Brien by the NYC ONI is described here: “Hoovergate”…”Glenn Howell was no stranger to break-ins and espionage against his fellow citizens. In his 1930 diary he speaks confidently of infiltrating and spying on Communist cells and then arranging for break-ins…” http://www.americanheritage.com/content/hoovergate
   But there were others: “This post discusses how Herbert Hoover misused the..powers of his office..to harass a group of authors, including distinguished muckraker Walter Liggett, who were preparing anti-Hoover biographies… Howell relates the harmless subterfuge used to gain access…[but] Liggett was murdered in a gang-land killing [in front of his wife and daughter] in Minneapolis in 1935… Shortly after the [American Commission for Russian Famine Relief] was launched, Mr. Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce,..commissioned..an FBI investigation of Walter W. Liggett… Liggett made his reputation..describing the catastrophic impact of Prohibition on the integrity of law enforcement and local governments… Liggett’s successful newspaper and magazine writing provided the opportunity to publish a book on a long-time interest of his –Herbert Hoover…The prospective book was a hot property… Walter either did not realize or did not care that..detectives were investigating and reporting on him while he worked… Liggett was lured to a hotel with the promise of information and then savagely beaten by..men led by gangster Kid Cann… Finally, on December 9, 1935, Walter Liggett was gunned down by five fatal shots [from] none other than Kid Cann.” http://chinamatters.blogspot.com/2006/12/last-of-the-muckrakers-appreciation-of.html
Kid Cann (Isadore Blumenfeld) ” was convicted of violating the Mann Act in 1959 and, after a short prison term, retired to Miami Beach, Florida, where he and Meyer Lansky operated a real estate empire. He was involved in organized crime in Miami Beach and Havana, Cuba, until his death.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kid_Cann
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   “Hoover’s agricultural program –the showpiece of his 1929 initiatives– ended in fiasco. The Grain Stabilization Corporation stopped buying surpluses..driving the price of wheat catastrophically lower… The farming sector faced ruin…. one-fourth of American farmers lost their holdings –their fields, their stock, their barns and their homes– many of which had been in one family for generationshttp://www.americanheritage.com/content/wrong-man-wrong-time?page=4
   “In the summer of 1933…Strauss decided to buy a farm in Virginia… At the severely depreciated prices produced by the Depression, large estates were available for small sums… Strauss also thought he might accept a post in Washington one day… a home within easy reach of the capital would be useful… In July 1933 he bought 1,600 acres near Brandy Station, between Warrenton and Culpeper… In addition, a corner of the land had been a battleground in the Civil War.” [p47, No Sacrifice Too Great]
>>>”Brandy Rock Farm..was..designated as a ‘conservation’ property…The heirs of L.L. Strauss have been paid $30-50,000 annually in government funds …the third largest farm subsidy in the state of Virginia.”
The Byrd Machine
“Strauss..bought an historic estate at Brandywine, Virginia during the 1930′s, from which he ran the notorious Byrd machine for many years, a totalitarian control of Virginia politics which had begun at the turn of the century… [Harry F.] Byrd, with Strauss’ money behind him, became Governor of Virginia… He continued his long association with Byrd during their years together in Washington. When Byrd retired, Strauss became his son’s campaign manager.” –Eustace Mullins
Harry Byrd’s cousin, Texas oilman D.H. Byrd, was the owner of the Texas Schoolbook Depository building and according to Russ Baker’s book (Family of Secrets), D.H.Byrd had formerly employed Oswald’s handler, George DeMohrenschildt. DeMohrenschildt is noted to have been a dealer in uranium.
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The Radium Trade
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Lewis Strauss was born (Jan.1896) just weeks after the news of Wilhelm Roentgen’s first medical x-ray (Dec.1895), taken of his wife’s hand, flashed with excitement throughout the scientific world. Photosensitive glass plates were key to proving the existence of radioactivity and the intrinsic properties of energetic materials. The dogged persistence of Marie Sklodowska Curie in procuring radium, helped by her husband Pierre and friend Henri Becquerel fueled the industrial emergence of a radium trade by 1903. Parallel developments  in radium treatment between the French and Americans was carried on in the U.S. by a New York surgeon named Robert Abbe who brought a supply over from the Curies lab. In that year, 1903, “Hans Zinsser, who became an American bacteriologist of high academic achievement..wrote his first paper..on the effects of radium on bacteria… The Zinsser family chemical business [dealing in commercial lacquer and paint] was run by Hans’s brother whose daughters, Margaret and Ellen, married Lewis Douglas [Phelps-Dodge] and  John J. McCloy [Black Tom Island lawyer], respectively.” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/
   Marie Curie’s radium was made from a stock of pitchblende found in the uranium waste of the Joachimstal mines. Little is known or said about her sponsors motives, however uranium pitchblende ore was already in use in the U.K as a steel-hardening alloy, shipped to London in 1872 by a British mining agent Robert Pearce who sold his 3-ton cache for $7,500. Pearce found the pitchblende in Gilpin County, Colorado and soon pockets around the Colorado Plateau were yielding high grade ore. By 1911, Colorado ores bearing radium were sent to Pittsburgh for processing and reduction by the Standard Chemical Company, the largest supplier of its time. Radium came on the market in those days at a cost of $150,000 per gram.
   Across the pond in Belgium, a legendary gathering of European physicists was convened for the first Solvay conference, a colloqium of the brightest minds, including Emil Warburg, Albert Einstein, Mme Curie, Paul Langevin and Ernest Rutherford. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solvay_Conference Rutherford, considered the father of the atom, “had made a classic discovery: The core of the hydrogen atom was blasted from the core of nitrogen. Rutherford had achieved the old dream of alchemy; this was the first time man had accomplished transmutation… In 1904 he had glimpsed a possible way atomic energy might be released… He told [a London lecture] audience, ‘A mere pound of uranium, on the scale we see possible, might liberate the same energy as burning 100 million pounds of coal. Scientists are working hard to find a way to release this energy at will. Personally I hope they do not succeed until man has learned how to live with his neighbors in peace.” [p52, The Deadly Element, by Lennard Bickel]
   It does not take a detective’s eye to follow the early development of atomic energy. Rutherford’s 1904 statement is a clear indicator of the groundbreaking path, known to his fellow conferees. Radium marketed as a medical miracle generated capital, industriousness, and intense scientific interest. It was a like substance and stand-in for all uranium products, including plutonium which didn’t yet exist. Under the auspices of Belgian Relief and the U.S. Food Administration, the assumed contacts were made to corner the radium market with ore from the Belgian Congo: …”We had both [Sengier, president of Union Miniere du Haute Katanga, and Strauss] been connected with Hoover’s Commission for Relief of Belgium in World War I, and our friendship dated from those days” –Lewis Strauss [p317, Men and Decisions] The Union Miniere built an exclusive facility and put its radium on the market in 1922 at lower cost (roughly S100,000-120,000). In the prior year, another assumed advance occurred in which a demonstration of fission was offered to Albert Einstein while visiting Prague (assumed that Einstein accepted and the offer came from Leo Szilard). Einstein was scheduled to travel to the United States with Chaim Weizmann on a Zionist fundraising tour –which he did– and then returned to Prague straight away to arrange a special laboratory where he began working with Szilard.  Fission was made possible by the advent of particle accelerators.
   Pennsylvania’s Standard Chemical Co., domestic radium supplier, was out of business by 1926 and the Belgians remained unchallenged in the field of radium distribution until the Canadians discovered the Great Bear Lake region in northern Saskatchewan.
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“..the Canadians..brought in their mines from the distant Northwest Territories in 1931 thanks to ‘flying wheelbarrows’ and bush pilots… [Boris]Pregel said, “The monopoly of radium which Union Miniere had went on for many years till the Canadians came in with their own material [and] their refinery, Port Hope… they began to sell, to compete with the Belgians. They did it because they didn’t have the necessary distribution channels… practically nobody…”. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/01/13/jfk-conspiracy-con-iii/ (Part III) And practically noboby left records of how the Canadians managed to compete, but the prices dropped according to statements, for the first time below $100,000 per gram.
   North of Rochester New York, across the open water of Lake Ontario, “Port Hope.. is known for having the largest volume of historic low-level radioactive wastes in Canada. These wastes were created by Eldorado Mining and Refining Co. and its private sector predecessors.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Hope,_Ontario
   Most importantly in this period of the early 1930s, is the continuation of nuclear technology developments in settings of medical research. Hospital labs became fundamental proving grounds for isotopes and particle accelerators, and radium was still the most expensive drug on the market.
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Lewis Strauss  wrote, “Following the deaths of both my parents (in 1935 [not?] and 1937), I became aware of the inadequate supply of radium for the treatment of cancer… the demand was so great that the stock was divided into milligrams. Dr. James Ewing, then director of Memorial Cancer Hospital in New York, told me that if he had enough radium he would construct a ‘bomb’ holding several grams, which he felt might be the answer to the treatment of deeply located cancers.” [p163, Men and Decisions] To this end, Strauss claims to have struck up a relationship with physicists Leo Szilard and his colleague Arno Brasch. From Strauss’s own correspondence records, the exchange with Szilard began in 1934 –significantly the year in which Szilard patented the first known nuclear reactor. Strauss privately arranged to buy a particle accelerator from Brasch through his relative, Isbert Adam, a business broker in Havana Cuba. The ‘surge generator’ and the scientist were both slated for a destination at the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory , part of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
   Caltech, under the direction of Strauss’s professed ‘idol’ Robert Millikan whose textbook inspired his devotion to physics, was then the center of advanced U.S. study in genetics and aeronautics, ( Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory at Cal. Inst. of Tech.(GALCIT) and the new Jet Propulsion Laboratory) headed by Theodore von Karman. Von Karman, himself an Hungarian immigrant, was ‘spiritual father’ to the small group of four Hungarian scientists who were nicknamed the Martians –they were, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann and Leo Szilard. Wigner and von Neumann were secured in resident lifetime fellowships in 1930, not long after the Guggenheim Aeronautics lab was created, at a new East Coast counterpart at Princeton, the Institute of Advanced Study [IAS]. Albert Einstein had also been contracted to the IAS in 1930, coming later in 1933.
    Princeton’s IAS was founded  by “Dr.” Abraham Flexner (same as Rochester Medical) with funding from the Bamberger department store fortune –Lewis Strauss joined its board of directors during WWII and became its chair concurrent to his executive with the Atomic Energy Commission.
   The first nuclear technologies then, X-rays and radium, were delivered into the world at the very time of Lewis Strauss’s birth –he may have taken great meaning from it as a talismanic guide in “God’s purpose” for him. Eisenhower’s offer of “permanent chairman” (1958) for atomic energy was merely acknowledgement of what had already been. Virtully every step of this man’s life was in furtherance of achieving the most powerful weapons ever created on behalf of an ancient cult of racist assassins to whom he owed his glory. It is the most salient fact of his existence, and he stopped at nothing for its gain.
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Radium Notes: “In the fall of 1901, the Belgian Companie Internationale d’Orient..appointed Emile Franqui (1863-1935) [as] the Belgian consul in Shanghai…The company belonged to Emperor Leopold II of Belgium. Edgar Sengier (1879-1963)..was sent in 1907 to Shanghai to direct this company. Both Franqui and Sengier became later directors of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga.” http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=fathi_habashi&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%3B_ylt%3DAtNBEZ1r_sXVy.ovG4QWFqqbvZx4%3Fp%3DEdgar%2BSengier%2BEmile%2BFranqui%26toggle%3D1%26cop%3Dmss%26ei%3DUTF-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t-701-1#search=%22Edgar%20Sengier%20Emile%20Franqui%22
The Congo can best be understood as the private preserve and reservation of Societe Generale [bank]… its influence over the financial houses of Europe was said to have equaled that of the Rothschild family or the J.P.Morgan banking empire” [p44 of the book text of 'Uranium'; www.scribd.com/doc/88719832/5/THE-RAINBOW-SERPENT ]…”A substantial amount of uranium has been smuggled out of the Congo in the last decade [since 2000] and the source is almost certainly Shinkolobwe [mine].”  [p10 ibid.]
Author Joseph Conrad wrote about the genocidal atrocities in the Congo committed by the Belgians in his ‘novella’ Heart of Darkness: “in 1902, Heart of Darkness was included in the book “Youth: a Narrative, and Two Other Stories” (published November 13, 1902, by William Blackwood).[republished in 1917]” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_of_Darkness
When Emile Francqui died (1935)..”the New York Times memorialized him as the ‘copper king of the Congo’…In 1891 he led an expedition into the Congo and gained it for King Leopold…While [earlier] consul general at Shanghai, he secured valuable concessions, notably the Kaiping coal mines and the railway concession…” http://modernhistoryproject.org/mhp?Article=FedReserve&C=7.0
Joseph “Conrad had himself gone to Congo in 1890 at the time [Leon] Rom was committing his atrocities.” http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/35/181.html
“The agent of C.R.B. [food relief] in Belgium, the Comité National de Secours et d’Alimentation with Ernest Solvay as Chairman and Emile Francqui as President organized food distribution in occupied Belgium through Provincial Committees.” http://www.baef.be/documents/about-us/history/the-commission-for-relief-in-belgium-1914-.xml?lang=en
Lewis Strauss thought to write in his 1962 memoir that after he started his new banking career (9-19-19) and took his relief activities to a higher level, in April of 1920, “about that time, I was reading Joseph Conrad and suffered from troubled dreams of leaky ships, overcrowded with men and foundering in tropic seas.” [p74, Men and Decisions] It was the only instance in the memoir that Strauss mentioned his personal reading material.
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Radium, and its daughter gas radon, were added to public drinking water beginning in 1903 according to whistleblower Dr. Albert Schatz, the discoverer of streptomycin.  Radium and its mine waste was later packaged and sold as fertilizer by the Standard Chemical Company, starting in 1911. phttp://polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/
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Joe Kennedy
Joseph P. Kennedy was a ‘friend’ to Lewis Strauss by some accounts although no such relationship is claimed by either camp or demonstrated by any record known to this researcher. Kennedy’s career actions, however, reveal an astute and enterprising sense of sharing in the ‘friendly’ interests among Strauss’s associates. He certainly had their attention from his stellar foray into the movie business through the buy-out of the Film Booking Office (FBO). The movie business, and not bootlegging as the myth persists, made Kennedy’s fortune: “Hollywood studio chiefs in the mid-20s were almost all immigrants, men such as Carl Laemmle of Universal, Louis B. Mayer and Marcus Loew of MGM, and Adolph Zukor of Paramount, men who had started with arcades, nickelodeons, or small theaters…
   JPK’s closest partners in the FBO venture included Louis Kirstein and Guy Currier. Kirstein, who ran the Filene’s department store in Boston, was “a man of many interests” and “one of the outstanding leaders of American Jewry..[as] chairman of the General Committee of the American Jewish Committee… national chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, the leading fundraising agency for..Palestine…[and] he acquired a role similar to that of Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg…striving [for] cooperation of all sections within the Jewish community for one common purpose.” Strauss was then, and continued to be, on the executive of the American Jewish Committee.
   Acquisition of the FBO, a prolific producer of films itself, poised Kennedy and his partners for a strategic consolidation during a period of great technological change in the business– the sound revolution. They exploited a leadership power vacuum among the companies that made up the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer network and made a new entity, RKO, with Kennedy’s silent partner, RCA/NBC’s president David Sarnoff. According to Cari Beauchamp, author of the Vanity Fair article and book, in October of 1927 Kennedy met Sarnoff “at the Oyster Bar in New York’s Grand Central Terminal… Kennedy had a studio; Sarnoff had the technical equipment..[and] Telling no one else, they put their heads together and came up with a plan.”
   The first approach was an overture from Kennedy to Frank J. Godsol, the president of Goldwyn Pictures. Sometime between 1921 and 1922, Godsol had engineered the ousting of Samuel Goldwyn from his own company –Godsol had a colorful past. He was the son of Russian jewelry dealer in Cleveland who made an undisclosed fortune “in the West” as a very young man, and then expatriated himself to Paris France where he first sold imitation pearls (called Tecla pearls) through exclusive shops and then became a war armaments dealer to the French government.
>>>Tecla pearls are a ‘trade-marked name for both solid and wax-filled imitation pearls’ made of glass. http://stoneplus.cst.cmich.edu/zoogems/pearls.html ; “[Godsol] went West while still a boy and amassed a fortune in a few years in Montana. Then he established the Saretecora and Brazilian diamond business that had an amazing success. Later he invaded Europe and launched the Tecla pearl..which enabled the possessors of priceless..pearls to put their treasures in safety deposit boxes and at the same time appear properly jewelled…” [New York Tribune, April 1, 1919 http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1919-04-01/ed-1/seq-6/  Godsol had only recently survived a scandal and jailing over charges of fraud, profiteering, and special favoritism in a suit involving his brokerage of trucks during World War I where he made at least $1.5 million each year of the war, possibly from the sale of Pierce Arrow vehicles alone. Godsol represented multiple auto companies. It also came out in his trial that Godsol had  war-era connections to film-making; accused by prosecutor Alfred J. Decker of employing Benjamin Blumenthal who "was president of..Germanic Official War Films Inc." and used his station for generating pro-German propaganda. Blumenthal denied "that pictures..were shown in the interests of Germany." http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1918-04-19/ed-1/seq-10
   Shortly after Godsol tookover Goldwyn Pictures, it was bought in 1924 by Marcus Loew of Loew's Incorporated, perhaps the largest theater corporation anywhere.
   Marcus Loew was a pioneer in grassroots fundraising for Jewish War Relief  (run by Warburgs) through the agency of his theaters. The model was carried through even after Loew's passing in 1927 (year of the RKO deal) --Loew's became a staple collections field in the March of Dimes when the funds were dedicated to polio. Joe Kennedy was touching a lot of nerves. His successes in making the movie industry a legitimate and profitable target of investment and his 'reorganization' at Goldwyn with the resulting creation of RKO put him on the radar as a man to watch. He played their banking game with undaunted brilliance. Beauchamp wrote,"Kennedy..personally exited the RKO deal with more than $5 million... In 1937, Fortune magazine ran a cover-story profile of Kennedy and credited his time in Hollywood as a major source of his personal fortune."
   Legend has it that Kennedy enriched himself as a rumrunner in the 1920s, though often disputed and demonstrably out-of-character. Kennedy may have walked close to the line, but there's no evidence that he personally crossed it or encouraged it for his own benefit. He creditably took his movie earnings after selling out to RKO, allegedly before the crash of '29, and leveraged them into legal distributorships of distilled spirits, positioned to claim an ample market share at the end of Prohibition. These maneuverings for liquor rights brought him into direct competition with Samuel Bronfman, who expected those very same licenses to be his. Bronfman's venom for Joe Kennedy overflows from the Bronfman family history up to the present.
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David Sarnoff, in Lewis Strauss's own words, was a "steadfast friend". Sarnoff (1891-1971), born near Minsk Russia, emigrated as a boy and landed a job with Marconi Wireless at the age of 15 (1906) and worked his way up. In 1919, General Electric created the Radio Corporation of America in order to acquire Marconi which was a British company, and remained its largest shareholder during the years of radio development. Sarnoff took the helm of RCA in the mid-20s and launched the company on a great expansion through stock swaps to acquire patents. G.E. held 30% of RCA, Westinghouse held 20% and AT&T held 10%. Strauss was an individual stockholder. In 1926, RCA created NBC; the next year RKO, and by the end of 1920s, RCA entered into a leaseholder deal to occupy the new site of the soon-to-be-built Rockefeller Center. Rockefeller archives record the event as a reflection of 'Junior's' interest in radio: "One can safely say that quite suddenly in the late 1920s, the radio industry became one of the defining features of Junior's life... Rockefeller Center..came to focus Junior's attention on..the business of radio... he was approached by a group that was looking..to consolidate its operations and build up-to-date facilities. This was the Radio Corporation of America that..brought together the assets and patents of General Electric, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Westinghouse, and the United Fruit Company." http://www.rockarch.org/workshops/pdf/buxton2.pdf
   The Rockefeller family themselves had just recently completed (in 1927) a merger between their own Standard Oil and the Warburgs' I.G.Farben to create the largest industrial chemical combine in the world. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/  This timeframe also saw Strauss join the Office of Naval Intelligence, renew the ties of Kuhn Loeb with Japan and receive the full-fledge of the company, followed by the fatal plunge of polio doctor Frauenthal from the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases.
   RCA was to roar out of the 1920s with a near monopoly in telecommunications. It became an indispensable asset to the military-complex for engineer training in advanced electronics and high-energy physics. Another Russian emigre, Dr. Emanuel Piore, did extensive work on television at RCA, enabling such weapons as the "t.v.-guided bomb" --"In April 1942, a TV-controlled drone was successfully guided into a target ship from a control aircraft 50 km (30 mi.) away." http://www.earlytelevision.org/military_tv.html   Piore, working for the Chief of Naval Operations in World War Two, left his statement that "we were the group that supervised the operation that killed Joe Kennedy [Jr.]” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/02/03/jfk-conspiracy-con-iv/
Joe Kennedy Jr. “volunteered for a dangerous mission that required him to fly a navy PB4Y Liberator bomber containing 22,000 pounds of explosives to a German launch site on the Belgian coast. Joe and a copilot were supposed to eject themselves from the plane after activating the remote control guidance and arming system. But their plane exploded before they even reached the English Channel… In 2001, a new theory emerged regarding the cause of Joe’s death…  the radar signals interfered with the radio controls of Joe’s plane and caused the explosion.” http://www.netplaces.com/john-f-kennedy/finding-his-way/a-devastating-time-joe-jr-s-death.htm
   In his memoir extolling involvement in the creation of the radio-activated “proximity fuse”, the nearest thing the U.S. had in WWII to guided missiles, Strauss made a point of saying that “I felt there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel, riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
>>>Parent company General Electric divested from RCA in 1932 over the controversy of federal monopoly hearings and repurchased RCA in the 1980s. G.E. faced its own controversy over products when 90,000 color televisions were recalled in 1967 for dangerous X-ray emissions. [ref. p42, The Zapping of America, Paul Brodeur]
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Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., of course, came to national attention as FDR’s first chief of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Arthur Krock lauded Kennedy’s government service in his Memoirs as “unmatched for competence, imagination, and courage in the areas of fiscal and monetary economics.“[p167] Krock prefaced his praise by writing, “The New Deal began, I suppose, on a negative basis…But the positive side was initiated very promptly by the adoption of..Hoover measures…” [ p161, Memoirs; Sixty Years on the Firing Line, Arthur Krock, 1968] Although credited to Roosevelt, the SEC was a Hoover proposition. Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard was generous to accountability: “Throughout the Depression, Hoover gave vent to his standing dislike of speculation and the stockmarket. In the fall of 1930, Hoover threatened federal regulation of the New York Stock Exchange..[and] went on to propose what later came to pass as the New Deal’s SEC, a regulation that Hoover applauded.” In fact, as Rothbard explained, “Herbert Hoover’s entire program of activities as Secretary of Commerce was designed to advance the subsidization of industry and the interpenetration of government and business“, restoring to peacetime what had been gained by “war collectivism“, described as “a totally planned economy run largely by big-business interests..for the purpose of providing a network of subsidies and monopolistic privileges to business.”
   In Hoover’s record it’s possible to pick up the threads of continuity of government that generated the permanent conditions of the rising military-industrial-medical complex: Rothbard wrote that “As soon as the war was over Hoover set out to ‘reconstruct America’..[as] peacetime cooperation. He urged national planning..under the ‘central direction’ of the government..[for] the cartelization of industry through trade associations..to raise prices, restrict production and..impose standardization and ‘simplification’ of materials and products… [Historian] Grosvenor Clarkson hailed the fact that: ‘The ideas conceived and applied by the War Industries Board in war are being applied in peace by the Department of Commerce’…no one could have been as ideally suited as..Hoover to be President at the onset of a Great Depression and to react with a radical program of statism… Hoover began his ‘gigantic’ program as soon as the stock market crashed on October 24, 1929… The most important call for the compulsory cartelization of a corporate state was sounded by Gerard Swope, the veteran corporate liberal who headed General Electric… men like..Swope were in effect urging [President Hoover] to throw off the voluntarist [policy] cloak and adopt the naked economy of fascism… In short, a general clamor arose for an economy of fascism.” Rothbard complained, “that Herbert Hoover, far from being an advocate of laissez-faire, was in every way the precursor of Roosevelt and the New Deal..[as] one of the major leaders of the twentieth-century shift..to the modern corporate state.” [ref.essays, New History of Leviathan, pp 66-145]
    The intimate and lifelong relationship of Lewis Strauss to Herbert Hoover appears at its most obscure in these years given the high profile of the Chief. General history is peppered with odd facts drawn from his narrow but deep well of support: “Hoover was very much in the news in 1927. His was the image first sent by television… Hoover displayed an extraordinary talent for publicity through extensive newspaper, magazine and film contacts. When Will Irwin in 1928 pieced together the campaign film ‘The Master of Emergencies’, he had some ten miles of films showing Hoover..since 1914 from which to select… Popular demand made Hoover the nominee and carried him into the White House… None of the major Republican machines favored Hoover… A leading business journal reported: ‘Business stood the campaign well…And the time may come when business will not shiver at any proposal of politics, knowing and realizing that trade makes its own laws no matter which party is in power’… Hoover should be made a dictator: Let Congress pass one bill giving certain necessary powers to President Hoover as did the Democratic Congress of 1914.” [pp29-50, p117, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression, Harris G. Warren, 1959]
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   The Stockmarket Crash of October 1929 was not investigated until the Pecora Committee was authorized in mid-1932 and Hoover was clearly on his way out of office. Counselor Pecora reported “The testimony had brought to light a shocking corruption in our banking system, a widespread repudiation of old fashioned standards of honesty and fair dealing in the creation and sale of securities, and a merciless exploitation of the vicious possibilities of intricate corporate chicanery.”
   Strauss’s biographer added, “The fundamental ground rules of investment banking changed as a result… the integrity of the banker lost most of its importance in the new climate, where the government interposed itself to watch over the honesty of representations made to the investor. The slow pace of the past..disappeared… [Strauss] won some new clients for Kuhn Loeb, especially in the steel industry [one of the most cartelized] and his personal fortune continued to grow, but the profession had lost much of its appeal.” [pp46-47, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss took a nearly wistful posture in his own memoir, reflecting on his ascent: “There were then fewer great houses and far fewer partners in those firms. The rewards were large, taxes were low, and the difficulties which brought the Securities and Exchange Commission into existence were not then in the lexicon… The men engaged in it generally commanded large personal fortunes..and conducted themselves like princes… This aspect of investment banking has almost disappeared with the institution of competitive bidding for..financing, a competition which severed the traditionally close and mutually beneficial relationship between the borrower and the banker.” Ironically, big banking was forced into competition as big business turned anti-competitive, yet it prevented the system from toppling in on itself and staved off the march into fascism for another war. Still, the bitterness in Strauss comes through. He took it personally, Bronfmanesque, as if Joe Kennedy was touching his nerves. Just as physically close, perhaps, was FDR’s next assignment for JPK as head of the Maritime Commission, originally incarnated as the WWI Shipping Board and led by another Strauss intimate, Albert D. Lasker.
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Albert D. Lasker
“Albert Lasker’s life was an example of every immigrant’s dream come true… In 1912 he became the president of Lord & Thomas, one of America’s leading advertising agencies… Albert Lasker loved to sell…” http://www.immigrantentrepreneurship.org/entry.php?rec=57
   “The gist of the shipping problem, and Lasker’s job, was that the United States had built an immense amount of merchant tonnage during World War I…but, with the war over, such weight was not only useless but a colossal expense. Some 2,200 ships were..rotting away..[at the] cost of..$500,000,000 a year…  [In] all it was Lasker’s job to liquidate an investment valued at $3,500,000,000 and buikd a new merchant marine out of what could be salvaged… Lasker got rid of useless ships..at an average price of $30 a ton…of course, much less than they had cost, and he was severely criticized in Congress..for ‘throwing our ships away’… Before his first year at the Shipping Board was up Lasker realized that…[t]he government itself would have to operate the American merchant fleet or the private owners would have to be assisted by a large government subsidy… Lasker chose..subsidy [as] the only solution…[and] fought for his solution –a subsidy–in and out of Congress…[but] was beaten by one vote in the Senate… He took the defeat in an acutely personal manner and from that day [on]..had a subconscious resentment against Washington
   “The best-known episode connected with Lasker’s tenure on the Shipping Board [1921-1923] was a trial run of the S.S. Leviathan…the old German Vaterland [taken] as an item in war reparations. Lasker reconditioned it..[into] the finest and largest ship afloat..and [gave] his friends a ride. The party was strictly stag..[with] some six hundred male guests…sail[ing] to the West Indies..for several days… This trip..[became] the foundation of his long friendship with David Sarnoff… Lasker, rapt in admiration for this man who could apparently harness the secret forces of the universe, decided that he must be a friend for life. Anyway, the trip was a grand success.” [pp128-134, Taken At The Flood, John Gunther, 1960] “Admiral Lewis L. Strauss..had been a good friend of Lasker’s since the Shipping Board days.” And when Strauss put himself behind the ‘surge generator’ project of Brasch and Szilard in the mid-30s, “Albert became vehemently interested and offered to contribute $100,000… Then came the war and the Manhattan Project, and anything..to do with..nuclear energy became ultra-top secret. Lasker repeatedly called Strauss asking him to report on what was going on and to call on his money but Strauss could not, of course, say a word.” [p292, ibid.]
   Lasker was Strauss’s senior in age, wealth and status; a member and executive officer of the American Jewish Committee (1917–) alongside Jacob H. Schiff and notable war organizer Julius Rosenwald, owner of Sears Roebuck &Co. Lasker’s AJC position is noted in the famous book created by the AJC in 1920 denouncing the Protocols of the Elders of Zion titled “The ‘Protocols’, Bolshevism and the Jews” http://archive.org/details/cu31924087981175  His collaboration with Strauss was a key function in what became Strauss’s most self-important investment –his image as a great cancer-fighter and medical research philanthropist.
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Julius Rosenwald
Julius Rosenwald, in turn, was close to the Flexner brothers –Simon, Abraham and Bernard– swapping a voluminous amount of correspondence in particular with Abraham Flexner, “the educator” who authored the medical school survey report of 1910, co-founded Rochester’s School of Medicine and Dentistry and Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study. The elder Simon was the first Director-President of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR), and the younger Bernard was a protege of Louis Brandeis and leader in the Zionist movement. Rosenwald’s closest lifelong friends were banker Henry Goldman and Henry Morgenthau Sr.
   Henry Goldman financed his friend Rosenwald’s rise at Sears Roebuck, making $10 million for Goldman Sachs at the first public stock offering in 1906 and helping to turn Sears into the “largest store in the world”. Two points of singular interest emerged from this friendship: Goldman’s cash support of the physicists Max Born and Albert Einstein in Germany (who made his first ‘fundraising visit to the U.S. in 1921 with Chaim Weizmann) and Rosenwald’s preparation for the coming ultimate weapon.
   “Largely unknown to the public is the many and varied sites that made up the Manhattan Project.  The University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Lab (Met Lab) included a location inside the Museum of Science and Industry, created at the urging of Rosenwald patriarch, Julius Rosenwald, who proposed the museum project in 1921 and provided $7 million for its development. The MSI took over the standing Fine Arts building in Chicago: ‘Vacant since 1920, the building required extensive renovation, which began in 1929.’  The public was invited to tour the new MSI in 1933 during the ‘Century of Progress Exposition’ world’s fair when 10% of its space was available for exhibits, but delays and unprofitability plagued the MSI until ‘A turning point came in 1940, when the board of directors lured Major Lenox R. Lohr (1891-1968), the head of the National Broadcasting Company..to its presidency.’ http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/859.html; Lohr earned his stripes in the Army Corps of Engineers, edited the ACE journal ‘The Military Engineer’ until 1929, resigned the Army and joined the Naval Reserves as a Lt. Commander (1929-1941). Lohr was NBC president from 1934 to 1940, under RCA parent David Sarnoff…  ‘During his twenty-eight years as head of the Museum, Lohr also organized.. the Military-Industry Conferences in 1955-1957.’ http://www.uic.edu/depts/lib/specialcoll/services/rjd/findingaids/LLohrf.html  Rosenwald’s museum, and its subsequent use for the Manhattan Project, is one more enterprise that gives evidence of early atomic weapons development covertly played out in the 1920s and ’30s.” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/dr-marys-monkey/jfk-assassination/ It is assumed until definitively proven that the contract extended to Einstein for Princeton IAS residency was the result of the Goldman-Rosenwald-Flexner connection.
   The senior Rosenwald, along with Jacob Schiff, was preeminent among American Jews for his patronage in areas of Jewish colonization and agriculture: i.e. “Most of the wealthy Jews who funded projects in Palestine were not Zionists… The Technikum (now Technion)..was launched [c.1912] with two large gifts: one..from..a Moscow millionaire, and one hundred thousand dollars from Jacob Schiff.”[ p137, Mostly Morgenthaus]… As a fitting climax for [Ambassador] Morgenthau’s Palestine excursion, [Rabbi] Wise arranged a visit with the fabled..agronomist Aaron Aaronsohn…[who had]..some of the United States’ most powerful Jews support for his agricultural experiment station at Athlit, outside Haifa. Morgenthau was impressed by its all-star board of directors, which included Julius Rosenwald as president, and Paul Warburg, Henrietta Szold [Hadassah], Louis Marshall and Judge Julian Mack.” [p146, Mostly Morgenthaus, by Henry Morgenthau III] Rosenwald was promoting contemporaneous ‘scientific’ agriculture in the U.S. as well, which placed a new emphasis on the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers among other practices.
   “While the nature of ‘classical’ colonization is primarily to exploit, Zionist colonization displaces and expels..proceed[ing] under three basic slogans. The first of these is Kibush Hakarka (Conquest of the Land)…This means that the soil..is to be made the patrimony of the Jewish people. Jews must work the land…” [ref. Akiva Orr, The Other Israel] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matzpen
   Julius Rosenwald died in 1932, the “miracle year in physics” and the expanding legacy passed to his five children. The eldest sibling, Lessing J. Rosenwald (1891-1979), tookover the business of Sears. William watched over the philanthropies which included special funds for ‘rescue’ and relocation beginning in the spring of 1933 and both sons joined the executive board of the American Jewish Committee. Lessing and Lewis Strauss were later co-trustees of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study together after WWII: noted in the 1945-46 IAS Bulletin with Strauss serving as vice-chairman of the board. Strauss first offered the directorship of the IAS to Robert Oppenheimer in this capacity. http://library.ias.edu/files/pdfs/bulletins/Bulletin12.pdf. Sister Edith Rosenwald married cotton merchant Edgar Bloom Stern of New Orleans where the pair founded radio station WDSU in partnership with their older son who expanded into television. WDSU, for a long time New Orleans only tv station, gave legendary airtime to Lee Harvey Oswald for the construction of his image as a Marxist. The Sterns have been identified as silent partners in Pennsylvania’s Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, a company charged with diverting and smuggling radioactive fuels to Israel, and with using its workforce as human lab rats for “fallout studies”.
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Princeton Institute of Advanced Study
   Among the IAS’s most famous resident scholars were those in the small group known as the ‘Martians’, formerly Hungarians from Budapest who kept close ties throughout their careers. The group included ‘old friends’ such as Theodor von Karman who headed Caltech’s Guggenheim Aeronautical Lab in Pasadena, Dennis Gabor (high-voltage physics), Edward Teller and Leo Szilard who both went to Chicago’s  Metallurgical Lab for the MED (Manhattan Project).  John von Neumann and Eugene Wigner were the first of the group to settle in Princeton. Albert Einstein, more as their spiritual father and long committed to Zionism, established himself there over the course of 1933-34, coming to the U.S. as a “refugee” by way of the British Bahamas. In 1933, the British were “saving science”: through the leadership of the London School of Economics, Leo Szilard was “rescued” from Vienna and appointed administrative secretary of the Academic Assistance Council, England’s premier placement agency for the exodus.
   Einstein and Szilard had an enduring partnership that began in 1919 Berlin, according to journalist William Lanouette. “Szilard was a shadowy figure in the history of nuclear science –essential to its progress, yet now mostly forgotten. Szilard preferred to work behind the scenes…” http://beforeitsnews.com/war-and-conflict/2011/02/einstein-and-szilard-in-princeton-416098.html
Some of Szilard’s most valuable behind-the-scenes activities were done in concert with Lewis L. Strauss but the extent of those activities is still unknown to the public today. “Through Szilard’s letters Strauss was able to keep track of the furious pace of discovery” [p54, No Sacrifice Too Great]. The official record of letters begins in 1934, perhaps containing the seeds of the surge generator project with Arno Brasch, but also Szilard’s own technical and experimental accomplishments which in 1934 meant a patent for a nuclear reactor –the world’s first. Szilard evidently looked to Strauss as his banker-benefactor in the way Born and Einstein engaged Henry Goldman. “…during the 1920s, Szilard and Einstein shared 20 joint patents..for..refrigerators… [T]heir concept became essential in the 1950s..to run another Szilard invention, the breeder reactor…[refrigeration was crucial to the first ultra-low temperature 'thermo' nuclear H-bombs]…”After World War II, Szilard shifted from physics to arms control and biology… Szilard actually became a Princetonian for a few years in the early 1950s when he moved into Drumthwacket [mansion]..then the home of Abram Spanel..[who] headed the International Laytex Corporation… [then] he helped found the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, CA, where he was a fellow until his death in 1964.” –W. Lanouette.
   But in the ’30s, when people generally had no idea about atomic or high-energy developments, the IAS was a special haven. Von Neumann’s war work was focused on the creation of a super-computer and solving calculation problems for the MED and other projects. His fame came about through developing economic Game Theory. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/John+von+Neumann%27s+contribution+to+economic+science.-a0113139424
   Eugene Wigner “designed the very large plutonium producing reactors constructed at Hanford Washington” making plutonium for the ‘Trinity test’ and ‘Fat Man’ bombs, and uses thereafter http://web.gc.cuny/edu/sciart/0405/transcript.htm; and took charge of the radioactive isotope program at Oak Ridge Tennessee.
   IAS was not merely centered on math and physics. Cultural “social” sciences, psychology, and active foreign exchange programs were part of the roster; many of those scientists stayed in the U.S. and found placement in government and industry.
    Right after WWII, a major institute effort went into developing von Neumann’s computer for use in meteorology and weather prediction, co-sponsored by the (new) Office of Naval Research (established by Strauss), Radio Corporation of America (Sarnoff again), and the U.S. Weather Bureau, a gov’t agency in the Department of Commerce. Head of the Meteorological Research Group at IAS was another son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Jule G. Charney. Charney bio: http://libraries.miy.edu/archives/research/collections/collections-mc/mc184.html The chief of the US Weather Bureau, Francis Reichelderfer, was a Navy careerist who “made many influential friends” developing an aviation weather service for Harry Guggenheim. His tenure at the National Weather Service was called “Reich’s reign” (1938-1963) and “after the war, Reich continued pressing forward..[the] advances in radar meteorology, the introduction of computerized numerical weather prediction [the IAS project in theoretical meteorology],..studying..cloud seeding, severe storms, and patterns of radioactive material dispersal all..throughout the 1950s… Perhaps the greatest of..innovations, the meteorological satellite, was also introduced..with the launch of TIROS 1 on April 1, 1960.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_W._Reichelderfer
   TIROS stands for Television Infrared Observation Satellite and “was the first satellite..capable of remote sensing of the Earth… Participants in this satellite project included [NASA], US Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory, Radio Corporation of America, the U.S. Weather Bureau and the United States Naval Photographic Interpretation Center” [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIROS] which processed its classified photography through the Kodak Hawkeye Works.
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Leo Szilard
   In the name of cancer research, Strauss recorded his meeting with Szilard: “Toward the end of 1937 two young nuclear physicists, Dr. Arno Brasch and Dr. Leo Szilard..approached me through Francis Rosenbaum, a mutual friend. They asked me to finance them in the construction of a ‘surge generator’ with which..to explore nuclear phenomena in high-energy ranges… Brasch and Szilard believed that it would be possible to produce radioactive isotopes of many elements by bombarding [them] with subatomic particles accelerated by surges of current at very high voltages. An isotope of cobalt thus produced..would emit gamma rays similar to radium… Radioactive cobalt could be made..at a cost of a few dollars per gram. Radium was then priced at about fifty thousand dollars per gram… I foresaw the possibility of producing this isotope in quantity and of giving it to hospitals as a memorial to my parents.” [p164, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962] Not only is cobalt cheap, but cobalt in  nuclear bomb cores, it turns out, is a life-ending scenario on planet Earth, “intended to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The concept of a cobalt bomb was originally described on February 26, 1950 by physicist Leó Szilárd, who suggested on a radio program that an arsenal of cobalt bombs would be capable of destroying all human life on Earth.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt_bomb
    A letter sent to Strauss from Szilard on January 25 of 1939 ensured that the news of fission (chain reaction) brought by Niels Bohr from Copenhagen put Strauss on-the-record: “The letter made Lewis Strauss the first public figure in America to be alerted to the nuclear future.” [ref.p171, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel, 1979]
*
Six months later, in July of ’39, Strauss was on his way to London again, lobbying British support for creation of the United States of Africa. He wrote, in defense of his effort on behalf of war refugees, “I had received certain assurances from Bernard Baruch, Henry Ittleson, Albert Lasker, Mr. Rosenwald, and a number of other men of considerable means..that if the British Government could be persuaded to devote a sufficiently large area in Kenya, Tanganyika, or Northern Rhodesia for settlement by refugees from European countries..these men were willing to tithe their capital to assist it… Ex-President Hoover was..willing to..organize its communications, its transport, and the development of its resources.” [p113, Men and Decisions] Convenient to them all, the suggested areas for occupation bordered the uranium rich site in Katanga.  Strauss reported, “Mr. Baruch gave me a letter which I carried to London. In it he had written: “That a large part of Africa…be converted into one country…  The country can be cleaned up with modern equipment… Panama and Cuba were cleaned up, and Africa can be cleaned up too… [In] this new land there would be a place for tens of millions and they would be the best, the strongest and the most courageous people because they are anxious to get away from these over-regulated, goose-stepping civilians of Russia, Germany, and Italy. It will cost a lot of money, yes, but the money is to be raised principally by the Jews of the world by assessing themselves at least 10% of their total capital…” Hoover also prepared a letter writing, “It has long seemed to me that there is but one unoccupied area in the world upon which a new and sound civilization could be builded. That is the uplands of Central-East Africa, embracing parts of Northern Rhodesia, Tanganyika, Kenya, and Belgian Congo… from reports available it does seem to have the soil, climate, and resources upon which 10 to 20 millions of white civilization could be builded.” [pp115-116, ibid.] The British, however, “had a resettlement area of its own which it favored. This was the British Guiana project…a land of swamp and jungle..canvassed..in the interest of finding a new home for the Assyrians of Iraq…One month to the day after the war had begun, Mr. [Anthony] de Rothschild found it necessary to cable me: ‘Committee cannot continue Giuana’ .” [p117, ibid.] “Before leaving London for Paris, I talked with Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy. He said that he thought there was sufficient intelligence in Germany to avoid a mistake which would be as terrible as a second World War, and that he allowed himself the optimistic belief that it would not occur… To the same question, Ambassador Bullitt [in France] said that..war was inevitable but not imminent…M. Paul Reynaud..took a much less optimistic view… [He] asked, ‘When are you planning to leave?..I said that we had reservations on both the  Ile de France and on the Normandie. ‘If I were you..I would take the earlier sailing. There may be a scramble to leave in late August.’ Hitler invaded Poland on September 1.” [p118, Men and Decisions]
   This note in the memoir is Strauss’s only personalized account of contact with a Kennedy. Did Strauss also meet Joe Jr. or Jack in the summer of ’39? Ambassador Kennedy made official assistants of his older boys: “At the instance of Felix Frankfurter, who reminded him that an earlier Bostonian, John Adams, had done the same in London, Kennedy arranged for sons Joe and Jack to spend terms as staff assistants in the embassy.  An immersion in international politics would be an invaluable aid to the career in public affairs the father anticipated especially for the eldest son.” [p160, Kennedy and Rossevelt, Michael Beschloss, 1980] Earlier, on the stump for FDR’s first reelection, Kennedy denied to the public that he held ambitions of high office for his sons, but by the time of his third post under FDR, the situation apparently was changing.  Kennedy had been a keenly successful advisor to the New Deal. The Baltimore Sun’s Frank Kent wrote, “No man ever held an important post in Washington who has had more praise and less abuse than Mr. Kennedy.” [p152, ibid.]  Beschloss called him Roosevelt’s “showcase businessman“. Joe Kennedy told American business, “You can’t tell the public to go to hell anymore. Fifty men have run America –and that’s a high figure. The rest of America is demanding a share in the game and they’ll get it.” [p125, ibid.]
*
Rescue from the Nazis
Strauss described his own efforts at rescue, beginning in 1933, as “having crossed the ocean and negotiated again and again, but to no effect.” [p104, Men and Decisions] His first ‘negotiation’ in this effort was as special envoy of the AJC: “The American Jewish Committee..concluded that it should be represented at the meeting in London and I was asked to attend for that puepose. I was loath to leave by business affairs, but Dr. Cyrus Adler, Judge Joseph Proskauer, Felix Warburg, Albert Lasker, Sol Strook and other men who were my seniors..represented it to me as a duty. I sailed on October 20, 1933 and reached London six days later. On arrival I met with Dr. Chaim Weizmann to whom I had been introduced by Justice Brandeis sixteen years before… By arrangement with the British authorities, the Jewish Agency for Palestine, which Weizmann directed, controlled the issue of permits to enter Palestine… Otto Schiff complained to see that ‘Weizmann is allotting his scant allowance of entry permits for months ahead to people who are Zionists but..under no pressure of any sort’… For [Weizmann] it was not a question limited to compassion. He was founding a state… [footnote:]But many..refugees did finally reach sanctuary in Israel without benefit of permit. The figure has been estimated as high as six hundred thousand. [p107, ibid.] The conference broke up with a series of resolutions and all eyes were turned to the United States…” [p109, ibid]
*
   On this same trip Strauss reported (as above in Autobiographical Notes)) “.. during a visit to London..in October and November of 1933 [where] on November 1 I had lunch at New Court, the..Rothschild banking establishment… Mr. Lionel..said, ‘Mr. Strauss, I suppose you know.. your government has been buying gold and this morning your President Roosevelt has set a price of $32.28 for it. Can you tell us why the President would suddenly jump the price to that particular figure?’ To this I replied, ‘Maybe he just pulled the figure out of a hat.’…Many years later, I learned..a series of morning meetings with the President for the purpose of setting the gold price for the day..were held in the President’s bedroom… On one occasion the President decided that the rise..would be twenty-one cents. ‘It’s a lucky number,’ the President said with a laugh… It might as well have been drawn out of a hat… Kuhn, Loeb & Co. occasionally imported gold from England..and sold it to the Treasury Department.” [pp94-95, Men and Decisions] Henry Morgenthau Jr, Sec. of Treasury, was the evident source of Strauss’s intelligence, and without naming him, it was known that Kennedy was a White House “bedroom adviser”:  Krock wrote that FDR “consults Mr. Kennedy on everything“. Beschloss included, “there were morning visits to the presidential bedroom and, on occasion, to the presidential bathroom.” [p106, Kennedy and Roosevelt] But Strauss had other means of inside information  –Samuel I. Rosenman, for example, was a cousin to his wife Alice Hanauer Strauss. “Rosenman..proposed and organized the ‘Brain Trust’..” http://newdeal.feri.org/kiosk/profile.cfm?QID=1751
   The biographer Pfau stated Strauss’s opinion of Franklin D. Roosevelt: “In 1918 Strauss and Hoover had met Roosevelt in Europe but they dismissed him as a spoiled dilettante of little ability and nothing in the interim had changed their minds.” [p44, No Sacrifice Too Great] On the subject of the Oct-Nov trip to London, Pfau writes, “Strauss recalled that ‘the entire conference was an idea of the Zionists.’ Strauss’s main goal, as representative of the American Jewish Committee, was to prevent the Zionists from dominating… he proudly reported to the [AJC] at the end of the conference ‘our autonomy is unimpaired.‘” [pp 50-51, ibid.] Despite the rhetoric and power struggles, relief and rescue united the contentious factions of Zionists and Anti-Zionists, displaying the methods in division of labor.
   The next rescue effort mentioned was the creation of the 1939 Anglo-American Corporation which produced the Coordinating Foundation to raise a bounty for German-Jewish “ransom”. Strauss commented, “It was apparent that the ['transfer agreement'] plan was an enormous and sadistic hoax, a moneyed traffic in lives… I was shocked by its malevolence..[p 111, Men and Decisions]…to payment of outrageous blackmail..” As it appears, no ransom was ever paid. “The capital of the foundation, which had been subscribed primarily in the United States, was returned to the subscribers when the foundation was liquidated in the early war years.” [p113, ibid.] The United States of Africa was the last rescue in the notes for Strauss. He lamented, “But I might have done so much more than I did…and it is to my eternal regret.” [p104, ibid.]
   “Bankers’ Choices” would describe Strauss’s activity in these times: getting the best returns on investment. There were, perhaps, many hundreds of rescue organizations and those in which he was an officer were oriented to colonization. Some appear in this list such as the American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation and the American Society for Jewish Farm Settlements in Russia Inc. http://displacedscholars.wordpress.com/z/   Leo Szilard proved out to be one of Strauss’s best investments.
   Szilard attended the October 1933 conference. According to Strauss: “Among the committees..was one of ‘academicians’ (scientists, educators, philosophers, mathematicians) and on that committee was a young Hungarian physicist, Dr. Leo Szilard, whom I did not meet but whose name I remembered some years later when we met under far different circumstances.” [p108, Men and Decisions]  For Strauss not to meet Szilard, Einstein’s close colleague, at the conference is implausible in the extreme. Szilard was not only a great physicist, of deep personal interest to Strauss, but he attended in the capacity of co-founder and executive administrator of Britain’s Academic Assistance Council, it’s premier refugee agency for ‘saving science’. At the time, Szilard was ensconced with a day job in the St. Bartholomew’s Hospital London laboratory experimenting with isotopes, remembering the period as his nuclear epiphany– a day he stood at a traffic light and had a revelation about chain-reaction.  In his AAC work, Szilard was uniquely placed to distribute scientific talent around the world and help to achieve weapons parity in a future arms race. His best friends in science were already working under contract at the Institute of Advanced Study. It’s only a short time after the London conference when the documentation of correspondence begins between Szilard and Strauss.
   Edward Teller wrote this remembrance: “I was surprised by how seriously the scientific community of Great Britain took the threat of Nazism. By April 1933, the British had begun a rescue operation on behalf of the scientists.. financed by the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), the British analog of I.G. Farben. Every scientist..who had ability..was being welcomed...” [p88, Memoirs, Edward Teller, 2001] ..”They accepted many more scientists than Britain could possibly use.” [p120, ibid.] Teller was sponsored to London after a year in Copenhagen with Niels Bohr. “I had met Szilard in Budapest… But at the time..I did not know him well. Szilard, like me, was a refugee, but his was an unusual case. He was influential… Szilard..also possessed a talent for anticipating the future. At Lindemann’s [Lord Cherwell] invitation, Szilard had gone to Oxford; there he was conducting..experiments with neutrons, the particles discovered..a few years earlier. Szilard had the idea that neutron bombardment..could produce..more and more neutrons and energy..resulting in a powerful explosion… Rutherford denounced Szilard’s ideas..[but] Szilard just became more determined to prove [it]…[p110] “His clash with Rutherford was neither the first nor the last time that his surprising and absolute pronouncements provoked a strong negative reaction. He even acquired a nickname, The General, among his friends… [Szilard] was never boring, and he always remained a friend.” [p111, Memoirs, Edward Teller] Teller himself arranged to emigrate from Britain to the United States at the end of 1934 where a tenured teaching position opened for him in Washington D.C. at GWU. He rejected an offer from “Princeton”(IAS) for lesser pay. Later, Teller and Strauss became formidable allies after WWII for building H-bombs along with the Berkeley Rad Lab leaders, Ernest O. Lawrence and Luis Alvarez.
*
Early Atomic Development
   Edward Teller did not repeat his remarks about Rosa Strauss being alive in 1948 in his Memoirs, though he gave ample suggestions about the early development of atomic energy. “As far as I was concerned, what happened in physics between 1920 and 1933 was so magnificent that it was a privilege to work even on minor details.” [p79] “During my [spring 1932] stay in Rome, Fermi and his group..were just starting to bombard every element in the periodic table with neutrons…[p80]… When [Fermi] bombarded [the uranium] nucleus..he observed scores of radioactive substances instead of one or two… Soon after..he received a letter from a German chemist, Ida Tacke Noddack..[who] suggested that the effect he had observed..was a split of the uranium nucleus… He discarded Dr. Noddack’s suggestion… Had he [accepted it], the hunt for chain reactions would have started sooner.” [p81] …”Paul Scherrer in Zurich had an even closer encounter with the discovery [of fission]. He bombarded thorium (another of Szilard’s favorite substances) with neutrons and saw the fission fragments… But Scherrer wouldn’t believe his eyes. He thought his Geiger counter was malfunctioning… In 1939, I did not realize how fortunate it was that those slight changes in an experiment in Rome or Zurich did not occur. If fission had been discovered in 1933..the United States probably would not have been the first nation to possess nuclear explosives. Fermi, Scherrer, and Szilard, in their different ways, had a profound..influence on history.” [p141, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
   Strauss helped to regroup the physicists again and again in a variety of settings, including his ‘subsidized farm’ estate in Virginia. The ‘magnificent’ period that Teller mentions (1920-1933) was coincident to Hoover’s public service –the transition of war collectivism into peacetime cooperation– and brought about the prophetic accomplishment necessary to build atom bombs, stated by Niels Bohr: “You would need to turn the entire country into a factory.” [p143, Memoirs, E.T.] When Bohr joined the Los Alamos MED early in 1943, Teller recalled him exclaiming, “didn’t I tell you that you could not make a nuclear explosive without turning the whole country into a huge factory? Now you have gone ahead and done it.” Teller reported, “from that day on [Bohr] participated diligently..” [p186, ibid.]
*
Demonstrations of Power
   Although ignoring the subject of nuclear development, the very thin stream of information given by Lewis Strauss in his so-called autobiography, Men and Decisions, is a record appropos of timing by its 1962 publication. Washingtonians in the capital, and JFK’s administration in particular, were the intended audience for Strauss’s work. He wrote in the Forward, “In the main, this is..a book about other men..” The biographer, who published in 1984, continued the theme in his Preface, “This is not a ‘life and times’ biography… Neither is it the story of the private man…” In the last chapter of No Sacrifice Too Great, entitiled ‘Retired’, Richard Pfau wrote that “From retirement Strauss..tried to settle old political scores.” [p242], and apparently with meager but potent additions such as the ONI break-in on the anti-Hoover action, Pfau is extending Strauss’s reach beyond the grave.  He reminds readers on the last pages that “Strauss the government servant..was austere, aloof..and calculating. Like Herbert Hoover..his model, Strauss maintained a facade for the public.” [p251, No Sacrifice Too Great] Both Strauss and Pfau played on a balancing act to reveal power and still maintain the facade. In the politically and historically astute milieu of Washington D.C., however, the hastily produced Strauss edition was a selective show of dangerous alliances which, I have no doubt, was meant and delivered as a threat.
   Far from a fate headed for the dustbin of history, Men and Decisions sold enough copies “to place it on the New York Times list of bestsellers” though Strauss indeed had the personal wealth to make that a reality (whether he did or not). How many readers, I wonder, might have perceived a dire reckoning in the making? To whom was it meaningful in 1962 that Strauss was heir to Jacob Schiff and the Warburgs; that he was the Jews’ War President; sponsor of “father of the bomb” Leo Szilard and Polaroid’s Edwin Land; that he was chosen as the “permanent chairman” of nuclear affairs and was still its leading global dignitary? Not lost on this group, the Kennedys, nor students of history, was the continuing chronology of Strauss’s Decisions.
*
Father Coughlin and Father Drought
   As a financier during the Great Depression, Strauss made a brief note about taking on a new client at this time –the Catholic Maryknoll mission, in the person of Father James Drought, its administrative officer. Strauss assisted the Maryknoll to recover and prosper and Drought became a “close friend”. By the mid-30s, Drought was aiding Strauss behind the scenes in unspecified ways to silence the famed Father Coughlin. Michael Beschloss describes “the weekly discourse of the Reverend Charles Coughlin” as an “indignant crescendo against the money changers, the Bolsheviks, the international bankers and, increasingly, Franklin Delano Rossevelt. The priest of the Shrine of the Little Flower posed, with Huey Long, the most serious single threat to [FDR]‘s reelection, or so [it was] believed.” Roosevelt “charged Joseph Kennedy with the responsibility of keeping the good priest on the reservation.” [pp 113-114, Kennedy and Roosevelt] Coughlin had become a formidable political force: “Sixty-six congressmen signed a petition asking Roosevelt to make Coughlin an economic adviserKennedy befriended the priest‘Joe was fascinated by Coughlin’s talent on the radio,’ James Roosevelt remembered. ‘He recognized it as demogoguery but revelled in what the priest could accomplish. He was intrigued by Coughlin’s use of power.’…By the end of 1934 Coughlin was poised to challenge Franklin Roosevelt. He formed his own political organization, the National Union for Social Justice… he informed his audience that..Roosevelt had ‘out-Hoovered Hoover’, protected plutocrats and comforted Communists… [A]betted by William Randolph Hearst and other isolationists, Coughlin led the fight against the president’s bill to bring the United States into the World Court.” [p117, ibid.] By 1936 “Kennedy urged the president to keep trying to mend fences with..Hearst and Father Coughlin… Coughlin announced to his radio audience that he and the president were now unalterably opposed.” [p122] After that, censure came quickly to Coughlin via the Vatican –he was ordered off the air. “..[Y]ears later, Father Coughlin in retirement, confided..that a deal had been struck” through the Pope’s emissary, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, that included a new office of the U.S. “presidential representative” to the Vatican. Two years later, Pacelli was invested as Pope Pius XII. No document known to this researcher describes the internal diplomacy or the involvement of Father Drought but Strauss treated his readers to this cryptic footnote: “there is a message from [Drought] to me [with] an excerpt from a letter to the Catholic clergy in America from [Pacelli] Pope Pius XII. The reference to Father Coughlin is oblique but Father Drought suggested that I note that results would follow, as indeed they did.” [121, Men and Decisions] Many people have been given the impression that Joe Kennedy arranged the censure of Coughlin, inducing the Vatican to exert influence on U.S. political affairs.
   Father Drought, under the guidance of Lewis Strauss and Herbert Hoover, later found himself in the center of one of the most tragic and lamentable events in modern times, attempting to secure a peace agreement between the U.S. and Japan in the year before Pearl Harbor. Strauss’s report on Father Drought, including a letter from the priest, is listed in the comments of the JFK Conspiracy Con (part II) http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/12/22/jfk-conspiracy-con-ii/; Drought died in 1943 from fatal injuries suffered in a plane crash.
1936-1939
   During the year in which Father Coughlin was dealt with and FDR was reelected, Strauss built a stone fortress on his Virginia estate and took an avid interest in developing advanced technology. In 1937, while shopping the Brasch-Szilard particle accelerator (of approx. 5-million-volt capacity) to his friends Irving Langmuir and W.D. Coolidge at General Electric, the men arranged an “opportunity to meet Ernest Orlando Lawrence” who was then building a hundred-million-volt cyclotron (circular accelerator). Strauss expressed his new “friendship” with Lawrence as “one of the finest experiences of my life” to last until Lawrence’s death. [p165, Men and Decisions]. The year prior, young physicist Luis Alvarez, brother of Lawrence’s secretary, came to the Berkeley Rad Lab and soon became the lab’s associate director. In a decade hence, after the Manhattan Project became the Atomic Energy Commission, Alvarez would design the largest particle accelerator ever built, the Materials Testing Accelerator (MTA), around which the Lawrence Livermore laboratory was constructed (1950-52). The MTA was conceived to convert uranium into plutonium for nuclear weapons and produce other “metamaterials” for experimental uses. Alvarez patented a much smaller version of this accelerator type in the months before John F. Kennedy’s assassination, and the Warren Commission made Luis Alvarez its key consultant in erecting a physicist’s proof of a lone gunman’s shot-from-behind in accord with the Zapruder film.
   Also in 1937, Lewis Strauss joined a small pool of investors to establish the Polaroid Corporation under its creator Edwin Land, the future “father” of the U2 spyplane. Alvarez,too, was a significant contributor to the U2′s optics, as he had been vital in the “lens” trigger of the plutonium bombs.
   In 1938, Temple Emanu-El elected Strauss war president, Hitler annexed Austria, and Germany had its 9-11, the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938, written 9-11-38 and numerologically identical to 9-11-2001). Over the course of 1938, the rest of the essential assembly of physicists, including the traveling Szilard and Enrico Fermi, claimed their permanent residence in the U.S.
   By 1939, Strauss, Hoover and Bernard Baruch had organized their US of Africa scheme for the very Heart of Darkness where the president of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga, Edgar Sengier, began sending surreptitious shiploads of uranium yellowcake steaming to New York Harbor where they languished on the docks of Archer Daniels Grain Corp. Meanwhile, Sengier was aiding the French atomic bomb project in the Sahara and Strauss was visiting London, Paris, Joe Kennedy, and the “fragile and beautiful” sights of the Continent– he left Europe with his family on August 7 of 1939.
*
War…
   Richard Pfau wrote that “war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “Without..warning..Stalin invaded Finland on November 30, 1939…[p65, Men and Decisions]…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… Later that day I sought the advice of an old friend. Ben Cohen was high in the councils of [FDR's] Administration… He came up with the idea [of] a corporation…[p66]…The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this. [Klein]..had served as chief of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce [under Hoover as Secretary]…There were contributions from foreigners as well… Dr. Niels Bohr, the great Danish physicist, had already given the gold medal received with his Nobel Prize..for the relief of Finnish refugees in Denmark… The Franklin Institute had just announced..its gold medal..[was Bohr's]..and Bohr said..he would like to contribute that medal to the fund… Years later..Bohr came to my office and retrieved his gold medal.” [pp68-69, Men and Decisions]  The result of Finnish resistance was that “The flower of the Finnish Army had been sacrificed in the early weeks of the war. On March 12, 1940, the Finns asked for terms of peace. These were severe– a large part of their best land had to be ceded to Russia, and..half a million people were dispossessed of their homes… The war that had been called ‘phony’ had become very real indeed.” [p70, ibid.]
   Pfau picked it up: “The war then exploded in the west. Hitler seized Denmark and Norway in April 1940… six weeks after the attack began [on France], the French surrendered… Because..Japan was a nation [Strauss] remembered fondly, he wanted the United States to..seek peace with Japan. He therefore helped..mediate the struggle for mastery of the Pacific… Father James Drought..and Bishop James Walsh..called on Strauss for letters of introduction to important men in Japan… The priests sailed on November 11, 1940.” [pp61-62, No Sacrifice Too Great]; 13 months before Pearl Harbor.
   “Ambassador Grew had reported to Washington, ten months before the fact, that he had heard rumors of plans for a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor… Grew also noted in his diary, ‘I rather guess that the boys in Pearl Harbor are not precisely asleep.’ …The volunteer intermediaries, Bishop Walsh and Father Drought [have] now passed from the picture [Walsh was captured by the Chinese and never heard from again], but the negotiations they had begun..continued up to the last hours… [T]he efforts of men of good will were completely thwarted.” [p128. Men and Decisions]
*
Months earlier “The Navy had arranged for the first approach to the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga..[in] June 1940.. at [Admiral] Bowen’s request [Alexander] Sachs made a contact with the company…Edgar Sengier..had concluded with extraordinary prescience that uranium..would become important..and had managed to divert..about twelve hundred tons of ore...” [p181, Men and Decisions]
>>>Sachs previously gave mail delivery service to FDR on behalf of the famous Einstein letter, penned by Szilard, signed by A.E. on August 2, 1939 and delivered in October.
    Also in June of 1940, Albert Lasker married his third wife, Mary Woodard, in a civil ceremony performed by Judge Samuel I. Rosenman. In April of 1939 when they met, Albert and Mary were introduced three times on the same occasion before it stuck. Together over lunch at ‘Twenty One”, were friends William Donovan (of the OSS), Lewis Strauss, and Max Epstein who each took a turn at the match. Within a few years, the Laskers focused their combined acumen on the health industry, took control of the American Cancer Society, and rewrote the book on Washington’s medical lobby.
*
Bureau of Ordnance
   “I had held a commission in the Naval Reserve since 1925, and in March 1941 orders had arrived to report for duty. This was nearly ten months before Pearl Harbor, and I seriously considered asking to be released… I was placed in charge of ordnance inspection with the astonishing designation General Inspector of Ordnance… As we had only a handful of qualified men, the first step was to train more immediately. I arranged for a school..and by dragooning civilian friends and acquaintances, recruited some hundreds of men of all ages… At dinner one evening at the home of Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Knox..I expounded on the value of consolidating all naval inspection… The Secretary was impressed… Navy material inspection was duly consolidated.. [with] the blessing of James Forrestal, Under Secretary of the Navy..[and] my assignment was changed..to..executive assistant to the chief [of ordnance] –Admiral Blandy. We soon became friends.” [pp132-134, Men and Decisions]
   As Strauss metered toward indispensability in weapons procurement and a place in the Pentagon’s hierarchy (then being built with a groundbreaking on 9-11-41), his colleagues in business and the AJC were taking the lead in war material management. Donald Marr Nelson and Lessing Rosenwald of Sears Roebuck led the War Production Board while a second enterprise with Sears’ Robert E. Wood and the silent participation of Rosenwald fizzled out– the isolationist America First committee.
   Strauss: “Before we were at war, many manufacturers were reluctant to take ordnance contracts from the Navy… Secretary Knox asked me to devise a project which would overcome this reluctance… I suggested..an incentive system… the right to paint an ‘E’ [for Efficiency and Excellence] on the turret of a ship… In the following year the project became the Army and Navy ‘E’ Award…generally..regarded as a model for successful industrial and public relations campaigns.” [pp149-150, Men and Decisions]
   Polaroid, for example, as a research-based upstart with Strauss on its board, suffered a net income “loss of about $100,000 in 1940. Nothing told [Edwin] Land and [Julius] Silver that they had  yet built a business that could survive, let alone grow… At the Polaroid Christmas party in 1940, Land called the [staff] together..[and] climbed up on a chair… The world was engulfed in war. The United States was not in it yet but –he spoke with chilling authority– it would be within a year. The Navy had offered Polaroid a..contract… Polaroid would devote its principal energies to defense work.” [pp67-69, Land's Polaroid, Peter C. Wensberg] Strauss’s program “brought Polaroid the first of three Navy ‘E’ pennants for excellence in 1941, several months before the Pearl Harbor attack. The company had sales of a million dollars in 1941… In 1942, a fourth Army-Navy E was run up the flagpole.” [pp73-74, ibid.]
   Strauss’s brand of dispersal for war contracts, however, was not going entirely unnoticed: “During the hot summer months in 1941, a subcommittee of the House Naval Affairs Committee had begun an investigation of the procurement policies of the Navy. Counsel..was a man named Toland… Someone had informed him that I had been instrumental in placing large orders for aircraft with companies in which I had a substantial financial interest… I had nothing to do with the letting of contracts… Instead of inquiring, Toland undertook to obtain evidence by subpoena. Late one afternoon two young [Army] men with credentials identifying them as attaches of the Toland Committee arrived at my office… Under protest, I surrendered what the subpoena called for… The following morning I walked into the office of the Under Secretary of War and expressed my indignation. Judge Patterson agreed that it was outrageous to have officers of one service used to police the other… Captain Noble..sent me a note.’You should have called me at my home,’ he wrote. ‘I would have gotten a few Marines and chucked those fellows out of the window.’ ” [p151, Men and Decisions]
   Strauss: “There was a variety of assignments during [my] tour of duty… Once Forrestal asked me to follow the Navy’s interest in a biological warfare project…[I went] on a visit to a laboratory operated by Dr. Merck and his associates… I [co-wrote a report for the Secretaries of War and Navy..establishing proceedures for unified purchase of materials..The reforms..were at once instituted... Appointed as Navy member of the Munitions Board in 1944, I served..a year... Secretary Knox died suddenly in 1944 and was succeeded by James Forrestal." [p155] “
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James V. Forrestal
   “In private life, Forrestal and I..had not been close friends. Indeed, as bankers we had been brisk competitors.” [p155] Forrestal “first saw me in uniform..during one of the monthly inspection visits [and] the next day..new orders..for me..read: ‘Additional duty as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of the Navy.’…[W]hen he became Secretary of the Navy, my office was moved at Forrestal’s order to one connecting with his. We saw each other several times daily… By 1944 he was recognized as the most influential man in the Cabinet. Stimson was the more venerated..but..Forrestal was on his way up politically and there was no comparable rival… Had Forrestal lived, there is a possibility that he might have been General Eisenhower’s opponent in 1952.” [pp156-157, Men and Decisions]
   Strauss set up a condition of pique in the memoir linking the “Toland affair” with Forrestal, whose ‘leap’ out a high-floor window in Bethesda Naval Hospital in May of 1949 was a widely suspect murder. It was Forrestal originally that assigned Strauss to a counter-investigation on behalf of the Navy to track the source of information flowing to Congress and into the hands of its legal counsel Toland. Strauss produced a denigrating ‘anonymous letter’ about Toland for his Navy superiors, which Pfau relates was the object of Toland’s search. Afterward “Strauss demanded retribution. He complained..to anyone who would listen… the Navy did not want a feud. The vendetta subsided when Forrestal terminated Strauss’s work with the [Navy's information] Clearing Office…but the under secretary did not want to waste time listening to Strauss’s complaint… Strauss turned in ten..pages [to Forrestal and] concluded, ‘You and the Navy,’ he wrote,’will have cause to regret any appeasement of Mr. Toland and I greatly fear it and hate to see you head into it.’ ” [pp 68-69, ibid.] Pearl Harbor had not yet occurred and “Strauss requested release from active duty..” so that he could return to full-time banking with Kuhn Loeb. The Navy was considering it until December 7, 1941.  Strauss’s complaint with the Navy by then was its failure to promote his rank above Lt. Commander.
   As Forrestal rose in authority, his office “had become a nexus for weapons research since efforts to establish a federal science agency were languishing.” [p310, James B. Conant; Harvard to Hiroshima, James Hershberg, 1993] In due time, Strauss’s position with Forrestal proved satisfying: “Strauss..accompanied Blandy..Forrestal and others on a tour around the..Pacific… Strauss linked the scientists with the Bureau of Ordnance… [He] prepared blistering letters that Blandy used to drive [production] work forward… Strauss..coordinated the development of the proximity [self-guided radar] fuse which began as [a] secret antiaircraft weapon… The proximity fuse project was Strauss’s first [military] experience with research under..secrecy… Strauss saw that research and production could proceed in an atmosphere of secrecy to yield a new and terrible weapon… Forrestal liked Strauss’s plan[s] so well he assigned Strauss to implement [them] and he promised Strauss a promotion to rear admiral Forrestal insisted [and] Strauss agreed to organize… With his unusual skill, he..assembled a team..established..proceedures, and promulgated..policies” [pp 72-74, No Sacrifice Too Great] “Forrestal also assigned Strauss to protect the navy’s interest in scientific research..after the war… Strauss worked closely with Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia to keep military research out of the hands of the National Academy of Sciences. The result..was..the Office of Naval Research…” [p77, ibid.]
   Full Pentagon access had significant benefits. “Strauss, while at the navy [James Conant recalled] ‘kept poking his unauthorized nose into things we were doing about atomic matters (at OSRD)…We told him off; in fact Van [Dr. Vannevar Bush] and I didn’t speak to him after that. We didn’t trust him and never did.‘….[later] business friends strongly counseled [Conant] to avoid one person in particular: Lewis L. Strauss..whom they said was out to make a name for himself by whatever means were necessary.” [p272, James B. Conant, Hershberg]
   Strauss: “The fact that Russian espionage had penetrated out atomic weapons project at several points was not then known. Likewise unknown was the degree of Soviet interest in rocket development… Had Forrestal’s good health continued [after the war], the history of Communist primacy in rocketry and satellites might..have had a different outcome… But Forrestal’s tough image was deceptive… He temporized and tried persuasion and forbearance. The word went about that he was intimidated.” [p159, Men and Decisions]  “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946…[p76, No Sacrifice Too Great...[and] knew immediately about the success of the [Trinity] test. As Forrestal’s assistant, no secrets were hidden from him.” [p77, ibid.] On a personal note, Strauss remarked that “The friendship between us was marked by candor in discussion of his plans for the..Navy and, after the war was clearly won, of his own future.” [p156, Men and Decisions]
   The two men crossed swords, however, after Forrestal became Truman’s Secretary of Defense and Strauss was a commissioner on the Atomic Energy Commission. The issue at hand was atomic security under the civilian AEC; serious breaches of AEC facilities were occurring that included missing plutonium –not mentioned by Strauss. He did report that Forrestal informed him that he was recommending the military takeover of the guardianship of atomic weapons. Strauss urged, “Don’t do it, Jim, the President will decide against you.” [p160] It was the beginning of Forrestal’s decline. Truman responded, “that ‘the custody of atomic weapons is a proper function of the civil authorities’. The occasion may have been a turning point..[in] Forrestal’s failing health… [Months later] on March 8, 1949 [Forrestal] asked me to lunch in his dining room in the Pentagon for what was to be the last time.” [p160, Men and Decisions] In the James B. Conant biographical chronology, just days after their Pentagon lunch, author Hershberg noted that “On March 12, 1949 the New York Times reported..on its front page, Secretary Forrestal ‘broke an official three-year military silence..on the use or discussion of the term ‘biological warfare’…” Hershberg was enumerating the complexities of disarmament and control that Conant was facing; he was hearing that “ ‘Biological warfare renders the atomic bomb childplay’…Another project that Conant tenaciously resisted..was radiological warfare, an idea championed by the air force and by Ernest Lawrence.” [p356, James B. Conant, James Hershberg]
   The death of James Forrestal, according to Arthur Krock, began with a fall from favor “with [Truman] for two reasons in particular. The first was his opposition..to the partition of Palestine..on military grounds –that the creation of..Israel would threaten the supply of Middle East oil to the West, especially to the..Navy. And with rare foresight he considered it a dangerous political concept..to create a state surrounded by enemies and give it a guarantee of protection… The second reason..grew out of [Forrestal's]..patriotic desire to assure a smooth..transition of government power if Dewey should win the 1948..election, as was widely expected… [but] his balking at the Palestine policy..made him powerful enemies in the Administration… [F]riends..detected a steady decline..from that time…” [pp 252-253, Memoirs, Arthur Krock]
   Krock revealed a source he called only ‘Z’ for details that followed: “It had long been Z’s habit to lunch with Forrestal when in Washington and on March 29, 1949, he phoned..as usual. An aide informed him..he could not lunch with him but would like Z to phone him [at home]..” Z arranged to see Forrestal at once. “[T]he butler said that his boss seemed to be very sick.” [p254] “Z told Forrestal he would have to leave the house promptly; that he was going to send him to Hobe Sound [Forrestal home in Florida] by plane and bring a doctor there… Z then flew to New York and inquired of Howard A. Rusk for the..’best psychiatrist in the country’…Z and Dr. William C. Menninger flew to Hobe Sound on Friday morning [p255]..and an agreement was reached that Forrestal should be taken to Bethesda… Z and Forrestal’s former aide, Rear Admiral John Gingrich, watched him through the night… That day Forrestal went willingly with Z and the two doctors by plane to Washington… He was not violent at any time. But he did have delusions and he had lost his health and his power to make decisions… Forrestal said..that his intestinal functions had not been normal for more than six weeks… In his mental agony Forrestal saw Zionist spies and assassins lurking..near his residence bent on revenge for his attitude toward the Palestine partition. And after..he entered the Naval Hospital, he never left it until he jumped..from a tower window.” [p 257, Memoirs, Arthur Krock]
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Dr. Howard A. Rusk had since joined forces with the Laskers’ D.C. medical lobby and would soon count Joe Kennedy Sr. and JFK among his patients. Within weeks after JFK’s assassination, Rusk was invited to set up a new polio hospital in Taiwan; six months later the Chinese detonated their first atomic bomb.
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Atomic Energy
   Richard Pfau reported that Strauss was “already involved in atomic policy before he left the navy…[and] it was clear that Congress would establish a civilian Atomic Energy Commission… By July..1946, Strauss expected the president to offer him one of the five places on the..Commission.” [pp 85-88, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss had no official role in the Manhattan Project although as a prior Munitions Board executive it seems he was placed in the line-up for a spot on the Target Committee. Strauss replaced Ralph Bard and suggested that the first atomic bomb be dropped on Nikko Japan, the near-perfect physical center of the main island (Honshu) which had over a thousand years of sacred history. Strauss was quite well-informed that Japan knew the war was lost and had been seeking terms of surrender since May of 1945. “[Strauss] recommended to Secretary Forrestal that the United States should demonstrate the power of the bomb…From his trip to Japan he remembered ‘a grove of cryptomeria trees near the little village of Nikko’..[that] held great symbolic significance… If an atomic bomb laid the trees out in concentric rows, the demonstration of American power would lead, Strauss believed, to Japan’s surrender.” [p80, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   The disturbing selection of Nikko for targeting by Strauss is an ominous insight into his real nature. In every way, the “little village”, as he called it, was/is the spiritual heart of the Japanese, set among the most precious and preserved natural landscapes of their domain. Once the seat of power, home of its ancient culture, and destination of pilgrims, Strauss set his desire against them as one who carves out the heart of his defeated enemy and obliterates its spirit from the earth. Nasty man.
   While he was alive, Franklin Roosevelt refused to approve Strauss for a Navy promotion stemming from a personal offense, but “the new president, Truman, bore no ill will toward Strauss…” He received his rank of Rear Admiral and “used the title proudly for the rest of his life.” [p82, No Sacrifice Too Great]
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   The U.S. began its postwar atomic tests in the summer of 1946 in the new Pacific Proving Grounds –ceded territory previously occupied by the Japanese in the Polynesian Marshall Islands. Operation Crossroads staged two detonations with elaborate assemblies of ‘experimental’ ships and materiel called ‘Able’ and ‘Baker’. “Admiral Blandy was put in command… My friends Dr. John von Neumann and Dr. Karl T. Compton were present as observers… During the same week that the underwater ‘Baker’ test was scheduled at Bikini atoll, I went to California to be the guest of ex-President Hoover at the..Bohemian Club… Mr. Hoover and a few of his friends maintain a camp there..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Strauss was interrupted on his holiday to answer a summons from Truman to come to Washington immediately. “Back in his office, the President came directly to the point and asked whether I would be willing to serve..’the most important branch of the Government to be created in a hundred years.’” Strauss told Truman he would consider becoming the first of the five new Atomic Energy Commissioners. “When I left the White House, I called my wife..in Virginia. I also consulted two friends. I called Robert A. Taft..in Salt Lake City at the time…[and] the other friend was Arthur Krock, the dean of American journalism. I went to his home and talked it over with him. His advice was, ‘Accept it.’  That afternoon I sent word to the President. A message came back..to say nothing of it to anyone.” [p213, ibid.]
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Krock wrote of meeting Joe P. Kennedy Sr. in 1934 on appointment to the the SEC “to take the measure of the man” at the initiation of two friends. “These two friends were Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.”–journalist brother of G.E. president Gerard Swope. Krock went on to describe Joe Kennedy ”as a news source and later as an intimate companion.” [pp330-331, Memoirs]
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WWII notes, pertaining to Strauss: In 1943 the Navy began a consolidation of its research and development projects that became the Office of Research and Inventions, rechartered as the war-end Office of Naval Research. Lewis Strauss wrote “Admiral Bowen, first Chief of Naval Research, has too generously ascribed its establishment to me.” [p147, Men and Decisions] “In early 1944, I proposed to Forrestal that we should obtain a sizable appropriation from the Congress… We should request a billion dollars..[to] enable long-range research… The result was that when the Office of Scientific Research and Development [OSRD, under Vannevar Bush] began to liquidate at the end of the war, the Office of Naval Research [ONR] filled the breach… The Atomic Energy Commission has shared many projects in nuclear physics with ONR.” [p148, ibid.]
Physicist Allan T. Waterman became the ONR’s chief science director until replaced by Emanuel Piore. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Waterman; Waterman was married to Mary Mallon, sister of H.Neil Mallon of Dresser (Halliburton) Industries and business partner of D.H.Byrd (and George deMohrenschilt). H. Neil Mallon was “a close friend and business partner of Prescott Bush.”(wikipedia)
   The Navy additionally established its own counterpart to “ALSOS”, the Allied occupation vanguard to capture and recruit technical and scientific assets (i.e.Project Paperclip). “Accordingly,” wrote Strauss, “I proposed the..task force… It..turned up an astonishingly large and heterogenous variety of scientific information, material and people..located cunningly in concealed laboratories and..installations… It took possession of tons of documents and reports… Fleet Admiral King was proud…[and] not the only one who had pride in the mission. Among the officers..was my son and I was more than pleased.” [p149, Men and Decisions]
   One of the German Paperclip scientists recruited by the Navy task force in Frankfurt was Herman P. Schwan who set the electronic radiation exposure levels (for radar) that became the Navy’s “recommended” limit, arguably 10,000 times higher than biologists endorse as safe: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/09/19/the-moscow-signal/
Meanwhile, in Medicine…
   Consolidation in “public health” took several forms. Under the wartime Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, a comprehensive Influenza surveillance and reporting system was initiated. The AFEB was stuffed with Rockefeller personnel who became officers and had their military salaries augmented by private funds. In 1943 Thomas Francis (formerly of Rockefeller Hospital) and Jonas Salk tested new flu vaccines from their base at the University of Michigan. According to Army records, the worst global pandemic spread of flu on record occurred in 1943, far outdoing the 1918-19 Spanish Flu by case volume. The pair later led the polio vaccine effort.
   The Laskers, “almost from the moment they met [in 1939]..addressed themselves to medical problems.” [p315, Taken At The Flood]. “Back in 1942 the Laskers set up the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation…and went to Dr. Alan Gregg of the Rockefeller Foundation for counselAlbert said frankly he wanted ‘bargains’Gregg suggested a variety of leads…[and] the [Lasker] awards were launched.” [pp324-326, ibid.] But “[Albert] Lasker was a revolutionary among philanthropists, because he was the first to suggest putting federal money to work in a big way…[p331]…figures tell the story…In 1945 the total research budget of the U.S. Public Health Service was a scant $2.4 million; by 1952 it had risen to $56 million, and in 1958..$211 million, a hundred-fold increase in thirteen years. For 1960..it was doubled…so..the increase from 1945 [was] 2,000 per cent.” [p332, Taken At The Flood]
  The Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Research Institute [SKI] was chartered in 1945 with Lewis Strauss and MED [Manhattan Proj.] luminaries on its board. “Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in..with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius "Dusty"] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants because of the uncertainties of the Institute’s sources of income. He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.” [1950 memo written by William T. Golden] http://archives.aaas.org/golden/doc.php?gold_id=80
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  on the AEC monopoly, presidential gatekeeping, atomic secret agents of the FBI, Robert Oppenheimer, etc.

November 6, 2012

MPG on The Road Not Taken

Filed under: Modern History — jenniferlake @ 4:24 pm
Tags: , , ,

When I see news about the price of gas or commercials for new cars and trucks touting twenty-or-thirty-something miles per gallon (or particularly during a shortage, outage, energy disaster or smog test!), it makes me think of Tom Ogle and his vapor-fuel system. I read about Tom a few years ago and his story becomes ever more poignant for its place in geopolitics and time.  

Ron Laytner wrote, “In 1978 I first interviewed Tom Ogle who created a device replacing the carburetor [that] allowed his 4,000 pound car to get 100 miles per gallon… Four years later Tom, at age 24, was in his grave and his invention, buried.” So Laytner is asking, “Did the world not go green because of a murder?…Tom said the 100mpg..was only the beginning of his newfound fuel efficiency.”

   “Tom felt confident that on the smaller, lighter cars..he could get nines times as much. That means..900 miles per gallon… ‘This is no hoax’, said Dr. Hawkins [Texas A&M engineer PhD, who approved and supported Tom's system], ‘Ogle eliminated the carburetor and achieved what the gasoline internal combustion engine was supposed to do all along –to operate off fumes’… Seventy years ago Canadian Charles Nelson Pogue made headlines long before Tom Ogle when he drove a 1932 Ford 200 miles on a single gallon of gas…proved..in a test for The Ford Motor Company in Winnipeg…” http://www.editinternational.com/read.php?id=482881ba117d7 ; Pogue’s story: http://fuel-efficient-vehicles.org/energy-news/?page_id=986 

   If Henry Ford was impressed in 1932, it was a complement by design when he unveiled his “Soybean Car”, made with soy-based plastic panels, “on August 13, 1941 at Dearborn Days..community festival… The car weighed 2000 lbs [1,000 less than his other models]… The exact ingredients of the plastic..are unknown because no record of the formula exists today… [Ford] also claimed that the plastic panels made the car safer than traditional steel cars; and that the car could even roll over without being crushed.” http://www.thehenryford.org/research/soybeancar.aspx . Ford’s early cars were designed to run on alcohol.

   Then there’s Rudolf Diesel who invented his motor to run on peanut oil. Diesel disappeared from a train ride and was found dead 10 days later.

Laytner points out that that another young American inventor who designed a dune buggy to run on water died at the height of his expectant success: “Stanley Allen Meyer..had twenty patents on many water-fueled inventions.”

In the ’70s 

  “As the environmental movement began to take shape in the early 1970s, a nationwide panic ensued in 1973 when the Arab members of OPEC cut off exports to the United States and other nations supporting Israel… This was a bold attempt to coerce Israeli forces to leave occupied Arab lands. Much to the relief of those traumatized by rising gas prices and oil shortages..a clever [young] mechanic from El Paso, Texas named Thomas Ogle made headlines when he claimed his invention would allow any V-8 engine to get 160 miles to the gallon… [He] revealed the results of an independent exhaust emissions test, which showed that his system operates nearly pollution-free… Although Ogle was eventually granted his patent, Patent Office examiners..indicated that a patent may already have been issued..similar to Ogle’s… [to] General Motors… One of their patents included a vaporized system that eliminated the carburetor, obtained by GM in 1972.” http://www.deathofagasguzzler.com/profiles/blogs/tom-ogle-160-mpg-by-a-high

   “Scientists were convinced his invention, dubbed the ‘Oglemobile’, would soon reach world markets… corporate engineers and the US government..were astounded to discover the invention actually worked…  A few months after my first interview [Tom's] backer C.F. Ramsay sold out to Advance Fuel Systems Inc, [of Seattle]… Advance Fuel’s own engineers would develop the ‘Oglemobile’..[and] Ogle was told he’d get no royalties because AFS was working on a device that got similar results but wasn’t his invention… [T]hirty years later I can still hear Tom’s voice from our recorded interviews promising the world a better future… He believed his system was the answer to the world’s pollution problems… Everyone predicted he would become a billionaire… and perhaps one of America’s greatest inventors.” [Ron Laytner, 2011]

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