Jennifer Lake's Blog

March 26, 2015

Atomic Agent Oswald

Linked from Lewis Strauss and JFK
2016 year-long additions and updates: this is an evolving post with a lot of information to add and manage. My choice is not to present new posts about Atomic Agent Oswald unless the subject changes significantly and benefits by a separate link.
December 2016 –Additions are continuing into 2017 and for as long as it takes!
“We must always remember Bertrand Russell’s profound unanswered question after he had received an advanced copy of the Warren Report. ‘If, as we are told, Oswald was the lone assassin, where is the issue of national security?’ Russell’s question…has never been answered.” –John Chuckman (‘Forty Years of Lies’ November 12, 2003)
   The persistence of secrecy and withholding of classified documents on Oswald, not to mention testimony from witnesses and government agents, suggests something greater at stake than the mere revealing of another government agent. Were Oswald an “atomic agent” trained in counter-proliferation and supervised in some measure by the FBI and AEC, national nuclear security can dictate endless official silence and justify the words of investigators that “we will never know the truth” about the Kennedy assassination.
Proposition to the field:
   While there is no absolute proof of an “atomic agent Oswald”, decades of diligence in JFK assassination research has produced an abundance of evidence giving a high probability to such a case. It lacks only a voice and a statement, so I’m going to make that case here, as expansively as I can, incorporating “new knowledge” learned from radiation-caused polio and other sources of background that also define a role for the atomic energy chief, Admiral Lewis Strauss.
*                                                         usa-and-the-red-menace-8-638L.L.Strauss in upper left background



“Hoover lied his eyes out to the [Warren] Commission, on Oswald, on Ruby, on their friends, the bullets, the gun, you name it…” –Congressman Hale Boggs, House Majority Leader and former member of the Warren Commission (ref. p.314, Official and Confidential, The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover, by Anthony Summers)

Here’s what we know:
Oswald worked for the FBI, having pay vouchers in his possession (which provoked a secret session of the Warren Commission) because the FBI was required by law of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act to provide security and policing to the newborn nuclear industry. In 1949, due to discoveries about missing atomic materials, the FBI entered into a tentative “dual agent” program with AEC Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss (exclusively, unbeknownst to his co-commissioners) which failed on its face. In a series of declassified memos, dated 1949-53, it appears that Hoover delegated his authority to develop such a program to Strauss after he became AEC chairman in 1953. The fate or function of any dual FBI/AEC counterintelligence program is unknown.
    Atomic plant security harbors a ghastly record; Strauss was the official “atomic plant” director after resigning his Commissioner’s seat in 1950, concurrent with his interim job as personal banker to the Rockefeller Brothers. It is unthinkable to suppose non-existing counterintelligence  security for the industrial safety of atomic reactors and weapons. We should expect that measures were taken and nuclear allies assured, even as the Atomic Energy Commission prepared a drastic downsizing of its participation due to scheduled privatization. The atomic agency itself was growing large, adding thousands of employees.  By 1960-62, the AEC was cutting many of its contractors loose, subject to the vagaries of commercial markets. Arms treaties with the Soviets hung in the balance.
J.Edgar Hoover expressed official concern for Oswald’s welfare (and the disposition of his passport) in Russia to the State Department in June of 1960 prompted by a letter to the FBI from his mother Marguerite, received earlier in May. Hoover may have been “discharging his duty” to atomic security in displaying this interest.
Oswald worked for the CIA, as sworn testimony suggests but does not describe, in preparing for his travel and stay in Russia which originated through his service with U-2 spy plane operations in 1957-58. The  CIA’s U-2 program functioned under the security umbrella of the Atomic Energy Commission, initiated while Adm. Strauss was AEC chair (1953-58). Strauss had full U-2 clearance and was additionally an extraordinary sponsor and friend to Edwin Land (of Polaroid), the key designer of U-2 program development.
–Oswald indeed, especially in New Orleans, became closely involved with the flow of small arms and ammunition and there is speculative evidence that nuclear materials were moved by that flow. Key persons and agencies connected to the JFK assassination had direct and profitable activities in atomic industry. Even a reframing of the U.S. Public Health Service particle accelerator story given by Ed Haslam in Dr. Mary’s Monkey, has more ominous implications if used to “recharge” or transform nuclear fuel from a spent or raw state to weapons and reactor grade material.
–Accepting the atomic agent premise, Oswald was a “special” special agent, perhaps on a solitary mission for the “common task” enunciated after the Kennedy-Krushchev  talks to halt nuclear proliferation in anticipation of a long sought test-ban. Agent Oswald entered the USSR in October of 1959  as the superpowers suspended atmospheric testing on the initiation of the Soviets with the consideration of a future treaty. Eisenhower described the suspension as a “moratorium on atomic weapons”. Edward Teller, director of the Livermore weapons lab through the Eisenhower-Kennedy transition, lodged a statement in his autobiography that he authorized the secret manufacture of nuclear weapons continuously, against the policy of a moratorium.
–Creation of the false “Oswald” trail in New Orleans by the CIA began January 20, 1961, the day of Kennedy’s inauguration and two weeks before Oswald himself first petitioned to return to the U.S.
–Former CIA agent Victor Marchetti suggested to BBC journalist Anthony Summers that Oswald worked for the ONI, restated by Jim Marrs in Crossfire: “...They were sent into the Soviet Union or into eastern Europe, with the specific intention the Soviets would pick them up and ‘double’ them if they suspected them of being U.S. agents, or recruit them as KGB agents. They were trained at various naval installations both here and abroad, but the operation was being run out of Nag’s Head, North Carolina.” –p117, Crossfire
                                                                   CardOldITMNola New Orleans International Trade Mart, scene of Oswald’s street performance handing out pro-Cuba leaflets in the summer of 1963. The Trade Mart, managed by Clay Shaw until 1965, was the model for another World Trade Center connected to Shaw, called the Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC) in Rome, Italy
Getting a Clue from Cuba
In February of 1962, ten months after the Bay of Pigs invasion, a medical team of Americans led by Dr. Albert Sabin launched a mass vaccination campaign in Cuba using his OPV, oral polio vaccine, that Sabin had co-developed with the Soviets in 1956. Historically, Cuba recorded its first early cases of polio among U.S. residents living at the Isla de Pinos in 1906-09,(a likely after-effect of popular X-ray treatments in those days). “The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years…  Between 1957 and 1961, the disease.. reached epidemic levels [during peak fallout from atomic tests!]… In 1962..using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign.”;jsessionid=F7B2770745445DAEA5B2E1EEB78586D1
   Polio in Cuba, and the presence of the vaccinators, prior to the Missile Crisis of October 1962 was the first inkling to this researcher that uranium or radiation-emitting products, other than fallout or Russian rockets, were moving around the island.  Inevitably,  pursuit of explanations for polio records, be it in Cuba, Canada, San Francisco or New Orleans leads to some unusual territory. Precisely such a polio pursuit concerning a major epidemic in Brooklyn New York back in 1916, led to the career origin of a young law student named John J. McCloy who was later appointed by LBJ to the Warren Commission. McCloy, at the time of Kennedy’s death, was a chief nuclear disarmament negotiator. Additionally, McCloy had another shadowy role as the chairman of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. [see ], where he finctioned as the “eyes and ears of Lewis Strauss”.  Jonas Salk, president of his eponymous lab, announced in 1962 that cancer was going to be prevented by vaccines. It must have been a comforting litany to the many Manhattan Project scientists who worked for the Salk. One of the founding funders of the institute, Colorado oilman John W. King, failed to bribe Jim Garrison with a judgeship to drop the prosecution against Clay Shaw.
                 TrumanandMcCloy     JFKandMcCloy
McCloy, “bankers’ lawyer” and representative for the ‘Seven Sisters’  (all seven oil majors), Truman’s Asst.Secretary of War and Kennedy’s arms negotiator, was alleged to be present in Texas at the Murchison family ranch meeting on Nov.21, 1963. McCloy’s best lifetime friendships were among the partners of Kuhn, Loeb & Co: Benjamin Buttenweiser, Freddie Warburg [who lived next door in Connecticut], and Lewis Strauss. McCloy’s other next-door neighbor, close friend, and tennis rival, was Henry C. (‘Harry’) Brunie, president of the Empire Trust.
   “In [Warren] Commission arguments over the ‘single-bullet theory’, it was McCloy who finally proposed that the evidence supporting this theory be called ‘persuasive’..” –p.467, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
   “The figure of John McCloy stands at the crossroads of several different Rockefeller worlds…” p243, The Seven Sisters, by Anthony Sampson, 1975 “When President Kennedy took office in January 1961 McCloy advised him…   At the very same time he was practicing as a very highly paid lawyer in the prestigious firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy, and from that office, it later transpired, he represented the antitrust interests of all seven of the Seven Sisters: ‘My job,’ as he described it to [author Sampson] later, ‘was to keep ’em out of jail.’ …McCloy appeared as part of that discreet ‘supragovernment’ which remains while Presidents come and go…” p198, ibid.
McCloy began his law career of distinction with the firm Cravath, Swaine & Moore in the 1920s.
   Mid-way between the Cuban polio inoculations and the Missile Crisis, In June ’62, Lee H. Oswald made his homecoming after spending more than a year petitioning for his exit from the USSR. Oswald spent almost three years with the Soviets. That same month of June ’62, a Russian KGB officer named Yuri Nosenko made his first contact with the CIA in Switzerland. Nosenko, “since the age of twenty-two..had served in Soviet intelligence. In 1949 he joined Soviet naval intelligence… In 1953 he work for the State Security Agency, known.. by the initials KGB… From February to June 1962 he was attached to the Soviet disarmament delegation in Geneva as chief security officer. It was then that he first contacted an American diplomat and asked to be taken to see a CIA officer.” [p.5, Legend, by Edward J. Epstein]. Nosenko initially agreed to remain an ‘agent in place’ and carry on his normal KGB routines but after JFK’s assassination, he urgently pressed the CIA  to expedite his defection to the U.S.  He again slipped out of a Geneva disarmament conference in January of 1964 and told his handlers he had information about Lee Harvey Oswald; “Nosenko explained that..he was the KGB officer appointed to make a ‘complete investigation’ of the Oswald affair… He could therefore testify from his firsthand inspection of the complete files that the KGB had no connection to Oswald.” [p.11,ibid.] “At Langley, [Richard] Helms realized..[the]CIA could not afford to lose a potentially valuable witness to Oswald’s activities in the Soviet Union. He took the matter to John McCone, the Director of the CIA.” [pp13-14, ibid.] and previously Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission under Eisenhower. Lewis Strauss, the AEC predecessor chairman, claimed to have hand-picked his successor McCone.
       JFK, Dulles, and McCone  jfkdullesmccone                         YuriNosenko Nosenko (was he affirming the Kennedy-Krushchev ‘common task’ of nonproliferation?) “Nosenko had made his first contact with U.S. officials..on June 3, 1962. That was two days after the Oswalds left the Soviet Union.” p212 footnote, Reasonable Doubt, 1985, by Henry Hurt
McConewar profiteer John A. McCone, Bechtel-McCone, AEC, CIA, shareholder in Big Oil’s ‘sister’ Standard Oil of California (Socal). Author Anthony Sampson (‘The Seven Sisters’, 1975) said McCone’s “relationship with government has been shrouded in mystery.” p234, The Seven Sisters

“McCone was an ardent Cold War warrior and in 1956 attacked the suggestion made by Adlai Stevenson that there should be a nuclear test ban. McCone, a strong supporter of Dwight Eisenhower, accused American scientists of being “taken in” by Soviet propaganda and of attempting to “create fear in the minds of the uninformed that radioactive fallout from H-bomb tests endangers life.”

In 1958 President Dwight Eisenhower rewarded McCone by appointing him Chairman of the Atomic Energy commission. After the Bay of Pigs disaster, President John F. Kennedy sacked Allen W. Dulles as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Under pressure from right-wingers in the intelligence community, Kennedy appointed McCone as the new director of the CIA.”

“ his Senate confirmation hearing, [McCone] faced charges of having tried to oust members of the faculty at the California Institute of Technology (where McCone was a trustee) because of their expressed views on nuclear testing.” p53, The Weapons Culture, 1968, by Ralph E. Lapp

It is repeated often by author/researchers on the JFK assassination that CIA sources claimed McCone was not told about Cuban-exile guerilla activities or plots against Castro and Kennedy, conspiracies in which Oswald took part especially –could it be that end-running on McCone (if it’s true) was done to conceal Oswald’s involvement because ex-AEC chief McCone would have recognized an atomic dual-agent? According to Seynour Hersh in The Samson Option: “There was every political reason [for JFK] not to appoint him [to the CIA]: McCone not only was a prominent Republican but had spoken out against the White House’s much-desired test ban treaty… [however] McCone had his own policy goals, and they meshed closely with the young President’s, said [McCone aide Walter] Elder: ‘McCone was most adamant about American nuclear superiority…and nonproliferation.’ ” [p105] “Myron B. Kratzer, the AEC’s director of international affairs… [said] ‘One of McCone’s goals..was to force the Israelis to accept international inspection of Dimona.’ “, then being promoted as an enterprise in peaceful uses, but characterized by Hersh as a “classic example of illicit proliferation.” [p77, The Samson Option, Seynour Hersh, 1991]


James Douglass wrote, “We have no evidence as to who in the military-industrial complex may have given the order to assassinate President Kennedy. That the order was carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency is obvious. The CIA’s fingerprints are all over the crime and the events leading up to it…  Investigative journalist Joseph Trento testified in a 1984 court deposition that, according to CIA sources, James Angleton was the supervisor of a CIA assassination unit in the 1950s. The ‘small assassination team’ was headed by Army colonel Boris Pash… Trento testified that his sources confirmed, ‘Pash’s assassination unit was assigned to Angleton’. ” [p142, JFK and the Unspeakable, by James Douglass, 2008]
     wikiPash Boris Pash  LBJandPashatParkland Pash with LBJ at Parkland Hospital
>>>incidentally, some JFK researchers identify the man above with LBJ as Dallas Secret Service agent Forrest Sorrels, of whom no photos exist wearing eyeglasses. “In 1963, Secret Service agents, like their FBI counterparts, wore crewcuts, dark suits, and narrow ties.”–p320, Crossfire— just as he is pictured below on the left. “Dallas Secret Service agent-in-charge Forest V. Sorrels was the only Secret Service agent to return to the scene of the assassination within an hour or so.” –p321, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989.  Sorrels claimed to have entered the Book Depository unchallenged with nobody asking for his credentials, possibly much sooner than “an hour or so” before the building was closed and guarded. Other claims posit Sorrels return to the TSBD from Parkland within 20-25  minutes.
   Later throughout the day on 11-22, Sorrels came and went from the police department hallway crowded with photographers, a number of them known to him, yet no individual with the likeness of “Pash” (as above) was captured on camera. Though controversial, Boris Pash may have had his own covert reasons for being at Parkland Hospital in addition to his work with the CIA’s Health Alteration Committee which was developing a bioweapon for use against Fidel Castro. One of those weapons was the ‘cancer vaccine’ project underway in New Orleans over the summer of 1963, involving Oswald, David Ferrie, Judith Vary (Baker), and as the evidence seems to indicate, Drs. Mary Sherman and Alton Ochsner.
   During WWII, Pash’s subordinate Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa, and not long after that under the Truman administration, LBJ sat on the powerful congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
*sorrels-forrstv *SorrelsNewspaper Forrest V. Sorrels, the image on the left, also from a newspaper, was possibly taken on 11-22-63
   By the time of the Kennedy assassination, Pash had already made his mark on history: “Lt. Col. Boris T. Pash at G-2 Army Intelligence in San Francisco [was] Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast… He had spent much of his career hunting communists… After America entered World War II, he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans [in a program conceived and authorized by Asst. Sec. of War John J. McCloy]...and then was assigned as the Manhattan Project’s chief counterintelligence officer.” [pp.190-191, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, 2005]
   “Pash served from 1949 through 1952 as the CIA’s Chief of Program Branch 7 (PB/7), a special operations unit within the Office of Policy Coordination [OPC], the original CIA clandestine service. Pash’s boss, the Director of Operations Planning for OPC, told the Senate [Church Committee] investigators that Colonel Pash’s Program Branch 7 unit was responsible for assassinations and kidnapping as well as ‘special operations’. Pash denied..responsibility for assassinations… Former CIA officer E. Howard Hunt Jr. told the New York Times on December 26, 1975 that in the mid-fifties he had been informed by his superiors that Boris T. Pash was in charge of a.. unit responsible for the ‘assassination of suspected double agents and similar low-ranking officials’…
   “Despite the CIA’s claim that it had no records dealing with assassinations, the Senate committee staff investigators concluded that Pash’s unit was indeed assigned ‘responsibility for assassinations and kidnappings.’ It was documented, for example, that while working in the CIA’s Technical Services Division in the early 1960s, Pash was involved in the attempt to design poisoned cigars destined for Fidel Castro.” [p.254, ibid.]
   Pash also denied ever having worked for the CIA, maintaining that his regular employer, the U.S. Army,  loaned out his services. Over the course of 1953-54, Pash’s service was devoted to AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss in the cause of removing Robert Oppenheimer from any classified position of authority within the nation’s nuclear program. The Oppenheimer Case, which is the subject of American Prometheus by Bird and Sherwin, is also the title of a book by Philip Stern, the son of Edgar and Edith (Rosenwald) Stern of New Orleans, owners of NBC-affiliate WDSU TV and radio, and friends of Clay Shaw.
John J. McCloy, Earl Warren, and Boris Pash, together, had the common responsibility for implementing McCloy’s Japanese internment program during WWII.
   “Carey McWilliams, the editor of the Nation…observed that ‘no one person had more to do with bringing about the removal of the West Coast Japanese during World War II –citizens and aliens alike; men, women, and children– than Mr. Warren’.” [p.40, Plausible Denial, by Mark Lane]
    AllenDulles     “Allen Dulles used to tell his sister that 1953 and 1954 were the good years at the CIA, when everything seemed to be going right and the Agency was his brother’s strong right arm in helping to reshape the world… For the first time, the CIA now had a budget running at over half a billion dollars, and there was no one outside the Agency Allen needed to tell how the money was spent...” [p.323, Dulles, by Leonard Mosley, 1978]  “...Never before or since has the CIA had more support from the State Department, or, because Secretary Dulles was so powerful, more freedom to infiltrate U.S…offices in foreign countries. [CIA] had complete freedom to undertake projects of enormous tactical or strategical significance with little or no oversight... [p.364, ibid.]
   “In 1955, Allen was able to extend the CIA’s kingdom to the stratosphere. [Literally, with the U-2 aerial reconnaissance program, p.365] …But the trouble with the Agency was that there was such a multiplicity of small activities going on at any given time that no one could keep account of them all, except, perhaps, the finance department, which had to pay for them –sometimes in weird and wonderful ways.” [p.370, Dulles, A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and Their Family Network, by Leonard Mosley, 1978, Dial Press]
“Allen Dulles’s interest in Texas seems to have picked up shortly after he left the Kennedy administration. In December 1961, he contacted a request contact information for agency officers based in Houston. After the assassination, Johnson would bring Dulles back into government –first as a member of the Warren Commission investigating Kennedy’s death and then as a member of the Gilpatric Committee, a group of advisers on the proliferation of nuclear weapons.” [p99, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker, 2009]
The 1964 Gilpatric Committee, including appointees Dulles and McCloy from the Warren Commission, was formed to advise on strategies of nuclear counterproliferation: “The recommendations of the Gilpatric Committee remain largely unknown today. Johnson had prepared to announce a new American counterproliferation policy during a speech to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations, but Robert Kennedy discussed counterproliferation in a speech a few days earlier, leading Johnson to abandon the theme. The Committee’s report was then kept classified for three decades.”
**jfkandrfk  The importance of subject matter in Robert Kennedy’s speech mentioned here is that it was RFK’s maiden Senate speech: “Teddy waited fourteen months before making his maiden speech; Bobby made his, a powerful condemnation of nuclear-weapons proliferation, a little more than five months after he was sworn in, earning grumbles from ‘the club’ that it was too soon.” –p116, Good Ted, Bad Ted, by Lester David, 1993
   Garrison    Jim Garrison wrote: “Much later in 1978, James A. Wilcott, a former CIA finance officer, told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Lee Oswald had been recruited from the military by the CIA ‘with the express purpose of a double agent assignment in the USSR.* [footnoted:] Wilcott testified under oath that he had handled the funding for the project to which Oswald was assigned...” [p.49, On the Trail of the Assassins, 1988]
   James Douglass contributes: “Jim Wilcott worked in the finance branch of the Tokyo CIA Station from 1960 to 1964. During the same years [his wife] Elsie Wilcott was a secretary at the Tokyo Station... [Wilcott recounted]..’a man I knew and had worked with before showed up to take a disbursement and told me Lee Harvey Oswald was a CIA employee. I didn’t believe him until he told me the cryptonym under which Oswald had drawn funds when he returned from Russia to the U.S…. It was a cryptonym..that I was familiar with…  It was common knowledge in the Tokyo CIA Station that Oswald worked for the Agency.’ In an article based on what he learned at the Tokyo Station, Jim Wilcott wrote: “He had been trained at Atsugi Naval Air Station, a plush super secret cover base for Tokyo Station special operations… Oswald was recruited from the military for the express purpose of becoming a double agent assignment to the USSR… More than once I was told something like ‘so-and-so was working on the Oswald project back in the late ’50s.” [pp 146-147, JFK and the Unspeakable]
The image of Boris Pash and LBJ together in Dallas on 11-22-63 at the Parkland suggests the immediacy of an Oswald problem. The above link to Jim Fetzer’s Real Deal program features a description of what happened to the next famous patient brought to the hospital:
(minute 36:30)
   “LBJ, or an LBJ top aide..called Henry Wade in Dallas [to insist] ‘You have your man…just move forward’…
   “Charles Crenshaw, who was one of the trauma room physicians when JFK’s moribund body was brought in… he closed JFK’s eyelids… was responsible two days later to take care of Oswald…[during which] he was notified he had a phone call from the President of the United States… There was that all too familiar voice of Lyndon Johnson saying he wanted a deathbed confession from the assailant. Crenshaw explained to him that actually Oswald seemed to be doing better and he thought [Oswald] was not going to die. Lyndon told [Crenshaw] there’d be a man in a trench coat there waiting to take the confession… and when Crenshaw returned to the room there was a sinister-looking guy in a trench coat whom I believe was David Sanchez Morales –but [then] Oswald took a turn for the worse and died. There was no deathbed confession. But, it’s really a fascinating aspect revealing how much LBJ was personally involving himself in covering up the case.”
   This Real Deal episode, incidentally, concerns the Murchison ranch ‘party’ the night before JFK’s murder, attended by witness Madeleine Brown –LBJ’s mistress– who swore to the occurrence there of a secret high-level closed-door meeting at which J.Edgar Hoover, Richard Nixon, John McCloy, LBJ and others were present. The Murchison meeting is the presumed green light for the next-day assassination.
An additional Real Deal program recorded in April 2015 with Alan Salerian, discussing the altered Zapruder film, mentions that Oswald’s arrest report was filed by the Dallas police at 1:40 pm, charging him with the murders of Officer Tippet and President Kennedy, ten minutes before Oswald was actually arrested (minute 1:16). The same program offers the location of one of the sniper teams in the open window office of Dallas Uranium and Oil (DUO), a CIA front company in the Dal-Tex building where the shooter had “George [H.W.] Bush supervising him.” (minute 33)
“Perhaps Dallas homicide had systematically altered evidence not just to nail Oswald… Perhaps it had behaved as it had intentionally, to protect the actual killers of both John Kennedy and J.D. Tippet. If that were true, it would mean we were dealing with something beyond incompetence, even beyond cover-up. It would mean that Dallas homicide– or key members of it– had at worst colluded in the assassination before it happened or at best actively ratified it afterwards.” –Jim Garrison, p203, On The Trail of The Assassins, 1988
AGENT OSWALD TIMELINE               MarineOswald
Circa late 1953 “Oswald…claimed his first contact with communist ideology came with a pamphlet handed to him on a New York street corner… about the age of 15…” –p98, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
October 24, 1956: With his mother’s consent, at age seventeen LHO enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was sent to Camp Pendleton (San Diego/Oceanside, CA) for basic training.
March 18, 1957: LHO was assigned to Jacksonville, FL Naval Air Station for training in RADAR. He graduated in May and proceeded to Keesler AFB in Mississippi for aircraft control, finishing #7 in his class in June when next he was ordered to station in Atsugi Japan.
August 21, 1957: LHO boarded the USS Bexar in San Diego for a 21-day voyage. He served a 13 month tour in Japan.
November 2 1958: Oswald departed Japan for a two-week ride to San Francisco, where he received a new assignment at the El Toro Air base in Santa Ana, CA.
February 25, 1959: Oswald took his first Russian language test.
March 1959: LHO applied to the Albert Schweitzer College in Churwalden Switzerland for the 1960 spring term.
July 1959: filed for help with an early discharge to the Red Cross
August 17, 1959: filed for a ‘dependency discharge’ (to help his mother), approved September3
September 4: filed for a passport in Santa Ana (“to attend Albert Schweitzer College”), rec’d Sept.10
September 11: officially discharged, took a bus to Fort Worth TX, arrived 2am Sept.14
September 16: left TX for New Orleans, received a passport stamp “Import-Export”
September 17: booked passage with Int’l Trade Mart company Travel Consultants Inc. for the freighter Marion Lykes, headed to La Havre France. Oswald self-described as a “shipping export agent”.
Sept.20– shipped out of New Orleans, arrived in France on October 8, 1959; Claim of spending one week in England, then on to Helsinki Finland; received a visa to enter USSR in 24 hours.
October 15, 1959: LHO left Helsinki by train, bound for Moscow, crossing the border at Vainikkala.
—timeline reference source: Legend, The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jay Edward Epstein—
“In a Moscow interview shortly after arriving in Russia, Oswald told newspaper reporter Aline Mosby: ‘I’m a Marxist…I became interested about the age of 15… An old lady handed me a pamphlet about saving the Rosenbergs… I looked at that paper and I still remember it, I don’t know why.’ Julius and Ethel Rosenberg had been convicted of passing atomic bomb secrets to the Russians.” p98, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs
“In December 1959 [Oswald] dropped out of sight for more than a year. No friends or relatives in the United States heard from him. Oswald’s activities are known today only because of a reconstruction based, often, on the most questionable of sources.” –p210, Reasonable Doubt. “Oswald’s defection and return occurred at a time when the CIA was openly debriefing simple American visitors –to the tune of 25,000 annually– as they returned from the Soviet Union. Even tourists’ snapshots were reviewed and those of CIA interest copied and filed. Through incredible coincidence, the CIA just happened to have a picture taken by a tourist of Oswald on a Minsk street.” –p218, Reasonable Doubt, 1985, by Henry Hurt
According to Warren Commission testimony, tourist pictures of Oswald in Minsk include those taken by Rita Naman, Monica Kramer, and “Mrs. Marie Hyde” (more below)
 Import-Export; director of the NOLA Trade Mart and Rome CMC  Shaw Clay L. Shaw
  ” In early January of 1960, Oswald was sent to Minsk –one of six Soviet cities to which defectors customarily were sent– and given a job as a metal worker [inspector] in a radar factory… he was given a number of privileges not available to the average Russian worker,  including a comfortable apartment and a relatively high salary.
   “In February 1961, after 15 months in the Soviet Union, Oswald applied at the American Embassy in Moscow to return to the United States.  The following month [March ’61] he met Marina Prusakova…the niece of a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet Union’s domestic intelligence service. In April, less than two months after they met, they were married.”– p.50, On The Trail of The Assassins
   ...”[That the] United States government..demonstrat[ed] almost paternal solicitude for Lee Oswald’s welfare even while he was in the Soviet Union comprised, to my mind, a steady uninterrupted pattern. And the preferential treatment did not end with the arrival of Lee and Marina and their young daughter in New York in June of 1962…
   “…Immediately upon his return to the U.S., Oswald..moved to Fort Worth, Texas. There he worked at the Leslie Welding Company until October 7, 1962, when George de Mohrenschildt and his wife came over from Dallas to spend the evening as guests of Lee and Marina at their modest apartment.” –p51, ibid., Garrison
De Mohrenschildt  George deMohrenschildt of the Dallas Petroleum Club, ‘suicided’  March 29, 1977 after meeting with journalist Jay Edward Epstein, the same day he was later scheduled to meet with House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) investigator Gaeton Fonzi, a meeting that never took place.
   DeMohrenschildt’s fourth wife Jeanne had moved to Dallas in 1953 where she got a job designing for Nardis sportswear: “While Jeanne designed clothing, her co-worker Abraham Zapruder cut the patterns and material.” [p79, Family of Secrets] ” Jeanne had been born Eugenia Fomenko in 1914 in Harbin Russian parents… [S]he and her first husband, Robert LeGon, had fled Manchuria when it was under Japanese control… Eventually, they made their way to New York, where brother Sergei was working on the top-secret Manhattan Project… [p78, ibid.]
“The following day, October 8, Lee packed up and moved to Dallas, 30 miles away, where deMohrenschildt lived. Oswald wasted no time in seeking a new job at the Texas Employment Office in Dallas… [B]efore October 1962 was over, Oswald had obtained a job that, for a former defector to the Soviet Union, seemed quite unlikely. Jagger-Stovall-Chiles, under a contract with the Pentagon, was engaged in the production of charts and maps for military use. Writer Henry Hurt has observed that ‘part of the work appeared to be related to the top-secret U-2 missions, some of which were making flights over Cuba’. This job required an extremely high security classification. Lee Harvey Oswald not only was given the job within one week of his arrival in Dallas, but also had access to a variety of classified materials.
   …”Socially, despite his ‘defection’ and his ostensibly vocal allegience to communism, Oswald and his family were welcomed with open arms by the White Russian community of Dallas… Oswald’s most frequent associate in Dallas, I discovered, was George de Mohrenschildt… His father, Baron Sergius de Mohrenschildt, had been governor of the province of Minsk for the czar. The family had fled from the communists after the 1917 revolution. De Mohrenschildt spoke Russian, French, German, Spanish and Polish. In World War II he had worked for French intelligence… [and] possessed a doctorate in international commerce and a master’s degree in petroleum engineering and geology… Among his close friends, one of the more interesting was Jean de Menil, the president of the mammoth international Schlumberger Corporation, which had close ties with the Central Intelligence Agency. [footnote] The CIA and Schlumberger had a mutual interest in the O.A.S. [Secret Army Organization]..led by former French generals who had revolted against President Charles DeGaulle in 1961 when Algeria was in the process of winning its independence. The Agency had been a staunch, although secret, supporter of the French anti-Gaullist movement.” pp52-53, ibid.,Garrison
DeGaulle Author and professor Joan Mellen writes, “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962. [Guy] Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw Banister and ..PERMINDEX (Permanent Industrial Exhibition), based in Switzerland.” –p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005
Ringleader of the French OAS generals, Jacques Soustelle JacquesSoustelle former colonial governor of Algeria and French atomic energy minister
GuyBanister Ex-FBI New Orleans private detective Guy Banister : In a curious statement to the Louisiana Senate’s Legislative Committee on Segregation in March of 1957, Banister said, “We are particularly vulnerable to smuggled atom bombs. Even the big bombs were comparatively simple to assemble once they were made. Now they have them down to the size of an artillery shell. Dedicated Communist Party members can smuggle them in, leave them. I doubt that we have enough screw drivers and men to use to find them. They can be triggered, set off by a radio wave, or in several other manners. I know that it is possible and comparatively easy to assemble one of them and New Orleans is a key city in the south land…”
In March of 1957, when Banister made this statement, Oswald was being trained on radar in Florida. The man who designed nuclear weapons “down to the size of an artillery shell” was Theodore B. (‘Ted’) Taylor, who left Los Alamos between 1956 and 1957 to join the creative staff of General Atomics, subsidiary of General Dynamics, in La Jolla CA. Ted said that General Atomics was like “Los Alamos West”. More on Ted Taylor below.
GarrisonSmallImage “Spring of 1963 arrived and Lee Oswald– as usual, without fanfare or any other preliminaries– left Dallas in late April for New Orleans. His wife and daughter arrived there shortly afterwards. By May 9 Oswald had obtained a job in New Orleans at the Reily Coffee Company, just on the other side of the post office building from Guy Banister’s office… Now I was interested in taking a closer look at how he found his way to employment at the Reily Coffee Company… Judging by [a] lengthy series of [Warren] Commission exhibits, he had sought employment at half the businesses in the city of New Orleans.” —pp56-57, On The Trail of The Assassins— “…[D.A. investigator] Frank agreed with me on the probability of Oswald’s impersonation in the job applications. What it amounted to, of course, was that Oswald had been destined from the outset to go to work at the Reily Coffee Company, close by Guy Banister’s office. All these applications by someone impersonating him were intended to obscure that.” –p59, ibid.
“It had always puzzled me why Oswald had left Dallas in April 1963 to spend the summer in New Orleans, only to return to Dallas again in October. But given what I had learned, this began to make sense. Clearly, if Oswald was being set up as a communist scapegoat, his close association in Dallas with the anti-communist White Russians had to be severed. Likewise, a summer of ostentatiously handing out out pro-Castro leaflets in New Orleans reinforced the image of a crazed communist assassin. In the intelligence community, there is a term for this kind of manipulated behavior designed to create a desired image: sheepdipping. It seemed to me that Oswald had been in New Orleans to be sheepdipped under the guidance of Guy Banister and that he had been sent back to Dallas when the mission was accomplished.
   “To see if I was on the right track, I studied more closely Oswald’s return to Dallas and his last two months before the assassination. On September 23, 1963, a pregnant Marina Oswald and her daughter left New Orleans. They were driven westward to Dallas, I learned, by Mrs. Ruth Paine. It was generally agreed that Lee Oswald left approximately a day later… [But it was not until] October 4, Lee returned to Dallas. He spoke of having been in Houston, looking for work. Ten days later Ruth Paine obtained an interview for him, and he got the job– at the Texas School Book Depository.
   For reasons that remain unclear, Oswald rented a series of small rooms in Dallas while his wife and daughter stayed at the Paine’s house in Irving. Although Lee kept a number of his personal possessions with him in Dallas, Mrs. Paine made her garage in Irving available to him for his other possessions.
   There was no way of guessing what Lee had in mind with this odd living arrangement, nor who suggested it. However, it was undeniable that this situation worked to the advantage of whoever was behind the assassination.” –pp63-63, ibid.
In 1954 it was Russia, not the U.S., that was most concerned nuclear weapons would spread. ‘Since even peaceful nuclear activities could lead to the production of materials usable for bombs, the proposed stimulation of such activities throughout the world could actually lead to an intensification of the arms race,’ the Soviets wrote in a January 1954 letter to Washington…
  [And, furthermore] “… ‘The kind of catastrophic accident that Strauss and his successors believed could never actually happen have taken a significant toll.’ “
   1954 turned out to be a banner year for nuclear expansion following Eisenhower’s  December ’53 “Atoms For Peace” speech to the U.N. General Assembly in New York. U.S. atmospheric tests that year took place exclusively in the Pacific Proving Grounds, scheduled as Operation Castle beginning March 1, 1954 with test ‘Bravo’.–a test so unexpectedly radioactive from more-than-double its predicted megatonnage, that an outcry over the fallout came in from around the world. AEC chairman Strauss was a shipboard observer at Bikini Atoll for Bravo which was the first and only bomb test he ever personally attended.
Lookout Mountain (Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles) studio film of Operation Castle:
Castle- Bravo test weighed in at 15 megatons from its predicted 7 Mt and contaminated 5,000 sq. miles, including inhabited islands that were not evacuated beforehand, although the same islands had been evacuated in every prior test. “Wind shift” was blamed, however the monitors reported that the exact pattern of wind direction “was blowing at us for days”. The fate of the Marshallese is described here:
The military response to Castle-Bravo was to cancel two of its planned detonations, including the largest, and space the remaining tests farther apart, adding more than three weeks to the operation. The Salk polio vaccine field tests on American schoolchildren were also commensurately delayed.
Chairman Strauss returned to Washington at the end of March. filed his report about “wind shift”, and proceeded with his historic AEC tribunal against Robert Oppenheimer. Boris Pash and the FBI were indispensable Strauss allies throughout, and by May’s end Oppenheimer was banished, relegated to return to Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study under the authority of  Strauss, who was chairman of the IAS board.
August  of  1954 produced a renewal of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act, instituting a license framework for the private ownership of nuclear facilities and materials, nationally and internationally, at the discretion and approval of the Atomic Energy Commission –a curious challenge in light of the vapid attempt at a dual FBI/AEC agent program that dissolved in 1953. Or did it? An apparent gap in the FBI’s  record of memos spans more than ten years until September 30, 1964 when the last declassified memo signed by William C. Sullivan announces the final disposition of the files, sanitized and reclassified, to the Bureau’s general archive. Sullivan’s memo is dated just two days after dissemination of the published Warren Report.
     William C. Sullivan William_C._Sullivan_(FBI_agent) headed the Oswald investigation for the FBI and allowed his serious “doubt” about Oswald’s guilt to lodge in the journalistic record. Sullivan was “accidently shot” to death on 11-9-77 at his woodsy New Hampshire home, “mistaken for a deer” (while standing on his front porch, they say). He was the FBI’s first Atomic Energy Commission liason officer (beginning 1947) and contributed to two special study groups for government counter-proliferation strategy after resigning the FBI and before his death. The first special study, sponsored by the AEC, resulted in the Rosenbaum Report of April 1974 which includes the statement that “It is not the AEC’s business to conduct this sort of intelligence [such as infiltration of plutonium smuggling groups], but it is the AEC’s business to see that those agencies of the United States Government which have intelligence gathering responsibilities, including the FBI, CIA, and NSA, focus their attention upon this particular threat…”
Sullivan had been scheduled to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Sullivan was one of six top FBI officials who died in a six month period in 1977. Others who were due to appear before the committee who died included Louis Nicholas, special assistant to J. Edgar Hoover and his liaison with the Warren Commission; Alan H. Belmont, special assistant to Hoover; James Cadigan, document expert with access to documents that related to death of John F. Kennedy; J. M. English, former head of FBI Forensic Sciences Laboratory where Oswald’s rifle and pistol were tested; Donald Kaylor, FBI fingerprint chemist who examined prints found at the assassination scene.”
The pseudonymous Torbitt File, written by lawyer David Copeland and bearing the title “Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal”, makes this claim:
The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five [Sullivan’s command] of the Federal Bureau of Investigation…[acting] dualy with the Defense Intelligence Agency..under..their highly secret policy agency– the Defense Industrial Security Command [DISC][which] acts..on behalf of NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Information Agency, and the arms, equipment, ammunition, munitions and related..manufacturing corporations contracting with NASA, AEC, USIA and the Pentagon.
   ..The Defense Industrial Security Command had its beginnings when J.Edgar Hoover in the early 1930s organized the police force of the fledgling Tennessee Valley Authority at the request of David Lilienthal [then governor of TVA and by 1947, chairman of the AEC until 1950] …This force grew and Lilienthal took it forward to cover the Atomic Energy Commission, thus tying it into the Army Intelligence Service.
   “L.M. Bloomfield, a Montreal, CANADA lawyer bearing the reputation as a sex deviate, the direct supervisor of all contractual agents with J. Edgar Hoover’s Division Five, was the top co-ordinator for the network planning the execution. A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties.

The five groups under Permindex and their supervisors were:

1. The Czarist Russian, Eastern European and Middle East exile organization called SOLIDARISTS, headed by Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian Premier, and John DeMenil, Russian exile from Houston, Texas, a close friend and supporter of Lyndon Johnson for over thirty years. [deMohrenschildt’s friend and president of Schlumberger oil services]

2. A section of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES headed by H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.

3. A Cuban exile group called FREE CUBA COMMITTEE headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban President.

4. An organization of United States, Caribbean, and Havana, Cuba gamblers called the Syndicate headed by Clifford Jones, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Nevada and Democratic National Committeeman, and Bobby Baker of Washington, D.C. This group worked closely with a Mafia family headed by Joe Bonnano.

5. The SECURITY DIVISION of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headed by Wernher Von Braun, head of the German Nazi rocket program from 1932 through 1945. Headquarters for this group was the DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL SECURITY COMMAND at Muscle Shoals Redstone Arsenal in Alabama and on East Broad Street in Columbus, Ohio.

The Defense Industrial Security Command is the police and espionage agency for the U.S. munitions makers. DISC was organized by J. Edgar Hoover; William Sullivan, his chief assistant, is in direct command. We shall later examine the involvement of a large number of the DISC agents including Clay Shaw, Guy Bannister, David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby and others with Permindex’s Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada in charge.

As it must be, all of the preceding facts are established and documented by overwhelming evidence beyond a reasonable doubt on the following pages. Gordon Novel obtained the aid of the Columbus office in 1967 when Jim Garrison was attempting to get him back to Louisiana from Ohio. Personnel of the Defense Intelligence Agency were subject to assignment with the Defense Industrial Security Command.”(ref. found here: )*

Copeland’s wife worked at the Fort Worth, TX Convair plant, subsidiary of General Dynamics, the largest defense contractor in the U.S. and parent company of General Atomics.
* GarrisonSmallImage  Jim Garrison came across the likes of “CIA asset” Gordon Novel after learning about a “munitions raid” by the FBI back in [July 31 and] August of 1963, shown to him as front-page New Orleans news items by investigator Frank Klein. Garrison wrote, “So, some ammunition had been found north of Lake Pontchartrain…There had been no announcement of any arrests. I pushed the news story off to the side. Later I would recall having almost tossed away a major lead…” (p36, On the Trail of the Assassins)
GordonNovel Gordon Novel, who participated in a weapons transfer from a Schlumberger bunker two years before the FBI raid, was in the “[Guy] Banister apparatus, as [Jack] Martin described it, .. part of a supply line that ran along the Dallas-New Orleans-Miami corridor. These supplies consisted of arms and explosives for use against Castro’s Cuba. The security control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule. On the occasions when such explosives were held in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.” (p40, ibid.)
“A copy-righted story in the New Orleans States-Item, April 25, 1967, [claimed its] investigative team working parallel to the Garrison probe reported that a reliable source close to Banister said he had seen 50 to 100 boxes marked ‘Schlumberger’ in Banister’s office storeroom early in 1961 before the Bay of Pigs. The boxes contained rifle grenades, land mines, and unique ‘little missiles’. Banister explained that ‘the stuff would just be there overnight’… It was alright, assured Banister, ‘I have approval from somebody.’ 
   ….According to the States-Item article, Novel’s oft-repeated account was that the munitions bunker was a CIA staging point for war materiel destined for use in the impending Bay of Pigs invasion. [Novel] is quoted as saying that on the day the munitions were picked up, he was ‘called by his CIA contact and told to join a group which was ordered to transport munitions from the bunker to New Orleans.’ The key to the bunker was by his CIA contact. Novel reportedly said the others in the CIA group at the bunker were David Ferrie, Sergio Arcacha Smith…and several Cubans. The munitions…were dropped in Novel’s office, Ferrie’s home and Banister’s office storeroom.”
   “The [arms] cases…were said to be labeled either ‘Schlumberger’ or ‘Interarmco’, the company owned by Sam Cummings, the Philadelphia arms merchant who supplied the guns for many a revolution…
    [The account of Luis Rabel Nunes] “who replaced Sergio Arcacha Smith..[was that] Rabel supplied a laundry truck with which weapons were transported” when it wasn’t being used on behalf of the Catholic Church’s aid to refugees, which “had the backing of both Mayors– Morrison and Schiro, Dr. [Alton] Ochsner and FBI agent Warren DeBrueys. It wasn’t until years later that I learned they had sometimes used the truck to transfer weapons.
   …[Novel] informed the FBI: “Schlumberger Well Service had an arrangement with the CIA wherein it leased a bunker…for the CIA. Eventually the material would be shipped out of the United States in Schlumberger boxes marked ‘Machinery’…”
     *OchsnerWithTextMeAndLee* Dr. Alton Ochsner, apparently a supporter of Catholic Cuban Relief, was a nationally prominent physician then teaching at Tulane University in New Orleans. He was one of a small clique of medical lobbyists belonging to the Lasker Group, originally founded by Albert and Mary Lasker, seeking to expand the National Institutes of Health and take control of the American Cancer Society.
Cubans in the Congo
It appears that intoning “Bay of Pigs” or “anti-Castro” as an explanation for CIA paramilitary operations connected with the New Orleans Banister apparatus occurs with liturgical frequency, however at the timing of the earlier Schlumberger bunker “heist” by Novel and his compatriots, the CIA was farther afield assisting in the secession of Katanga from its mother state of the (former Belgian) Congo. Mineral rich Katanga had been the object of covetous colonialism for the whole of the 20th century. Lewis Strauss, the Warburgs, and Herbert Hoover had once spear-headed a plan to make Katanga the center of a “United States of Africa”, even as Edgar Sengier of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga was then in the process of arranging uranium yellowcake for delivery to the Manhattan Project.
   When the nationalist Congolese overcame their occupation rule winning independence for their country in June of 1960 and inaugurating Patrice Lumumba as the first prime minister of new Zaire, Allen Dulles issued an ‘urgent’ directive for his demise. CIA intervention included providing Katanga’s ‘leader’ Tshombe with an army of mercenaries:  Cuban exiles and other soldiers-of-fortune induced by “high pay” and other Agency perks. Tshombe was ultimately blamed for Lumumba’s murder on January 17, 1961, in the very last days of Eisenhower’s administration.
   New Orleans native Gordon Novel himself had a violent Neo-Nazi racist past, if the Congolese operations had any ideological personal meaning. He later expressed great admiration for his CIA cohorts as the “best people” and “real patriots”.
* PatriceLumumbaPatrice Lumumba, died by CIA-assisted assassination January 17, 1961: “Apparently what happened is that this [CIA] man William Harvey..recruited someone by the codename QJ/WIN to assassinate Lumumba… [Harvey] was supposed to recruit people from the underworld..[and] suggested using..Corsicans… They didn’t want to bring in the [Sicilian] Mafia because [CIA] were protecting [them] as payback for their help… [Harvey] hired this man QJ/WIN on November 1, 1960 in Frankfurt for the Lumumba operation.”
DagH [1]Sweden’s UN Secretary General, then residing in NYC, died in a mysterious plane crash on September 18, 1961, on his way to negotiate a ceasefire on behalf of Tshombe’s Katanga. Sweden too, uncoincidentally, was seeking to acquire atomic bombs and join the Nuclear Club.
Early in Europe’s WWII, Union Miniere du Haut Katanga and its chief Edgar Sengier had a pre-arranged shipment of Congolese uranium yellowcake shipped to the U.S., to sit dockside on Staten Island, New York awaiting its use in the future Manhattan Project. Sengier’s good friend Lewis Strauss later sang the Belgian’s praises for his remarkable “foresight”. Later on, in 1942, following an alleged act of enemy sabotage at the New York docks, the US Navy negotiated a dock protection contract with Meyer Lansky for the duration of the war. This arrangement between the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence and Meyer Lansky (or, as some sources purvey it, Charles ‘Lucky’ Luciano) was dubbed Operation Underworld (and also published as The Luciano Project). Luciano’s role, ultimately, was to accept deportation from prison back to Sicily where he helped re-institute the Sicilian mafia, crushed under Mussolini, and aid the passage of Allied troops. Lansky, afterward, reigned as the Syndicate’s top man.
“Thus, the intelligence-mob collaboration established with Operation Underworld did not end after World War II. On the contrary, postwar narcotics overseas were subordinated to anti-Communist activities; and they were used as cover for ongoing use of mob assets, above all drug traffickers, around the world.
…”In this way, FBN [Federal Bureau of Narcotics] officials protected top-level international drug traffickers who were also anti-communists.” –p166-167, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, by Peter Dale Scott
Garrison described the Schlumberger ammunition retrieval : “The CIA, which was also supportive of the French OAS generals [Organisation Armee Secrete, in French!], had supplied Schlumberger with anti-personnel ammunition and in this operation at Houma [air base], following the demise of the OAS, was simply getting its ammunition back…which was then divided equally between Ferrie’s apartment and Banister’s inner office until the time arrived for its transport to Miami.” (p40, On the Trail of the Assassins)
   But the French generals, based in Algeria and Spain, at this point were still far from their demise. “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962.” (p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005, by Joan Mellen), which continues, “Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw, Banister and…PERMINDEX…”
Unique Little Missiles
*nuclearfuel003-22  Reactor fuel pellets
Did they look like this?
During the JFK murder investigation and the probe into Oswald’s weapon:
The Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition..raised questions about CIA involvement… In the mid-1950s, four million rounds of this ammunition was purchased by the Marine Corps, prompting the author of the FBI document to state: The interesting thing about this order is that it is for ammunition which does not fit and cannot be fired in any of the United States Marine Corps weapons. This gives rise to the obvious speculation that it is a contract for ammunition placed by the CIA with Western Cartridge Corporation under a USMC cover for concealment purposes.” –p.201, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs, 1989
Did Oswald, under the alias Alek Hidell, purportedly mail-order a Mannlicher-Carcano to procure this unusual ammunition?
Researcher Peter Whitmey: “Oddly enough, when ordering the rifle, he chose not to purchase one hundred rounds of ammunition (which came with a free clip)”
   The surreptitious ammunition transfers from the Houma air base and beyond by the Banister outfit are among the most compelling and under-described of pre-assassination events. They occurred over a long period from at least the spring of 1961, before the Bay of Pigs, until the FBI raid in the summer of 1963.  Despite the “major lead” provided to Jim Garrison’s investigation, an intentional effort to downplay or disregard the significance of this traffick was announced by Garrison in his October 1967 Playboy interview:
Playboy: “The New Orleans States-Item of June 14, 1967 quoted [Gordon] Novel as saying that if he were granted immunity from the assassination investigation, he would be willing to testify on a number of points, including ‘international fraud, mysterious intelligence activities from November 1959 to date [Oct.1967] in the Southern quadrant of the USA and certain islands off Florida, seditious treason, hot war games and cold munitions transfers, ten 1950-model Canadian surplus Vampire jet supporter aircraft and certain Cuban-Anglo-French sabotage affairs of early 1961.’ Why did you reject this offer?”
Garrison: “These are all intriguing… but that isn’t the subject of my investigation.”
(excerpted from Part 3)
   Earlier in the same interview, Garrison responded to the “who, how, and why” question concerning a conspiracy of assassins with this reply:
“On the operative level, you find anti-Castro Cuban exiles…[who] believed sincerely that Kennedy had sold them out to the Communists. On a higher, control level, you find a number of people of ultra right-wing persuasion –not simply conservative, mind you, but people who could be described as neo-Nazi… After Kennedy’s domestic moves toward racial integration and his attempts to forge a peaceful foreign policy, as exemplifies by his signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, they found [a] target.
   So both of these groups had a vital stake in changing U.S. foreign policy… The CIA was involved with both of these groups…
   There was, in fact, a triangulation of CIA-supported anti-Castro activity between Dallas –where Jack Ruby was involved in collecting guns and ammunition for the underground– and Miami and New Orleans, where most of the training was going on. But then, Kennedy, who had signed a secret agreement with Krushchev after the Missile Crisis pledging not to invade Cuba if Russia would soft-pedal Castro’s subversive activities in the Americas, began to crack down on CIA operations against Cuba. As a result, on July 31, 1963, the FBI raided the headquarters of the group of Cuban exiles and Minutemen training north of Lake Pontchartrain and confiscated all their guns and ammunition –despite the fact that the operation had the sanction of the CIA. This action may have sealed Kennedy’s fate.”
The FBI raid, which may have even depended on information provided by Oswald, could have sealed his fate too.  Approximately eight weeks later, at the end of September ’63, Oswald took the alleged trip to Mexico City where he was said to visit both the Cuban and Soviet embassies –key (but false) evidence against him for a role in an international communist conspiracy. Just exactly what Gordon Novel was offering in testimony, had a deal been made,  slipped away as a lost opportunity. Novel moved on and is currently divulging secrets about Alien Contact. (See ‘Hidden Hand’, which includes Gordon Novel and Jim Marrs)
* DrMarysMonkeyMarySherman * judyth-vary-baker * Ferrie Mary, Vary and Ferrie
   An alternate story about the Schlumberger munitions cache moving through New Orleans suggests itself in a few particulars of Ed Haslam’s book, Dr. Mary’s Monkey [DMM], originally titled Mary, Ferrie, and the Monkey Virus. The featured center of activity in DMM is a high-energy particle accelerator hidden in the laboratory of the Public Health Service naval hospital. According to Haslam, the accelerator was used in developing a mutant virus for an urgent anti-cancer vaccine countermeasure against the SV40 monkey virus-contaminated mass polio vaccines. Haslam claims this secret medical do-gooding was assigned to the supervision of Dr.s Alton Ochsner and Mary Sherman with the outside assistance of Judyth Vary [Mrs.Baker], David Ferrie, and Lee H. Oswald. No evidence exists of Haslam’s anti-SV40-cancer program, but it’s a matter of record that Alton Ochsner supported the “community service” activities of the Banister-connected Cubans, which included the transfer, support, and resettlement of incoming refugees. Among these efforts was the use of a laundry truck known to have hauled off the munitions plunder more than once.
   Unfortunately, Dr. Mary’s Monkey does not prove that a particle accelerator was actually on the grounds of the New Orleans PHS in 1963. Nonetheless, as described, the machine in question bore the requisite assembly of industrial use equipment –not for medical purposes! Haslam’s multi-story accelerator split the primary vertical beam on a reflective hub set below in a basement chamber, directing the fractioned energy horizontally into thick fireproof containers resembling kilns. Inside such containers any number of high-energy transformations are possible, such as altering the molecular configuration of metal, wood or rubber to create new ‘metamaterial’ products.
   It happens that in 1961, coincident with the munitions transfers, one of the foremost American physicists from the UCBerkeley Rad Lab, Dr. Luis Alvarez, was granted a patent for an accelerator of this type designed to reconstitute spent nuclear fuel (or depleted uranium). It is easy to imagine, and much more plausible in application, that the NOLA accelerator in Ed Haslam’s scheme was re-producing nuclear fuel with the appearance of ammunition.
Recall Jim Garrison’s words:  …”control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule…   in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.”  If these munitions emitted a particular radioactive signature it would be wise to manage their storage in this way. On the Houma military base, which was guarded and active 24/7, perhaps it made no difference when the cache was militarily protected, but we are also to believe that the transfers were protected as a sanctioned trade under the watchful eyes of government operatives, even in the open on the streets of downtown New Orleans –why then would these munitions require dispersal and isolation? What made these munitions “unique” and who, with any firearms experience, would use the word “unique” in describing them? Were they variously labeled for purposes of special handling and destination routes? Was all the ‘cancer research’, including the disease cases of David Ferrie and Jack Ruby, more expressly intended for themselves as special handlers of carcinogenic cargo?
   Robert Oswald remarked on the physical changes in his brother Lee, returned from Russia at age 22, as having thinned wire-textured hair and a sallow complexion –very unlike the robustly youthful marine he had last seen in the fall of 1959. Signs of early aging, like LHO’s, are a common and predictable side-effect of radiation exposure. The black-and-white photo below on the right shows not just thinning hair but patches of scalp which can be confirmed in the video images of Oswald being taken through the Dallas PD hallway.
   *JudythVaryJudyth, Lee Oswald’s 1963 summer girlfriend, attests to the gunrunning she herself participated in helping to unload weapons shipped to NOLA’s waterfront in crates of bananas and furniture.
According to Judyth, discussing Lee Oswald:
“He believed that the world could be changed without violence –he believed in nonviolence… In the Marines, he was a member of a group that was against nuclear bombs, against nuclear war… He really was a double agent… Lee was in the middle of a lot of different operations… [and] was a very busy man… [a] real patriot…and a very brave man.” (, 2010 archives,
                                                             *OswaldArrest3  LHO newly turned 24yrs. OswaldArrest2
* LuisAlvarez Particle accelerator designer/builder and Manhattan Project veteran Luis Alvarez lent his formidable authority as a physicist to the Warren Commission, affirming its conclusions. Next to Leo Szilard and Ernest O. Lawrence, Alvaraz was the beneficiary of a privileged relationship with Adm. Lewis Strauss.
Alvarez melon shooting experiment, ‘proving’ a jet effect and retrorecoil of the President’s head:
Alvarez Zapruder film ‘jiggle’ analysis:
Film and audio analyses:
Zapruder observations:
Alvarez patent: April 19, 1960 US2,933,442, Electronuclear reactor “…is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce ..material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations… The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g. plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.”
Stealing plutonium fuel pellets, it turns out, was easy if you worked in an AEC contract plant. See the post ‘JFK File: Signs of Traffick”
*Ferrie David Ferrie, ‘suicided’ on the fifth day after the NOLA States-Item announced the Garrison probe on Feb.17, 1967.
Harold Weisberg:“The Warren Commission never conducted any investigation of Ferrie!” p168, Oswald in New Orleans, Weisberg, 1967. “Coronor Nicholas Chetta announced on February 28 that there was evidence of neither suicide nor murder… Coronor Chetta said death had to have come before four a.m. on February 22. George Lardner Jr, Washington Post reporter, was with Ferrie in his flat until four a.m. ‘Ferrie was certainly living when I said goodbye to him’…Lardner said…” [p164,ibid.]…“the corpse of David Ferrie shared the unkempt second-floor flat at 3330 Louisiana Avenue Parkway with three thousand books, including a full assassination library..[and] in the words of the Associated Press dispatch of February 28, ‘a blue 100-pound practice aerial bomb (exactly what the FBI seized when it raided the New Orleans invasion camp on July 31, 1963)...” [p163, ibid.] “..there is no denial of the third-hand report that the FBI had been investigating Ferrie ‘several weeks before 11-24-63’ [p182, ibid]
Ferrie was arrested by Garrison 11-25-63.
   He appeared to be a common denominator in New Orleans assassination activity. A most interesting bit of disregarded evidence about Ferrie concerned the “Winnipeg Airport Incident”:
   Two and a half months after the assassinations of JFK and Oswald, a 35-year-old businessman named Richard Giesbrecht who was waiting to meet a client, overheard a conversation in the airport restaurant lounge between two men, one of whom was Ferrie –‘positively’ identified, however, only after his death became front page news four years later. At the time of the conversation, Giesbrecht took notes. The men were discussing Oswald, how much his wife knew and then, “Ferrie asked about paper or merchandise coming out of Nevada. Latin Accent said it was too risky and that a house or shop had been closed down at a place called Mercury…[but] a good shipment had reached Caracas from Newport…”
   Giesbrecht may or may not have been wrong in his ID of Ferrie –the man he saw wore eyeglasses– and others with ‘Ferrie’ that day, including a third man who pursued Giesbrecht attempting to contact the airport’s RCMP office, have also eluded identification, but the location mentioned in the conversation is unmistakable.
   *MercuryRoad *TestSiteMercury ‘Gateway’ to the NTS and Groom Lake
   Mercury, Nevada is a “closed town”, according to wikipedia –an artificial barracks-turned-town on the Atomic Energy Commission’s Nevada Proving Grounds. “The town started in 1950 at the beginning of operations of the Nevada Test Site as Base Camp Mercury… In the early 1960s the town population grew to over 10,000… In 1962, the Desert Rock Airstrip was added for the visit from President John F. Kennedy on December 8. The town flourished until 1992 when all but subcritical nuclear testing ended… The population shrank rapidly thereafter..[to] a skeleton crew of scientists and military…last..recorded about 500 people.”
   Another Atomic Energy Commission facility factored into the Oswald-centered JFK-assassination scheme in a curious way: On July 26, 1963, the visitor registry at the Oak Ridge Tennessee Atomic museum was signed in the handwriting of Lee H Oswald, giving the address of Dallas Rd. Dallas. At the time, Oswald was still a resident of New Orleans, yet to make his public pro-Castro appearances.
   Additional, but implausible and unusual “sign-ins” under Oswald’s name occurred in other places after this, though the Oak Ridge registry appears to be standing the test of time. LHO was unemployed on July 26, fired from the Reilly Coffee Co. a week earlier on the 19th. He filed for unemployment on the 22nd and does not reappear in the NOLA paper trail again until the 29th. Many sources have noted that Oswald did not drive a car, but Judyth says he did and liked to drive fast.
Visitor-register-i “USSR” is scribbled after “Oswald”. Was it tampering after-the-fact?
If Oswald was actually in Oak Ridge on July 26, just a few days later the FBI in New Orleans launched its raid on the scattered munitions cache held by the Banister crew. On the same day as the Oswald visitor sign-in, President Kennedy broadcast to the public the signing of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
JFK announces the Test Ban July 26, 1963:
Boris Pash, and the FBI, maintained permanent offices at Oak Ridge.
According to Bill Kelly’s timeline, on July 27th “Lee H. Oswald makes a speech against communism to Jesuits in Mobile, Alabama.” Two days later on the 29th “The Dallas FBI office asked the New Orleans FBI office to ‘verify’ both LHO and Marina’s presence in New Orleans.”
Oswald was, during these last days of July, on a “family trip” with his uncle, aunt (the Murrets), and Marina, scheduled to visit the Jesuit seminary outside Mobile where his cousin attended.
Incidentally, Judyth recalls that the ‘mentor’, Col. Philip Doyle, who arranged for her to leave highschool in Florida and join in current elite cancer research prior to New Orleans, was a man with “close friends who had significant contacts to Oak Ridge…[and] did teach physics…”, adding that “he selected a few of us and worked with us, however..he was in a big community of retired military officers who supplied us with, like, geiger counters…” (, May 3 2010, podcast archive) The name Doyle is linked to Permindex and also to a curious and brief New Orleans encounter with Oswald caught on film.
* Richard Giesbrecht richard-giesbrecht was 100% certain that the odd-looking man he overheard in the Winnipeg Airport lounge was David Ferrie, as told to author/journalist Paris Flammonde.
   Mercury, Nevada was but one significant AEC location mentioned by the airport men; the other was Kansas City in reference to a meeting that would soon be held as a “textile” business gathering. Kansas City, Missouri was host to a special Atomic Energy Commission facility called the “Kansas City Plant” where for a period of time, reactor fuel slugs were made, though the main work of the plant focused on weapons components and assemblies.
NIOSH has information that KCP workers inspected and assembled uranium components, machined uranium slugs, and handled uranium billets [small cylinders] and ingots… In February 1951, KCP set up a machine shop to produce 1,000 slugs per day to fuel AEC production reactors…. [p.21, NIOSH document] …The first report [to NIOSH] of DU handling at KCP was in April 1958, however DU machining began September 9, 1958…” [p.23]
*The KCP, Kansas City Plant,  situated in the Bannister Federal Complex
According to information from Giesbrecht to Flammonde:
“...the [men] began speaking of a meeting to take place at the Townhouse Motor Hotel in Kansas City, Missouri on March 18. They mentioned that the rendezvous would be registered under the name of a textile firm… Ferrie mentioned that an ‘aunt’ (or ‘auntie’?–gay patois for an older homosexual) would be flying in from California. A name which Giesbrecht thought sounded like ‘Romeniuk’ was mentioned several times…. the author [Flammonde] inquired whether the word might have been ‘Romanian’ but [Giesbrecht] did not know…”
[Flammonde interviews Giesbrecht]:
Flammonde: “From the photographs you have seen of David Ferrie..[with] a three year lapse between seeing the man and the photograph… on the basis of that, what would you say your certainty that it was Ferrie was? Fifty percent? Eighty percent?”
Giesbrecht: “I would say a hundred percent.”
Initially, the Minneapolis FBI responded to the Giesbrecht/RCMP information with enthusiasm, calling it the break they’d been waiting for. Within a few months, however, Giesbrecht would be told that it was “too big”. Confusion over the location of the “Townhouse Motor Hotel” was to reign at FBI offices until the matter was dismissed. Researcher Peter Whitmey added, “… I had no idea whether or not the Kansas City or Wichita offices followed up on the “Townhouse” lead, since I had not received any document in this regard as a result of my FOIPA request. However, by inputting “Townhouse Motor Hotel” during a search of the NARA website, I discovered that there was, indeed, a four-page report, dated April 9, 1964. Initially, the FBI in Kansas City made inquiries with the Townhouse Motor Hotel on Seventh and State Streets in Kansas City, Kansas, as well as the Coates House Hotel on Tenth and Broadway in Kansas City, Missouri to no avail. In addition, the report included the results of a further investigation conducted by the Wichita, Kansas office, after discovering that there was a Townhouse Motel on the corners of Kellogg and Broadway. As in the case of K.C., there was no reservation for a textile group scheduled on or about March 18, nor for anyone by the name “Romaniuk…”
   In this same link is another turn of Giesbrecht’s ‘hearsay’, written down by his lawyer Harry Backlin the day after the airport incident: “Reference was made in Backlin’s detailed letter to a planned ‘sales meeting’, the first since November, to be held in ‘a place sounding like Townhouse in Kansas City’. Mention was made of the names ‘Kellogg’ and ‘Broadway’…”
   No researcher yet has suggested that the men involved in the airport incident may have been using an informal name code, counting even use of the name Oswald, but we can consider going along with Sherlock Holmes on this one and “ruling out the impossible” (names and places that don’t match) for a remains closer to truth.
James P. Hosty JPHostydescribed as the Dallas FBI ‘handler’ of Oswald, was transferred to Kansas City Missouri after the issuance of the Warren report (but transferred later, in 1965):
“As a consequence for not arresting Oswald before the assassination, Hosty was banished by Hoover to the Kansas City KS FBI bureau. In those days it was considered by the director as the graveyard for agents who failed in the line of duty. But Hosty’s opinion of Kansas City…was a great place for him and his late wife Janet to raise their nine children, and a good place for an FBI agent to work.”
–note that this interview erroneously names the state of Kansas, ironically the one ‘Kansas City’ with an actual Townhouse Motor Hotel, listed as the Cross Lines Tower in wikipedia today.
   Peter Whitmey remarked that Hosty was the only assassination case investigator familiar with Giesbrecht: “Hosty indicated to me that he was aware of the Giesbrecht allegations and had, in fact, read both the FBI reports and the RCMP’s own statement, which he claimed were furnished to the Warren Commission.”
Kansas City Missouri Chief of Police Clarence M. Kelley ClarenceMKelley  Far from an FBI agent’s wasteland, Chief Kelley, installed in 1961 on the recommendation of Atty. Gen. Robert Kennedy, innovated and updated policing there to a national model. After Watergate, and following the resignation of the hapless Patrick Gray, Kelley became Director of the FBI on Nixon’s final appointment to the post.
Hosty was the only known FBI agent to interview Oswald at the Dallas Police Department after his arrest. Hosty additionally handled the investigation into the “Sylvia Odio encounter”, a visit allegedly made by Oswald and two Latin men to the Dallas apartment of Ms. Odio in late September ’63. Oswald’s ‘official’ whereabouts at that time put him in Mexico City, though known and confirmed to have been an imposter, the identity of the Odio visitors remains unresolved. Hosty himself said, “I’m also the third of three Agents who was assigned to the Lee Oswald case. The first one John Fain had it for two years and he is the one that interviewed Oswald twice before the assassination. Then the second Agent to have it assigned was Milton Kaact. K-a-a-c-t… Milton Kaact was in New Orleans… Oswald was interviewed one time in New Orleans by Jack Quigley… I got the case in October of 1963, one month before the assassination, lucky me. I never did interview Oswald until he was arrested… I was forbidden to interview Oswald because he was a contact case. As you [FBI] all know..when they contact the Soviet Embassy, you may not interview them without specific permission. In this case, I am sure it would never have been granted because the CIA was involved… I might add that I found out later that all of the, quote, CIA agents, unquote, who were conducting the surveillance were actually FBI Agents who had left the Bureau, gone to the CIA and had set up a system almost identical to what we had in New York and Washington Field Office. I got that straight from the legal attache [legat] from Mexico. I forget his name…but he told me and several other agents…in September of ’63 that these were all ex-FBI.”
At odds with Hosty’s account is another that asserts, “Dallas FBI agent James P. Hosty Jr. For over a year in 1962-63, Hosty had been keeping occasional tabs on Oswald and his wife, Marina.” p55, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
More references to pre-assassination activity in Kansas City, known to the FBI, includes ties to David Ferrie, Jack Ruby, and the anti-Castro Cubans.
Researcher-author-lawyer Harold Weisberg wrote about an alleged Castro “spy” named Fernando Fernandez, who was caught and tortured in Miami trying to infiltrate an anti-Castro group called CDM or MDC (Christian democratic movement), ostensibly to get back into Cuba. “Fernandez must have known better: Infante told the FBI that what really worried Fernandez, why he really wanted to get out of the country, was his fear of prosecution by the federal authorities at Kansas City. Fernandez confessed just this, in detail. He had operated ‘an employment agency wherein he imported Mexican women to act as maids to the Kansas City area’ a sideline while attending Kansas City University, ‘and this activity resulted in investigation by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Fearing arrest by INS, Fernandez left Kansas City and came to Miami…desiring to return to Cuba…  Fernandez also told the the Miami FBI that ‘he traveled to New Orleans, Louisiana, to receive commando training at a farm about 30 miles north of New Orleans..[which was] inadequate and it appeared to Fernandez that the MDC was conducting a racket by exhibiting the ‘commandos’ in training to wealthy Americans who were asked to contribute to the anti-Castro cause… Ultimately, Fernandez was relocated..[w]ith the help of the Catholic Cuban Relief, [and] sent to Chicago [where he was] charged with ‘encouraging and inducing the illegal entry of aliens…” [sentenced February 1964] Weisberg adds that “one reason for federal silence about this New Orleans training camp could be..embarassment at having tolerated such consummate incompetence. They could not plan and execute the capture of a home for crippled octogenarian women. The time had come…” pp157-161, Oswald in New Orleans, 1967
   Professor Peter Dale Scott records that “As the FBI agent assigned to handle both arms trafficking and the Oswalds before the assassination, Hosty quickly became a party to some the FBI’s most serious cover-up activities. [p119, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK] “One possibility…is that Oswald was indeed an FBI informant…and that in Dallas James Hosty, the FBI liason on gunrunning cases, was using Oswald to investigate gunrunning.” [p120, ibid.]
“On January 24 1964, the Warren Commission heard from Dallas district attorney Henry Wade and Texas attorney general Waggoner Carr that Oswald had been an FBI informant since September 1962, that he had a government voucher for $200 at the time of his arrest, and that FBI Agent James Hosty’s name and phone number were in his address book…[which] proved to be true…  As to the story that Oswald was an FBI informant, I doubt that Oswald was directly on the FBI payroll. A more likely possibility is that he worked for a private security agency which in turn reported to the FBI, the way that ex-FBI and ex-Office of Naval Intelligence agent Guy Banister, according to a CIA document, reported to the FBI in New Orleans. It is time to look more closely at Oswald’s extraordinary career, in which he appeared to develop revolutionary sympathies while in the Marines, established communications with the Communist party, and nevertheless was able to gain an employment at a firm (Jaggars-Stiles-Stovall in Dallas) which did classified work for the US.Army requiring a security clearance.” [p243, Deep Politics…,1993]
*DeepPoliticsCoverProfessor Scott uses an example of a dual agent in the person of Robert C. Ronstadt who “went to work for a Los Angeles firm, Allied Records, that was concerned about possible Communist employees. At the same time, Ronstadt began to sell subscriptions to the Communist Daily People’s World, and after some months he became a Communist Party member in the spring of 1947. Ronstadt, who had originally passed his FBI entrance exam in 1942, later explained…that his job had been to smoke out potential Red sympathizers. His actual employer was the private investigative firm of [McCarthy and Dunn], industrial security consultants to Allied Records…  After Ronstadt succeeded in joining the Communist party, he ceased to work for McCarthy and Dunn, and for the first time was paid directly by the FBI as an informant. [p244]
“Oswald’s business career is suggestively like Ronstadt’s… According to the Warren Commission, Oswald’s [Jaggars-Stiles-Stovall] job was found for him by the Texas Employment Commission (WR719). However, according to investigative journalist Anthony Summers, George deMohrenschildt’s wife and daughter both said that deMohrenschildt, who as we saw had CIA connections in both Dallas and Washington, arranged for the job…  Shortly after beginning work, in the same month of October [1962], Oswald and his wife established social contact with Max Clark, the chief of industrial security for the General Dynamics plant in Fort Worth which secured the controversial TFX contract in the fall of 1963.
“Thereafter, Oswald’s proximity to potential subversives, worthy of investigation, seems to have been continuous… Even during his next job, at the Reily Coffee Company in New Orleans, both he and his co-workers talked of moving soon to the newly opened NASA Space Center in nearby Michoud…[p245]
“All this suggests that, like Ronstadt, Oswald’s true employer may not have been the firms, but a private investigative agency doing industrial-security work. This would explain the FBI’s zeal to cover up the paycheck anomalies, and the reluctance of the government, to this day, to release Oswald’s income-tax records.” [p246, Deep Politics and the Death Of JFK, 1993]
   In the next chapter of Scott’s book, chapter 16 page 254, the author poses his inquiry into the title: “Oswald as a Double Agent for Hoover”, capturing the essence if not the substance of the point at hand.Were the documents available to him, Dr.Scott might have perused the Dual Agent memos of the FBI and AEC which were closed out,  refiled, and signed off by William Sullivan on September 30 1964, four days after the initial publication of the finished Warren Re[ort.
…. According to FBI/AEC Dual Agent Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.”… “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by the now Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to re-initiate the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”
*   AECDualFileSignSullivan
*   The most conspicuous facts about the FBI/AEC Dual Agent memos are the ten year gap in the record (1954-1964) at the time of greatest nuclear promotion and the curious closure of the files a few scant days after the Warren Report rolled off the presses. Rarely is it ever mentioned in the scheme of “who benefited” after JFK’s assassination that the fledgling government-funded nuclear power complex ballooned to new heights starting in January of 1964. The available record of early memos [1949-1953] also corresponds with the timing of the discovery of atomic spies Klaus Fuchs and the Rosenberg ring, and the successful tests of H-bombs by the U.S. and USSR.  “In August 1949 FBI Liason Charles Bates asked AEC security to investigate the activities of Klaus Fuchs, a physicist of British citizenship who had worked at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge during the war.” p114, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau, 1984. The statement has been made by Hans Bethe that if Fuchs had passed H-bomb secrets from Los Alamos to the Soviets it would have been harmless because they were then ‘headed in the wrong direction.’
Prosecution of the Rosenbergs was another FBI/AEC collaboration.
CharlesWBates   Supervising the would-be atomic agents in the dual FBI/AEC start-up was FBI agent and Dallas, Texas native Charles W. Bates, born in the north suburb of Lewisville  along with his twin brother. The Bateses were close family friends of Texas congressman Sam Rayburn and the boys looked on him as a second father, according to author Priscilla McMillan in The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a fact which impressed J. Edgar Hoover. Charles Bates’s maternal aunt was Sam Rayburn’s secretary, Alla Clary, who was well-known in Washington D.C. and a local celebrity in her hometown of McKinney Texas.
   During the secretive 1954 AEC tribunal against Oppenheimer engineered by chairman Strauss and abetted by Hoover, Bates became the special courier for files and messages between the two chiefs. “Hoover had chosen his go-between with care. At the age of thirty-four, Bates, a good-looking, gregarious man with slicked-back dark hair, dark skin, and sometimes dark glasses, had become part of Strauss’s inner circle… He spent nearly all his time at the AEC and had entree to everyone in the building. Not only did he deliver the FBI’s wiretap reports, but he carried verbal messages between Hoover and Strauss…  Bates now looked on Hoover, too, as a second father and came up with pretexts to drop in at his office… Bates got along with Strauss… Eventually Strauss relied on Bates and sometimes turned to him for advice. Hoover relied on help him gauge Strauss’s frame of mind.” [p189, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 2005, Viking/Penguin]
Of  the three boys born to Kate Clary Bates, ‘Benjamin Clary’ (the likely twin) became a doctor in Austin, ‘Charles William’ in the FBI, and ‘Uncas Daniel’ who remained in Dallas working for the city’s Water department. On 11-22-63 if it means anything, there was also a water hydrant incident on the motorcade route which blocked traffic at about the same time an ‘epileptic seizure’ event took place in Dealey Plaza. (called in by DPD  patrolman F.T.Chance, who requested dispatch to get help from the water dept.)
*   MarinaPriscilla Marina Oswald and author Priscilla Johnson (Mrs.) McMillan
   The purveyor of the privileged and secretive relationship among Hoover, Bates, and Strauss is none other than the “writing collaborator for the Agency” Priscilla Johnson, who interviewed Lee Harvey Oswald in 1959 at the Hotel Metropole in Moscow. At the time Mrs. McMillan was representing NANA, the North American Newspaper Alliance, which has been called an “OSS-CIA asteroid” founded by Ernest Cuneo, the WWII White House liason with British intelligence. She published three books in her career; Krushchev and the Arts (with Leopold Labedz) in 1965, Marina and Lee in 1977 (reissued for 50th anniversary of JFK’s death), and The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer in 2005.
    Johnson McMillan herself was to benefit from a privileged and exclusive relationship living-in with Marina Oswald in 1964 while the Warren Commission was in session. “[Priscilla] once was an assistant to Senator John F. Kennedy and went on to become an acknowledged expert on Soviet affairs. It is Mrs. McMillan who has been responsible for much of the information concerning Oswald’s personal life shortly before the assassination.” [p.120, Crossfire by Jim Marrs].
Priscilla Johnson earned a bit of extra notoriety for having “dated” Senator John F. Kennedy: “Though Priscilla refused to sleep with him, Jack enjoyed their playful, teasing relationship…’Jack,’ Priscilla told him, ‘if you get divorced, cease being Catholic, and get out of politics, I might think of you seriously.’ [Jack said] ‘You’ve been stringing me along all these years because I’m an interesting political figure.'” –p231, All Too Human, 1996, by Edward Klein
Lawyer Mark Lane stated that, “The FBI, in its previously top-secret documents, had considered only two persons to be suspects in the assassination of President Kennedy. One, of course, was Lee Harvey Oswald. The other was Priscilla Johnson…” [p.67, Plausible Denial] “Priscilla Johnson had met Oswald in Moscow in 1959, almost as soon as he arrived there”…[p.68] “Johnson had been assigned by the CIA to meet with Oswald and interview him.” [p.69, ibid.] Lane relates how during the last days of the Warren Commission, “the unresolved question…[about when] Oswald was supposed to have been in Mexico City for a week [Sept.26-Oct.3, 1963]…had no evidence of his presence [there]” until the sudden appearance of bus tickets, found by Johnson, folded inside a magazine in Marina’s hotel room.
   Of the two books authored by Mrs. McMillan in her career, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer (2005) positioned her as something of a go-to expert on Oppenheimer and the origins of atomic weapons (dontcha know– see “manhattan project voices” on the web). Two other writers of note already mentioned in this post seem to have followed an associated course: Kai Bird with American Prometheus (2005) and Philip M. Stern with the 1969 publication of The Oppenheimer Case. Stern dedicated his book to his mother, Edith Rosenwald, heiress to the Sears Roebuck fortune amassed by her father Julius and expanded by her brother, Lessing J. Rosenwald.
   Among numerous titles and offices held by Lessing Rosenwald was the wartime (WWII) presidency of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study, where Admiral Lewis Strauss, future chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, shared the executive as vice-president. The IAS produced essential research and technology for the Manhattan Project and weather control. The men were also to share over the course of many years office holdings in the American Jewish Committee, where Edgar Bloom Stern additionally held membership. We know today that the AJC sponsored ‘Frankfurt School’ psychology and the conferences which led to the creation of MK-Ultra, the CIA’s secret mind control programs.
As for Strauss insider and ‘dual atomic agent’ veteran Charles W. Bates, he “was at different times head of the FBI’s offices in Chicago, Cleveland and Omaha, Neb., and served seven years [1958-1965] as the legal attache at the U.S. Embassy in the United Kingdom [London], another Hoover appointment. In the [legat] position, he was chief of the FBI [intelligence] liason office covering England, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland.
    It is not possible to locate Bates’s actual whereabouts during his long-term London service, interfacing with MI5, MI6, and other U.S. agencies, though it is doubtless that Bates and Oswald were familiar during LHO’s transit through London and Helsinki. Bates later surfaced in a more public way: “In 1969, Charles Bates was a special agent at the Chicago office of the FBI when police killed Black Panthers Fred Hampton and Mark Clark while they were sleeping [during a 4am raid on a family apartment]… In 1971, Bates was transferred to Washington D.C. According to Watergate burglar James McCord…on June 21, 1972 (four days after the break-in), White House attorney John Dean checked with acting FBI director L. Patrick Gray as to who was in charge of handling the Watergate investigation. The answer: Charles Bates –the same FBI official who in 1974 would be in charge of handling the SLA investigation and the search for Patty Hearst.”
*                                                                         PaulineBates
Another ‘Bates’, Miss Pauline V. Bates, had an unusual encounter with Oswald only days after his return from the USSR to Fort Worth in June of 1962. Oswald sought legal stenographer services to type his loose notes from Russia, notes that “were very bitter against Russia” according to her Warren testimony. He left her with the impression, as the local headline reads after the assassination, that “He Was Secret Agent For U.S.”  Was Oswald feeding his legend*, his legacy, or naming his handler?
[legend: cover story]
   The oddity of Oswald’s first seemingly voluntary act as a redeemed American was the 3-day effort for the uncommunicative Oswald to get ten dollars worth of typewritten pages from Ms. Bates, a job paid for but left unfinished.
Asking the obvious: Was Pauline Bates a relative of Charles Bates? She said that she was first in the phonebook and rejoined with a statement that she was also the only ‘legal’ stenographer in the area, qualified for work with law enforcement.
Watergate Note:
   At the time of the June 1972 hotel break-in, Charles W. Bates was an assistant director of the FBI, chief of the CID, Criminal Investigations Division. J. Edgar had died weeks before on May 2, and was replaced by Nixon appointee and loyalist L. Patrick Gray. To fend off interference from the White House and CIA, four senior FBI asst. directors, now known to have worked collectively as ‘Deep Throat’, conspired to leak evidence about White House activities to the press: They were W. Mark Felt, Charles Bates, Robert G. Kunkel and Richard Long. In September of ’72, Dir.Gray announced that two of them would be leaving the capitol. Kunkel would be transferred to St. Louis and Bates would “exchange jobs” with the SAC in San Francisco.
Another Presidential assassin took a potshot at Gerald Ford in Charles Bates’s San Francisco jurisdiction —really in his jurisdiction– when S.F. FBI informant, linked to the SLA, Sara Jane Moore fired off a round on September 22, 1975, less than three weeks after Manson girl Squeaky Fromme attempted the same in Sacramento Sept.5. Had the attempt succeeded, Nelson Rockefeller would have become president.
*                                        GeraldFordSFattempt *SaraJaneMoore Sara Jane Moore, FBI-informant-turned-presidential-assassin — “Moore’s attempt to kill Ford was part of a string of bizarre crimes in Northern California.”
One of those bizarre crimes in which Charles Bates had direct involvement was the Chowchilla schoolbus kidnapping — Chowchilla CA became a post-assassination focal point in the mid-70s when an alleged former CIA contract agent named Claude Barnes Capehart, said to have been photographed at the Texas School Book Depository on 11-22-63, ‘retired’ to Chowchilla. There Capehart came to the attention of (former District Atty.) Judge David Minier who had ruled on Bates’s Chowchilla kidnapping case, and followed up on Capehart after learning about him “from the FBI”. Judge Minier filed a lawsuit against the CIA for the release of JFK assassination records.
*                                                                             FBILogo
While agent Oswald was in Japan, FBI and Deep-Throat conspirator Robert G. Kunkel was the U.S. embassy legat in Tokyo (1957-1959). When Oswald made his 1959 journey through the UK, Helsinki and USSR, as stated, Bates was the legat in London. British author of Official and Confidential, Anthony Summers, used Charles Bates as a vital source of information in the telling of J. Edgar Hoover’s secret life. Summers did not mention, however, any special relationship between Bates and Hoover or anyone else. What became situationally clear in Summers’ book just the same, was Bates acting on the special bidding of Hoover– example of implicating JFK in the ‘Profumo Affair’ sex scandal in Britain. For the brief remainder of Bates’ days in Washington D.C. after Hoover’s death and the Watergate break-in, he could have spent his time destroying documents which were known to have disappeared from the FBI repositories by the truckload.
The Profumo Affair was not just a sex scandal for Britain’s Defence Minister but a Soviet spy ring: [2013, The Mirror] “Christine Keeler comes clean and admits to being a spy… [Stephen] Ward used that first meeting [between Keeler and Profumo] to steal secret letters from Profumo’s briefcase detailing the delivery of nuclear weapons to Germany… Christine says she has now seen FBI documents that prove she was being watched by them.”
   At least three of Christine Keeler’s friends came to Washington DC: “JFK got involved with the sex parties arranged by Bobby Baker, connected, it seems, to Stephen Ward in London… By 1963 Kennedy realized that [LBJ] was behind Baker’s blackmail politicians in Washington…”
Legal Attaches..are expected to coordinate their investigative activities with other U.S. law enforcement and intelligence agencies, such as the DEA and CIA… Historically, organized crime has been the top priority of the Tokyo Legat…   FBI seeks candidates for Legat and ALAT [assistant legat] positions who have broad knowledge of FBI programs…and require minimal guidance and direction from FBI headquarters.”
*                                                            AtsugiWelcomeSign
By the time young Oswald reached Japan, “according to the declassified 1956-57 Far East Command ‘Standing’ Operating Procedures for Atomic Operations, 13 separate locations in Japan had nuclear weapons or components, or were earmarked to receive nuclear weapons in times of crisis or war… It is true that..the bombs stored on the mainland lacked their plutonium and/or uranium cores, and that the nuclear-armed ships were a legal inch away from Japanese soil. All in all, [an] elaborate stratagem maintained the technicality that the United States had no nuclear weapons ‘in Japan’.”
   Journalist Yoichi Shimatsu adds that Prime Minister Nobusuke “Kishi secretly negotiated a deal with the White House to permit the U.S. military to store atomic bombs in Okinawa and Atsugi naval air station outside Tokyo. (Marine corporal Lee Harvey Oswald served as a guard inside Atsugi’s underground warhead armory.) In exchange, the U.S. gave the nod for Japan to pursue a ‘civilian’ nuclear program… On his 1959 visit to Britain, Kishi was flown by military helicopter to the Bradwell nuclear plant in Essex..[and later] uttered the famous statement that ‘nuclear weapons are not expressly prohibited’ under the postwar Constitution’s Article 9… Covert weapons rife with problems. In the event of an emergency, like [the Fukushima meltdowns], secrecy must be enforced at all cost…”
* AtsugiGate   *atsugigate_r1   *AtsugiHangar
“In the 50-year history of U.S. overseas nuclear deployment policy, Japan has consistently been  positioned as an important nuclear base in Asia. When the overall occupation of Japan by the U.S. came to an end [c. 1951], an overseas nuclear war command center was established in the central part of Tokyo at the end of 1952. This was one of two such establishments in the whole world, with the other one near London.”
It soon followed that “President Eisenhower then authorized the use of war-gold [‘Golden Lily’ or ‘Yamashita’ treasure, combined with Nazi and Fascist loot, known as the Black Eagle Trust [or Japan’s Showa Trust] to set up the LDP [Liberal Democratic Party, which was neither], interfering in the domestic political process in Japan, putting the Japanese people back under a one-party dictatorship under a man –Kishi– who had been involved in armed robbery, narcotics, and slave labor since the 1930s.” –Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (p.236, Gold Warriors)
Atsugi was known as “one of only two locations outside the United States (along with Manila in the Philippines) where the CIA maintained a store of LSD.” (e.g. Peter Levenda,
Manchurian Candidate-style mind control, as Atsugi was transitioning for coexistence with a constitutionally self-governed Japan, was then initiated as Project Bluebird.
” ‘I went into Atsugi just as World War II ended, taking some of MacArthur’s bodyguard in there,’ says Colonel L. Fletcher Prouty, a former Pentagon-CIA liason officer (1955-63). ‘A montrous stairway went down into caverns you could drive a truck into. A huge underground base. The agency used it for a lot of things.’ “ –p135, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
Harold Weisberg (author previously of Whitewash and Whitewash II):
“At one o’clock in the morning of December 15, 1966, in the Oakland California studios of Radio Station KNEW, I had just finished appearing on..[a] lengthy phone-in radio program… There was a man on the line who..wanted to speak to me but not on the air [and] firther, he wanted the assurance that our conversation would be private… [p85]
   “This man had been in the Marine Corps with Oswald. From his personal experience, he did not believe a single word about the Oswald..that became public with the [Warren] Report. He had agonized in silence for..three years…[and] had built a successful life, had a family, and was worried about the possible consequences…
   “[H]e would only talk in anonymity…
   “Briefly, it is his story that Oswald was bright, not a kook of any kind, not a blatant or proselytizing Marxist, and really a quiet serious guy. They knew each other socially… He never heard Oswald say anything about Communism, for or against, in all this time.
   “More important is what he disclosed about Oswald’s position in the Marine Corps. The unit in which both served, said my informant, was one of three similar ones of which one was always in Japan and the others in the United States. Their function was classified. Every man in the outfit carried a security clearance. [p86]. They had a security designation of which I had never heard. These were that kind of unusual military organizations. Of all the men in the outfit, five had special ‘top’ security approvals. The entire complement carried a minimum of ‘confidential’ (the grade the official file records Oswald as having). Above this there were ‘secret’, ‘top secret’, and a special one, ‘crypto’. Of all the men only five were ‘crypto’. One of these was Lee Harvey Oswald!
   ” ‘Can you possibly be wrong?’ I asked him.
   “He insisted not.
   ” ‘Could your memory be playing tricks?’
   “No, he was positive. He went farther when I questioned him about ‘crypto’, which he indicated was ‘black box’ stuff. I took it to mean a connection with nuclear weapons.
   “If correct, this is more than in disagreement with the entire official story of Oswald, his relations with the government and the assassination… In every way he could, this man insisted he was not in error, that he knew. And he went into more detail..[about Oswald’s] ‘hardship’ discharge so he could care for an allegedly destitute mother… the mysterious caller specified that Oswald spent his last two or three weeks in the service with CID. [military intelligence]” –pp85-87, Oswald in New Orleans, by Harold Weisberg, 1967
   Godzilla comes to Tokyo 1954 GodillaInTokyo
Popular interpretation has it that the Godzilla impulse arose from the Bikini “Castle-Bravo’ test of March 1, 1954, attended by Chairman Strauss, and the contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon #5, but the not-so-secret arrival of nuclear weapons on Japanese shores suggests itself.
*                                                       operation__castle_bravo__1954___3_by_awesomeness360-d7g4k0y Is that Godzilla!? –no, it’s detonation Castle-Bravo: “This radiological calamity had a significant impact on world opinion and helped spark the movement for a nuclear test moratorium which ultimately led to the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty…  Until recently, an extensive collection of documents on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands was readily available on a Department of Energy website: The Marshall Islands Document Collection. It no longer has an online presence. In the fall of 2013, at the time of the U.S. government shutdown, this important collection disappeared from the web.”
“In 1954, the Japanese government began funding a [U.S. approved] nuclear research program. In December 1955, it passed the Atomic Energy Basic Law, establishing the Japan Atomic Energy Commission… the JAEC…[and] purchased its first commercial reactor from Britain but quickly switched to US-designed light-water reactors. By mid-1957, the government had contracted to buy 20 additional reactors...” –Peter Kuznik, The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists,
Atoms for Peace plans called for Japan to become a nuclear showcase. It was even proposed to site the first power generating station in Hiroshima, but the groundswell to ban nukes originating from “a group of middle class housewives in the Suginami ward in Tokyo… grew into a nationwide movement… Lewis Strauss..told the White House press secretary [that the fishing boat] was really a ‘Red spy outfit’, a component of a Russian espionage system. At the request of Strauss, the CIA investigated..and categorically denied it. Nonetheless, Strauss continued to maintain that the irradiation of the Lucky Dragon ‘was no accident’ for the captain..must have been ‘in the employ of the Russians’.”
The 23-man crew of Lucky Dragon #5 were all hospitalized in Tokyo after reaching their home port of Yaizu. All had suffered “nausea, fatigue, vomiting, anorexia, conjunctivitis…leukopenia, thrombopenia, and mild to moderate anemia” with a host of persistent skin disorders from radiological exposure. News in the U.S., some coming from fact-finding congressmen, assured the public that the fishermen would recover in “2 to 3 weeks”. Two AEC health investigators were sent to observe the patients.
   In September more than six months after Bravo, the first and allegedly only Lucky Dragon crewman to do so, died of radiation injuries. The others survived, recovering in a 2 to 3 years time. Six weeks after the radio operator’s death on September 23, the FBI opened it’s first Tokyo Legal Attache office in the embassy, November of 1954.
*Richard Case Nagell RichardCNagell
“The Man Who Knew Too Much” told journalist Dick Russell, “I knew Lee Harvey Oswald before 1962. We had a casual but purposeful acquaintance in Japan when he was stationed there in the Marines. My association with him, then and later, was strictly with an objective.” p80, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell
   Nagell’s objective was military intelligence, then working for the Army’s Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) coming off a two-year stint with it’s more secret Field Operations Intelligence (FOI) unit headquartered in Tokyo. FOI had its ostensible start under the leadership of MacArthur’s WWII intelligence chief Charles Willoughby: “In correspondence with Allen Dulles, Willoughby described his having ‘solved’ his intramural battles with the CIA in occupied Japan ‘thru the creation of a J.S.O. (Special Operations) in which CIA had autonomy but co-ordinated with us in covert operations to avoid crossing wires’… Willoughby also set up the original 441st Counter Intelligence Corps Group…   [T]he Asian network he had left behind was flourishing. MacArthur, Willoughby, and the CIA had midwifed a string of bone-crushing regimes calling themselves the Iron Triangle, as author Sterling Seagrave has written. These included Chiang Kai-shek’s old Kuomintang on Taiwan, right-wing strongman Syngman Rhee in South Korea, as well as puppet governments in the Philippines and Japan. By 1954, elements within South Korea’s Headquarters Intelligence Division (HID) and Chiang’s own spy net would unite conservatives from across the continent to battle the ‘red hordes’. They called themselves the Asian People’s Anti-Communist League (APACL). Their prime mover in Tokyo was Nobusuke Kishi, another war criminal freed by Willoughby… And [Kishi’s] seventy-five thousand [75,000]man National Police Agency, first established by MacArthur and Willoughby, spent much of their time keeping an eye on American servicemen and tourists with possible ‘subversive leanings’.” pp128-129, ibid. By 1955 “Willoughby was living on Park Avenue in New York.” p130, ibid.
“Meanwhile, the Munich-based Gehlen apparatus with which Dulles and Willoughby worked soon extended its tentacles far into Asia, its operatives hooking up with those of the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League.On Taiwan in October 1957, an international meeting was held setting the stage for a grand global alliance of such forces. Chiang Kai-shek, Syngman Rhee, and South Vietnam’s leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, all sent representatives to the steering committee. German veterans were included, notably Fritz Cramer– a former Nazi Abwehr officer who then headed up a private vigilante group that ferreted out German leftists at the behest of private industry. Its U.S. sister organization was the American Security Council (ASC), a private Washington group set up in 1955 by ex-FBI agents that built an index of over one million alleged ‘subversives’ for major corporations seeking security checks. Willoughby, a friend of Fritz Cramer, eventually sat on the ASC’s board… This event coincided with Oswald’s arrival in the Far East… In Tokyo the Nagell and Oswald paths were soon to cross for the first time.” pp131-132, ibid.
   In September of 1963, after posting an assassination warning to J.Edgar Hoover, Nagell went into a bank in El Paso Texas and fired two shots into the ceiling corner. He left the building and sat in his car until surrendering minutes later to an El Paso officer. “During the course of his El Paso trial in 1964, Nagell was asked to describe the [Army’s] CIC. ‘Well…the mission is to investigate any matters relating to treason, subversion, espionage, disaffection, that might be taking place within the military establishment or that might be conducted by civilians which are employed by the corporations, factories or concerns which are under military contract… And overseas..[CIC] have police powers… In fact, overseas they are just like the FBI in some ways.'” [p97, The Man Who Knew Too Much] …[Nagell] also told me [author Russell] the FBI was working overseas when they weren’t supposed to be.” [p26, ibid.] “As Nagell wrote years later, ‘What it all boils down to (the impetus behind the government’s diligent prosecution of me in the 1960s, the true reason for my lengthy imprisonment, all of this injustice) can be explained in one sentence: I informed the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and others, as early as September 17, 1963, that Lee Harvey Oswald and two of his Cuban associates were planning to assassinate the President of the United States… and nothing was done about it.’ “ p441, ibid.
According to Nagell, the Soviets had induced him to work for them, even at times when Nagell believed he was working for the CIA: “In the summer of 1963,’ as Nagell wrote to Senator Richard Russell, ‘I received instructions to initiate certain action against Mr. Oswald, who was the indispensable tool in the conspiracy, and thereafter depart the United States legally.’ Nagell was to try to persuade Oswald ‘that the deal was phony’… [p429] “In the event that Nagell failed in his attempt to get Oswald to back away from the ‘phony deal’, he was supposed to meet with him –and then kill him– in Mexico City… According to [Nagell’s lawyer] Fensterwald memo of a 1973 conversation with Nagell, ‘The USSR ordered Nagell to eliminate Lee Harvey Oswald because they thought it might be an extreme embarassment to them if he was caught, not because he was one of them, but because of his history.’ ” [p438] “Whatever else Nagell may have been involved in with Oswald, Nagell has never been willing to say… What alarmed Nagell was that he found himself caught in the middle of something going on between American and Soviet intelligence.” p440, The Man Who Knew Too Much, by Dick Russell, 1992
Author Russell claims that “This book marks the first time that any known meeting between Oswald and Soviet intelligence in Japan has ever been alleged. Though I have only Nagell’s word that it occurred, the name of ‘Nicolai G. Eroshkin’ under a heading of former military attache at the Tokyo embassy does show up in the notebook taken from Nagell by the FBI in 1963. Nagell maintained that Oswald and the Russian colonel had more than one meeting, though he has never specified what they may have talked about. But Nagell did add that almost since the day ‘Oswald first saw Eroshkin at the embassy, the Soviets suspected the Marine of being an agent of one of the U.S. intelligence services.’
   “Something else was going on around Colonel Eroshkin in 1957 and 1958. The CIA was trying to entice him to defect to the American side.” [p.136]
   [A Japanese official and personal friend of Nagell’s]“Jun Murai, head of the Tohoku Regional Police Bureau and formerly director of the Cabinet Research Office, Japan’s equivalent of the CIA…’warned [Nagell] that the Japanese had penetrated the [Eroshkin] project and believed that it entailed something else, something unlawful that might further strain the already tense relations then existing between Japan and the USSR.’ Murai made ‘pointed reference to some unsavory incidents that had occurred over the past several years involving the CIA’…” [p138, The Man Who Knew Too Much]
Incidental to Russell’s research, on a prompt from Nagell regarding his 1963 suspected-KGB contact ‘Oaxaca’ in Mexico, who requested a meeting with Oswald through Nagell [the September ’63 Mexico City trip], Russell introduces a curious fellow named Albert Alexander Osborne, a.k.a. John Howard Bowen. Albert Osborne sat next to Oswald on a bus ride for 18 hours into Mexico. The figure of Osborne/Bowen, whom the FBI believed to be one person with a duel-identity, remains a mystery today, deepened in that Dick Russell’s detailed reference to Osborne in his 1992 book was wholly omitted from the 2003 re-issue of the Man Who Knew Too Much.
*                                                 Albert Alexander Osborne passportOsborne  a.k.a. John Howard Bowen, born and raised in England, had only one clearly traceable residence-location from where he came and went in the United States in Knoxville Tennessee, the nearest city to the Manhattan Project’s Oak Ridge Facility. It may even be that Albert Osborne adopted his second identity as Bowen in Knoxville in 1943 as Oak Ridge was being built and inhabited. Bowen was said to have left Knoxville after the summer of ’43. Over a ten year period beginnng in 1953, “Bowen” infrequently but occasionally announced his status as a missionary in Mexico through articles sent to the Knoxville Journal. Osborne later took refuge in Knoxville again in 1964 to escape hounding by the FBI according to his anonymous friends. The FBI at least caught up with Osborne in Nashville in March of ’64 for what was his third and last interview with the FBI. After this he was officially written off as a con man and witnesses were told to forget about him. He died in San Antonio, Texas in 1966 at age 77, believed to be caused by food poisoning.
   Besides his infamous September of ’63 bus ride with Oswald in Mexico, Osborne the traveler left New York City for the U.K. six weeks later on November 13. The journey included a novel visit to his English siblings who hadn’t seen him in 40 years and then, as his sister told it, Osborne departed for London, arriving on or near November 18, 1963. He returned to New York on an Icelandic Airlines flight originating in Luxembourg on December 5. Albert Alexander Osborne, whose name-parts were variously used as aliases by Lee Harvey Oswald (or his impersonators), was not the only Oswald contact trekking to London in the months or weeks before the assassination of President Kennedy.
Luxembourg is a tiny sovereign nation surrounded by France, Belgium, and Germany and “is one of the world’s largest financial centers as well as worldwide leader in the investment industry and the largest international private banking center in the Eurozone.”
Independent of Nagell, Russell revealed a forewarning of Kennedy’s assassination from a military source; a young Army  codebreaker stationed in Metz, France named Eugene B. Dinkin. Metz is less than 40 miles from the city of Luxembourg in Luxembourg. Dinkin’s troubles began, according to a superior officer, when “During a troop information class on the subject ‘Duty, Honor, Country,’ Private Dinkin made a 25-minute speech on the government’s stockpiling of atomic bombs…’ On September 24, 1963…Dinkin was given a psychiatric evaluation” which resulted in the revocation of his ‘crypto’ clearance and a transfer. Within a month, Private Dinkin initiated a personal campaign to warn U.S. authorities about a planned assassination against the U.S. president scheduled for late November. “So Dinkin suddenly left his unit. On October 25, he set set out to try to contact certain European ambassadors in the nearby nation of Luxembourg, in hopes that his message would then filter through their intelligence networks back to the United States. Nobody would give him the time of day except the Israeli ambassador to Luxembourg, who, Dinkin writes, advised him how best to present his case at the American embassy there.” [p554, The Man Who Knew Too Much] Private Dinkin was shortly to learn “through the military grapevine” that the Army was going to lock him up as a psychotic –he went AWOL and took his message to the press office of the U.N. in Geneva Switzerland, followed by a visit to Frankfurt, then on to the U.S. embassy in Bonn, W. Germany where he failed to convey his warning. Advised to return to his unit, Dinkin was promptly arrested and hospitalized on November 13 and held incommunicado, finally ending his travels stateside weeks later; “transferred on December 5, 1963 to Walter Reed Hospital in Washington D.C…[and] began receiving ‘therapy'” for his “unfortunate condition [of] schizo-assassination prognostication.” [p556, ibid.]
Osborne is very reminiscent of the “wandering bishops” written about by Peter Levenda, at least four of whom were working with Guy Banister in Louisiana (David Ferrie, Jack Martin, Thomas Beckham, Tommy Baumler). A week after the southbound Mexico bus ride, allegedly, Osborne returned to the US heading for New Orleans –one day later, Oswald returned and headed for Dallas where he lodged at the YMCA. Osborne too, frequented the local ‘Y’s on his travels, having been found by the FBI at a Y in Nashville.
   The wandering bishops of New Orleans in the JFK assassination plot were tied to two men who inducted them through “apostolic succession”, and both were working with the FBI by the time of the Garrison investigation in 1967: those two were Carl J. Stanley and Walter (Wolodymr) Propheta. Bishop Propheta in New York was even “installed as Primate” of the American Orthodox Catholic Church in ’67 by J. Edgar Hoover, according to Levenda. Another overlap occurrs relevant to 1963 with “yet another personality close to the Propheta organization [who] was the famous wrestler Antonino Rocca –retired from wrestling at that time– claimed to be an agent of the CIA working out of Lebanon; he further claimed that he was running Phantom jets into Israel under diplomatic radar by having them shipped to Luxembourg first and then flying them into Israel…” [p283, Sinister Forces, by Peter Levenda]
Again, similar to Osborne, was Fred Lee Crisman* FredLeeCrisman
Characterized as a roving minister and con man from Tacoma Washington, Crisman’s colorful background included a role in the first recorded UFO encounter known as the Maury Island incident in Puget Sound 1947. Crisman was a former military man, ex-employee of Boeing and allegedly Lockheed as well. He went on to promote his UFO and alien technology experiences in Amazing Stories magazine. Guy Banister, claims Peter Levenda, was sent in from Butte, MT in those days as the FBI’s “X-Files” officer. There were in fact nuclear aircraft in the works from the late ’40s up until the Kennedy years, specifically contracted to General Dynamics‘ California facilities. (General Dynamics and subsidiaries, Convair and General Atomics —see the record of physicist/weaponeer Ted Taylor, below)
   According to Garrison’s investigators: “Our information indicates that since the early sixties he [Crisman] has made many trips to the New Orleans and Dallas areas in connection with his undercover work for that part of the warfare industry engaged in the manufacture of.. ‘hardware’ –meaning those weapons sold to the U.S. government which are uniquely large and expensive.” Fred Lee 03#page/n0/mode/2up, Harold Weisberg documents archive
   Crisman was a ‘business partner’ with the younger Thomas Beckham, and friends with both Banister and Clay Shaw, alleged to have been the first person called by Shaw after his indictment.
   Investigator and photo analyst for Garrison, Richard E. Sprague, authored The Taking of America, 1-2-3 (1976) wherein he leveled his own indictment against Shaw, Ferrie, Osborne, Crisman, Ferrie, Nagell, Oswald and others as co-plotters.
*Theodore B. (Ted) Taylor tedtaylor *curveofbindingenergy, Los Alamos(1949-1956), General Atomics, Project Orion (nuclear spaceship)
   Physicist Freeman Dyson said of his colleague, Ted Taylor, “He was the first man in the world to understand what you can do with three or four kilograms of plutonium, that making bombs is an easy thing to do…” p79, The Curve of Binding Energy, by John McPhee, 1973
“Taylor once designed an implosion bomb that weighed twenty pounds… Studying ordinary artillery shells, he replicated their external dimensions in conceiving fission bombs that could be fired out of guns.” p78, ibid.
“So far as we know, everybody in the world who has tried to make a nuclear explosion since 1945 has succeeded on the first try.” p100  
…”There is good, better, and worse, but there is no nonweapons-grade plutonium in the nuclear industry.” –Dr. Ted Taylor, p113, The Curve of Binding Energy
   In the early sixties, Ted Taylor turned his attention to the issue of nuclear safeguards. “Safeguards cost money, which means a diminution of profit… Safeguards suggest dangers, which belie the promise of Atoms for Peace, and thus can be a hindrance to the promotion of nuclear commerce. The Atomic Energy Commission, as a whole, is profoundly dedicated to the growth and spread of nuclear power…” pp46-47, ibid.
   Another of McPhee’s sources, Russell Wischow who formerly worked for the AEC, added that “Safeguards are frustrating. The stuff is difficult to quantify. You can’t put it into a vault and keep it there. Once it is in the manufacturing cycle, you open it up to pilferage.” p48. Wischow was replaced by Charles Thornton who told McPhee, “The aggregate MUF [Material Unaccounted For] from the three diffusion plants alone is expressible in tons. No one knows where it is. None of it may have been stolen, but the balances don’t close. You could divert from any plant in the world in substantial amounts and never be detected.” p49, The Curve of Binding Energy
“When the Chinese exploded a uranium bomb in 1964, it was assumed that the Chinese were not smart enough to have figured out the technology of isotopic separation. Therefore, the Chinese must have stolen the U-235. Where? No one could guess. Some months later, though, it was disclosed that sixty kilograms of U-235 was unaccounted for at a nuclear-fuel-fabricating plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Perhaps the Chinese had stolen the uranium in Pennsylvania. While this speculation was going on, the [U.S.] government revealed…the presence of a gaseous-diffusion plant at Langchow.” p12, ibid.
   And there, apparently, the matter rested.
The plant in Apollo PA was called NUMEC, the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, co-founded by Zalman Shapiro in 1957 and co-owned by the Stern family of New Orleans –Edith Rosenwald Stern, friend and supporter of Clay Shaw from the International Trade Mart. MUF at NUMEC during the ’60s caused a stir as an alleged supply source for Israel’s clandestine weapons.
   “One of the most celebrated of the MUF cases occurred in the fall of 1965, when a [NUMEC] plant at Apollo Pennsylvania came up 207 pounds short in its inventory of highly enriched uranium, worth about $1 million at the time. The AEC had the plant closed down and began looking for the material. Thirteen pounds turned up in air filters… Another 15 pounds was discovered at a mountaintop burial pit, 8 miles [away]. But there were still 148 pounds missing at the end of the search…” p179, Unacceptable Risk, by McKinley C. Olson, 1976
   The significance of author McPhee citing the Material Unaccounted For (MUF) from NUMEC as the sole reference to suspect weapons-fuel gains by the Chinese in 1963-64 is a narrowing of the window-in-time that accurately describes the effort of the Israelis to acquire weapons-fuel. The Israelis later confessed to smuggling NUMEC fuel for their reactor at Dimona, recorded by Gordon Thomas in Gideon’s Spies (1999), however, assigning the contraband coup to year 1968. Mr. Thomas did not specifically cite ‘1968’ in his book, but later ‘concurred’ in a separate statement given during an investigation. The story made big news. The Apollo smuggling operation within the greater sphere of U.S.-Israel relations included using the political pressure of the Jewish Vote applied by American Zionist Abe Feinberg, a pressure that could only be effective in the re-election bid of JFK, and therefore in keeping with the 1963-64 time frame.
According to Gideon’s Spies:
“Trouble had begun in 1956, when France had sent a twenty-four megawatt reactor to Israel. Ben Gurion announced its purpose was to provide a ‘pumping station’ to turn the desert into an ‘agricultural paradise by desalinating a billion cubic gallons of seawater annually.’ [A desalination ‘nuplex’ for Israel was the brainchild of Lewis Strauss, proposed in 1956 and reconstituted with Eisenhower’s approval as the “Oasis Plan”] The claim promptly led to the resignation of six of the seven members of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission…
   “Ignoring all opposition, Ben-Gurion gave the order for the reactor to be sited in the Negev Desert, close to the bleak, sand-blown settlement at Dimona.. south of Tel Aviv... [p80]
“Three months after the reactor had been installed, a small nuclear material processing company opened for business in a converted World War II steel plant in the unappealing town of Apollo, Pennsylvania. The company was called the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation, Numec. Its chief executive was Dr. Salman Shapiro.
   “On LAKAM’s computer database of prominent American Jews with a scientific background, Shapiro was also listed as a prominent fundraiser for Israel. Rafi Eitan knew he had found a potential answer to how to provide the Dimona reactor with fissionable material... [p81]
“The son of an orthodox rabbi… [Shapiro was] an important member of the nuclear research and development laboratory at Westinghouse; the corporation was contracted to the United States Navy to develop submarine reactors…  Shapiro, in his ‘typical discreet way’, had provided several million dollars for the Technion Institute in Haifa that offered tuition in science and engineering.
“In 1957 Shapiro had left Westinghouse and set up Numec. It had twenty-five stockholders, all openly sympathetic to Israel. Shapiro found himself head of a small company in an aggressive cutthroat industry. Nevertheless, Numec had won a number of contracts to recover enriched uranium, a process that usually led to the loss of a quantity of uranium during the salvage operation. There was no way of telling how great or when the loss had taken place. [p82]
“[T]he already uneasy relationship between Israel and the United States over the desire of the Jewish state to become a nuclear power increased when Ben-Gurion traveled to Washington in 1960. At a series of meetings with State Department officials, he was bluntly told that for Israel to possess nuclear weapons would affect the balance of power in the Middle East. In February 1961, President John F. Kennedy wrote to Ben-Gurion suggesting that Dimona should be regularly inspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
   “Alarmed, Ben-Gurion flew to New York to meet with Kennedy at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel… But Kennedy was firm: there had to be an inspection… He returned home convinced ‘a Catholic in the White House is bad news for Israel’. The prime minister [p83] turned to the one man in Washington he could trust, Abraham Feinberg, a Zionist supporter of Israel’s nuclear aspirations.
At one level, the native New Yorker was the most important Jewish fundraiser for the Democratic party. Feinberg made no secret of why he had raised many millions: every dollar was to ensure the party backed Israel in Congress. He had also discreetly provided many more additional millions of dollars to create Dimona. The money came in cashier’s checks to the Bank of Israel in Tel Aviv, thus avoiding the accountability of the Israeli foreign exchange controls. Ben-Gurion told Feinberg to ‘sort out the boy. Make the putz understand the reality of life’.
   “Feinberg’s method was straightforward political pressure– the kind that had already infuriated Kennedy when he was running for office. Then, Feinberg had bluntly told him: ‘We are willing to pay your bills if you will let us have control of your Middle East policy’…
   “Now he used the same direct approach: if President Kennedy continued to insist on an inspection of Dimona, he should ‘not count on Jewish financial support in the next political election’…

   “Nevertheless Kennedy was resolute…”

–more reading, “The Eisenhower Administration and the Discovery of Dimona: March 1958-January 1961” –when Secretary Herter asked the Israelis where the financing came from he was told “from [the United States]” —
“At some point in his AEC career, [Lewis] Strauss..met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann… neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis, who has had access to all of his father’s personal papers, knew that the two had met. The friendship with Bergmann provides the strongest evidence of Strauss’s sympathy for the Israeli nuclear weapons program… rules were bent for Strauss… [who] privately was in favor of a nuclear-armed Israel.” pp85-86, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh
   “Dino Brugioni briefed Strauss regularly on U-2 nuclear intelligence, but found him inscrutable when it came to information on the Israeli nuclear reactor: ‘I never knew what he was thinking; never understood him”…Brugioni had his own reasons for wondering about Strauss. He knew there was evidence inside the CIA suggesting that American and European Jews had been directly involved in the financing and construction of Dimona from the start. ‘There was a fervor…The attitude was ‘You had to protect Israel and anybody who did not suffered.’ “ p90, ibid.
   “Abraham Feinberg shared Lewis Strauss’s belief in operating behind the scenes on behalf of Israel…” p93, ibid. “The issue of Jewish political power and the Israeli bomb was complicated during these years by the fact that John Kennedy was intellectually and emotionally committed to a halt in the spread of nuclear weapons.” p98, The Samson Option
*            dimona-1image
Evidence of an operational Dimona reactor in mid-1963: pres-.elect JFK was briefed by Secretary of State Cristian Herter that Israel’s Dimona plant was capable of producing 90 kilograms of plutominum by 1963.
*        dimona-1

Rafi Eitan claimed to have boldly arranged shipment of NUMEC fuels to Israel in 1968 under the noses of the FBI and U.S. State Department, likely as cover for the earlier acquisition. The overtly marked radioactive containers observed by U.S. agents were meant to discourage inspection or interference –U.S. officials were dared to interfere, according to Eitan’s story, and assured that transport would continue under diplomatic immunity if they tried.


As further evidence of the conjunction in smuggling of drugs, small arms, and nuclear weapons materiel, author Gordon Thomas referenced this minor discovery, also at a much later date: “Justiano Torres was a courier for a Colombian drug cartel who had expanded into trafficking in even deadlier substance. [His] suitcase contained, in sealed containers, the two hundred grams of plutonium239 that [Soviet scientist] Tashanka had sold him. It had a street value of $50 million…[and was] sufficient to make a small nuclear device.” [p87, Gideon’s Spies]

The Israeli bomb project began “In the spring of 1952 [when Ben-Gurion] started his nation on the path to nuclear weapons… acting on the recommendation of Ernst David Bergman…in the Ministry of Defense…
   “Of particular importance to Israel was the relationship established with the French atomic energy commission [the CEA]. Israeli scientists were granted access to the Saclay Nuclear Research Center as well as Chatillon…” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson, 2006]
   …The [Israeli] cabinet.. chose to start small with a reactor purchased from the United States and located at Nebi Rubin, south of Tel Aviv. But an opportunity to advance Israel’s quest for nuclear weapons, with French assistance, arose out of a foreign policy fiasco. France had already become an important military supplier to Israel, largely owing to [Shimon] Peres… The director general of the Defense Ministry and future Prime Minister [Peres] also played a significant role in obtaining additional assistance that went far beyond training scientists at Saclay and Chatillon.
   Shortly after Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal in late July 1956, [the] French..asked Peres..whether Israel was willing to participate in a military operation along with France and Britain to seize the canal… [p238, ibid]
  “In mid-September, before the military campaign began, the Commisariat l’Energie Atomique [CEA] and IAEC [Israel Atomic Energy Commission] agreed, in principle, on the sale to Israel of a small research reactor similar to the EL-3 at Saclay. But t he military campaign turned into a debacle when Soviet leaders threatened missile attacks on the invaders and Eisenhower responded with condemnation rather than support. On November 8, Ben Gurion sent Peres and foreign minister Golda Meir on a covert mission to France to determine what kind of support the French would provide in case the Soviets made good on their threats against Israel…
   “What Israel wanted was an upgraded version of the reactor that the CEA had planned to provide Israel, one similar to the large G-1 (40-megawatt thermal power) reactor at Marcoule, which was capable of producing between twenty-two and thirty-three pounds of plutonium a year. In addition, Israel wanted France to provide the technology required to extract plutonium from the spent reactor fuel, and requested…an underground plant attached to the reactor.” [p239] ….By [mid-1959, with settled supply agreements in place] construction of the  [Dimona] nuclear facility was well underway… But political changes in France threatened to bring the joint effort to a halt well before the research center could be completed.
   “The potential stumbling block was French president Charles de Gaulle, who was determined to end his nation’s close military collaboration with Israel, in part because of fear of Arab reaction if the extent of cooperation became known. In 1959 [deGaulle] had been talked out of his plan to simply abrogate the nuclear agreement. In 1960, after the departure of pro-Israeli atomic energy minister Jacques Soustelle, [the] French…made three demands..[including] international inspections. Unless Israel complied, France would refuse to supply the natural uranium needed to fuel the reactor.
   “Accepting the French demands, particularly for international inspections, would threaten the plan to produce fissile material for atomic bombs… High-level discussions between deGaulle and Ben-Gurion followed in June 1960…[which resulted in] terminating official involvement through the CEA… Israel was able to take over most of the effort…” [p241, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson]
  *deGaulle and Kennedy de-gaulle-and-jfk
                                                                                                                     Soustelle jacques-soustelle2
In 1955, Soustelle was sent to Algeria as Governor General by Prime Minister Pierre Mendes-France; he developed a network of ‘colonialist’ supporters independent of his government position, networks that were to become a leading part of the Algerian Secret Army Organization. His provocative behavior led to his removal from office.
   “Returning to France, Soustelle was re-elected to parliament and became president of the France-Israel Alliance Caucus on the eve of the French government’s collaboration with Great Britain and Israel in the Suez invasion. [About this time or shortly after, Soustelle became the Minister of atomic energy]
   “It was only after deGaulle’s return to power [c.1958] that Soustelle openly discarded his ‘Gaullist’ clothing and went into exile, taking leadership of the OAS Algerian terrorists and other parallel groups. Soustelle’s terrorists had the active support of David Ben-Gurion and Israeli intelligence. Financing for the OAS and other bands came from the Permindex Corporation. This assassination bureau was established by British-Canadian Major General Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, who channeled monies through the U.S. FBI Division Five (which Bloomfield set up during World War II). Permindex engaged in over 30 attempts to assassinate President deGaulle, notable among them the [1962] Petit Clamart incident to which Soustelle was directly linked.
   “Seeking refuge in Switzerland, Israel, Madrid and Rome, Soustelle in the following period obtained aid from sources in the United States associated with William F. Buckley and his National Review circle…” [Executive Intelligence Review (EIR) Volume 6, No.44, Novemeber 13, 1979]
“It was out of the World Commerce Corporation that Permindex was formed [the post- WWII apparatus of Canadian millionaire and “master spy” William Stephenson who maintained British intelligence wartime espionage operations on the 35th and 36th floors of New York’s Rockefeller Center]”…“Schlumberger Ltd [owned by Mrs. Dominique Schlumberger deMenil, whose] husband, Jean deMenil, was a Permindex board member and close collaborator of [Louis] Bloomfield since the war. Involved in oil diagnostics [which uses radioactive ‘downhole’ explosives and tools] the firm [Schlumberger] served as a cover for Permindex operations internationally. During WWII, deMenil had been the head of deGaulle’s Free French Forces in Venezuela together with Jacques Soustelle.
   “In 1962, the Secret Army Organization of Permindex board member Jean deMenil oversaw an assassination attempt against.. deGaulle…”
                 Permanent Industrial Exhibition, Perm-ind-ex, was chartered in 1956 Basle Switzerland. In 1959, a Permindex center was opened in Rome called Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC). The head of Rome’s CMC was Georgio Mantello, a.k.a. George Mandel and often referred to as Mantello-Mandel. Permindex/CMC would later move operations to Johannesburg South Africa, c.1964.
“The leadership of PERMINDEX included a longtime asset of CIA Deputy Director for Plans Frank Wisner. His name was Ferenc Nagy and he was the president of PERMINDEX… Briefly, in 1945, he had been prime minister of Hungary. But it was Nagy’s CIA history that catapulted him to the leadership of PERMINDEX…
   “Confirming deGaulle’s thesis that PERMINDEX funded the OAS is that Nagy was a ‘munificent contributor’ to Jacques Soustelle… In 1960, Soustelle met in WashingtonD.C. with Richard Bissell, then heading the CIA’s clandestine services. A year later, Soustelle went into exile…Two years after that he would be accused of colluding with OAS in the attempted assassination of deGaulle…
   “In New Orleans, [Banister’s secretary] Delphine Roberts identified Nagy from his photograph as someone she had seen at Guy Banister’s office.” –p137, A Farewell To Justice, by Joan Mellen
*  Ferenc Nagy  1957-ferencnagy   * bkpam2178775_permindexhsca-053-ferenc-nagy
Researcher Maurice Philipps:
“Documents found in the Bloomfield archives gave us more details on the structure and leadership of Permindex. For instance, they show that Ferenc Nagy was the active leader of Permindex and, in 1960, was making contact with David Rockefeller in order to develop the New York City World Trade Center on the model of the CMC [or Centro Mondiale Commerciale, based in Rome, and itself modeled on the New Orleans International Trade Mart]…. Nagy eventually moved to Dallas, TX, where he was residing in 1963, allegedly engaged in anti-Castro activities.”
“…documents show that Ferenc Nagy…was the direct liason between Permindex and Rockefeller.”
[The Rockefeller Foundation, ‘RF’] “would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence, who unwittingly boasted that ‘if it hadn’t been for the RF, there would have been no atomic bomb.’ As [they] saw it, the Foundation now shared the awesome prospect of writing the ‘world’s obituary’ and shared in the responsibility of controlling the future use of atomic energy.” –p219, The Molecular Vision of Life, by Lily E. Kay, 1993
In January of 1960, Lee Oswald took up his position in Minsk at the electronics factory. Over the next few months his mother began to worry: “On June 3, 1960, Hoover sent a letter to the State Department warning that someone posing as Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia might try to get hold of Oswald’s passport… Also in the letter was an FBI report from Dallas dated May 12, 1960 in which Oswald’s mother, Marguerite.. said she was worried about the safety of her son. She had written to him in Russia…[and] all letters had been returned to her. The State department added a notation, issuing orders that Oswald’s passport would not be returned to him through the Russian postal system but only in person; and the passport was actually handed over to a man calling himself Oswald in July 1961…” –p111, The Assassination Chain
   The next month, August of 1961 and perhaps only days later, three American women who were traveling by car had brief encounters with Oswald. Two of them, Rita Naman and Monica Kramer, were roommates from Solvang,CA who started their journey in Britain. The third, Mrs. Marie Hyde, from the Seattle/Tacoma area of Washington, joined them in Moscow after engaging the women to give her a ride to Poland. Miss Naman reported to the Warren Commission that she took pictures in Minsk of a small group of people including Oswald standing by her car. One picture, at least, taken by Naman with Mrs. Hyde’s camera, showed Mrs. Hyde in a photo with Oswald. That photo apparently was sent to the CIA, shown neither to the Warren Commission nor the public. No testimony or photo image from Mrs. Marie Hyde has ever been published. Only a coincidence of surnames suggests a possible link between Mrs. Marie Hyde and Ruth Hyde, the wife of Michael Paine, an avid Russian speaker who befriended the Oswalds through the Dallas White Russian fellowship.
   Outstanding in the background of Ruth Hyde Paine was a generations-long family friendship with the Herbert Hoovers. Ruth’s husband Michael Paine, as many researchers note, bore a strong resemblance to Lee Oswald.
*     Ruth Hyde Painepain_ruthpaine   *michaelpaineandleeoswald Michael and Lee
” ‘I think the only really effective clandestine collection on Russia came from defectors,’ Richard Bissell said later… ‘It was part of the duties of the clandestine service to receive and encourage defectors, and some extremely valuable ones came in. But I don’t think clandestine collection is ever going to be a useful activity in a totalitarian society. The reason is only partly the difficulty of infiltrating agents into the country.’ “ –p374, Dulles, A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles…, by Leonard Mosley, 1978
Bissell’s methods of getting information out gets no mention from Mosley.
Judyth said that Lee Oswald knew Ruth Paine  a “long time before” she befriended Marina and Lee in Dallas. (The Real Deal interview Part One, April 30, 2010, www,
   For years Ruth had been involved in arranging exchange visits between Americans and Russians. “In 1958 Ruth Paine was involved in a Russian/American exchange program on a leadership level.”
   In the 1990s, Ruth “admitted to her friend that her father [William Avery Hyde] had worked for the CIA as an ‘executive agent’. Apparently while he was traveling abroad for Nationwide Insurance and then later while working for the Agency for International Development, he would gather intelligence information for the agency…Ruth’s sister [Sylvia Hyde Hoke] worked for the CIA as a staff psychologist in 1961…”
   Michael spent 3 years of college training in academic physics at Harvard and Swarthmore, netting a job in Bartol Research Foundation’s nuclear labs in 1951. Ultimately without a degree due to poor performance as a scholar, he still found a good position with Bell Helicopter Research in Texas, helped, they say and with certainty, by family connections.  His mother Ruth Forbes (ex-Paine) married Bell helicopter inventor and scientist Arthur Young when Michael was 18. On his father’s side, the influence was Trostkyite socialism. The politics of the Paines, it appears, was liberal and leftist, and their legacy in the conspiracy was to contribute the incriminating evidence of a violent and lone nut Oswald. The ‘lancer’ article above remarked on the extensive official interviewing of Ruth and suggests that they might have had “the wrong Paine”. Was Michael Paine someone to watch?
   Despite the relentless obsequiousness of Mrs. Paine’s Garage, author Thomas Mallon passes on something Michael said to a coworker at Bell, told to SA Hosty after the assassination: “George Stephenson, a Bell engineer who sold him a used car in the fall of ’63, would tell FBI agent Hosty that he recalled Michael Paine stating, ‘I may have a problem here and I may have gotten myself into something and I better try to get out of it.’ Mr. Stephenson stated that he understood by this statement that Michael Paine was concerned about having the wife and children of [Lee Oswald] reside with his wife in view of his pro-Communist statements. Michael doesn’t remember this conversation…” p183, Mrs. Paine’s Garage, by Thomas Mallon, 2002
 Michael Paine knew better than anyone that Oswald was anti-Communist.
Ruth Paine, on a tip from the neighbors, made the phonecall securing Lee Oswald a job in the Texas School Book Depository

Researcher Bill Weston: “The Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) moved into the seven-story, 411 Elm Street building during the summer of 1963, but exactly when is unknown. Ruth Paine, while driving on the freeway, saw the company name on a four-story warehouse and thought that Lee worked there, not realizing that a larger building, also within her view, was the place where he really worked. [2] Evidently a new sign was added later, but exactly when is unknown. The difficulty of obtaining specific details is of course due to the building’s role as a shooting platform, but there is something else to consider. From clues derived from a variety of sources, company executives used schoolbooks to disguise shipments of firearms and narcotics.”

Michael Collins Piper: “[W]hen Garrison launched his investigation of Shaw he had unwittingly unearthed the ‘Rothschild connection’ to the JFK conspiracy, although Garrison himself apparently didn’t realize it at first…  Documents unearthed by Canadian author Maurice Phillips demonstrate beyond question that Shaw’s associate on the board of Permindex (its chief executive officer and primary shareholder), Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, was a longtime attorney for the Rothschild dynasty… In addition, Bloomfield and Montreal liquor baron Sam Bronfman…were among a clique of money kings who, in the 1950s, bankrolled Israel’s secret nuclear arms program…”
Edgar Bronfman, son of Sam, said: “He [father] loved the oil business. ‘If it’s good enough for the Rockefellers, it’s good enough for me,’ he used to say… Father agreed to relocate his oil business to the United States [for tax advantages][though] we were still involved in the Canadian oil and gas business…[and] we stayed in the oil business. One reason was our eventual success in Forrest Oil, a company I had come 1953 when I worked at the Empire Trust Company…  [Edgar Bronfman] hired Dallas economist Carroll M. Bennett to guide the Bronfman oil investments…[and] move the Dallas where he lived.”
                                  Montreal lawyer, OSS, and FBI liason, Louis M. Bloomfield bloomfield2
Researcher Steve Gaal (interview by Bill Weston, 2010): “ connected to Clay Shaw. For a long time we have known that Clay Shaw was an asset of the CIA, but recently new documents have been found that show that Permindex was connected to Rothschild and British interests…. Freeport Sulphur was a [law] client of Doyle Smith and Doyle… Probe magazine printed an important article that connects Clay Shaw to Freeport Sulphur…[and] Doyle Smith and Doyle was a very important company within the conspiracy milieu. Another important British-connected company was Empire Trust. This company was controlled by the Rothschilds via Kuhn Loeb & Co [sic]. Jack Chrichton was part of Empire Trust… The British-connected Great Southwest Corporation had control of Marina following the assassination… The Great Southwest was made up of British interests, including Loeb Rhoades [&Co.] and Anglophiles William Zeckendorf, the Rockefellers, and Murchison family…”
“Perhaps our most interesting discovery, fitting tribute that it is to Wesley J. Liebeler, is the report of Portland (Oregon) FBI Agents Julius A. Bernard and William S. Brown. On November 26, 1963, they interviewed J. Pat Doyle, of..Portland. This was but four days after the assassination. Doyle told the government that his family had been on vacation in New Orleans the day Oswald got himself arrested giving out his handbills. Their son Jim took movies of the operation.  These movies are not in the Commission’s files.” [p175, Oswald in New Orleans, H.Weisberg, 1967]
“Rothschilds via Kuhn Loeb & Co” is a subject in the’ Lewis Strauss and JFK’ series, along with the special lifetime relationship between Strauss and Herbert Hoover. The “United States of Africa” was but one of many schemes they shared. Hoover, the mining engineer, claimed to have known Strauss since he was 19 years old, which would place their meeting in 1915 (Strauss was born January of 1896), pre-dating their co-administrations of the WWI Committee for Relief in Belgium (CRB). From their New York City CRB offices, significantly, Strauss worked for two agencies controlled by the Warburgs [Kuhn Loeb partners] at the same time; one was the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD), of which Strauss became president, and the other was the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee (JDC), which he claimed led to his partnership in Kuhn Loeb & Co.
“After the election [of Herbert Hoover] Strauss learned that another promotion awaited him, and on January 1, 1929, he became a [full] partner in Kuhn Loeb, a full member of the inner circle…  In only ten years, and at an incredibly young age, he had become one of the leaders in the world of banking, marked out to carry on the future of Kuhn Loeb.” [p40, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau]
British and Rothschild interests, by the 1960s, had long since coagulated into global energy domination, including a world-scale uranium cartel, encompassing the principal nations of the former Anglo-empire. The Rothschilds, who controlled the Rio Tinto mining operations since the 1880s, and had at times employed Herbert Hoover, took a distinctive interest in expanding their uranium holdings when radium first came on the market in 1903. At that time, radium was a drug costing $150,000 per gram until the Canadian ore came to Ontario’s Port Hope refinery, circa 1931.
In the U.S. alone, “Between 1948 and 1961, uranium ore production soared from 54,000 to 8,000,000 tons… By 1956 [when Permindex was founded] it was becoming evident that the AEC might be faced with an embarrassment of riches. In October 1957 [the month after Lee Oswald joined the Atsugi base] the AEC announced that it was ‘no longer in the interest of the Government to expand the production of uranium concentrate.”
By design, government-developed assets would be leased or sold into private hands.
“Although the AEC incentives ceased in 1962, the agency continued to purchase guaranteed prices through the end of 1970. Initially, the AEC paid $8.oo per pound… The industry was revitalized shortly thereafter by the prospect of supplying fuel to the developing commercial nuclear power industry.”
Rothschild Uranium:
“The twisting, turning career that Joseph Hirshhorn found to be the shortest distance between poverty and fortune zigzagged to a climax..[in 1955]..[at] Joe’s suite in Toronto’s Bank of Nova Scotia Building…   For the occasion, there perched on Joe’s desk [was] a cake whose pink-and-green frosting proclaimed: ‘Rio Tinto-Hirshhorn E Pluribus Unum’.  Towering at Joe’s [5’4”] side stood the natty British figure of Roy William Wright, boss the Rio Tinto Mining Co. of Canada Ltd.,  a new offspring of Great Britain’s venerable..Rio Tinto Co. Ltd., in which the Rothschilds have large interests. As the cake was cut, Joe sighed and sang “I’ll be loving you always and always.’ He had just traded Rio Tinto Ltd. His equity in a vast sweep of Canadian mining properties – uranium, gold, iron, copper, acquired over a period of two decades at a cost of some $4,800,000—for about $31 million in Canadian Rio Tinto stocks and debentures and the chairmanship of the Canadian company’s board…  [In] 1953, Joe put up $30,000 [and] two months later ..had the greatest uranium find outside Africa, a discovery that took Joe on to the sweeping deal with Rio Tinto.” p57, The Very, Very Rich and How They Got That Way, by Max Gunther, 1972, Playboy Press Chicago
It was in the late forties that Joe first acquired his interest in uranium, which was to prove more fascinating than anything he had touched in his life… [p65, ibid.] …[Joe’s geologist and partner, Franc Joubin] began reading about the leaching of uranium-bearing land where sulfur is present, and this gave him an idea [about deeply bedded deposits] ..[They decided] test..Algoma ore…” [p66]  “[The men] formed a Hirshhorn company, Peach Uranium…[and sent] trained men to stake the northern area [known as Blind River]… And on July 11 [1952], in mining recorders’ offices all over Ontario, lawyers and engineers raced in to enter a total of 1,400 claims covering 56,000 acres. [Toronto’s] Bay State was stunned. Joe and his friends had secretly staked out one of the most fabulous claims in Canadian history…” [p67]
   “As is his custom, Joe sought out some expert help –in New York, attorney Sam Harris who became his most intimate counselor, and in Washington [D.C.], the dignified Former Secretary of State Dean Acheson… By November 1954…[a deal] came to Joe—in the shape of Rio Tinto Co.Ltd. of London. Rio Tinto..was especially interested in a uranium investment… [and it ] soon became clear that longer-range interests of both Joe and Rio Tinto were neatly intersecting: Rio Tinto wanted permanent control over his whole Canadian mining empire, and Joe..needed a corporate package for all his holdings. The negotiations were complicated and delayed by Joe’s need to get a favorable tax ruling from the U.S. Treasury governing the transfer of his assets to a foreign concern. This ruling Dean Acheson succeeded in getting. The result.. was Rio Tinto Mining Co. of Canada Ltd. Into this elegant new receptacle Joe dropped all of his holdings in forty-six different Canadian mining companies (one of which was itself a package of seventeen earlier companies). Although Joe did not get voting control, he owned the biggest single slice of equity (55 percent).” [p68]
   [Hirshhorn describes his incentives and ‘passion for discovery’ to Fortune magazine]   …” ‘I’m not interested in the industrial or manufacturing picture,’ Joe explains. ‘That’s strictly competitive, not truly creative…[and] No, I don’t have a very high regard for Wall Street –it’s parasitical, what does it create? But resources –that’s something else. There you’re in the world of the Harrimans and the Huntingtons and the men who really built. So, look at Blind River. It took a lousy $30,000 to get it started –and now [1956] there’s four, maybe eight billion dollars in wealth there. But that isn’t all.  There will be 20,000 people making their living there by the end of next year. There are railroads [to build]. There are mills [to build]. There are homes. There are schools. The whole works. It’s new. It’s just been born…”  [p71, The Very, Very Rich]
Joe Hirshhorn*josephhhirshhorn “By 1960, he had made more than $100 million from uranium.”
“[The] Blind River discoveries..added some $30 billion to the Canadian economy”
   “[Hirshhorn] likes simplicity… Even Joe’s closest friends have no clear glimpse of his likely future moves. When Joe recently left for several month’s rest in Europe, Gordon Dean [former AEC chief, 1950-1953] could only remark: ‘His ship, I know, stops at Gibralter. I would not be surprised if he came back with the Rock.” [p72, The Very, Very Rich]
   “Aside from the penalty for exporting Canadian dollars during the war [WWII], Joe has had only one encounter with the law. In 1950, New York State Attorney General Nathaniel Goldstein, whom Joe had known since [ his youth in] Brooklyn days, took to the press to warn the public away from a stock offering by a company called American-Canadian Uranium Co. Ltd., in which Hirshhorn was involved… Goldstein submitted the facts to the SEC, but the SEC found no grounds for a hearing.
[Earlier] During the forties, Joe’s happiest venture had involved a U.S. company, Mesabi Iron, owner of substantial taconite properties. ‘When I bought Mesabi stock,’ he says, ‘no one knew what taconite was… I knew what it was, and I knew it was going to be big.’ “ [p65, The Very, Very Rich, Max Gunther, 1972 –article reprinted and edited from Fortune magazine November 1956]
 Gordon “Dean was a Democrat who had been a law partner of the late Senator Brien McMahon of Connecticut… [In] 1950, I spoke to the President [Truman] at the request of Senator McMahon to recommend the nomination of Dean [for the chair of AEC]… Dean had been the only one of the Atomic Energy Commissioners to support me..with the development of thermonuclear weapons. Dean and course of time became friends.” p332, Men and Decisions, by Lewis Strauss. Footnote, p334, “Mr. Dean lost his life in an airplane accident in 1958.”
   Senator McMahon, who had been the chairman of the Congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), died previously from a fast cancer and was replaced in a special Senate election by Prescott S. Bush, 1952. Bush took a seat on the JCAE.
As it happened, the uranium cartel taking shape in the  ’50s was brought to the bench in the ’70s, but first, in the ’60s, there was an industry to build:
“A legal suit filed against Rothschild mining interests by the U.S. Westinghouse Corporation [in 1976] contains heavy documentary evidence of a ‘monopolistic’ raise the international price of uranium to prohibitive levels… However, a continuing [EIR] investigation into the case’s background suggests that a broader, primarily Rockefeller family campaign to sources..has enjoyed the benefit of Rothschild cooperation…
   “Central in the affair is the Wall Street firm of Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Kampelman, which represents the international legal interests of both major Rockefeller concerns and the Rothschilds’ Rio Tinto Zinc Corp. Ltd, the largest British-based mining company whose uranium holdings extend throughout South Africa, Namibia, Australia, Canada and the United States… [T]he principal is partner Sam Harris… Westinghouse identified Sam Harris by name, and held the cartel responsible for increases..[up] to $40 a pound in 1976.


Thomas Eli Davis III* thomaselidavisiii –another strange character involved with “Oswald” who was arrested Dec. 8, 1963 in Tangiers Morocco. At the time of his arrest, Davis was carrying a letter in his own hand referring to Oswald and the JFK assassination. The addressee was lawyer Thomas G. Proctor, an original board member of the American-Canadian Uranium Co. Ltd.
   “At the time of the Kennedy assassination, Davis was in North Africa allegedly setting up a deal to supply arms to the OAS. Less than a month later he was jailed in Tangiers in connection with the assassination…  [He] not only was in New Orleans during the same time as Oswald in the summer of 1963, but once admitted to reporter George Carter that he used the name ‘Oswald’ while in North Africa.” [p207, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs]
   Davis’s wife traveled with him and told this to police: “She stated they left the United States on November 2, 1963, and arrived in Tangiers via London, Paris, and Madrid on November 28… Proctor reportedly [was the] legal agent [for] Morocco’s World’s Fair Exhibit New York.”
    From the small amount of information published about “soldier of fortune” Thomas E. Davis, it is known that he was born in McKinney,Texas (north of Dallas, hometown of the Clary/Bates family) and died from accidental electrocution in Jacksboro, 1973, supposedly in the act of stealing copper wire.
   Researchers have discovered that Davis was sprung from the Tangiers jail, possibly before or at the time of JFK’s assassination, by a mysterious intelligence agent known as QJ/WIN, whose identity is uncertain but said to have been an accomplished smuggler, spy and con man of French origin. QJ/WIN was enlisted by the CIA’s William Harvey to assemble an assassination team to kill Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, and continue in various undercover operations as a citizen of Luxembourg doing business in that city. Army cryptologist Eugene Dinkin is thought to have intercepted the Kennedy plot among the coded message traffic tied to this CIA-OAS group– Dinkin initiated his rogue campaign of warning in Luxembourg on October 25.  Both Albert Osborne-a.k.a. Bowen and the unfortunate Dinkin were flown out of Luxembourg on December 5, 1963, three days before the alleged arrest of Davis.
Jack Ruby and Thomas E. Davis:
“On March 15, 1959 Ruby telephoned and met with CIA-connected gun-runner Thomas Eli Davis III in Beaumont, TX. A year earlier, in June, 1958, Davis received a sentence of five years of probation for robbing a bank. While on probation Davis worked for the Agency training anti-Castro units in Florida. Soon, Ruby and Davis were supplying arms and munitions to Anti-Castro Cubans, apparently without the fear of arrest.
NOTE: When JFK was assassinated, Davis was in jail …[and]was released from jail through the intervention of the CIA’s foreign agent code-named “QJ/WIN,” who was identified by the top-secret CIA Inspector General’s Report as the “principle asset” in the Agency’s assassination program known as ZR/RIFLE.
    After Ruby’s arrest for killing Oswald, his defense attorney (Tom Howard) asked  Ruby if he could think of anything that might damage his defense. Ruby responded and said there would be a problem if a man by the name of “Davis” should come up. Davis was later identified as Thomas Eli Davis III…  Ruby told Howard that “he had  been involved with Davis, who  was.. entangled in anti-Castro efforts and that he (Ruby) had intended to begin a regular gun-running business with Davis”. Ruby warned Howard about this connection,  and feared that if it were to be revealed by either an investigative reporter or a witness it would blow open the CIA’s role in JFK’s assassination.”
                                                                                            *ruby* Ruby’s relationship with Davis allegedly began prior to a 1959 deal on which they collaborated to buy and ship jeeps to aid Castro in Cuba.
Michael Collins Piper: “Jack Ruby was connected to two people who were involved in smuggling nuclear triggers to Israel. One was Lawrence Meyers.”
Lawrence V. Meyers was in Dallas with Ruby at the Cabana Motel lounge on the night of November 21, 1963. He gave his family background to Warren Commission counsel Burt Griffin: “I have a daughter who is a nuclear chemist and who has worked at Argonne and various nuclear reactors. I have a son who was in the ASA [Army Security Agency] for a couple of years.. who had a crypto clearance, and I and my wife and my family have been investigated two or three times…”
Imports, Exports and Trade Fairs — Building a private Nuclear Power Industry:
   Excluding some 120 experimental reactors operating in the U.S., “By January 1961, only two reactors built under the Power Reactor Demonstration Program were operating… Five other small prototype reactors were under construction. That was the extent of the United States nuclear power program, for the electric utility companies had no plans to build a large number of additional reactors. The nuclear power program was a small, government-subsidized sideshow as far as the electric utility industry was concerned, and it was going nowhere. [p58, Cult of the Atom, by Daniel Ford, 1982] ...”Others put the doubts about nuclear power in starker terms. The atomic power program ‘has been quite a flop, and is not to be taken seriously,’ former AEC Chairman Lilienthal told an interviewer… AEC estimates that year still showed that the electricity from nuclear plants would be about 30 to 60 percent more expensive than from conventional power stations. [p59, ibid.] Given the widespread disillusionment with atomic energy, President John F. Kennedy asked [AEC] Chairman Seaborg in March 1962 to prepare a report that took ‘a new hard look at the role of nuclear power in our economy.’ “ [p60, ibid.]


Previously, in 1956 when Permindex was founded, the American Petroleum Institute presented its members with the scenario of Peak Oil:

Lewis Strauss wrote “… I ventured a prediction that nuclear power plants of much greater size and more sophisticated technology would soon be built.” [p324, Men and Decisions].  At the same time, a Shell Oil Co. geologist named Marion King Hubbert began working for the Atomic Energy Commission. As Hubbert recalled it: “In the summer…spring and summer of 1955, I had begun service and had a couple of preliminary meetings [with] the Advisory Committee of the..Atomic Energy Commission on Waste Disposal. Land Nuclear Waste Disposal… In the course of those hearings, I had obtained information which I had not had before on the magnitude of the energy that could be obtained from fission… previously I’d regarded nuclear energy as unpromising because of the scarcity of uranium and thorium… So, this awareness of the magnitude of energy..changed the picture in my mind… So that, in turn, reflected on my previous analysis of energy based on fossil fuels.
   “Some time in the fall of 1955…I was on a trip to Denver on company business..[and] encountered one of the Shell production engineers whom I knew from Houston, and we had breakfast together… [He] remarked that he was..chairman of the program committee of the forthcoming American Petroleum Institute March. And they were looking for someone who could give them a broad brush picture of the overall world energy situation…” 
   According to the website, ,  Hubbert had only recently obtained sufficient information from the AEC to give a presentation, and “at the time he was convinced that atomic energy was a viable source for future world energy needs [though] Hubbert did ultimately change his mind.” Later in life, when this interview took place, Hubbert’s opinion of nuclear power was “the sooner we get rid of it the better off we’re going to be.”  Nevertheless, Hubbert carried the torch for Peak Oil (that reserves would ‘peak’ in 1970 and thereafter decline toward a global shortage) from the time of his March 1956 presentation to the API in San Antonio and for the rest of his life. John F. Kennedy almost caused Peak Oil to become undone by marginalizing Hubbert in favor of a USGS report stating there was plenty of oil. Hubbert also later said of his Peak Oil theory that “there was not a lot of analysis that went it” but he still defended it. In 1964, Hubbert quit Shell and went to work for the USGS… “this led to a 1967..paper showing that discoveries..were declining..back to within the original [1956 predicted range]… The U.S. peaked in 1970.”*
*(JFK Conspiracy Con, part III)
*                                                                           atomium_320_by_240_ccby20_flickr_mike_cattell The Atomium, 1958 World’s Fair, Belgium*
In the summer of 1958 AEC chairman Strauss declined President Eisenhower’s offer to become the permanent atomic energy chairman. He further declined job offers as White House chief of staff, Secretary of Defense, and Secretary of State. “Finally, Eisenhower suggested a position Strauss would accept… [as] secretary of commerce…   Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it and because he felt qualified. Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War; as he told a Senate committee, ‘I believe that the economic warfare which the Soviet Government has [now] declared upon the United States can be most effectively countered in the work and decisions of the Department of Commerce.’  …Until Strauss assumed his new duty, he continued to serve as special adviser to the president for Atoms For Peace. “ –p223, No Sacrifice Too Great, by Richard Pfau, 1984  “Strauss’s..contribution..on Atoms For Peace was to chair the American delegation to the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva from September 1 through September 15, 1958. As in 1955 [the First Conference], elaborate preparations preceded the conference, and again the American exhibit was spectacular, this time including four separate [nuclear] reactors, a huge technical library, and exhibits by fifty American corporations.” p224, ibid.
In a February 4th, 1960 letter, Louis Bloomfield wrote from its Montreal law office to Dr Ernest Wolf, a Permindex director residing in Basle, Switzerland:
“You’ll be pleased to hear that David Rockefeller had a meeting yesterday with Dr Nagy… It was a great success. Mr. Rockefeller..suggested immediate collaboration..which I shall discuss with Mr. Rockefeller on my meeting with him in a week or so… In the meantime, Mr. Rockefeller contacted the Chairman of the New York Port Authority, which is the principal mover of the scheme for New York and which is a multi-billion dollar independent concern, to start technical discussions on collaboration.”
Bloomfield completed this letter by informing Wolf that Permindex’s literature shall be distributed by the U.S. Department of Commerce and its 33 field offices, according to an article that was published in the February 1, 1960 issue of Foreign Commerce Weekly.
   “Secretary” Strauss did not survive the Senate approval process for his cabinet post, losing his desk after the full chamber vote in June 1959: “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator [Harry] Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued this parting statement: ‘I have done the best I know how to do– to protect and defend the national security, even when that was not the recognized, nor easy, nor popular action at the time.” p240, No Sacrifice Too Great. “Most Americans knew him as the destroyer of J. Robert Oppenheimer…” p241, ibid. “After a trip [abroad]..he returned to Washington where he set up an office, attended to his neglected financial affairs, and enjoyed the society of the city’s elite, who welcomed the Strausses back into their circle.” p242, ibid.
“They were long time friends, Harry Byrd and Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss. Strauss joined Kuhn, Loeb and Company [in 1919] and with his financial backing Byrd went into the Martin Organization [of Virginia politics], which later became the Byrd Machine, with Rothschild backing. After many years of total dictatorial rule in Virginia, Byrd finally died. Strauss pushed his son to replace him and the Byrd Machine continued with..Harry Jr… [and] to those in the know it was always the Byrd-Rothschild Machine.”
The Byrds
Harry F. Byrd (Sr)*harry_flood_byrd_sr  brother, Adm.Richard E. Byrd*rebyrdinfur   cousin, D.Harold Byrd* dhbyrd
*   For reasons unexplained, Admiral Byrd kept an office at the Atomic Energy Commission headquarters until he died in 1957. The staff recalled being amused by the stories of the old polar explorer as he wandered among them. His cousin, David Harold Byrd, who owned oil and uranium properties, supported many of the Admiral’s adventures, including joint business dealings from a building he owned –the ‘future’ Texas School Book Depository building in Dallas.
Just a few weeks before Admiral Strauss won his bid from Eisenhower to ascend in Commerce, “ In the spring of 1958, Enrico Mantello, the vice-president of PERMINDEX and brother of Giorgio [Georges Mandel/Mantello] visited New Orleans. Touring the Trade Mart, he invited Clay Shaw to join the board of directors… Nagy appeared at the American Embassy in Rome to announce that he intended ‘to strengthen U.S. control in PERMINDEX by adding..Mr. Shaw, who is in charge of the New Orleans, Louisiana permanent exhibit.’” p138, A Farewell to Justice, by Joan Mellen, 2005    “Nagy claimed that Shaw ‘had from the outset great interest in the PERMINDEX project… When [Shaw] added his PERMINDEX directorship to Who’s Who in the South and the Southeast, the Department of Commerce warned Shaw about ‘this shadowy organization’ “ p139, ibid.–sure, sure, the shadowy organization that Commerce was soon officially promoting. It’s not known to this researcher to what extent ‘Secretary’ Strauss aided the fledgling PERMINDEX, either promoting or protecting, only that he was in the right place at the right time and used the same language (‘permanent exhibitions’) in his presentations on nuclear trade in Atoms for Peace. The Peaceful U.S. conferees in Geneva were selling their floor model reactors right out of their shiny showrooms.
   The Atomic Energy Act, as amended in 1954, mandated a role to the U.S. Department of Commerce to assume oversight of nuclear facilities: Sec.2,c., “The processing and utilization of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material affects interstate and foreign commerce and must be regulated…”  Sec.2,f., “protection against possible interstate damage occurring from the operation of facilities for production or utilization of source or special nuclear material places the operation of those facilities in interstate commerce for the purposes of the Act.” (full text)
*                                                             uscustomsvintagebutton
One assumes that the policing and investigating agencies of Commerce, U.S. Customs principal among them, acquired expanded jurisdiction in operations and intelligence: “…government documents, released since Garrison’s investigation, ..suggest that Oswald shared, like Miami customs agent Cesario Diosdada, an affiliation with not only the FBI and the CIA, but also with U.S. Customs…  At Customs, Oswald’s handler was a man named David Smith. Oswald’s employment with Customs was so sensitive that the HSCA [House Select Committee on Assassinations] interview with bar owner and FBI informant Orestes Pena was sealed for twenty-five years… Pena placed Oswald with Customs officials on a regular basis. So explosive were Pena’s revelations about Oswald’s relationships with Customs officers that Pena’s files were systematically destroyed by the FBI in a multicity effort that stretched across Europe… After the assassination, David Smith was transferred to Uruguay.” p46, A Farewell to Justice
    By then the international trade in radioactive isotopes was booming: “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies, and clinics… [T]he AEC’s role in facilitating their widespread barely acknowledged in the historiography…[T]he AEC was, first and foremost, a production agency itself… as a consequence, by the early 1950s the government’s capital investment in atomic energy plant facilities and equipment totaled to more than the ‘capital investments of U.S. Steel and General Motors combined.’ As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business.’ …[Radioisotope use] flourished in the 1950s and 1960s in no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding.. particularly through the National Institutes of Health… Even the role of government as the main source of radionuclides was gradually lost from view by the 1960s as the infrastructure for radioactive materials was increasingly privatized on the consumer end.”
   Strauss made the case that “Over a million medical patients are being diagnosed or treated with radioisotopes each year. In industry, savings through isotope use were estimated at about a hundred million dollars in 1953. By 1958, they were five times that. This is the first return (other than the great, intangible dividend of security) on our national investment in atomic energy… As sources of massive radiation, their uses include sterilization of foods and drugs, vulcanization of rubber, polymerization of plastics, initiation of chemical reactions, and X-raying of castings, welds, etc.” p326, Men and Decisions. “The demand for isotopes..has been steadily gaining as new uses are found. It is entirely possible that these by-products of the fission process may have future economic value more important than the application of power… In 1955 our classification policies were revised to open up large areas of reactor information… As of today [1962], in the field of reactors, only data primarily of importance to reactor systems for military applications remain classified.” p327. “The feature of our international co-operation, or ‘Atoms for Peace’ program, which distinguished it most completely from enterprises by other nations, is that we were both able and willing to allocate quantities of reactor fuel. In 1958 there was a total allocation for peaceful uses of 100,000 kilograms of uranium 235… [designated] half for the Atoms for Peace program.” p329, Men and Decisions, by Lewis Strauss, 1962.
    If the nuclear industry was to find itself hamstrung in the future by cost deficits in electrical power or treaties banning weapons and tests, the commercial traffic in isotopes and research reactors was a bank of certainty in manufacturing, instrumentation, agriculture, and medicine. No modern nation can compete, or merely hold its own, without nuclear technology.
   Despite the sting of losing his post at Commerce before the fall of ‘59, Strauss himself was to remain a permanent exhibit of nuclear industry as a delegate to the IAEA, work in which he presumably engaged from his private offices in Washington. “From retirement Strauss occasionally tried to settle old political scores… he found ‘particular satisfactions’ in the defeats of.. opponents in 1959… ‘These were dividends of considerable savor to me,’ he commented.” p243, No Sacrifice Too Great. His most visible post-Commerce activity in the capitol was lobbying against any weapons agreement, most especially a nuclear test-ban treaty.
    Lawyer/author Mark Lane was to mention Lewis Strauss twice in his JFK assassination corpus; first, in Executive Action where the film version shows historical footage of both Strauss and Edward Teller lobbying against the Test-Ban Treaty; secondly as a nonsequitur  in 1991’s Plausible Denial (p124), relating to friendship with William F. Buckley Jr.—a thin lead, perhaps, for follow-on to subjects of involvement with CIA and the American Security Council. Lane even works a mention of plutonium worker Karen Silkwood into Plausible Denial (p30) along with the New York Times reporter David Burnham who “covered nuclear energy stories” and was assigned to discredit the House [HSCA] lawyer leading the formative assassinations investigation, Richard Sprague. Lane is unique for even mentioning Strauss.
It was just a few weeks after the losing vote for Strauss’s cabinet post in Commerce that Lee Oswald prepared for his Marine discharge. He proceeded from California to his mother’s house in Ft. Worth to New Orleans, bought a ticket for a freight- liner from the travel agency at the Trade Mart, and carried a passport marked “import-export”.
Was Oswald then under the wing of Commerce, Customs, PERMINDEX, and the World Trade associates?
*                                                                   oswaldwebstercomparison
*                                                                                                                                               websternewspaper
Robert E. Webster, “an American who told officials he was defecting to Russia less than two weeks before Oswald, is worth considering since there appear to be many similarities between the two. Webster, a former Navy man, was a young plastics expert who simply failed to return home with colleagues after working at an American trade exhibition in Moscow. He had been an employee of the Rand Development Corporation, one of the first U.S. companies to sell technical products to Russia. Although Rand Development was thought to be separate from the more notorious Rand Corporation –the CIA ‘think tank’ front..—there is some evidence of connections between the two. The firms were at one time located across the street from each other in New York City; Rand Development held several CIA contracts…  While in Russia, Webster took a Soviet girl as common-law wife (he was already married to a woman in the United States) and the couple had a child. Like Oswald, Webster claimed to have become disenchanted with Soviet life and he returned..about the same time as Oswald. But now the story turns even stranger. Although Webster is said to have told American officials he never had any contact with Lee Harvey Oswald, when Oswald was arranging his return to the United States in 1961, he ‘asked [U.S. Embassy officials] about the fate of a young man named Webster who had come..shortly before he did… Furthermore, there are some intriguing connections between Webster and Oswald’s wife Marina. Years later in America, Marina told an acquaintance that her husband had defected after working at an American exhibition in Moscow.” Pp116-117, Crossfire, by Jim Marrs
“..[S]uspicions about Marina were heightened considerably by a CIA document released under legal pressure in 1976…[about] a ‘holiday’ she took in the fall of 1960 at a government ‘rest home.’ In analyzing Marina’s address book, the CIA located an acquaintance she had made at a certain address..[where] an American named Robert E. Webster lived at the time in the same building… It could, of course, be mere coincidence that Marina Prusakova was on holiday and in the immediate vicinity of the two young American military men who had just defected. Or, it could mean that she was involved in some way with official Soviet interest in these Americans.” p217, Reasonable Doubt, by Henry Hurt, 1985





…post in progress…lots more to come
…to be continued

March 13, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, Part III

Part I:

Part II:

Israel Gets The Bomb

Israel was the first of the [‘pariahs’] to..develop a nuclear arsenal… Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David organic chemist..expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany he emigrated to Palestine where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] Bergmann, apparently, did not stay long in Palestine.

    “Bergmann’s father was one of the most eminent rabbis in Berlin and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann..then living in England…  In 1933..Weizmann arranged for young Bergmann to join him on the faculty of Manchester University..[where he] came to the attention of Frederick A. Lindemann, later [dubbed] Lord Cherwell, a German-born Oxford scientist… [The] Zionist movement in Palestine asked Weizmann in 1936 for a chemist to..produce high explosive for..[the] war against the Arabs and the British… Weizmann assigned the mission to Bergmann…” [p25, The Samson Option] Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: ‘He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it…'”[p26, ibid.]
   “..Hebrew University’s Israel Dostrovsky [came to] play a key role in Israel’s..atomic weapons. Born in Russia in 1918, his family emigrated to Palestine the next year. His studies in..chemistry took him to London [where he was] awarded..a doctorate in 1943. After spending the next five years in England, [Dostrovsky] returned to Palestine in 1948 where he founded the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann [renamed from Sieff]. At the same time..[being] a major in the IDF Science Corps, he established Hemed Gemel, a special branch of the corps..[that made]..its first projects..sending geologists into the Negev desert in search of uranium.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb]
   Bergmann used his ‘guest scholar’ status in England to make high-explosives for the Hagannah to use against the British — he left the UK in 1940 for the United States and reconnoitered in New York with his ‘old friends’. Herman Mark, ‘father of polymer science’ who worked closely with Bergmann and became the dean of Brooklyn Polytechnic, had “turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. ‘The whole gang came to America,’ said Mark. [p25, The Samson Option] “ ‘Bergmann was anxious..’ said Mark,’that there shouldn’t be too much talk [about Israel’s bomb]. It was super-secret –just like the Manhattan Project.’ There was at least one early occasion, however, when Bergmann couldn’t resist sharing what he knew. Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy New York businessman and ardent advocate of statehood for Israel, was one of Ben-Gurion’s most important and trusted allies in the United States. By 1947, Feinberg was playing a major –and highly discreet– role in fundraising and White House lobbying [Truman’s admin.] for Israel..[and] the Democratic Party. He would operate at the highest levels between Washington and Jerusalem for the next two decades… One night over dinner, added Feinberg,’Bergmann’s eyes lit up and he said, ‘There’s uranium in the desert’. There was no question about the message –that a path was now cleared for Israel to develop the atomic bomb. Feinberg was astonished at such indiscreet talk: ‘I shushed him up,’” [p27, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh]
   Dostrovsky “joined the Weizmann in 1948, shortly before its dedication. Immediately upon joining the staff of Weizmann, he was appointed director of the isotope research department, a position he held for 17 years…” Over the early course of those responsibilities, Dostrovsky also became “chairman of the desalination committee.”
Bergmann and the French not only got it done in the Negev..but they kept it secret.” [p23, The Samson Option] “No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist [who worked on the Manhattan Project]..and expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction.[p30]…His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family…  Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Bergmann for a memorable meeting with the Negev…[footnote:] ‘We had a long discussion about atomic energy,’ Goldschmidt recalls. ‘Ben-Gurion asked me how long would it take for nuclear desalination to make the Negev desert bloom? –a favorite Ben-Gurion question. I said fifteen years. He started scolding me..we could do it much faster.’” [p31, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh]
   Israeli collaboration with the French appears at the initiation of Francis Perrin: “Perrin was important… A socialist who fled [France] to England in 1940… he became friendly with Bergmann..and traveled to Tel Aviv in 1949. It was after that visit that some Israeli scientists were permitted..[in] Saclay..atomic research center near Versailles.”[p29, The Samson Option] Unmentioned by Hersh is that Francis Perrin was part of the small team attempting an atomic bomb in the Sahara in 1939 with the backing of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. Perrin used his 1940 entree in England as a way station to the US where he resettled in New York with his family, including his father, Jean Baptiste Perrin, a once scientific rival of Pierre Curie. Some years after Curie’s death, Jean Perrin was supported with Rothschild funding to establish the Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the Sorbonne. Friendship with Bergmann was likely to have evolved in New York during the war.
>>>see Part II ‘comments’ for more about the death of Pierre Curie.
   Attaining nuclear weapons in either France or Israel was dependent on removing obstacles as in the US: “The French debate revolved around..Frederic Joliot-Curie [a noted French Communist]..who was opposed to a French role in NATO and any French link to nuclear weapons. In 1950, [Joliot] was the first to sign the Stockholm Appeal, a Soviet-backed petition [issued by the World Peace Council] calling for a ban on all nuclear weapons…  Joliot-Curie was dismissed after signing the Appeal..[and] replaced by Pierre Guillaumat [..French secret intelligence]..and Francis Perrin, [who was] the first to publish a formula for calculating the critical mass of uranium...  A critical decision..came in 1951 when..[Pierre] Guillaumat authorized..a natural uranium-fueled reactor capable of producing..about twenty-two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year… The decision to produce..plutonium would irrevocably propel France down the road to a nuclear bomb, as..the Israelis had to know.” [p29, The Samson Option]
And so it began –an isotope research program for use in water desalination and reclamation.
Kennedy was a third-term congressman in October 1951 when he left for a 7-week junket to Asia with a first stop in Paris “at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)..on October 3” to meet Eisenhower. From there, along with his brother Bobby, sister Pat, and Congressman Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., the party traveled on to Palestine. “The two brothers had never spent such an extended period together, and these weeks defined their relationship for the rest of their lives.” [p284, The Kennedy Men] “In Israel both Jack and Bobby kept extensive diaries, and there is scarcely any overlap in their accounts. Jack stood back from the..hatreds and emotions… As always with Jack, the omnipresent threat in the world lay in the Soviet empire… One evening in Jerusalem, [they] went to the modest home of Prime Minister..Ben-Gurion for dinner… [JFK] was an observer of men, and by the evidence of his diary, he did not impose himself on this evening as much as take the measure of those around him, including the American ambassador, Monnett Bain Davis, several other Israeli ministers, and..Roosevelt Jr… Like his mother, he was considered a friend of Israel. FDR’s namesake was the center of this evening, not Jack… ‘It was almost as if we weren’t there,’ Bobby recalled…  Roosevelt asked the inevitable question: Could there be a real peace between Arab and Jew? ‘It depended..on the peoples wishes,’ the prime minister said. ‘Present government [is] not concerned with peace’… Ambassador Davis boldly told Ben-Gurion that the Arab states were afraid of Israel. ‘How could Egypt with its large population be frightened,’ Ben-Gurion replied with rhetorical flourish. ‘We wouldn’t want to go back to Egypt again. We had enough the first time.” [p286, ibid.]
>>> 1952 –July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
   “In this part of the world,” wrote Kennedy biographer Leamer, “history was written with blood and vengeance, and a man who entered politics knew that he might die…   Four days after Jack and Bobby met with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan, he was assassinated. In his diary Jack noted that ‘assassinations have taken a heavy toll of leaders in Middle and Far East,’ and then made a list of some of the murders. Jack tallied seventeen assassinations in the past four years alone. From Mahatma Gandhi in India to Folke Bernadotte in Palestine, murders..changed history the way few laws or mandates ever could.” [p288, The Kennedy Men]
NOTE: Israel Dostrovsky achieved a succession of appointments in his government’s atomic weapons program including chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) followed by the vice-presidency of the Weizmann Institute under Albert Sabin, creator of the oral (OPV) polio vaccine. Sabin was president of the Weizmann Institute over the course of 1971-1972 when the biology programs there were exploring the uses of SV40 monkey virus as a transgenic (mutation) agent. Dostrovsky succeeded Sabin as Weizmann president in 1972. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists published Dostrovsky’s article describing his water program –an evidently perfect cover for the activities at Dimona to which the Israelis acknowledged (‘desalination’), finally, to the Kennedy administration. “Water For Israel”, which includes ‘cheap water’ from cloud seeding and the total capture of Palestine’s water supply, is an instructive read:
At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents, real and fancied. After a short time [RFK] transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him… He loved what he was doing…” Nevertheless, Robert Kennedy answered the call to “come up and take over” JFK’s campaign for the Senate. ” ‘We couldn’t win relying on the Democratic political machine,’ Robert said later,’so we had to build our own machine.‘ ” [p94, Robert Kennedy and His Times, Schlesinger]
   The Democrats, nationally, were taking the hit for not merely tolerating but employing communist subversives at high levels of  government: “Harry Dexter White [‘a Russian spy!’] assistant secretary of the Treasury under Roosevelt [Morganthau] had died in 1948 while the House Un-American Activities Committee was searching his past for evidence of espionage. According to [Atty. Gen. Herbert] Brownell both Democratic presidents had appointed White..despite warnings from the FBI.” [p149, No Sacrifice Too Great]
    “National politics and national security are always to some extent interrelated, but in the years of the Truman presidency the relationship became problematic. Trust leeched out of the political system, loyalties waned, betrayal became common. Communism..achieved astonishing influence not in its own right, much less on its own behalf, but as an agent for poisoning American politics.” –Daniel Patrick Moynihan,
Machinery of other sorts were rolling onto the battleground. Colonel Boris Pash, formerly “Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast.. [who] spent much of his career hunting communists… considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy.”[p190, American Prometheus] After his ALSOS Europe mission and following attachment to MacArthur in Tokyo, Pash’s next assignment came “In March 1949.. detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination where he oversaw programs in West Germany for three years. Pash then ran special forces Austria from 1952-1953“…
   During this time, Pash organized a special operations unit for the CIA called PB7, said to be an assassination squad. Pash, years later before a congressional committee, denied it conducted assassinations.  Mr. Pash:It was not an assassination unit. In the first place..I was never an employee of the Agency. I was detailed from the Army for a normal tour of duty to the Agency..and then I was assigned and left for Austria in 1952 as Special Forces Unconventional Warfare Planning Officer. In 1954..[to] early ’56 I was in the Presidio of San Francisco as a deputy G-2 in charge of security..” Mr. Baron:“Let me ask you a particular question..brought to our attention by Artie Lazarus… He said that when he first joined you in PB7, you asked him to read the charter of PB7… [He] said it contained some specific language about PB7 being responsible for assassinations, kidnappings and other such functions as may be assigned by higher authority. Now do you recall that part of the charter of PB7?” Mr. Pash:I don’t recall that particular wording…It could have been there without my recalling it…” Mr. Baron: “..were you aware of any assassination plans or attempts?” Mr. Pash:No, I never heard that. There was a small incident..[with a] group of branch chiefs or something like that in Plans and Policy…a discussion with regard to denying the Soviets certain types of individuals…This woman gets out and says why don’t we murder them?…And that’s allMr. Baron: “But it would be your testimony never heard such a plan with such a request?” Mr. Pash: “..No, never….[In 1954] I said that the only time..assassination would be justified was if somebody could categorically state that if it was not done..the safety of the United States was at other words, if you don’t do it the United States is destroyed..and you have no other way to stop [it]..I think it’s all right…”
   Pash seemingly had good recall on when he thought assassination became “all right”. Throughout 1953 he was helping Lewis Strauss and J.Edgar Hoover construct a disloyalty case against Robert Oppenheimer, brought to an AEC tribunal in 1954. During the war, “On June 29,1943, ..Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer be denied a security clearance and fired.” [p233, American Prometheus]. He agitated against Oppenheimer to such an extent that he was given an overseas assignment –AlSOS.
As usual, the Education Forum members have interesting notes about Pash: “Pash’s subordinate, Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa for a number of years”….”Is that Pash [ marked ‘unknown man’ in the photo] standing next to LBJ at Parkland Hospital?”….”I found that Pash, postwar, maintained an office at Oak Ridge”….”There’s a Boris Pash/Sidney Gottlieb connection with the Health Alteration Committee”….etc.
    A further note on Pash to illustrate (and belabor) a previously mentioned point of using medical institutions to cover for weapons development occurred during ALSOS’s decisive 1944 push into the Nazis’ last holdouts. “The rumours.. [about a Nazi A-bomb] continued to circulate until November when the advancing Allied forces took Strasbourg. It was here that they believed a number of eminent physicists, including von Weizacker and Fleischmann, had been working on the bomb…Within hours, Pash and his ‘Strasbourg Task Force’ had located the university’s physics laboratory. It was in the wing of a local hospital and [the] physicists were found there posing as doctors.” [p109, Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds, by Peter Goodchild]
   In the United States, they did not merely “pose” as doctors but practiced.
Strauss’s assistant William T. Golden prepared this memo about Sloan-Kettering in 1950: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius “Dusty”] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants… He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.”
   At some future point on this blog, I hope to write up my thought experiments on the Peaceful Uses of Cancer as a complementary enterprise to the Peaceful Uses of the Atom. In this early ’50s window of time, however, it constitutes future-pacing a problem which was then manisfesting as poliomyelitis.
   The Health Physics field chartered itself in 1947 with the tasks of ”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys… studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains..eaten and metabolized by higher forms… Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods… [concluding that] Large scale biological work is mandatory”
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes [polio] myelitis:  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed…. Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure… When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.”
A Radiation effects source document used by military planners describes damage: “The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage.. has been well documented… [S]peculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system… …hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation… vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS… ….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation… “It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…” .
Some the of materials in the above are cited in the National Security Archives, a project of George Washington University
Listed in are additional entries such as these:
–“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H.. Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904. Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
–“Muller, H.J.. Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science 66:84-87.##”
–“Stern, S.. Report of thirty-one cases of therapeutic abortion induced by roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
Note the years: 1904, 1927, 1928
Hmm….fallout vaccine, anyone?
Stacking the Commission
By the end of Strauss’s [first] term, the other commissioners, many members of the AEC staff, and most scientists regarded him as a tough, obstinate, and tenacious opponent of the free exchange they desired. For these people, Strauss was the symbol of narrow realism; he, on the other hand, had identified J. Robert Oppenheimer as a symbol of those who, whether disloyal or merely naive, did not support the fight against Communism with full enthusiasm.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss stood One-to-Four against his fellow commissioners in the fall of 1949. They were not willing to endorse building H-bombs which were already being touted in the press as 1,000 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The GAC (General Advisory Committee), nine-member body of scientists that counseled the AEC of which Oppenheimer was its de facto spokesman, were nearly unanimous against the Super. Strauss allies, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarez, and Edward Teller, flew in to Washington and launched a counteroffensive of intense lobbying. No one had yet been officially told about the  atomic spy-ring in Los Alamos. According to Moynihan’s essay on ‘Secrecy’, Truman was never told about the Venona radio decrypts.
   “On Sunday, November 7, as the Strausses relaxed in their suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Senator McMahon [on the Joint Congressional Committee for Atomic Energy] telephoned..[and] brought the welcome news that Commissioner Gordon Dean, whom McMahon had placed on the AEC, had been converted into an advocate of the super. Now the AEC was divided three to two… On November 23, when the debate over the superbomb was at its height, the White House announced that Chairman Lilienthal planned to resign… Washington gossip identified Strauss as a possible replacement for Lilienthal.” [pp118-119, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss, too, had already planned to resign. “‘I don’t want you to resign,’ [Truman told Strauss] …[but] did not press Strauss to remain [rather] asked who the new chairman should be; Strauss endorsed Gordon Dean, the first to join him in favor of the super…” [p125, ibid.] Like Lilienthal’s promotion out of the AEC, acquired with the help of Albert Lasker, Strauss himself arranged for Chairman Dean to join Lehman Brothers on his exit (in 1953).
“[W]hen the  time came to seek a replacement for his own seat on the AEC, Strauss remembered  the 45-year old Case president. While some of the Democratic Congressmen involved in the search preferred the appointment of AEC General Counsel Joseph A. Volpe Jr., Strauss used his connections in the White House and the Pentagon to secure Glennan’s appointment…”
   T. Keith Glennan, later, NASA’s first chief, was recruited by Strauss. [Glennan interview:]”Needell: Tell me about Strauss… He’s a rather strong character, I understandGlennan: “Strong and strange… [I was] asked if I would permit my name to be considered for a post as a Commissoner of the AEC. I said, “You must be crazy. I don’t know the first thing about an atom. I don’t know about a reactor. I don’t know anything about nuclear energy…  [AEC used the] building originally built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It was the first one they were in, on Constitution Avenue, right next to the Federal Reserve Board… I got there in 1 October, 1950″…
   “Before Strauss left the AEC, he was offered a place on the Federal Reserve Board, which he turned down as too routine.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Brien McMahon arranged a post on the Atomic Plant Expansion panel and Laurance Rockefeller hired him to manage the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where he co-incorporated The Population Council. At the outbreak of the Korean War, a 3-billion-dollar appropriation was assigned to the AEC for development.
GLENNAN: “ was not a very collegial Commission at that time… I remember Tom Murray calling me names. Things of that kind… We searched for a man to replace [AEC General Manager] Carroll Wilson and finally came up with a Vice President of Esso [Exxon, or Standard Oil of New Jersey]– Marion Boyer– who worked out’s replacement… [The] general manager from then on took part in all of [the] executive sessions…  There was Sumner Pike and [Henry] Smythe and [Gordon] Dean and Tom MurrayEugene Zuckert replaced Sumner Pike…He came I think from the Air Force, Assistant Secretary to Symington over there…  We were concerned with increasing our ability to turn out the weapons grade materials… While I was there, we made the deal with South Africa to take the tailings from the gold cyaniding process, which ultimately provides a lot of uranium… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum.  NEEDELL: Did you meet regularly with people like Lawrence? GLENNAN: Yes. Lawrence saw to it that we did. He was an aggressive person… he came in and lobbied the Commission. He’d spend a lot of time alone with Gordon Dean… NEEDELL: You opposed the MTA. [Materials Testing Accelerator, heart of the Livermore Lab] GLENNAN: Yes, just on an engineering basis… The things we were short of were enrichment plants and raw materials and the rest of the fuel cycle. NEEDELL: Now, the MTA was going to be a production facility… you had to somehow meet the challenge of getting more production facilities. GLENNAN: Exactly… Teller wanted to do it and Lawrence wanted to do it. That was the argument…  I got along well with Ernest. With Teller.. not well. I found myself opposing him… and I finally said, “Balls, Edward–all you want is another chance to have some tests to improve the weapons… We got into arguments…  COLLINS: You indicated that one of your interests as a Commission member was somehow working out that government-industry relationship. GLENNAN:”..I finally reasoned that the people who were really doing the work were industry. The scientists had the General Advisory Committee…The public had the Congress, and industry got.. a lot of complaints. … If, as we all then believed, nuclear power was going to be useful and possible, they ought to be in on the ground floor with it… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum, for just this purpose, at a meeting of the Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, on 25 November, 1952. I proposed it in just the way I’ve been discussing it now, that industry really ought to get in with both feet and play a part in the development of a nuclear power industry, and not simply take what came out of the interests of scientists.
Atomic Industrial Forum: “The AIF was formally incorporated on April 10, 1953 in New York and marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. The first Executive Director of AIF was Charles Robbins… As a nonprofit trade association the AIF advocated the peaceful uses of atomic energy and increasing the role of the private sector in its development. Its first order of business was to advocate revising the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to allow and foster the commercial ownership of non weapons nuclear facilities, such as production of radioactive isotopes and nuclear power plants.”
“Mr. Robbins, who helped found the forum in the late 1940’s, was a former member of the national advertising staff of The New York Times and had been with Bozell & Jacobs, a New York advertising firm.”  [Bozell was a family affair; Leo Bozell Jr., Robbins nephew, married the sister of William F. Buckley];; “Robbins had been the managing editor of the Wall Street Journal and later the president of the Atomic Industrial Forum.”
William F. Buckley, “son..of a Texas oil millionaire..joined the Central Intelligence Agency [in 1951]” and became a writer and publisher. His second “book, coauthored with Bozell, was an unabashed attempt to defend a family friend: Joe McCarthy… In September 1960, Buckley, Douglas Caddy and Marvin Liebman established the far right group Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) [oppose] John F. Kennedy in the forthcoming presidential election.” (sumitted as an example of dot-connecting, typical of Lewis L. Strauss’s relationship hierarchy)
When Strauss, who like other retired commissioners was a consultant to the Joint Committee [the JCAE, with McMahon as chair] saw the report of the panel [General Advisory Committee]..chaired by Oppenheimer in December 1950, he concluded Oppenheimer was working against the United States.. [p131, No Sacrifice Too Great] Whether consciously or not, Oppenheimer was helping the Soviet Union… In the interest of national security, Strauss concluded, he must safeguard the AEC from Oppenheimer’s influence. Strauss started his campaign..[on] Fevruary 9, 1951…his purpose was clear: the AEC must get rid of Oppenheimer.” [132, ibid.]
Brien McMahon and Prescott Bush
James O’Brien McMahon, a Yale educated lawyer,  first came to Washington in 1933 as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General. He resigned Justice in 1939, but stayed in D.C. to practice law until persuaded by fellow Democrats to run for the Senate in 1944 from his home state of Connecticut. Known for his energy and eloquence, McMahon authored the compromise (to the May-Johnson) bill that granted civilian control over atomic weapons and power, adopted as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. “[A] real fight began..when it was suggested that McMahon head the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. It was unheard of to allow a freshman senator to chair a Congressional Committee….   In 1952 Brien McMahon decided to run for President of the United Stateshis main platform was to insure world peace through fear of atomic weapons. The campaign was cut short however when it was discovered in June 1952 that McMahon was terminally ill with cancer. On July 27, 1952, despite that he had withdrawn his candidacy and despite his inablity to attend the Democratic National Convention the delegates from the state of Connecticut unanimously nominated McMahon as their choice for President of the United States. The following morning Brien McMahon fell into a coma and died…” at the age of 48.
Had he lived, McMahon would have been John F. Kennedy’s most formidable Democratic presidential challenger.
“Shortly after” Prescott Bushwon a special Senate election in 1952 (which was called to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Brien McMahon)  …Prescott Bush was not known as a conservative Republican in Washington.”; Bush had been a Greenwich, Connecticut resident since joining W.A.Harriman &Co. in 1926 where he was made the international director of Harriman-controlled U.S. Rubber –along with Philips Electronics, a sponsor of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond, secret intelligence. (see part II).
   In 1928, the Harriman’s bought out Dresser Industries and “installed an old friend, H. Neil Mallon, at the helm.” [p24, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker] Two years after that, they merged with Brown Brothers. Prescott, “At Yale in 1916..had become close friends with his classmate Roland ‘Bunny’ Harriman…Both Harrimans, like Prescott Bush, were initiates of..Skull and Bones.” [p16, ibid.] ..”In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation [from Cleveland] to Dallas which..was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite. Though a virtual unknown on his arrival, Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the nonprofit Council on World Affairs…a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations…  Mallon’s Dallas Council..may have had some kind of sanction at the highest levels. [p29] Following Ike’s decisive victory..the administration was filled with Bush allies, including national security advisor Gordon Gray, a close friend of Prescott’s…” [p30, Family of Secrets] Prescott also pitched his first political campaign for the Senate in 1950 and lost, rejected by Connecticut voters. His appointment to McMahon’s office kept him from having to run again until 1956.
   The fact of Prescott Bush taking McMahon’s seat on the Joint Committee for Atomic Energy, whether or not he also took the power, is being/has been scrubbed off the record. According to Baker, “the extended Bush clan truly represented a kind of private-public business combine. For example, within months of Prescott being named to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, [George Herbert Walker Jr., Poppy’s uncle] formed a partnership to invest in commercial nuclear energy businesses.” [p33, Family of Secrets]
   Another of Poppy’s uncles, brother of G.H. and Dorothy Walker, Dr. John M. Walker, became the President of Sloan Kettering Institute in 1965 (to 1974). Ironically “Walker had a private practice [Greenwich, CT] until he was diagnosed with polio in 1950…he would eventually need a wheelchair.” The Walkers also lost a daughter to polio in 1955.
>>>The vast Harriman fortune, just as a reminder, resulted when “Jacob Schiff joined forces with Harriman to reorganize the Union Pacific” and takeover a number of other railroads.
>>>Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Elisha Walker, if not a close relative of George Herbert Walker, was still in business with him: both Walkers were directors of American International Corp. (est.1915) along with Otto Kahn, Percy Rockefeller, Pierre duPont,; Elisha Walker was also a joint owner of Julius Kayser and Co., later merged (c.1943) and owned by Kennedy campaign fundraiser Abraham Feinberg. (see stock certificate; is that Eugene Meyer listed as the first of five owners?)
Elisha Walker was chairman of Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32 and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32 [founder Amadeo Giannini]; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist at Memorial Hospital [Sloan Kettering], N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)”
Kennedy, in the meantime, was compelled to run the Massachusetts race against Eisenhower’s presidential campaign manager, the ‘very busy’ Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., winning by a 3% margin. “The Massachusetts representatives did tend to emphasize the plight of United Fruit…  the region ‘has made a specialty of Latin America’ and..’over 90% of New England’s foreign investment is in Latin America, a large part being..United Fruit Company… this investment was being threatened by the Communists…[and] Guatemala had developed into a ‘situation of great peril’… Thomas Dudley Cabot..had been..president [1948-49] of United Fruit and its registrar bank, the First National Bank of Boston…” [p117, The CIA in Guatemala, Richard H. Immerman]
>>>Thomas Dudley Cabot (1897-1995), CEO of Cabot Corporation 1922-1960 [chemicals, aerogels, drilling fluids]; worked for Truman’s State Department “in charge of a U.S. program arming allies throughout the world…In 1953, Cabot also served as a consultant on a special development mission in Egypt [coups in Egypt and Iran 1953]… Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.[was] also..a director of United Fruit.”
    With James Forrestal dead, Eisenhower’s Republican rival was Strauss’s old friend from “Hoover’s Relief” days, Robert A. Taft. “Strauss supported his friend Bob Taft..[whose] strong points were similar to Strauss’s…[except that Taft]..clung to an isolationism…more suited to the 1920s’..” [p136, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   As the 83rd Congress convened, Robert Taft led the Majority Republicans and Lyndon Johnson was elected to lead the Democrats. “In 1953, the convergence of unusual circumstances gave the Democrats the plurality of the Senate’s membership while the Senate Republicans maintained their majority party status.”– go figure.; Taft soon relinquished party leadership to California’s William Knowland.
 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was appointed by Eisenhower, on his third day in office, to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (held to Sep. 1960).
   “The day after the election, the Scripps-Howard newspapers interviewed McCarthy [R-Wis.] and were told that he planned ‘an entirely different role’ for himself..[p187, Senator Joe McCarthy, Richard Rovere] In what remained of the Truman years, McCarthy was nothing but an engine of denunciation… he denounced and accused and blamed and insulted and vilified and demeaned. He was a pure delight now..and the Republican organizations were in hot competition to have him come in with a load of documents on anyone who was giving them trouble.” [p179,ibid.] ..”They planned to take advantage of the atmosphere McCarthy had helped so greatly to create and at the same time to control McCarthy by directing his attention… I [Rovere] remember being told exactly this by Senator Taft early in January of 1953… Taft knew that McCarthy was dangerous..,” [p187, ibid.]..[but] felt he had engineered a brilliant coup by bottling McCarthy up in Government Operations, where he would spend his days studying reports…and by letting the furor over Communism expire under the deadening [mediocre] touch of Jenner and Velde. ‘We’ve got McCarthy where he can’t do ant harm,’ [Taft] said. He went on to say that..he himself had never thought that Communists represented half as serious a menace as the Left liberals and welfare-statists.” [p188, Senator Joe McCarthy]
   “Taft was a tall and large-framed man who posessed exceptional physical stamina and good health until April 1953. Family and colleagues were stunned when..a widespread and rapidly advancing cancer..claim[ed] his life by the end of July.”
   “Taft’s bottle for McCarthy had never been corked. McCarthy simply poured himself out.” [p190, Senator Joe McCarty]
   “On February 10, 1953, three weeks after Eisenhower entered office, AEC Chairman Dean submitted his resignation…shortly after Dean announced his resignation, John A. Wheeler, a physicist at Princeton [IAS], who was consultant to the AEC, lost a copy of a highly classified, extensively technical description of..thermonuclear weapons. Obviously, the AEC must tighten up security; who better than Strauss, with his reputation for protecting secrets, to do so. Senators Taft, Byrd, and Hickenlooper all urged Strauss to accept.” [p137, ibid.]
As soon as he took office, Eisenhower searched for some way to bring home the awful realities of the nuclear age to the American people… and in July, when he appointed Lewis Strauss to head the Atomic Energy Commission… on the day that Strauss was sworn in, Eisenhower took him into the Oval Office..and said: ‘Lewis, let us be certain about this; my chief concern and your first assignment is to find some new approach to the disarming of atomic energy… The world simply must not go on living in the fear of the terrible consequences of nuclear war.’…[In] August 1953, [Eisenhower] learned that the Russians had detonated their first hydrogen explosion…” [p111, Eisenhower and the Cold War, by Robert A. Divine]
>>>according to AEC liason Robert LeBaron, the Soviets detonated an H-bomb in 1950 or ’51, prior to the successful Teller-Ulam tests of 1951-52. Teller required the help of his Los Alamos assistant Frederick de Hoffman, later the founder of General Atomics (1957) and longtime president of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
Chairman of the AEC
Strauss brought a new style of management to the Atomic Energy Commission… he replaced the informal, rambling seminars of his predecessors Lilienthal and Dean with crisp, formal sessions designed to produce quick decisions rather than slowly evolving concensus. Forceful, determined, and impatient once he had made up his own mind, Strauss dragged the other commissioners along… Eisenhower’s defense policy rested on the deterrent power of the hydrogen bomb… aggression by threatening to strike the Soviet Union with overwhelming force… called ‘massive retaliation’ or the ‘New Look’…” [p144, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss’s style of management [dictated that] At each meeting Strauss announced what he planned to do, then addressed each commissioner in turn for comments. In this atmosphere, none of them dared oppose Strauss…”  [p175, ibid.]
Whoever mastered a thermonuclear explosion employing a dry isotope of hydrogen [instead of the super-cooled liquid] would have the first deliverable [H]bomb.” [p145, ibid.]
   The return of LLS to the AEC chair was the fulfillment of a three-year campaign: by February of 1951 “he warned [Gordon] Dean that the thermonuclear program was not moving quickly enough. He accused Oppenheimer of ‘sabotaging the project’ and added that ‘something radical’ must be done…[he] did not suggest what, but his purpose was clear.” [p132, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “The Greenhouse test [Marshall Islands, April and May 1951] proved the Teller-Ulam design would work, but considerable technical effort remained… Teller and Strauss hoped the AEC would establish a second laboratory [the Livermore, CA lab] to further work on fusion..[and] remove the hydrogen bomb from Los Alamos where they believed Oppenheimer exercised excessive influence… Among the many influential men who thought so were Strauss, Teller, AEC Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, GAC [advisory panel] member Willard F. Libby and Berkeley Dean Kenneth S. Pitzer. All but Strauss voiced their suspicion of the FBI..” [p133, ibid.]
   The October tests of 1952, Operation Ivy’s ‘Mike’ shot, “Three years plus a month after Strauss first called for a hydrogen bomb, [‘Mike’] transformed the atoll of Elugelab in the Eniwetok chain into a coral crater” by aerosolizing 100 million tons of soil and water. Biographer Pfau wrote, “the process obviously worked… By this time, only five [of nine] members of the GAC that had followed 1949 remained… his two closest..allies, Lee A. DuBridge and James Conant..stepped down… the other two veterans –Isidor I. Rabi and Oliver E. Buckley– backed away from Oppenheimer’s become at least lukewarm supporters of the fusion weapon.” [p134, ibid.]
>>>Buckley was the president (1940-1951) of Bell Laboratories. Isidor Rabi was later sent to Israel’s Dimona plant as a U.S. inspector.
    The significance of the Oppenheimer case, and the way in which Strauss handled it, is an indispensable display of method prior to the JFK assassination. Oppenheimer was proposing in essence the policy of flexible response eventually recommended to, and adopted by Kennedy.  “Strauss would use every resource he could mobilize to win the case.” [p160, No Sacrifice Too Great] and having an appropriate Commander-in-Chief on his side was required.
   “Taft’s opponent was General Dwight D. Eisenhower..[and] the contest was very close, but Eisenhower won..[helped] especially by a group from Texas that Taft was accused of stealing. The contested delegations helped put Eisenhower over the top…” [p136, ibid.]. It was also the refusal of the presidentially ambitious Earl Warren of California, who lost early in the convention polls, to cede his supporters to Robert Taft.
   Eisenhower assumed office, AEC Chairman Dean resigned, John Wheeler lost his H-bomb manual, and Strauss “quietly took control of atomic policy.” [p138, No Sacrifice Too Great] “On March 30, 1953, he presented a set of recommendations to the National Security Council.. [in] the context of the president’s desire to reduce the size of the federal budget [with] proposed savings of half a billion dollars in the atomic energy program by paring away nonessential spending… [He] pointed out that the stockpile of nuclear weapons..[had] potential for great benefit… [T]he fissionable material in the bombs could be converted into fuel for reactors. So, it was a good policy to continue the manufacture of weapons… Strauss recommended major reductions in spending in three areas: the cost of security, to be achieved by declassifying as much data as possible; the cost of weapons tests…and the cancellation of $200 million allocated for a reactor to aircraft carrier. The National Security Council and the president approved all of Strauss’s recommendations. By canceling the large ship reactor..he left [Adm. Hyman] Rickover angry.” [p149, ibid.]
   “Eisenhower nominated Strauss [to the AEC chair]..on June 24..and three days later the full Senate confirmed him without a ripple of dissent. On July 2, surrounded by family and friends in the president’s office, Strauss took the oath of office again. [p141] Strauss had marked the Bible on which he took the oath at a well-known passage… Micah 4:3,And He shall judge between many peoples and shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” [p142]
   “There was a poignant note to the ceremony: Bob Taft was making his last visit to the White House where he had lived as a boy and where he hoped to live as a man… Three separate medical examinations [at Walter Reed, NYU, and Sloan Kettering] confirmed..a fast growing cancer had reached its final stage, but he insisted on attending..limping painfully on crutches. Taft died within the month.” [pp143-144, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Strauss wrote: “Only a few weeks earlier, I had sat with him at his home in Georgetown, where, behind closed doors..I brought him a final and terrible verdict from Dr. Cornelius Rhoads of Memorial Hospital in New York. It was the diagnosis that multiple metastases of a cancer would take his life… After a long silence, he asked if there was anything to be done… I told him..odds were very long against..his case.” [p335, Men and Decisions]
Had he lived, Robert Taft would have challenged Eisenhower’s second term.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and Strauss claimed to have first met each other in the course of picking Japanese targets in mid- 1945.  About this same time, LLS replaced Lessing J. Rosenwald on the Board of Trustees of Princeton IAS, “and when Frank Aydelotte prepared to retire as director, Strauss headed the committee to select his replacement.” [p92, No Sacrifice Too Great] “At first, Strauss and Oppenheimer appeared to get along well..[p93]” but soon “fought over atomic policy, at first secretly and then openly beginning in the summer of 1947. One issue was atomic power. Whereas many people expected atomic energy to lead mankind into a golden age of cheap, plentiful electricity, Oppenheimer..sought to quell such unrealistic hopes…and warned that nuclear power would not provide ‘any considerable portion’ of the world’s electricity for [at least] twenty years.” [p99, ibid.]
On his return to the AEC, “Strauss attached only one condition to his acceptance, he told [Eisenhower]: Oppenheimer could not be ‘connected in any way’ with the AEC.” [p139, No Sacrifice Too Great] “In June of 1953 McCarthy was considering an attack on Oppenheimer. As soon as Strauss learned [of it] he wrote Senator Taft that it would be ‘ill-advised and impolitic’ for McCarthy to proceed. His reasons..were that ‘some of the so-called evidence will not stand up…and the present is not the time.’ FBI Director Hoover and Vice-President..Nixon also helped turn McCarthy away from Oppenheimer…” [p140, ibid.] …”While Strauss..looked for proof of Oppenheimer’s disloyalty, he sponsored an increase in Oppenheimer’s salary...[which] may have been designed to keep Oppenheimer from recognizing the depth of Strauss’s hostility toward him.” [p148, ibid.]
   Oppenheimer was less than right this time on the power issue –it took longer. Even though a commercial plant was opened in Shippingport, PA in 1955, the US taxpayers footed its operations for years while it served as a model for attracting private operators to nuclear power generation. The Shippingport operators sold the electricity and kept the earnings.
   On July 7, 1953, five days after his swearing-in, Strauss “acted quickly to cut off Oppenheimer’s access to the AEC’s secrets… [He] ordered the AEC Security Division to phase out the classified library that Oppenheimer maintained [at Princeton’s IAS] and replace it with a new facility under the commission’s direct charge..and control..” [p145, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss also wrote to the FBI and requested a reinvigoration of the atomic dual-agent program: memos from August indicate that “if the Director felt it advisable, Strauss..had certain programs in mind which would incidentally, if put into effect, require additional appropriation for the FBI.” Director Hoover politely responded to Strauss of the necessity for the AEC to get its own house in order. These were the last memos made available until 1964; the very last memo concerning the fate of the whole dual-agent correspondence.
William T. Golden
    Golden, who was “assistant to Admiral Strauss exclusivelyI was the only assistant; the other commisioners didn’t have assistants“, gave an oral history in 1989 [at age 80] on his recollections: [Question:] “Was Oppenheimer under a cloud yet in 1950?” [Golden:] “No, but yes. Oppenheimer had always been suspectBut Groves used Oppenheimer very effectively. They were a marvelous team…but at any rate, no charges had been the time…” [Question:] Oppenheimer was not in favor of a “new OSRD” [Strauss’s Office of Naval Research]…apparently..very much in favor of a strong grants program in the NSF [National Science Foundation].. [Golden:] Yes… [Question:] You submitted a memorandum to Robert Lovett [Brown Brothers Harriman] Deputy Secretary of Defense about the Research and Development Board…and you recommended George Merck as a new chairman of the RDB and the one to reorganize it… [Golden affirms:]..gradually the feeling has become one of increasing recognition of peaceful uses of atomic energy..and that atomic weapons should never be used again… [Question:] Right. Nuclear energy for electrical power… [Golden:] ..there had been..great enthusiasm for that, and especially for the breeder reactors… It was looked on as a wonderful development for society. And there was not much worry given to the..dangers, and how to avoid them. [Question:] Nuclear waste was not an issue? [Golden]..not a big issue…it was not regarded as the big problem that it has in fact become.”
   Early on, Golden had been a Wall Street securities analyst for ten years before induction into the Navy in 1941. He was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and given the rank of Lt. Commander, the same rank as Strauss — virtually shadowing Strauss on his way up the ladder. Golden was another, along with Robert Taft and Arthur Krock, to give Strauss first council on accepting Truman’s offer of AEC commissioner [in July 1946]. Golden remembered,”I couldn’t think of anything more exciting than the AEC.” He remained Strauss’s shadow with special assignments, returning with him to the AEC “part time”, he said, through 1958.
   There is at least one easy-to-find (lawsuit) record of Golden’s business dealings (1953-54) helpful to Abraham Feinberg and Israel: a stock sale that enabled Feinberg to fold his textile holdings into the larger company which he controlled, Julius Kayser & Co. The transfer brought more centralized control of a base of manufacturing plants in Greensboro, North Carolina; by happenstance a base for the Smith Richardson Foundation– connected to the American Security Council (see part II)– alleged to have trained private paramilitary for sensitive National Security ops . Golden and others in the sale “were directors of..Kayser” who then “resigned as directors” so that Feinberg and friends could be “elected as directors.”
Abraham Feinberg
   Feinberg and his associates were already well known and heavily documented by FBI counterintelligence as smugglers of arms and people. At least 70 people in Los Angeles were in the files.  “Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States… [and] more undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy… Ben-Gurion noted in his diary [in 1958] a conversation ‘he had with Abraham Feinberg’ raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among ‘benedictors’ in the United States… [Feinberg’s] close associate, David Wahl,..among other Feinberg associates, was a longtime undercover Soviet agent (beginning in the 1930s…)”
   Feinberg had initially sought his political influence through Robert Hannegan, FDR’s Commissioner of Internal Revenue, “responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelt’s running mate in 1944.” Hannegan by then was the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee.  Feinberg said, “I realized that it became important for me to know the people around Truman..[e.g.] David Niles… Through him I became friendly with Matt Connelly…  Eddie Jacobson..of the B’nai B’rith.. [who] had been a partner of Truman and a very close friend…  [Jews] around the country..understood that without Truman, Israel would have had very difficult even come into existence… He often said, ‘If not for my friend Abe, I couldn’t have..been elected.’; In 1960 Feinberg founded AIPAC and funded JFK: “I think [Truman] was a better statesman than Kennedy, although you can’t tell because Kennedy had no chance.
By 1953, the scientific team at the Weizmann Institute had developed the improved..mechanism for producing heavy water and a more efficient method for mining uranium. Both concepts were sold to the French..[which] led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research that was signed by the two nations…  Goldschmidt [the Rothschild family plutonium expert] was serving as director of chemistry for France’s Atomic Energy Commission… [p31, The Samson Option] Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam ‘at will’...  [Goldschmidt explained:] ‘We weren’t really helping them [the Israelis]…We were just letting them know what we knew –without knowing where it would lead’… Bergmann had made the..point..’It’s very important to understand that by developing atomic energy energy for peaceful uses, you reach the nuclear option. There are no two atomic energies. [p.26, ibid.] …The intellectual spokesman for the French nuclear program..Pierre Gallois..[said it] came down to this: ‘When two nations are armed with nuclear weapons, even if they are unequally armed, the status quo is unavoidable.’ Gallois was taken very seriously by the Israelis.” [p.40, The Samson Option]
The U-2
Eisenhower came into the presidency in 1953 concerned about the lack of aerial intelligence..and ordered the CIA to do something about it. A Photographic Intelligence Division was promptly set up… Eisenhower’s next major step was to authorize a daring reconnaissance program –primarily targeted at the Soviet Union– and assign the development of [a] revolutionary airplane..jointly to the CIA and the Air Force..[to be] built under cover by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Burbank California, and known as the U-2.” [p.47, The Samson Option]
   When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada (Jan.1951), Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He [Land] knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…”  For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak, in which Strauss not only owned stock but matched to the inventors of Kodachrome, became a significant  collaborator in the U-2; the laboratory that Kuhn Loeb partners Strauss & Wiseman urged George Eastman to provide for Kodachrome development in 1922 may have been the actual premises of Kodak’s Hawkeye Works, the CIA’s photo analysis branch. A proprietary interest is clear. Kodak and Polaroid held each others’ stock.
   [From part I:] …”Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates… In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making..the first 16mm movie camera.” Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.”
   “George Eastman [d.1932, by suicide] funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” ” Flexner then founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study in 1930…and “[Rochester became the] headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides [isotopes] and fluorine.” Among those experiments at Rochester were outdoor night-time hijinks by scientists spraying radioactive liquids around the school and medical campuses.
Fallout and Weather
   Albert Lasker died of stomach cancer in 1952, but his widow Mary carried on the couple’s special interests. This included sponsorhip of Israel’s cloud seeding program, evident in at least 3 boxes of Mary Lasker’s papers at Columbia showing multi-party correspondence from 1953 to 1958.
   A point about weather control from 1952 to 1955 is that many countries, eventually numbering around 50 or so, started cloud seeding operations:
   Due to the British program called ‘Cumulus’, “one of the worst flash floods ever to have occurred in Britain” devastated the town of Lynmouth on August 15, 1952. The discovery of a cloud seeding cause emerged from documents uncovered in a BBC investigation showing that Cumulus ran operations from 1949 to 1955 before it too [the program] disappeared. The UK government denied seeding clouds before 1955. ”The documents also talk of rainmaking having a potential ‘to explode an atomic weapon in a seeded storm system or cloud. This would produce a far wider area of radioactive contamination than in a normal atomic explosion.”
>>>The U.S. program was called ‘Cirrus’ and officially canceled in 1953 although records of ongoing work extend through 1957.
    Rockets and missiles, as they came available, were tools of the trade in cloud seeding– so imagine them carrying small nuclear warheads or clad explosives. Could they be distinguished from lightning and thunder inside a storm? How likely is it that no country ever tested this method of radiological warfare when it stands as a ‘white paper’ by the British? The U.S. and U.K. were staging joint atomic operations from 1952 onwards.
    My first conventional view of radioactive rain, measured widely in the U.S. in 1953, was that cloud seeding reduced detectable atmospheric radiation and hid the extent of  U.S. testing from other countries, though it’s certainly possible that large tests were actually masking localized weather war. Princeton IAS was running a cutting edge weather program during this time with the help of John von Neumann’s supercomputer; Strauss was the IAS chairman and Von Neumann later became an AEC commissioner. Ernest Lawrence, Strauss’s greatest ally for building the Super, was also the loudest proponent among scientists for radiological war.
U.S. cloud seeding technologies were evolved by high-explosive experts.
In June 1946..before Oppenheimer’s arrival at the Institute [IAS], Johnny von Neumann had begun to build a high-speed computer in the boiler room basement of Fuld Hall. Nothing so practical had ever existed [there, or] so expensive. The trustees initially gave von Neumann $100,000…And then, in a rare departure from Institute policy he was allowed to obtain additional funding from the Radio Corporation of America… Oppenheimer and von Neumann formally unveiled the Institute computer in June 1952. At the time it was the fastest electronic brain in the world…” [p376, American Prometheus]…”Von Neumann was unusual…And, like Edward Teller, he was rabidly anti-Soviet. One night at a party..discussion of the..Cold War..von Neumann said quite matter-of-factly that it was obvious: The United States should launch a preventive war and annihilate the Soviet Union… [Von Neumann]wrote to Lewis Strauss in 1951..’the USA-USSR conflict..will very probably lead to an armed ‘total’ collision and maximum rate of armament is therefore imperative.’ [p378, ibid.]
Oppenheimer’s Tribunal
By September of 1953, after the dual-agent FBI/AEC memos fizzle, Strauss initiated the FBI’s active surveillance of Oppenheimer–he was followed, bugged and wiretapped, and by December, the bugs extended to his home and lawyers’ offices. “Strauss elevated his scheme to end Oppenheimer’s influence… He told the AEC’s..counsel..that ‘if this case is lost, the atomic energy program..will fall into the hands of left-wingers… it will mean another Pearl Harbor… if Oppenheimer is cleared, then ‘anyone’ can be cleared…” [p.491, American Prometheus] “Strauss [then] turned his attention to selecting the judges. He needed three men…[and] settled on Gordon Gray to chair the board. Gray was..president of the University of North Carolina..whose family money came from the R.J.R. Tobacco Company…[he was also a close friend of Prescott Bush]… Strauss [next] selected..Thomas Morgan, chairman of the Sperry Corporation… For the third member, Strauss chose..Dr. Ward Evans, whose..qualifications his unblemished record of voting to deny clearances on previous AEC hearing boards… From Strauss’s point of view, they were the perfect empty vessels.” [p.492, ibid.]
   Before the proceedings against Oppenheimer were to begin in April, the AEC had scheduled a  major thermonuclear test series in the Marshall Islands –Operation Castle– six high-yield H-bombs tested with the intention of seeking “radsafe” levels of exposure.
At 6:45 on the morning of 1 March 1954, eight years after the testing in the Marshall Islands began, the US detonated a bomb codenamed ‘Bravo’ on the island of Bikini..equivalent to 17 megatons of TNT, 1,300 times the destructive force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima… That morning the wind was blowing in the direction of two inhabited atolls, Rongelap and Utrik, roughly 100 and 300 miles from Bikini. During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin] “Bravo was an unecessarily dirty bomb– it delivered huge quantities of fallout… it detonated low off the ground and the fireball scooped up..Bikini’s coral reef…”[p.59, ibid.] “[D]octors on the ground didn’t even keep records… When the Rongelapese were taken to Kwajalein their urine samples were analyzed only as a pool sample instead of individually…The Atomic Energy Commission averaged the values of radionuclides found in land, fish, and fruits..thus concealing the expected effect individual…[p54]

   “Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said]‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’ [p61, Day of Two Suns]
   “[A] magistrate on Rongelap..tells what happened… ‘The next day..we noticed the water turned to yellow. I warned the people not to drink from..water catchments, and told them to drink only [coconut milk]. The people began to get sick with vomiting, aches all over..and fatigue…’ [p25] It was two days before the Navy arrived to pick up the Rongelap islanders and US personnel– two days in which they breathed, slept and ate the fallout. [p26] ‘After two fingernails came off and my fingers bled. We all had burns..and our hair began to fall out’..[p27, ibid.]
   Strauss was there— Castle was the only test series he was known to attend. The next day, “March 2, 1954, [Oppenheimer lawyers] Garrison and Marks themselves appeared in Strauss’ office and confirmed that Oppenheimer was willing to accept [submitting his resignation]… Strauss, confident of victory, dismissed ‘out of the question’.” [p.496, American Prometheus]. According to Strauss’s own memoir, he was still in the Pacific: “On my return from Eniwetok on March 29, 1954, I reported to President Eisenhower on the Castle..series. The President had been greatly concerned over the reports of..fall-out..on the atolls of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Uterik and on a Japanese fishing vessel… The next morning..the President..asked me to tell the press substantially what I reported to him… The shot was fired, the wind failed to follow the predictions, shifting south..and the little islands..were in the path of the fall-out.” [pp410-411, Men and Decisions]
>>>Operation Castle lasted from March 1  to May 14: two shots in each of the three months (6 shots)
The Polio Shots
one shot in each of the three months (three shots)
Small-scale human testing of the new Salk “inactivated” polio vaccine (IPV) began in 1953, overlapping Dr. Hammon’s G.G. program in Iowa and Texas. Author Jane S. Smith wrote that “during the summer of 1953..the mass distribution of gamma globulin [G.G.] became a rehearsal for the polio vaccine field trials expected for the following year. [The NTS was running Operation Upshot-Knothole from March to June of 1953, all kiloton range]. The National Foundation [for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP, or ‘March of Dimes’] had developed valuable experience in mass purchasing and distribution, the public had been introduced to the idea that you cured polio by lining up for injections at schools or other public areas, and the administrators of the Public Health Service had realized that they had to step in or let [the NFIP] effect, a shadow network of health services.” [p.250, Patenting the Sun] “Tom Rivers..put it squarely; ‘The Public Health Service would eventually have to license the vaccine,’ he said, ‘and nobody in the Public Health Service knew anything about polio… we had an awful time teaching them about polio.’ ” [p.251, ibid.] “In November [1953], Basil O’Connor..announced that the trial would begin no later than the first week in February [1954]. By February they were hoping for early March.” [p.253] “…the journalistic blitz was on. The New York Times Magazine had featured Salk in January… Life..made the vaccine its cover story on February 22. Time featured..Salk surrounded by..crutches, leg braces and syringes on the cover of its March 29 issue… Better Homes and Gardens, victim of an early deadline..featured a story in its March though the trial had actually started in February, complete with fabricated quotations from children... [p255, ibid] …By this time, the start of the field trial had been postponed yet again, to April 26.” [p.258, Patenting the Sun] The vaccine trial, postponed even further, did not begin until late May. The Castle tests ended on May 14.
>>>Thomas Milton Rivers, “Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute” spent his entire adult life working for the Rockefellers. “Between 1922 and 1955, Rivers molded Rockefeller into the preeminent laboratory for research on viruses“. In 1945 he was assigned to oversee the Atomic Bomb Casulaty Commission. There is no indication that oversight of the ABCC (or its successor) was temporary: “studies..suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years.”  Rivers’ work for the Salk vaccine trial put him in close contact with the man who ran the program, Dr. Thomas Francis. Dr. Francis, who was Jonas Salk’s mentor and Rockefeller Hospital alumnus, was hired to reorganize the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after completion of the polio vaccine trials in April of 1955. The ABCC project became the “Lifespan Study” of Japan’s atomic survivors who lived past 1950 and had no leukemia (solid tumors only). Following that, Francis undertook “large population surveys” gathering health data from his base at the University of Michigan, just as the Health Physics mandate recommended. The Ford Foundation built him a “peaceful uses” nuclear reactor in 1957: “The reactor operated from September 1957 until July 3, 2003
So, the Salk polio vaccine trials were supposed to be timed for coordination with Operation Castle (March to May of 1954) –as the Provo G.G. trials coordinated with Nevada’s Buster-Jangle (Oct-Nov 1951)– but, perhaps the exceptionally dirty Bravo test caused the delay and put fear into the designers, since no amount of additional time was going to improve the vaccine.
   “What had made the bomb so dirty? The answer was discovered by K. Kimura, one of the Japanese scientists who analyzed the fallout on the Lucky Dragon’s deck. In this debris from the bomb he found a substantial amount of a rare isotope of uranium –uranium 237. It happened that Dr. Kimura himself was the original discoverer of this isotope; he had created it in the laboratory 14 years before [as].. a product of the bombardment of the common uranium isotope 238 by neutrons… The bomb must have had a thick blanket of uranium 238 surrounding its fission-fusion core; fast neutrons from the fusion reactions fissioned the U-238 blanket and thus multiplied the force of the bomb –and also the output of fission products. In short the weapon builders had found a way to use the neutrons that would otherwise have gone to waste: they had made a fission-fusion-fission bomb in which common uranium 238 was added to the fuel… One can immediately see a great gain in economy over the ‘primitive’ Hiroshima bomb. To produce a 20 megaton explosion with only the original fuel, uranium 235, would require 11,000 pounds..of this rare isotope, separated so laboriously from U-238, and cost about a hundred million dollars. Using U-238 as fuel, however, we can get our 20 megatons at the bargain-basement price of a quarter of a million dollars. (The same size of explosion with TNT would cost ten billion dollars!)
The Salk IPV trials, which took place across the U.S., Canada, and Helsinki Finland, dodged a major bullet by waiting. (The city of Helsinki still thinks of itself as the former “spy capital of the world”).  With less tweaking than was probably anticipated, the delayed trial data proved a success. Controversial as the subject must be, the radiation vaccine got the go-ahead and postponed its reckoning to the next year during 1955’s Operation Teapot –Nevada’s first full-scale thermonuclear series. In areas where fallout was intensified by weather, post-vaccine polio increased as much as 700% from the previous year –oops– blamed on faulty vaccine preparation.
Private Ownership of nuclear fuels and energy facilities was amended to the atomic charter in August of 1954: “the Commission may issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, import, or ex-port under the terms of an agreement for cooperation..” Strauss continued to exert expanded authority over this trade in his one-year pro-tem office as Secretary of Commerce (June 1958-June 1959)
Oasis in Israel
   Before 1954 was through, Strauss proposed his diplomatic agenda as the spokesman of Atoms-for-Peace: “he recommended a solution for the Arab-Israeli dilemma built around the use of atomic power to operate desalinization plants along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. All Countries in the Middle East could share the fresh water..[and] replace tension with amity. By this time, Strauss..supported the nation of Israel.” [p.223, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss and Eisenhower called it The Oasis Plan. Of course, Strauss always supported Israel– the Zionist v. non-Zionist debate among Jews in the U.S. was based primarily on U.S. immigration policy, a holdover from the WWI era when non-Zionists, like Jacob Schiff, sought restraint from incoming Russian Jews.  U.S. Zionists favored unrestricted immigration.  By WWII, and in Palestine particularly, the situation reversed; Zionists, like Weizmann, wanted tight immigration controls and non-Zionists, like Feinberg, wanted free entry.
The first Soviet two-stage hydrogen bomb was successfully tested in 1955… The first U-2 flights [1956] over the Soviet Union provided dramatic evidence that the Soviets were not nearly as advanced in conventional arms as the Pentagon assumed. There was no “bomber gap” or “missile gap”… The administration’s truth-teller continued to be the U-2, whose pilots, including Gary Francis Powers, later to be shot down, were usually assigned to overfly the Soviet Union. But there were other standing U-2 targets in sensitive areas…and that description fit the Middle East in 1958… Gary Powers and his colleagues, who had continued intermittently to overfly the Middle East, were now steadily back at work in the area. The CIA’s photo interpreters were suddenly seeing a lot of activity at an Israeli Air Force..range south of Beersheba…” [pp.50-51, The Samson Option]
   “The U-2 went operational from a secret base in West Germany on July 4, 1956… It was a spectacular asset… [p.48, ibid]… Among the inevitable by-products of the [nuclear] manufacturing process are radioactive gases which are vented into the atmosphere. The analysts of the early U-2 photography learned to look for..distinctive chimneys…” [p.52, The Samson Option] The U-2 planes also carried particle filters mounted in air scoops as earlier detection flights had done.  By the time Dimona started taking shape (1957-58), “the U-2 continued to overfly the Negev. Lundahl [chief of photo analysis] also relayed the findings on Dimona to Lewis L. Strauss..who [was]..cleared for U-2 intelligence.” [p.54, ibid.]
[apologetics from Seymour Hersh:]
Strauss certainly knew as much about Dimona as as anybody in the intelligence community… There is no evidence, however, that he raised questions about the Israeli weapons progam while in government; nor was he known to have ever discussed Dimona after leaving office. Strauss chose not to talk..because, as a Jew with deep feelings about the Holocaust, he approved of it… He was insistent on continued nuclear testing… At the same time, he championed Atoms for Peace..[on] the assumption, which turned out to be dreadfully wrong, ..that smaller nations once supplied with.. a nuclear power plant, would have no incentive or desire to develop nuclear weapons… Strauss’s activities on behalf of a Jewish homeland apparently were not known… At some point in his AEC career [believed to be the 1955 Geneva meeting on the Peaceful Uses of the Atom] Strauss met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann…Neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis..knew that the two had met [but].. in the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get a visiting fellow at the..Institute for Advanced Study… rules were bent for Strauss. [The IAS’s new director at the time said] ‘It became clear that [Bergmann] and Strauss were close, and also clear that he was working on [the Israeli nuclear] weapons program.’ …Strauss..did not tell anyone..about Dimona. Fair or not, the issue of ‘dual loyalty’ –exemplified by Strauss’s actions– has been a very real concern…”
   Hersh’s writing career, as noted in the JFK Conspiracy Con, was underwritten by Julius Rosenwald’s grandson, Philip Stern, from a family centrally tied to the creation of Lee Harvey Oswald’s “legend” and secretly invested in nuclear technology.  It is the Sterns’s business partner, Zalman Shapiro, who appears as the object of Hersh’s exoneration in the The Samson Option, and yet it’s Strauss’s legend that gets the most fortification from Hersh. “Holocaust guilt”, or guilt of any kind, is a wash. Strauss exuded neo-Maccabean pride, built agencies in service to it, and regretted only that he could not do more– an expression easily twisted into holocaust guilt. Without a Holocaust there would have been no Bomb.
    The problem is not ‘dual loyalty’ but loyalty to the mental poison of duality and absolutism.  Hersh and others, continually hiding Strauss’s early medical background in Rothschild employ and his lifelong association to biological warfare, dissemble on the real nature of the game –the self-canceling schism of rival degeneracy. Very gnostic and very “Protocols”. The exceptionalism in it, and the place where Strauss assumed his power and profit, was in the middle of it all where the ends are bent to form an apex –the node of dialectical form: summit of a pyramid.
…to be continued: epilogue, story timeline and JFK assassination events…

January 23, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, part II

The second installment of this piece is aimed to faithfully carry on the rough chronology of part I –all of it being supplemental to the JFK Conspiracy Con which posits nuclear trafficking, legal and not, on top of the list of motives for Kennedy’s assassination. It’s well-known that by the middle of his term, Kennedy was expressing persistent concern over the dangers of radioactive fallout. That fact alone made his “natural enemy” the former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Lewis Strauss, the No.1 nuclear dissembler, who dismissed the fallout hazard as no more dangerous than sunshine and less threatening than an X-ray. Strauss’s friend and ally physicist Edward Teller famously attempted to inform JFK in 1961 that radiation is healthful (and was rebuffed). It’s also possible that Kennedy sons, John Jr. and Patrick, were afflicted with radiation-induced disease and the parents became aware of it. In addition, it’s my personal operating belief that JFK was chosen as early as 1952 for the inevitable nuclear showdown-to-come, as long as the candidate didn’t self-destruct. He seemed always on the verge– Phil Graham of the Washington Post said during the 1960 campaign, when consulted on a choice of vice-president, that whomever Jack Kennedy took for a running mate would soon be President.

                    Eugene Meyer, owner Washington Post, P.G.’s father-in-law (d.1959)

Phil Graham killed himself with a shotgun on August 3, 1963.

*                                                                                  Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1895-1974)

The contributions to JFK assassination research about the participant groups, either with foreknowledge or working relationships, point to common threads in the nuclear industry; what we must think of as a gateway to more advanced technologies coming from the same contractor pool (General Dynamics under the ownership of Henry Crown is a good example) and their corporate heirs. By 1960, as Hans Bethe claimed, the weaponolgy of H-bombs had reached its peak. There wasn’t much more to be done developmentally to improve on bombs for military use. Even Teller left his statement that bombs over 10 megatons (10 million tons of TNT force) lost their excess energy to space. Tests of these behemoths, done through the 1950s and onward, amounted to mass terror and biological warfare in the hands of what Pierre Curie called “the great criminals” (Nobel Prize speech of 1903). Ernest Rutherford added a rejoinder in 1904: his wish to have nuclear experimentation postponed to some enlightened future time (in other words, probably never). Rutherford was an obstacle. Both men died prematurely from radiation-related disease.

Lewis Strauss remained a stalwart for testing to the very end. In 1964 he was back on Capitol Hill stumping for a reversal of the Limited Test Ban, working the dialectic, publishing articles and assembling pressure groups. He had been making public claims about fallout-free weapons since 1954, ironically when the levels of radioactivity began skyrocketing. As his biographer Richard Pfau noted, “more than any other individual, Lewis Strauss shaped the atomic energy policy of the United States…[p219]…It would not be exaggeration to call Strauss the father of the nuclear power industry…  Strauss’s position on weapons tests had been consistent.”[p220, No Sacrifice Too Great] Consistency, fortunately, has been good currency in this case, rewarding the investigation with solid information, sense and plausibility when there was little to go on. Unfortunately, the ramifications are dire: radiological warfare on ourselves, and presently getting worse. Dr. Rosalie Bertell called it our “death crisis”. Lewis Strauss had something to say about death “four months before [dying]..Strauss wrote ..[that] good and evil struggled incessantly, and..everyone was ‘enjoined to choose between good and evil, between life and death’ ” [p252, No Sacrifice Too Great]  For his  part, Strauss was autocratically consistent in his righteousness. His wife told the biographer “in a rare written comment, Strauss had developed an emotional attachment to the power he wielded over policy.” [p216, ibid.] In effect, it was obvious from the time that his activities became a matter of public record during World War II. Strauss thought of his war duty as “public service” and called his Pentagon period under Forrestal “these days of grace.” He not only lobbied for the Office of Naval Research, he shaped its operations and recruited staff. “The ONR proceeded to work out a program by which contracts were made with universities for basic research… Men who had vowed..[to] never do any work after the war for either Armed Service found themselves doing so” [p148, Men and Decisions, L.L.Strauss, 1962]

Wartime extended Strauss’s influence further to leadership at Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study [IAS] and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Research [SKI]. He became a lifetime trustee of the American Cancer Society under Lasker control. He was still an active leader of Kuhn Loeb &Co., a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and its subsidiary-like Business Advisory Committee, an executive of the American Jewish Committee and “the Jews’ War President”. The next step for Strauss on the Atomic Energy Commission forbade him by law to engage in “any other business” –he was required to resign his partnership in Kuhn Loeb– to which he readily acceded. The initial contentiousness that flourished on the original Commission chaired by David Lilienthal evaporated under the chairmanship of Lewis Strauss:  “Strauss was to have unlimited power… there would be lavish funds and inordinate publicity…  great gifts Strauss was able to channel to his friends after he remade the Atomic Energy Commission in 1953-54.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, by Nuel Pharr Davis, 1968]

On his comeback as AEC Chairman in 1953, Strauss also began to forge a relationship on-the-record with J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. The men planned to cultivate special secret agents paid by the FBI but answerable to the AEC chairman. Since 1947 occasional high-profile security breaches had threatened the civilian AEC with military intervention. Little had changed with respect to missing materials. The new approach with joint FBI/AEC agents to spy on operations as embedded employees was intended to preserve the AEC’s autonomy. The joint special agent program is made to look like a flop, even after two years of activity (1953-54), but is one of the most intriguing elements bearing on Lee Harvey Oswald’s profile. The FBI/AEC recruits were specifically of his type. Oswald was getting paid by the FBI. Was he working for Strauss? Whatever the answer might be, the joint special agent program fizzled or disappeared at an interesting time in 1954, the year that Strauss infamously went on a vindictive campaign to oust Robert Oppenheimer from the nuclear establishment. With full cooperation from J.E. Hoover and the FBI, Strauss erected an unlawful net of wiretaps and had the agents tailing Oppenheimer’s every move. Many of the people involved thought Strauss was exploiting McCarthy’s Red Scare but he appears to have planned it following the triumphant approval of the ‘Super’ (H-bomb) crash program by President Truman in January of 1950. Oppenheimer was deeply opposed to the Super. Strauss and Oppenheimer in the meantime still had to work together as administrative colleagues at Princeton’s IAS; Strauss, as IAS board president, had in fact hired Oppenheimer to direct the Institute in 1946. He laid in wait at least 4 years, if not longer, to bring the man to ruin.

Strauss’s one respite from pursuing Oppenheimer in early ’54 was a trip to the Marshall Islands to witness the thermonuclear  ‘Bravo’ test (Castle series), the only test he ever attended. Castle-Bravo is possibly the most controversial of all U.S. nuke tests; Japanese fishermen died and local Marshallese were irradiated and displaced. It was not an accident. “During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin, 1988]…”“Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said] ‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’” [p61, Day of Two Suns]    Strauss wrote, “It was the first time, so far as I am aware, that public attention had been called to the subject of fallout…” [p410, Men and Decisions] “people began to worry about the risks from radiation that followed such tests. So well did the resulting outcry fit Soviet objectives to eliminate nuclear weapons that Strauss suspected the Japanese fishermen might have been Soviet agents.” [p190, No Sacrifice Too Great] He enlisted the CIA to investigate.

As far as I know, the plight of the Marshalls or the responsibility of the AEC chairman was not included in the charges against Strauss during the  1959 Senate hearings for his confirmation as Secretary of Commerce. Fallout, however, was an issue. “According to [Clinton] Anderson, the administration actually was augmenting the fallout content of bombs in the existing stockpile.” [p217, No Sacrifice Too Great] The biographer wrote, “He probably should have turned down the president’s offer to join the cabinet…” [p242, ibid.] To the contrary, Strauss held out for the post and rejected a series of offers that included “permanent chairman” of the AEC and White House Chief of Staff. “When Strauss declined this offer, the president asked whether he might like to replace Secretary Dulles… Finally, Eisenhower suggested..secretary of commerce… Strauss wanted this post, he told the president, because his patrons Oscar Straus and Herbert Hoover had held it… Strauss also saw Commerce as a base from which to fight the Cold War..” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]

After the vote-down from Congress,  “Determined not to reveal his bitterness, Strauss invited newspaper photographers in the next morning while he laughed and joked over breakfast with Senator Byrd. Strauss then rode to the White House..and issued his parting statement…[p240, No Sacrifice Too Great] He soon followed up with his semi-autobiographical Men and Decisions —perhaps the real parting statement which closes with these words: “Now, we are told, we stand at the threshold of an era when it will be possible for man to abdicate both the right and responsibility of free decision and to delegate it to the machine… thereupon decisions will emerge which are to send us to war or lull us to sleep. They will be decisions for which no man will bear responsibility –decisions as coldly impersonal as..the device… For what machine can ever apply the considerations of compassion and justice..that affect his future in the world and in the universe?” [p430, Men and Decisions]


I wonder how Strauss’s readers in 1962 perceived his enigmatic closer. Taking liberties with the last paragraph, I edited out the specific references to hardware (“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”) because they are not definitions of a machine, although his allusion to electronics is very interesting and significant to his meaning.  No pile of hardware, obviously, makes decisions or ever will. Our government is a machine. But Strauss was fighting “tomorrow’s war today”. His machine, the device of his devising that he spent all his life energy on, was “coldly impersonal” and he remained its decider, or so one assumes. There’s not much in the memoirs to suggest exactly how Strauss fit into the hierarchy of the greater machine in which he was part, but in the largest measure that’s the point here; to discern what part of “decisions for which no man will bear responsibilty” can be ascribed to him.  Part II chronology picks the details back up with the death of Joe Kennedy Jr. who died from a mishap with electronic remote control.

                                        Harry Byrd Sr.


Joe Kennedy Jr.
Joe Jr. graduated from Choate in the spring of 1933..the exemplar of what a Choate graduate should be… [He] might have headed to Harvard in the fall, but his father had a different idea…[JPK Sr.] enrolled Joe at the London School of Economics, a fervidly intellectual atmosphere full of Socialists and others who fancied themselves on the cutting edge of economic and political theory.” [p81, The Kennedy Men, by Laurence Leamer, 2001] “[Harold] Laski saw that young Joe had character and an incomparable zest for life… ‘He had set his heart on a political career,’ Laski recalled. ‘He..often sat in my study and submitted..his determination to be nothing less than President of the United States.’ “[p82, ibid.] Joe Jr. stayed the year in London, finished his courses and set off in the summer of 1934 for a tour of Europe.
   Back in Washington D.C., Joe Kennedy Sr. was assuming his duties as chairman of the new Securities and Exchange Commission, the circumstance which brought him under the scrutiny of Arthur Krock of the New York Times. “I had encountered Joseph P. Kennedy several times in the entourage that accompanied Governor Franklin D. 1932..But not until 1934, when President Roosevelt appointed Kennedy to the..[SEC]..did I become really acquainted with him.” [p330, Memoirs, Arthur Krock, 1968] Krock described meeting Joe Sr. “to take the measure of the man” on the recommendation of “two friends..Bernard M. Baruch and Herbert Bayard Swope.” [p331, ibid.] The Wall Streeters were worried about Kennedy. By 1935 Krock “began to be an intimate of the family under the sponsorship of the patriarch, Joseph Patrick himself… In their feudal family structure the eldest son..was designed by the patriarch to be the first Roman Catholic President of the United States, and it was only because of his fatal valor in the Second World War that the quest descended to the second son.” [p328-329, ibid.]
   The ‘Anvil’ mission that killed Joe Jr. and his copilot on August 12, 1944 was the seventh in a series (of 15) operations under the Army Air Force called ‘Aphrodite’, but the first to be run by the Navy. .
Kennedy’s bomber malfunction had a unique outcome; it was the only one to “prematurely detonate”.  According to the oral history of Emanuel Piore who worked for the office of Chief of Naval Operations, “we were the group that killed Joe Kennedy.” Piore, who worked over a decade prior in the labs of CBS and RCA, never mentioned any other personal involvement.
   Joe had the opportunity to leave England and go home the previous May. He wrote to his parents on May 8, “I have finished my missions…but volunteered to stay another month…” Biographer Leamer adds “Joe Jr..wanted to be there for D-Day…And so, on June 6, he flew as part of a massive grid protecting the invading forces from German submarines… not one ship..was lost to the German sub[s]… back home everyone expected his imminent arrival in time for his [30th] birthday on July 25… [but] Joe..knew that he would not be returning a hero…” [pp209-210, The Kennedy Men] It had been nearly a year since JFK stole the honors of War Hero in the PT-109 episode. In that ensuing year, the U.S. navy pilots at Dunkeswell grew accustomed to daily danger. “When he opened his letters from home, [Joe] discovered inevitably that Jack was the big news –Jack’s sickness, Jack’s appearances, Jack’s publicity, Jack’s future…” [p206]…”All that Joe Jr. wanted in family life was to be first…’In their long brotherly..rivalry, I expect this was the first time Jack had won such an ‘advantage’ by such a clear margin,’ Rose wrote in her autobiography.” [p196, ibid.] Sometime around the third week in July, “Joe..was..packing up his gear when he was called into the squadron office and told about an extraordinary secret mission code-named ‘Anvil’…[He] volunteered immediately… He figured that he had a fifty-fifty chance of surviving and those odds were good enough… the base at Fersfield…”  Things went wrong from the start. “Training flights had gone astray. The project was raked with silly bureaucratic ineptitude. Serious warnings about the faulty electrical system had been smothered by the command. The whole project reeked… On the evening before the mission, one of the men..tried to warn Joe..that the arming panel..might blow up the plane… Joe Jr. admitted to another officer that he was sorry he had volunteered, but he believed that it was too late to do anything but go on.”  [p211-214, The Kennedy Men]  Twenty planes escorted the bomber from the Fersfield runways;  one of them carried FDR’s son Elliot Roosevelt, sent to capture the event on film. It was over in just a few minutes, as soon as the PB4Y reached travelling altitude. The flash shredded and blew the plane’s remains over the Suffolk countryside and “Then the light was gone.”
   “[T]hose who saw Joe [Sr.] said they had never seen a man suffer more and feel more deeply… ‘Joe’s death has shocked me beyond belief,’ Joe wrote James Forrestal, the secretary of the navy..” [p220, The Kennedy Men] As of July 1944, with the Anvil program going forward, Lewis Strauss took up daily residence in Forrestal’s office. “Strauss was Forrestal’s assistant for eighteen months, from July 1944 to January 1946. The secretary assigned him specific projects, one after anotherStrauss..preferred this sort of work to the routine of managing subordinates.” [p76, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss was not only positioned to know the details of Anvil, but he was required to know  –the Chief of Naval Operations was a deputy office under the Secretary of the Navy. If Anvil was one of the projects Strauss worked on, it was still classified Top Secret information when he published Men and Decisions in 1962. Were he delivering a threat to the Kennedys, any reference to Anvil would have to have been oblique yet specific enough to arouse their attention –“transistors, diodes, crystals and circuits”; the machine that impersonally took the life of Joe Kennedy.
The Kennedys’ tragedy was retrospectively compounded by the failure of Operation Aphrodite/Anvil. Joe’s mission was to strike the V-3 supergun site under construction at Mimoyecques, already successfully hit by the RAF five weeks earlier in June. The site never became operational. The few completed V-3 sites that did fire their fixed-position guns in 1945 were strategically useless and quickly abandoned. Strauss left one suggestive statement in his memoir forecasting Anvil and hinting at his participation: “Early in 1943..British intelligence..had heard of a project called ‘Athodyd’ reported to be a..pilotless aircraft to bomb Britain… Admiral Blandy read the message at a staff meeting..and it was the concensus opinion that this was most likely more of the ‘secret weapon’ propaganda…Captain Sam Shumaker and I, however, felt that there was a possibility that a self-propelled bomb could be flown across the Channel riding a radio beam rather than taking a ballistic course.” [p140, Men and Decisions]
   The Athodyd program was real; these were the V-1 flying bombs against which the Navy’s VT proximity fuse-equipped missiles proved so indispensible –all about the same time period, just prior to Anvil. “The fuze was especially effective in destoying the V-1 bombs that Germany began to use against London on June 12, 1944…Approximately 500 heavy antiaircraft guns were moved to the Channel coast where they could engage the bombs before they reached..England…” [p349 (Navy Bureau of Ordnance document)] Strauss was proud of his role in developing the VT fuse. “Next to the atom bomb, the proximity fuze represented in many respects the outstanding new weapon development of World War II… A tremendous amount of research and exploratory work was done [beginning in 1940]… Early in the war a number of high level scientists, including Dr. Albert Einstein, were employed by the Bureau under personal service contracts.[p326, Ordnance doc]…Information was furnished [to] the Bureau and the NDRC [National Defense Research Council] by the British technical mission, headed by Sir Henry Tizard which visited the United States in 1940 as to the status of proximity fuzes in Great Britain.” [p346, ibid.] Tizard also brought news of the MAUD committee, Britain’s prospectus on building a nuclear bomb. It’s generally believed that Tizard did not then know how far the American effort toward atomic weapons had already come but he was soon to learn about it while unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a supply of uranium oxide for the British project; ore from the Congo that was sitting on a dock by the Bayonne Bridge in New York. As far as the military was concerned, the attention of weapons development was mandated to war-winning munitions like the fuze and the all-important implementation of radar. The basic uncertainty of the ‘uranium problem’ was cause for marginal consideration. The massive VT-fuse program then became a bridge to next-generation armaments by establishing the fundamental nexus that eventually created guided-missile nuclear warheads.
   By 1940 radiological warfare was a promising reality even if the explosive potential of nukes could never be achieved. “Neutron and gamma radiation, radioactive dust scattered into the air could be as deadly as blast and heat… The MAUD group had known about these factors from the first..” [p156-157, The Deadly Element, Lennard Bickel]
Protocol No.1
[article 3]   It must be noted that men with bad instincts are more in number than the good and therefore the best results in governing them are attained by violence and terrorization…
[article 7]   In our day the power which has replaced that of the the power of Gold… The despotism of entirely in our hands…
[article 24]…by the doctrine of severity..we shall triumph and bring all governments into subjection to our super-government. It is enough for them to know that we are too merciless…
Protocol No.7
[article 5]…we shall show our strength to one of them.. and to all, if we allow..a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America or China or Japan.
The Guns of Japan
   Going back to the money trail of the 1904 Russo-Japanese war: “The primary mover was Jacob Schiff..whose firm was brought into the consortium of Parr’s Bank and the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank by Lord Revelstoke and the shadowy Ernest Cassel… [A]fter the war had ended..the Rothschilds finally enter[ed] center stage… Lord Rothschild insisted that he replace Cecil Parr as head of the consortium… [Lord Rothschild wrote:] ‘The Japanese are a remarkable nation, they have proven themselves on land and sea… We have always had great faith in Japan, faith in their military and naval prowess… faith in the resources of their country and still greater faith in the..rulers’…”
   A big winner in the conflict was Bethlehem Steel, later to become a Kuhn Loeb client under Strauss.  “In the..Russo-Japanese War, it was Bethlehem steel against Bethlehem steel with the company supplying guns and armor plate for warships to both Russia and Japan.”  The Japanese also “contracted with [Bethlehem’s] Fore River shipyard to build five small submarines, a weapon..just coming into its own.” By WWI, Bethlehem was positioned  to become the  world’s largest munitions maker. “It made 65 percent of the..artillery..of the allied nations.,0,360664.story  Incidently, Joe Kennedy Sr. was hired by the Fore River (Quincy, MA) shipyard as assistant general manager just as the new ships slid off the docks and onto the surplus ledger, sold for pennies on the dollar by Albert Lasker. Kennedy likely had his first meeting at Fore River with the Asst. Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt.
   As an allied combatant in World War I, Japan’s navy roamed the Pacific and Indian oceans seizing territory from the Germans. “On August 7, 1914, the British government officially asked Japan for assistance …Japan..formally declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914..[and] quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East… [then]sought further to consolidate its position in China… [In] July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty whereby each pledged not to make a separate peace with Germany, and agreed to..common action should the threatened by an outside third party. This treaty helped further secure Japan’s hegemony in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.”
Among Japan’s new possessions, bestowed by the Paris Peace accords, were the South Sea Islands once known as the Spice Islands, including the Marshalls that were recaptured by the U.S. in 1944 and became the Pacific Proving Ground.
The isolationist period of Japan ended in 1853 when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry sailed four warships into Tokyo Bay and threatened to fire on the shore unless the Japanese agreed to a trade treaty. He returned in the winter of 1854 for his treaty with eight ships. Two prior attempts at opening Japan by Americans had failed; in 1846 and 1849, prompting a show of force.
    The Meiji government then “gave significant priority to naval construction… The Imperial Japanese Navy was modeled after the British Royal Navy… British advisors were sent to Japan..while students were in turn sent to the United Kingdom…”  Japan’s first dozen gunships were made in Britain and France.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920..”
>>>Matthew Perry’s daughter Caroline married Rothschild banker August Belmont (Schonberg); Belmont’s sons were Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont,  Perry Belmont, and August Belmont Jr ;  August Belmont Jr, as an older widower, married stage actress Eleanor Robson in 1910, the first serious love interest of Strauss’s friend ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan (OSS). “Eleanor, also devoted much time to raising funds in aid of Belgian relief efforts and for the Red Cross, she made a number of trans-Atlantic trips as an inspector of United States Army camps.”,_Jr
“..Kuhn Loeb..financed the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05. As a result of the war, Japan emerged as a major world power, dominant over Korea and holder of important economic rights in adjacent Manchuria.” [p36, No Sacrifice Too Great] As the heir to Jacob Schiff’s mission, Strauss wrote that “in 1926, I had retraced his steps, as told earlier. The then Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Baron Takahashi, and other gentlemen of Japan..had been very hospitable. I..continued a correspondence with most of these men…” [p122, Men and Decisions] “In consequence, my wife and I received a princely welcome… I had an audience with [the Prince Regent] at which the interpreter was a young naval officer, Commander Isoroku Yamamoto, who fifteen years later as admiral..ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor.” [p83, Men and Decisions]
   “The highlight of the trip was Strauss’s audience with the prince regent, Hirohito… soon to become emperor of Japan… Hirohito was about the same age as Strauss..[who] found Hirohito extremely well informed politics and even the special relationship between Japan and Kuhn Loeb.” [p37, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss listed his contacts with the Imperial government who were in power at the start of WWII: “Mr. Yamagata, Ministry of Foreign Affairs…Tadeo Wikawa [alternately spelled Ikawa] Japanese Financial High Commissioner in New York…Juichi Tsushima, Bank of Japan… Baron [Takaharu] Mitsui… Eigo Fukai, H. Kashiwagi“..[bankers] and T. Okuboson-in-law- of my old friend Baron Takahashi who had been assassinated [by nationalists] 1936.” The names mean virtually nothing to American schoolchildren, but to the veterans alive in the 60s, some of them were synonymous with Japan’s worst war crimes.
   Takaharu Mitsui (b.1900–d.1983), for example, owned “Japan’s oldest and largest trading company [that] transported and used the greatest number of Allied POWs as slave laborers. Their mines, factories, and docks were considered among the most hellish… former POWs identified many Mitsui employees as sadists, torturers and murderers.” Mitsui had personally overseen much of the abuse and was never prosecuted. The “old friend” Takahashi (assassinated in 1936) was the foremost modern economist, “Japan’s Keynes”, who put the nation’s currency on the gold standard and its war bonds on the market. Fukai and Okubo were his successive representatives. Yamamoto, the main planner of Pearl Harbor who was shot down in combat in 1943, had gone to Harvard as a younger man to study the oil industry. Yamamoto was newly installed as a military diplomat in Washington D.C. at the time of Strauss’s trip, perhaps accompanying the Strausses as an escort as well as interpreter. He returned for a two-year duty in the U.S. (1926-1928).  All of these men were directed to receive the Maryknoll priests, Father Drought and Bishop Walsh, on their peace mission.
Yamashita’s Treasure
   Japan’s emergence as a modern economic and military nation, as yet, had no history in peacemaking. The invasion of Korea in 1895 marked the beginning of a campaign to overrun and control its Asian neighbors as a hedge against the Chinese. Throughout this period, 1895-1945, according to authors Sterling and Peggy Seagrave (The Yamoto Dynasty and Gold Warriors), the concerted power bases of the Imperial Japanese launched merciless attacks of systematic looting and genocide to steal the wealth of Asia and hide it on the home islands. As WWII encircled the operations called ‘Golden Lily’ and choked off the transfers, hordes of gold and gems were buried in place or sunk into the sea. Most of the known caches, say the Seagraves, were left in the Philippines by General Tomoyuki Yamashita who was battling for territory against time. “Yamashita’s Treasure”, as it were, had been revealed to Douglas MacArthur through army intelligence from his aide Willoughby and Col. Edward Lansdale, and MacArthur came ashore expecting to find it. Accordingly, the recovered loot was worth a contemporary billion and  believed to be only a fraction of what remained. It was turned over as a private reparation that became the Black Eagle Trust: “..the [Seagraves state that] architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to..Roosevelt’s Secretary of War Henry Stimson: John J. McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense) and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury)… [in Sterling Seagraves’ words:]”..a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington… This fund remains in existence today… [T]he vast treasures..were acquire newspapers, magazines, radio and later television throughout the world… [O]nce the..war loot was in the pipeline, drugs and the laundering of drug money replaced gold…”
John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy (1895-1989) earned the “nickname of ‘Chairman of the Establishment’. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“…In 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.”
   “Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… Two younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..”[p60, The Chairman, by Kai Bird, 1992]..At Cravath’s firm, “McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads.” [p62, ibid.]
As a consequence [in the mid-1920s] with Brown Brothers, McCloy met Robert Abercrombie Lovett..[whose] father [was] chairman of the Union Pacific [and] neighbor of..Cravath’s on Long Island… At Yale, one of [Lovett’s] best friends was F. Trubee Davison, the son of Henry Davison, the J.P.Morgan & Co. partner… Another ruch young man in this charmed circle was W. Averell Harriman..[who] inherited Union Pacific from his father, the legendary robber baron Edward H. Harriman [financed by Kuhn Loeb]. ” [p68, The Chairman]
   McCloy had an impressive list of job titles: Asst. Secretary of War (WWII), President of the World Bank (1947-49), High Commissioner of Germany (1949-52), Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1950-53), Chairman of the Ford Foundation (and Trustee, 1953-1965), Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-1970), Chairman of the Salk Institute (subrosa) and appointment to the Warren Commission (1964). Strauss and McCloy both formally resigned their business relationship with Kuhn Loeb at the same time, in 1946.
A version of the Black Eagle Trust story goes like this:

Gold bullion confiscated from the Reich..was the original source of funding for this trust… [and] would be known by several names: Black Eagle Trust, the Marcos gold, Yamashita’s Gold, the Golden Lily Treasure, the Durham Trust or Project Hammer… The significance of the Nazi gold would pale in comparison to the confiscated  Japanese treasure…  Heidner presents..evidence to support his thesis that one of the main reasons for the [9-11] attacks was to cover up the laundering of
$240 billion dollars in covert and allegedly illegal  bonds, which appear to have been replaced with Treasury notes backed by U.S.  taxpayers in the aftermath of September 11
   “Lansdale’s operation in the Philippines gave birth to most of the common  features of modern covert operations for U.S. Intelligence: bribery, theft,  torture, and false flag operations. It would be Lansdale who would initiate a  bond between the US intelligence organizations and Israeli intelligence. It  would be Lansdale that would set precedents for the Intelligence community to retain the services of organized crime on U.S. soil. Lansdale would hire  American Mafia family heads Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky,  and Lucky Luciano in the U.S. war against Fidel Castro in 1961.”
[edited from:] Um…this second paragraph smacks of misdirection but I do believe any number of somebodies got the mafia involved in moving weapons, cash and drugs. As far as retaining the Mob, the Office of Naval Intelligence enlisted the NY-NJ mobsters to guard the docks of New York Harbor after the USS Normandie incident in 1942. The Navy was abiding a common tradition in business already practiced for decades in America– hiring gang enforcer-protectors.
   The “old money” societies of Asia, Mid-East, Mediterranean and Europe were masterfully adept at integrating and insulating their hierarchies of organized crime and the process became distinctively visible in America during Prohibition. The mafia turf wars of 1933-34 appear to have favored the well-connected collaborators.
   “…what’s striking about the [Seagraves’] meticulous Gold Warriors is the way the authors singlemindedly pursue the trail of Japan’s pillaged loot from those caves in the Philippines to financing of military endeavors in the Middle East.”
    “Concerned that President Harry Truman was wobbly in his support for creating a new nation of Israel, [Meyer] Lansky reached out to the Kansas City underworld and they used their connections in the White House to persuade Truman, whose home state was Missouri…”
At War’s End
Bill Donovan, head of OSS, was in Kunming China north of Vietnam “when news came of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki… Donovan turned philosophical… there would be a ‘peaceful interlude’, but sooner or later America would have a showdown with the communist world…  Two months later, Donovan phoned Jackson [Justice Robert Jackson, organizer of the Nuremberg trials] and told him U.S. Intelligence had ‘incontestable proof’ the Soviets were ‘in complete possession of the secret of the atomic bomb’... The OSS would be needed in Europe to spy on the Russians..and in Asia to police the Japanese...” [p332, Wild Bill Donovan, by Douglas Waller, 2011]
   The ALSOS mission which had been sent into Europe to gather important scientists and documents in advance of occupation forces had a smaller counterpart organized for Japan. Unlike the multi-agency European Alsos made of intelligence delegations, led by Col. Boris Pash and physicist Samuel Goudsmit,  Alsos Japan dispatched a geologist to MacArthur in Manila in July of 1945. Don Leet was was no ordinary geologist but a Manhattan Project veteran and explosives expert.
   “There were 175 ‘imperial treasure sites hidden throughout the Philippines… According to Ray Cline [CIA] and others, between 1945 and 1947 the gold bullion..was moved discreetly to 172 accounts at banks in 42 countries… Washington had to insist, starting in 1945, that Japan never stole anything, and was flat broke and bankrupt when the war ended… [But] If American conservatives and Japanese conservatives were to ally effectively against communism, they had to begin by enlarging their financial resources for the Cold War.”  [the Seagraves]
Pictures of ‘Yamashita’ gold and bank documents
Alsos Japan
Berkeley-trained physicist Philip Morrison was on Japan’s Alsos team sent to Tokyo after the surrender. Morrison had been part of the Chicago MED (Metallurgical Lab) working with particle accelerators and reactors: “..we were making plutonium, which is only a step to the bomb… I speak of it always as being a neutron engineer… [We had] plutonium made in the piles [reactors] by irradiating uranium with neutrons to turn U-238s into plutonium 239, which was a long-lived [25,000 year half-life], charge-rich nucleus with a very low fission threshold, so that slow neutrons could make it divide… [Anyway] I had acquired some intelligence interests..[and] when the time came for the project to break up..I was in Japan on the government’s business measuring..the site. [the site:Hiroshima/Nagasaki, along with ‘seismic prospector’ L. Don Leet]. We from Los Alamos were already out in Tinian they took whoever was nearby and said, ‘You go into Japan.’ The best we could do, you know. I couldn’t speak any Japanese but they gave me..a language officer..named John Congleton… he was our entire communication medium..and an ensign called Barney O’Keefe..[who] was our watcher and bodyguard... [A] week or two..I spent waiting in the hotels in Tokyo..before we were allowed to move out of the city by talking to the local scientists… A radiologist from the University of Tokyo..began to talk to me..that he knew of the radiation damage because he had worked in Pennsylvania hospitals five years..doing whole body irradiation [on animals]…[He]said ‘I know about radiation but you Americans carried it further.. You have done the human experiment.’ ..I had to agree with him…you know, to the murder..[of]making bombs against a whole city… [My] entire tour through Japan [lasted] for a month after the war.”

   “The Joint Chiefs..ordered on October 30..‘No research..on atomic energy shall be permitted in Japan.’…[In] November..American military teams proceeded to hack Japan’s five [known] pieces. The remains were dumped into the sea.”
   “In the immediate aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, an organizational unit to study atomic-bomb effects began taking shape, coalescing into the Committee on Atomic Casualties, led by Thomas Rivers.. bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute…   A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years…  ‘The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed.’ ”
“Before the CIA, there was the Pond”
Unknown to the public after WWII was an officially sanctioned intelligence agency created by the War Department in 1942 called The Pond. It “existed for 13 years and was shrouded in secrecy for more than 50 years..operated under the cover of multinational corporations, including American Express, Chase National Bank and Philips, the Dutch-based electronic giant… [T]ens of thousands of once-secret documents found in locked safes and filing cabinets in a barn near Culpeper Virginia in 2001..portray a sophisticated organization obsessed with secrecy that operated a 32 countries… The organization counted among its effort to enlist..’Lucky’ assassinate..Mussolini; identifying..heavy water plants doing atomic research in Norway; and providing advance information on Russia’s first atomic bomb… The head of the Pond was Col. John  [Jean, “Frenchy”]V. Grombach..[whose] father the French Consulate in New Orleans. The War Department had tapped Grombach to create the secret a foundation for a permanent spy service… Grombach wrote that the idea..was to use ‘observers’ who would build..relationships..[rather] than spies who bought secrets… In 1955 The Pond went off the books… [It had] laid the integrate its activities into the U.S. Rubber Co.’s business operations in 93 countries… The Pond also worked with..Remington Rand… [In time] Grombach began furnishing names to McCarthy on supposed security risks…[and] It wasn’t long before the..organization largely ceased to exist.”
   Files belonging to The Pond, when picked up in 2001, were in the possession of the Freedom Studies Center of the American Security Council Foundation (ASCF, est.1958), a private non-profit lobby group for the private American Security Council founded by John Morris Fisher in 1955. Mr. Fisher, then a resident of the town of Culpeper, was the Director for National Security of  Sears Roebuck & Co., the Rosenwalds vast holding, and just up the road from the town of Culpeper lay Brandy Rock Farm, Strauss’s 1600-acre estate bought in 1933. Fisher’s obituary reveals his proudest activity: president of the Culpeper Regional Hospital Foundation that also was organized in 1955 to build a medical center of which “Admiral Strauss [was] one of the founders.” .
   Even without a personal connection, The Pond and the ASCF, beneficiary of its documents, bear the imprint of Strauss and his Kuhn Loeb/American Jewish Committee associates. The 1958 founding members of the ASCF include: Ray Cline (CIA, quoted by the Seagraves above), Thomas J. Dodd, Averell Harriman, Henry ‘Scoop’ Jackson, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Sam Rayburn, Nelson Rockefeller, Eugene Rostow, and others.
   Origins of the Pond within Military Intelligence (Army G-2) began with the authorization given by General George Strong to Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner to establish “a perpetual, a far-seeing, a far-distant, continuing intelligence service…Kroner selected Grombach..’particularly because [he] could take such instructions..under the terms of the highest secrecy’… Kroner testified after the war that..’only those in the War Department and the State and the President’s office..[and] President himself..knew it existed… A few people at FBI headquarters were also in on the secret… the whole thing was well known to Mickey [D. Milton] Ladd, chief of the FBI’s Domestic Intelligence Division, an ally of Grombach.”   The FBI’s Mickey Ladd, naturally, was later to be a prime conduit for the crosstalk in the Atomic Energy Double Agent Program.
   “..Convinced the OSS was infiltrated by the British, French and Russians, Strong set up..his own small espionage unit..secret from Donovan…’the Pond’..began infiltrating spies overseas under State Department and commercial cover…[p117, Wild Bill Donovan]…No one in the OSS could determine exactly what the Pond’s band of spies was doing for the Army’s G-2, but Grombach..kept popping up on Donovan’s radar screen… As near as Donovan’s officers could tell,  Grombach had operatives roaming Portugal, Sweden, Hungary and Romania..[and] was also trying to recruit former OSS officers with experience in Turkey and Greece… [He] also collected dossiers on hundreds of OSS officers. [p290, ibid.] Major General Clayton Bissell..replaced early 1944..[and was just] as hostile to Donovan.” [p307, ibid.]
“Two and a half weeks after President Truman declared victory, Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to the RCMP [Canadians]… On November 7th, Elizabeth Bently visited the FBI’s New York office and began to recount her role as a courier for two espionage rings in Washington D.C…. She identified as Soviet agents persons in the White House, the State Department, the War Department, [and] the OSS…”
   Elizabeth Bentley made her first approach to the FBI in August of 1945. Then on September 5, Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Embassy cipher clerk in Ottawa, Ontario, defected with documents concerning atomic weapons espionage. What Bentley and Gouzenko had in common was later to be ‘proved’ by decrypted radio intelligence (sigint) that was collected in Finland and brought to Stockholm in an operation known as Stella Polaris (Pole Star). “Stella Polaris was an evacuation of all the Finnish Intelligence officers and their Sweden..[in] September 1944…at least 750 people and 500 pack[ing] boxes of equipment..and documents [were] carried over..on four cargo vessels” in the middle of the night. But “Stella Polaris is also known as a process about the burnt archives from 1946 until the 1950s… it was [not until] the 90s in the U.S. when the NSA started publishing secret spy telegrams which had been part of the..system VENONA during the Cold War. Much of the material was..sold in 1944 and 1945 in Stockholm… The Americans became unpleasantly surprised when the Finns revealed that they could read [U.S.] communications all the time.”
   A reminder from the first part of this article is: ”war gave Strauss an opportunity to aid the country of Finland, which he had helped establish in 1919.” [p60, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss recalled, “…My idea was to ask Mr. Hoover to head a relief operation… The military aspect of our assistance of Finland was insulated from the relief operations..[as] the Finnish-American Trading Corporation. I enlisted Dr. Julius Klein to head this.” [Men and Decisions]
   The British, who trained and virtually ran the neophyte OSS, “would oversee operations in India, the Balkans, the Middle East, and [until1943] Western Europe. Donovan got control of mostly table scraps, such as China and Finland. But he would also run..North Africa.” [p130, Wild Bill Donovan]
   According to historian R. Harris Smith the “OSS had made its first Scandinavian Finland. Since the Russian November 1939, the Finns had considered their a separate war.  After the German attack on Russia in July 1941, Finland became a ‘co-belligerent’..[with] Berlin in battling the Red Army. In December [’41], under pressure from Moscow, Churchill reluctantly declared war on Finland… Early 1942 saw the Nazis using Finnish territory as a base of operations against Russia.” [p198, OSS, R. Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press]
   Finland, as it turned out, became a great crossroads of mixed-purpose espionage and the OSS Stockholm duty evolved into an important listening post for Soviet activity.  A number of discussion threads on JFK assassination deal with the relationships generated around the Stockholm base and Stella Polaris operation; even the reasoned expectation that “OSS station [Stockholm] was in large part controlled by [Military] Secret Intelligence Grombach… Olsen was a member of OSS Stockholm [and]identified as a member of Grombach’s Pond group… A suggestion could also be made that Richard Helms was a Grombach man.”  ; this next link, for example, includes Lee H. Oswald
American Security Council
   Originally called the Midwest Research Library of Chicago, the few 1954 founding ASC incorporators included General Robert E. Wood of Sears Roebuck who notified J. Edgar Hoover with this note: “As you know, the Mid-American Research Library was organized by patriotic businessmen to preserve and expand the Harry A. Jung files. The name..has now been changed to the American Security Council…  Its primary mission is the gathering, correlation and dissemination of factual information on Communist strategy and tactics to its members… The Council has the largest and most complete private files on Communism in the country at its main office in Chicago..containing the names of over 1,ooo,ooo individuals and organizations provid[ing] information which the FBI cannot supply since its files are secret. ”
   The Jung files were held at the Chicago Tribune Tower where they took up the entire 26th floor of Robert McCormick’s newspaper offices. Jung was a former editor of The American Gentile, published by The Gentile Front, and is known for being “one of the first” distributors of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and founder of the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation.
   Hoover’s interest in the ASC was two-fold: as a rightwing organization under surveillance and as a pool for retired FBI agents, including D.Milton (Mickey) Ladd, Lee R. Pennington (associated to Watergate), W. Cleon Skousen, John Fisher, Kenneth Piper (VP of Motorola), etc.
>>>Pennington-Watergate connection:”Pennington went to [James] McCord’s house [and].. destroyed..documents linked to the Watergate break-in.”
   The American Security Council adopted the motto “Peace Through Strength” and organized a Coalition for Peace Through Strength (CPTS) and a National Strategy for Peace Through Strength (NSPTS) by which it lobbied officers of government and business. “The ASC has a complex structure with many subsidiaries… Its boards of advisors and directors have..generous representation from military contractor firms [e.g. Lockheed, Boeing, General Dynamics]..defense intellectuals and rightest retirees of the military and intelligence establishment..including James Angleton (CIA), John Singlaub (USA)..Lyman Lemnitzer (USA), Albert Wedemeyer..[etc] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, ASC gained some notoriety when it was revealed that one of its affiliates, the Institute for American Strategy (IAS) has been used by the National Security Council as the vehicle for training military personnel..with help from the right-wing Richardson Foundation…  [A] veteran analyst of right-wing organizations has stated that ASC is ‘not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.’,_extract_from_The%22Terrorism%22_Industry
>>>The Richardson Foundation (Smith Richardson), established 1935 by H. Smith Richardson, is a family-controlled trust endowed by the fortune from ‘Vick’s’ pharmaceuticals. Headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. the western point of the ‘Triad’ of central counties making up greater Raleigh-Durham.
To Summarize…
Briefly to this point, World War II enabled Lewis Strauss and his associates to gain control of the largest known stocks of gold treasure, private ‘vigilante’ intelligence, and super-weapons expertise. For the next ten years (1945-1955) a slow motion coup d’etat rumbled beneath the American establishment, ending, arguably, in the last grab for resources –human resources– by way of a medical debacle in 1955 called Salk polio vaccine. The roots of the polio vaccine and its Cold War “success” is integral to the growth of nuclear weapons.
Atomic Energy Commission
   Before the Manhattan Project was turned over to the incoming Atomic Energy Commission, the military staged the first nuclear combat-era tests in the Marshall Islands: Operation Crossroads (July 1946). Strauss’s former boss from the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance, Admiral Blandy, led the proceedings as the head of the Joint Task Force. Strauss declined Blandy’s offer to join the staff and witness Crossroads up close, writing in his memoir, “I declined regretfully in order to..return to private business” which included a Bohemian Grove holiday with ex-Pres. Herbert Hoover “during the same week that the underwater, or ‘Baker’, test was scheduled at Bikini atoll..” [p210, Men and Decisions] Interrupted at the Grove, Strauss was handily summoned to Washington and offered the first slot on the AEC. Truman said, “As to why I have selected you,  I will tell you. I asked a number of give me a slate of names of possible Commissioners and your name did not appear at the top of any list. But you were a common denominator– that is to say..on all of the lists.” [p212, ibid.]

   Only recently had Strauss acquired non-remunerative status as Lifetime Trustee of the American Cancer Society and an executive governorship over New York’s Sloan Kettering Institute along with a number of MED chiefs.  He was well on his way to being a common denominator in the fully expressed military-medical complex. The AEC counted its earliest successes in the radioactive isotope program, the industrial-scale byproducts made in the reactor “piles” of the weapons labs.
   “From 1946 to 1955, the AEC sent out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to research laboratories, companies and clinics…  the AEC was, first and foremeost, a production agency itself… As the chief of the AEC’s Isotopes Division commented, ‘Atomic Energy is truly a big business’…In 1947..Congress earmarked $5million for AEC’s efforts in combatting cancer… the cancer program accounted for over 2,000 shipments [that year]… In addition, clinical cancer research hospitals were built at Argonne and Oak Ridge… By August 1949, three years after the first shipment..the AEC assembled a bibliography of 1,850 papers reporting scientific findings made with AEC isotopes –over 38% were in biology and medicine and were equally divided between human uses..and non-human… In 1950 alone, the AEC sent out more than 6,000 shipments of radioisotopes..[of which] three quarters..were used in biology and medicine…  Thus..[radioisotope use] no small part attributable to remarkable growth of public funding…particularly through the National Institutes of Health.”
   Over a decade of pre-war isotope research, thanks to Ernest O. Lawrence’s Berkeley cyclotrons, had enabled Americans to develop a small nuclear business that helped set a firmament for U.S. weapons and boost the physics curricula to run apace with Europeans. Isotopes and particle accelerators were clearly generators of nuclear weapons and Strauss capitalized on those facts in his stance as the sometimes “lone dissenter” on the AEC. Prohibitive radioisotope distribution was a forerunner to his later term at Commerce described by Richard Pfau “as a base from which to fight the Cold War.” [p223, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “This program..was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from..outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate..between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism… [R]adioisotopes..became political instruments in struggles over the control of the atom.”
   Atomic monopoly was a concept largely nurtured in the mind of Harry Truman who also thought the atomic bomb, prior to dropping, was “just a bigger bomb”.  Advisors had been telling Truman that the United States had a minimum two-to-five year headstart on bombs of the fission type and perhaps a ten year advantage on the ‘Super’.  Isotopes, on the other hand, were already outside the domain of US control, the surest means of proliferation, and the stickiest issue for hastening an international treaty and buttoning down the National Security State.
One week after the Crossroads-Baker test at Bikini,  with Lewis Strauss on board as the first AEC Commissioner, Truman signed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 on August 1. The bill (known as the McMahon Bill for its sponsor, CT Senator Brien McMahon) declared “Government ownership of all fissionable material… No person shall have any title in or to any fissionable material… It shall be possess or transfer..export or import to..or directly or indirectly engage in the production of any fissionable material outside of the United States. [p6]… The Commission is authorized to purchase or otherwise acquire any fissionable material or any interest therein outside the United the interest of the common defense and security… except that licenses shall not be required for quantities of source materials which, in the opinion of the Commission, are unimportant… Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate..any provision..with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon punished by death or imprisonment for life…[p20]”
An example of radioisotope developments in the 1930s outside the United States was given by historian Simon Turchetti who noted that Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his business partner Gabriello Giannini had patented 60 isotopes by 1936 “in various countries“, intended for research. Giannini was “responsible for trading the patents“.  Successful contracts were made with Philips Fabriken in Amsterdam, Sharp & Dohme, and the US corporations General Electric and Westinghouse. According to Turchetti, Giannini “partnered with the Dutch firm Philips..and..with L.V. Graner, a Philips engineer who lived and worked in New York.” By that time Giannini himself lived in the U.S. –he set up a business office at 30 Rockefeller Center and later found contractual wartime employment with Lockheed.  A potentially interesting aspect of the Giannini-Philips relationship is the primary sponsorship by Philips of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond intelligence.
   Whatever the case regarding the patents or any buy-back effort from the AEC,  U.S. weapons programs benefitted from cooperation with Philips, Giannini and Fermi. In December of 1938, Enrico Fermi took permanent leave of Italy on the occasion of receiving a Nobel Prize in Stockholm. From there he emigrated to New York and signed on to the Manhattan Engineer District. His assignments took him to Chicago, where he co-assembled the first nuclear reactor, and then to Los Alamos. Sometime in 1943, while contemplating the technical difficulties of bomb-making with Robert Oppenheimer, “Fermi took Oppenheimer aside..and suggested another way to kill large numbers of Germans. Perhaps, he said, radioactive fission products could be used to poison Germany’s food supply.” [p221, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin]
   Strauss wrote in his memoir, “In 1946 the Soviet delegate to the United Nations let it be known that in..Communist Russia the facts about atomic energy were ‘very well understood’. But atomic energy was being employed by his country for peaceful purposes only…  Not everyone, however, accepted Soviet assurance… The first Atomic Energy Commissioners did not. The several Commissioners were confirmed by the Senate in April 1947.  At a meeting shortly thereafter we discussed a memorandum I had [prepared] to whether the intelligence arrangements of the Manhattan Project had made provision..for continuous monitoring of radioactivity in the atmosphere… [p201, Men and Decisions]…[The memo read] ‘If there is no such monitoring system in effect, it is incumbent upon initiate it ourselves at once.’ There was unanimous agreement. [p202, ibid.] …It was important that the tests which the Atomic Energy Commission was planning..[at] Eniwetok in the spring of 1948 should be monitored in order that..reliable detection might be perfected. [p204] …By the time of our test 1948 [Operation Sandstone] the system was ready to demonstrate and by the summer of 1949, vigilance was rewardedI was completely convinced that a [Soviet] weapon or an explosive device had been tested purposefully on or about August 29 [1949, and] that it might not have been the first such test by the Soviets.” [p216]
   The USSR, it appeared, became the third nation after the U.S.(1945) and U.K.(1947) to attain the bomb. The detection event, as it turned out, took weeks to confirm and was not without lasting controversy over the reliability of data –fallout analysis collected by aerial filters on a US military plane. Strauss reported it as “One of our planes operating in the Long Range Detection System collected a sample that was decidedly radioactive…“[p276, caption, Men and Decisions]. The Soviets, were it they, had a knack for timing. Secretary of Defense Forrestal, replaced earlier in March, fell to his death on May 22. Skirmishes over radioisotope shipments, lax security, missing plutonium and other AEC program flaws had reached a peak of rhetoric by summer. “..concerns about shipments of isotopes to Norway and Finland resulted in allegations that the Atomic Energy Commission’s distribution policy was undermining national security… Just a few months later, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb shattered any illusions..[about] nuclear monopoly. In addition, the governments of Britain and Canada began selling radioisotopes to foreign purchasers, with fewer restrictions…” Less than four months hence (Jan.1950), the government was informed that atomic-spy penetration during the war had fully compromised its most guarded secrets and a chorus of H-bomb boosters moved the administration to immediately authorize a crash program to build ‘Supers’. On January 31, 1950, Lewis Strauss, jubilantly celebrating a birthday-to-remember, submitted his resignation.
>>>Strauss’s first post as AEC Commissioner covered July 1946 to April 1950. He returned as Chairman in 1953, appointed by Eisenhower.
Timeline NOTES: In 1946
–January 22, President Truman issues a Directive forming the Central Intelligence Group (CIG, renamed CIA in July of 1947 at the signing of the National Security Act)
–April, John F. Kennedy launches his campaign for congress and handily wins the June primary
–July 1, 1946—The cancer control program was established at the National Cancer Institute ( on the same day as Crossroads first test, “Able”
The NIH participated in Operation Crossroads providing experimental pharmaceuticals (‘sun’screen and vaccines) and personnel. –July 3, NIH lobbyists (Laskers, Mahoney, succeeded in enacting the Mental Health Act
–August 1, signing of the Atomic Energy Act
— Austrian physicist Hans Thirring published a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb (2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict]
–G.M. Giannini and Philips Electronics filed lawsuits for the restoration of their patents and earnings; Giannini sued for $10 million and Philips for $20 million (suits were dropped in the ’50s)
–October 7, W. Averell Harriman appointed Truman’s Secretary of Commerce (Oct-7-46 to Apr-22-48)
January 29, 1947, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics program for the government was convened..[for] the Manhattan Project. The status of their mandate was stated: “No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter… the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined”
–March, John J. McCloy becomes second president of the World Bank (until June 1949), after Eugene Meyer
–April,  AEC Commissioners assume their offices.
–July, creation of the Division of Security and Intelligence of the Atomic Energy Commission
–Aug, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, former aide to Secretary Forrestal, is appointed Director of the Division of Security
Particle Accelerators, Isotopes and Plutonium
   The isotope theory was first proposed by Englishman Frederick Soddy in 1912. An isotope is a variant of a particular element based on the mass of its nucleus. Before the concept of the neutron, the proton-containing nucleus of an atom was thought to have additional particles that altered its mass and produced isotopes, some of which are unstable and radioactive though chemically identical to each other. Isotope theory led to the discovery of the neutron, proposed by Ernest Rutherford and others as early as 1918. Existence of the neutron was experimentally confirmed by several physicists between 1928 and 1932, credited to another Englishman in 1932, James Chadwick, who worked at the Cavendish (Cambridge, UK) Lab with Rutherford and later joined the Manhattan Project.
   Between 1938 and 1940, two scientists at the Cavendish, Norman Feather and Egon Bretscher, used particle accelerators made by Philips to bombard uranium-238 with neutrons [“neutron capture” method] to cause fission and make plutonium-239.  Feather left an oral history of his work: “ had been least 18 months before January 1939 [the announcement of fission] that there was something very odd happening in these interactions of neutrons with the heavy elements…and it was quite clear that one could now produce trans-uranic people were bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons and they were collecting radioactive great abundance. That was beginning to be known in ’37-’38..before the whole thing fell into place by the realization that what was happening was fission… very shortly afterwards Bretscher and I..identified iodine and hellurium amongst the fission products… Incidently the experiment..was done on the 1 MeV Phillips set… [In] December 1940..[we] put in a report..that if uranium-235 had the characteristics..suitable for a bomb..we believed 239 plutonium would have it..[and] might be less difficult than separating..235 uranium.”
>>>uranium-235, a rare isotope in u-238, was made for the MED by the gaseous diffusion method at the enormous Oak Ridge Tennessee facility. Oak Ridge became the center for postwar isotope production using reactors. Making plutonium for bomb cores with accelerators, however, was one of Ernest O. Lawrence’s most driven projects. The first US-made plutonium came from his Rad Lab in Berkeley. The “plutonium breakthrough” by Cambridge-Cavendish meant that any skilled operator with a sufficiently high-voltage accelerator and enough naturally-occuring uranium-238 and a separating method could produce their own bomb cores. Potentially, select hospital labs in virtually all modern nations had the equipment for the job.
>>>particle accelerators for medical use is covered in a 1974 Janeway Lecture given by Dr. Milford Schulz, published as “The Supervoltage Story”
R. Gordon Arneson, secretary to the Interim Committee on atomic energy, said during an oral history interview that he was present at the Pentagon “shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki..[when] a message to be transmitted immediately to General MacArthur..[came with] the approval of General Groves. It called for the destruction of all the Japanese cyclotrons… They were destroyed in a matter of hours. We saved all the bits and pieces we could use and the rest was dumped in the ocean. Now..we’ve learned in recent years that the Japanese had a bit more of a program going than we thought… [Question: Was it true that you could hide the manufacture of a bomb behind the walls of another type of factory, that it was fairly easy to conceal the actual production of a bomb?] Maybe you could use smaller facilities..and eventually you might get enough… [Question: When you said ‘dangerous facilities’ did you mean facilities producing atomic bombs?] Producing nuclear fuel. [Question: Okay..which could be used for either weapons or peaceful applications?] Yes. [Question: There was no agreement on nuclear limitations, armament limitations, until 1963, I guess…That was the first time..?] Yes. The only one that made any difference… Over the years, I was persona non grata to Admiral Strauss. He considered himself a ‘majority of one’ on the Commission.”
Atomic Security
Of the five members of the AEC, only Strauss possessed experience in decisions on national security..on which the survival of the United States might depend.  Strauss saw the Cold War with single-minded clarity… None of the other Commissioners shared his concern… He assigned his capable assisstant, William T. follow up. When the Central Intelligence Group..estimated ‘that approximately two years will be required to locate, install, and operate the complete network of stations and facilities’ [needed for radiation monitoring] Strauss protested. ‘We cannot regard a two-year period as acceptable,’ he said…[p95, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss fought as hard to safeguard classified information as he did for long-range detection. He knew there was no ‘secret’ to the bomb. The American advantage lay in its lead..and its access to supplies of..uranium. Often he took his case outside the Commission…even to newspapers… The first issue was security…”  [p97, ibid.]
*                                                      Col. Boris Pash
Boris Pash
No single individual in the United States had more experience in atomic intelligence than the Chief of Security of the Manhattan Project, Colonel Boris T. Pash. “Pash..was director of security..[and] also the lead officer in the Alsos Mission which scoured Europe searching for German nuclear scientists…charged with finding..atomic and bacteriological weapons…” [Pash obit.]
   Boris ‘Pash’ Pashkovsky was a White Russian born in San Francisco (1901) while his parents were on an extended assignment for the Russian Orthodox Church. They took him back to Moscow as a child and years later “When the Bolsheviks seized power, Pash joined the counterrevolutionary White Army and fought in the 1918-20 civil war. He returned to America after marrying a Russian aristocrat. During the 1920s and ’30s, while employed as a highschool football coach, Pash spent his summers as a reserve US Army Intelligence officer… [During WWII] he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast and then was assigned [to] the Manhattan Project… Pash had little patience for bureaucracy [and] considered himself a man of action. While his admirers described him as ‘cunning and shrewd’, others regarded him as a ‘crazy Russian’. Pash considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy…” [p.190, American Prometheus]   …”On June 29, 1943..Col. Boris Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer [suspected of Communist sympathies] be denied a security clearance and fired… Groves’ new security aide, Lt.Col. John Lansdale, a smart thirty-one-year-old lawyer from Cleveland..did not recommend firing Oppenheimer…[p.233]…General Groves agreed with..Lansdale…[and] Pash..seethed at this decision.” [p.336, ibid.]…Pash had antagonistic toward Oppenheimer as to finally lead Groves to conclude that Pash was wasting the Army’s time and resources… Groves decided that Pash’s talents could be put to better use elsewhere.” [p249, American Prometheus] He was assigned to Alsos.
   The first part of Alsos’ mission was to accompany the advance troops into Italy. “Four outstanding scientists were picked by Dr. [Vannevar] Bush at OSRD. Dr. James Fisk of Bell Telephone Company was in charge of the scientists. Only he and Pash would know about the atomic bomb part of their mission… They were flown to Algiers to report to Gen. Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Gen. [Walter] Bedell Smith. Only these two men were to know the details…”
   As a young man of 17, Jim Fisk (1910-1981) “enrolled in [M.I.T] the new pursuits of aeronautical engineering… [In] 1932, he went to Cambridge University where he worked with those who were probing the [atomic] nucleus [in the Cavendish lab]… After working on particle accelerators..he accepted a job on the faculty of physics at the University of North Carolina. In 1939..Fisk accept[ed] the join Bell… He collaborated with William Shockley in the independent derivation of conditions for the critical mass and sustained chain reaction of an atomic pile… He was, in 1947, appointed the first director of research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission… He retired as chairman of Bell Laboratories in 1974, having served as executive vice-president from 1955 and president from 1959..thus directly responsible for all..programs pursued by Bell..for A.T.&T [which] included support of the national Apollo lunar exploration and close affiliation with the Sandia Laboratories in nuclear systems… [He] was uniquely prepared to work with President the formation of the Office of Science and Technology in the White House..[which he] served from 1973.” Fisk did not return to Alsos after the Italy assignment. The next mission was Alsos’ campaign into France and Germany on the heels of D-Day –their science director, picked by the OSRD, was Samuel Goudsmit. “Over..22 months they succeeded in seizing top German and Italian nuclear scientists and 70,000 tons of uranium and radium products that would be shipped to the U.S. for use in its own nuclear development… After the war..beginning in 1946 [Pash was posted] as the Chief of the Foreign Liason for MacArthur in Tokyo. In March 1949 he was detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination…” [the OPC]
The Atomic Energy Act charter tasked the FBI with the AEC’s security needs and consequently the official memoranda traffic was routed through the FBI, notwithstanding the significant stakeholding already in process by other agencies. Strauss wrote, “if any security whatever is to exist, there must be a recognized authority and a rule to which all must adhere.” [p248, Men and Decisions]
In August 1947, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich was appointed Director of the newly created Division of Security and Intelligence. Declassified FBI files on Gringrich show that at the time of his [AEC] appointment he was working closely with the Central Intelligence Group.”  The memoranda reveal Gingrich’s troubled tenure.
   July 1947, D.M. Ladd: Gingrich’s “principal job will be to cooperate with the FBI… The decision by the Commission to establish a combined security and intelligence division was based on security studies made over..five Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers.. former Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence and..first head of the Central Intelligence Group…  the AEC program will head up in the unified office of Admiral Gingrich…”
   To D.M. Ladd from Victor P. Keay, Sep.9,1947:”[One] of our best [FBI] confidential contacts stated that Admiral Gingrich is very unpopular with the employees of the Security Division and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction and grumbling among them. He stated that Gingrich uses very high-handed methods…[and] that the Admiral has been giving [security] clearance for employment to persons who were recommended against by the Review Board..the General Manager and others… The Admiral in conversations with Special Agent [blank] has indicated that he doesn’t put much faith in the ability of his personnel, particularly [blank] of the Security Division… The Admiral also indicated..that he intended to rely heavily upon the Bureau rather than his own Security Division.”
   April 19, 1949, Gingrich handed in his resignation, effective May 1, and “pointed out that there was no centralized control and when he issued instructions..had no assurance that they would be carried out… He has had numerous problems and his division has been beset by many difficulties.”
Atomic Energy Dual (FBI) Agent
   The FBI stepped into the fray “To further discharge our responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act” and initiated discussion of “placing Bureau Agents in vital installations in undercover capacities.”  According to Memo April 13, 1949, “the field was instructed over two years ago to develop confidential informants. Recently such offices were instructed to make an effort to promote some Communist into a position with the Atomic Energy Commission because it was felt that he could be of more assistance..from the standpoint of subversive coverage and..espionage… Supervisors in the [Bureau] are constantly alert to discover some individual who might be utilized as an informant.” The Communist informant program appears to have endured while the dual-agent program fizzled: three Special Agent candidates were selected: “but prior to making any definite arrangements with them, Commissioner Strauss..will be contacted on a confidential basis…  Memo July 18 1949, [Strauss] requested that we let him meet the Special Agents selected so that he could..vouch for them. He stated..he would not mention it to any of the other Commissioners.” Evidently, the FBI was deterred from planting informants when the Agents were rejected by  AEC contractors for employment. The Director informed all concerned to take no action. Memo Feb.28, 1950, “It may be pointed out that at the time this matter was first discussed with Commissioner Strauss…he stated that he could be helpful in placing undercover Agents. Later, Admiral Strauss advised that he would rather not actively assist… You will recall that Admiral Strauss is leaving..on April 15, 1950.” (3/4 down page). The result of this memo series, ending in August 1953 with Strauss’s return to the AEC, was a request by Chairman Strauss for the Bureau to reconsider initiating the undercover program. The FBI responded: “Strauss was advised that our personnnel and funds would not permit such a program… Strauss was further informed that collaterally, the lack of cooperation…lack of centralized control in AEC and the absence of an adequate inspection system were factors which the Bureau considered. Mr. Strauss..wanted the Director to know that centralized control..and inspection..would definitely be accomplished..after his reorganization of the Division of Security.”
   “During the Commission’s first three years there were occasions upon which I found myself at odds with a majority of  my colleagues… in the main..I was inclined to go along..if I could not bring them to see justice in my point of view.” –Lewis Strauss, p215, Men and Decisions.
One of his fellow AEC commissioners said of him, “If you disagree with Lewis about anything, he assumes you’re just a fool at first. But if you go on disagreeing with him, he concludes you must be a traitor.” [p362, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin]


Was Lee Harvey Oswald a “dual” atomic agent?

Read more:


Timeline NOTEs
1947 – “That spring, reports surfaced in the press that ‘secret files’ had been lost or stolen from the AEC’s laboratories. Critics of the AEC called for a military takeover of the agency on account of its ineptitude in managing security…”
uranium goes missing from the Argonne National Lab
–“the FBI was ex-soldier who had been found in possession of highly classified photographs stolen from the atomic facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico..[he] had also Brookhaven… As he was being arraigned in federal court, it was noted that he’d been picked up just as he was about to flee the country.”
July— [Albuquerque Journal] “The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers… A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the result of government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’…Officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments..[and] one of them added,’All we know is what we read in the papers.’…”
— In Socorro Dr. Irving Langmuir was initiating the first large-scale weather modification experiments;  Edward Teller wrote, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller]
April/May, Operation Sandstone in the Marshalls; first tests conducted by the AEC
May 14, Israel is founded, Palestine partitioned
–May 17, security breach reported, plutonium missing from Argonne. Bourke Hickenlooper calls for David Lilienthal’s resignation.
— Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine
— American Society for Human Genetics founded, F.J. Kallmann and H.J. Muller
— Sloan-Kettering opens for business
–84 million Americans receive dental X-rays with an average 5 rad exposure; 5 rads induce “blood changes”
–CIA initiates Project Bluebird, drug and psychology-based mind control
– April 4, signing of NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–May, Communist spy trials begin
–May 22, James V. Forrestal, Sec. of Navy, plunges to his death from 16th floor of Bethesda Naval Hospital
–Aug.29, Soviets detonate first A-bomb; determined to already have the H-bomb
–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General chief of the AFEB, tells NY medical establishment administrators that the “future is chronic disease”
–Oct., Mao’s revolutionaries overcome the Chinese ‘nationalists’ of Chiang Kai-shek
–”November 10–11, 1949, the First National Air Pollution Symposium
–Jan, Klaus Fuchs “confessed on 23rd January 1950” that he passed atomic secrets to the Soviets; Fuchs’ courier Harry Gold led the investigators to David Greenglass and his sister Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg
— Jan 31, authorization of the ‘Super’ thermonuclear fusion H-bomb
— Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss resigned the AEC, effective April 15
The H Bomb
Excerpt from the book Fallout, published in 1960:
…”The complications of the fusion [hydrogen] bomb arise from the fact that it takes a vast amount of energy to start the fusion reaction. To make deuterium nuclei fuse..they must be heated to about 100 million degrees Fahrenheit. Such energy can be provided by the explosion of a fission bomb, which can therefore serve as a trigger for a fusion bomb. But then comes the problem of how to pack enough hydrogen fuel into the bomb and how to hold it together long enough to allow it to fuse.
   “In the first attempt..the hydrogen was condensed to its liquid form. This meant that it had to be reduced to a very low-temperature –not far from absolute zero– and so our first hydrogen ‘bomb’ was a gigantic refrigerator, weighing some 65 tons. Its fuel was tritium (the hydrogen isotope with one proton and two neutrons), which fuses more readily than deuterium. This was the device detonated on the island of Elugelab in the Marshalls on November 1, 1952. It yielded the equivalent of about three million tons of TNT –150 times the Hiroshima bomb– and obliterated the little island…  Having proved that a fission-fusion device would work, the AEC scientists attacked the problem of reducing it to something portable enough to be used as a bomb. Several scientists..suggested that the need for liquefying the hydrogen might be avoided by combining it with the light metal litium in solid form; e.g. in the compound lithium deuteride, composed of one atom of lithium and one of deuterium.”
Congressman John F. Kennedy
   “Truman talked of ‘free peoples who are resiting attempted subjugation’… In this darkening world, an enemy of the Soviet Union was a friend of the United States… The public mood was shifting..and Jack was entering a Congress in which politicians of both parties had begun to flay away at Communists… of all the newly elected members..[Kennedy] was the first to berate publicly a putative Communist..[Russell Nixon of United Electrical Workers]before the House Labor Committee.
   …Joe remained as isolationist as he had ever been..[and] opposed the Marshall Plan as a massive giveaway of American wealth. He was all for letting the tired peoples of Europe have their desperate fling with Communism if they chose… Jack was making a different sound. Congressman Kennedy was a lowly freshman..But that spring [of 1947]..he stated that he was in favor of aid to Europe… Jack supported whatever measures were necessary to contain a Soviet Union that he believed pushed relentlessly outward, driven..and fortified by Communist ideology… [Kennedy] envisioned..a possible nuclear Armageddon..’some twenty-five or thirty-five years from now.‘ [pp244-246, The Kennedy Men] …Jack thought the veterans should lead the nation with concern for policies that would maintain the peace and build a strong and prosperous nation… [He] was pleading for America’s veterans not to retreat into private life, leaving the public arena to the predators, the self-interested, and the narrow parochial interests…[p235]…Jack carried with him the bitter memories of a wartime capital full of what he considered the self-serving and the self-seeking… [W]hen he returned to Washington..[he] saw only the endless compromise… As the months went by, Jack became less and less a forceful advocate and more of an ironic, disinterested bystander. He brought the same emotional distance that he kept from everyone in his life to the world of politics. [p248] …[Kennedy] did not like confrontation. He found the endless battles between Democrats and Republicans not a real war but a wearisome and tedious routine. He had one of the worst attendence records in the House of Representatives… Only some [of the absences] could be attributed to his many illnesses. [p280, ibid.]
   “Jack needed these [cortisone] injections to live..[p253]…”Jack was crippled and he couldn’t walk well,’ [George]Smathers remembered…‘[and it]was a long walk [to the House floor] for a guy who had a bad hip and a bad back…So he would lean on me..[to] get over..[and] vote. So that’s really how we became very close friends…‘ [The] two bachelors had been relegated to the distant reaches of the House Office Building… Smathers’ office was just down the hall from Jack’s. [p249-250] ‘He had leukemia at one point,’ Rose told Robert Coughlin in an unpublished..autobiography. ‘I remember..there was one doctor who could cure it…[People] don’t get over that..very often.’ Jack’s..leukemia..was yet another secret that had to be carefully contained. No record of this adult illness exists… [p282] His great creation, then, was..a man of apparently endless vigor and health. He let no one stand close enough to his pain to betray his illusion. [p253] Joe..had taught his children that time was the rarest commodity in life…’Time is man’s dominant foe,’ he said. ‘All man has on earth is the present moment…‘ [p260]
   “Jack’s anticommunism was tempered by the terrible realities of well as his own..ever-growing awareness of the complexities of the modern world…[p283] He and his colleagues had helped create an image of a Soviet monolith ready to strike, but now [1950] he had grasped the truths of nuclear detente. ‘Why should they [the Russians] take the risk of starting a war when the best they could get would be a stalemate during which they would be subjected to atomic bombing?’ he asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in February 1951. ‘Why should they throw everything into the game..[and] take risks they don’t have to –especially when things are going well in the Far East?’…’Stalin is an old man, and old men are traditionally cautious.’ ...[JFK] wanted to touch the world with his own mind…[p284]…Jack was attempting to understand the complex.. uncertain world of 1951. This was not easy in an America that adored simplicity. A dangerous new world was opening up... [p285, The Kennedy Men]
                                                            McMahon                Golden
Private Citizen Strauss did not leave the AEC program:  The Chairman of Congress’ Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (the JCAE), Senator [James O’]Brien McMahon of Connenticut, appointed Strauss Chairman of the Atomic Plant Expansion Advisory Panel. [ref. p378, Men and Decisions]. Strauss assistant, William T. Golden concurrently promoted the creation of a Presidential scientific advisory to Truman ( the later-named PSAC in 1957).
William T. Golden, who died Oct. 7, 2007, a few weeks short of his 98th birthday, was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science…In 1946, he became an assistant to Atomic Energy Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss and helped organize that federal agency… His first Truman on December 18, 1950, under the title, “Mobilizing Science for War,” was the establishment of the position of scientific advisor to the president…Golden searched among the first NSF director candidates for someone..[and] found the right candidate in Alan T. Waterman, a physicist who was then chief scientist for the Office of Naval Research  … After ending his service to President Truman, Golden embarked on a life of stewardship and philanthropy. He was a trustee, board member or officer of nearly 100 scientific, educational and non-profit organizations. Waterman was also the brother-in-law of H. Neil Mallon (1895-d.1983) of Dresser Industries (acquired by Halliburton in 1998) and a close friend of Prescott Sheldon Bush (1895-d.1972).
The Sea Change
By 1950, the Sandia base at Kirtland field in New Mexico, operated by Bell Laboratories of A.T.&T, advertized its ability to turn out two nuclear weapons per day. Pressing a fear that escalating hostility in Asia would cause the military to temporarily lose its Pacific Proving Ground in the Marshalls, it was decided run tests in Nevada. The Nevada Proving Ground had been authorized in 1943 with atomic munitions in mind. Operation Ranger, scheduled for Jan-Feb., became the first series at the NTS.  Up in Michigan, where the Public Health Service maintained one of its signal laboratories, radioactive snow was collected and measured that February.
   “In the twentieth century, the soldier and citizen have become interchangeable…[p9] …The atom bomb completes the evolution. It consecrates the use of any means against the entire population… By a logic that is paradoxical only in appearance, the country least warlike in its tastes and philosophy has thus played a decisive part in the advent of unlimited war… The United States will one day, according to certain experts, be more vulnerable to atomic attack than that of any other country.” [p155, The Century of Total War, by Raymond Aron, 1955] The Korean War, declared in June of 1950 was the first conflagration expected to go nuclear. On those grounds, an unprecedented series of three atomic operations were planned for 1951; Operation Ranger in Nevada (Jan-Feb), Operation Greenhouse in the Pacific (Apr-May), and Operation Buster-Jangle back at the NTS (Oct-Nov). The planners were preparing for “nuclear battlefield” simulations.
Top Secret — Soviet H-bomb
“[T]he evidence is convincing that the Russians achieved not only the first experimental nuclear fusion on earth, but also produced the first deliverable hydrogen bomb.” –p263, Energy and Conflict, 1976, Blumberg and Owens, who wrote “our first solid evidence came from Major Theodore F. Walkowicz…[who told us] there was something chilly and strange in the debris samples… [More] evidence comes from Robert LeBaron who, in 1951, was chairman of the [AEC] Military Liason Committee, the link between the Pentagon and the AEC. LeBaron..confirmed Walkowicz’s statement that there was a hydrogen component in a Russian test in late 1950… He was asked, ‘Was the AEC, the GAC, Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller aware of this intelligence?’ LeBaron’s reply was rather astounding: ‘No, they were not notified. It was top secret..’ ” [pp269-270, Energy and Conflict]
1951 – Operation RANGER – Jan27-Feb06 – [activated] Nevada Test Site : 5 shots   …Science magazine published an article by W.W. Meinke on the radioactive snow observed in Ann Arbor, Michigan  —
1951 – Operation GREENHOUSE – Apr08-May25 – Marshall Islands, Pacific : 4 shots
1951 – Operation BUSTER-JANGLE – Oct22-Nov29 – Nevada Test Site : 7 shots : operation Desert Rock, 6,500 troops on the ground
      ………W.McD. Hammon tests gamma-globulin on Provo Utah children, Sept -Dec.1
Polio Vaccine and Fallout
The gamma globulin “polio” vaccine trial run by William McDowell Hammon out of Provo Utah during Buster-Jangle was the first major response to fallout involving the Public Health Service and the March of Dimes. As both an acute and latent byproduct of radiation injury, polio (brain infection) has gone unappreciated as a fallout hazard –part of our hidden nuclear history. It is a significant factor, however, in the transformation of soldier-citizens. Hammon’s field work in Utah, and later in Texas and Iowa, was an opportunity to harvest gamma globulin (immune-cell rich blood serum) from the radiation-exposed public. Interestingly, enough children were registered in these vaccine trials to provide serum for the Nevada test participants through 1953, when the gamma globulin trial ended and the Salk vaccine began.
    Lewis Strauss, as noted in part I, began his career in medicine as the president of the Rothschilds’ polio hospital –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases. Polio, the ‘disease’ entity, was being managed by the Rockefeller establishment for whom Strauss went to work between his posts with the Atomic Energy Commission. Hired by Laurance Rockefeller to be financier to the Rockeller Brothers Fund, Strauss became a founding incorporator in some of its many projects –among them, the Population Council.
                                Lasker           Mahoney    
Birth control was a special interest of Albert and Mary Lasker. “[A]lmost from the moment they met, he and Mary addressed themselves to medical problems, and their long..struggle..still goes on productively today [1960]… The laskers worked..on at least four different fronts: (1) birth control; (2) medical research..;(3) the American Cancer Society; and (4) the Lasker Foundation. Mary, who admired Margaret Sanger greatly, had been active in the birth control movement… Overpopulation was, she thought, a major world problem… ‘Birth control,’ [Albert] said, was too negative a phrase; it connoted self-denial. He chose ‘Planned Parenthood’..[and] gave it $75,000…” [p315, Taken At The Flood, by John Gunther]
   Florence Mahoney, Mary Lasker’s lobbying companion-in-arms after the death of Albert (1952), remembered “‘The first time that I got interested in birth control was when I volunteered to work in the Crippled and Disabled Hospital in New York’…[S]he was asked to test the muscles of children who had polio… Mahoney did not actively participate in Sanger’s organization..but became an avid fan..using her political contacts to spread the Planned Parenthood word. [p29, Noble Conspirator]…Mental health reforms too, occupied her attention. [p31] ‘I was willing to suggest anything at anytime that I thought was going to help anybody,’ she said.” [p32, Noble Conspirator, by Judith Robinson, 2001]
   Albert Lasker also “never ceased doing things for people…[p300] One of his major preoccupations for a time was a proposal for converting the Federal Security Agency into full-scale Department of Welfare with cabinet status… He was almost as..interested in health matters as Mary, [writing] ‘I am certain..Congress..will pass a very big bill for aid to hospital building.’ Meantime, he kept his eye on events…” [p299, Taken At The Flood] Lasker was right. Congress turned the FSA into HEW (Health, Education and Welfare) and Nelson Rockefeller became its Asst. Secretary, credited to him as acting Secretary.
   Lasker, a longtime friend, colleague, and ‘elder’ to Strauss, pitched in when things needed changing at the Atomic Energy Commission. David Lilienthal, who had been Chairman from the AEC’s beginning, did not support the Super. “One of Lasker’s last friendships was with David Lilienthal, for many years chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and then of the [AEC]. They met toward the end of the decade, at Mary’s suggestion, when Lilienthal was on the point of leaving government. Lasker was his devotion to the public good..and the constructive brilliance of his mind. Albert knew, too, that he..wanted to go into some private business. So Lasker approached Andre Meyer [of Lazard Freres] pointing out that Lilienthal..was..a good man to have around. Meyer..proceeded to create a position for Lilienthal and a company was formed to work out projects..[in] long-range regional planning –irrigation, reclamation, et cetera– all over the world. So Lilienthal set out on a new career in Colombia, the Punjab, and particularly Iran.” [p291, Taken At The Flood]
 Timeline NOTEs: 1951-1953
–WORLD POPULATION at 2,530,000,000
–Jan10, United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan (NYC)
–Jan., Nevada Test Site is activated, Operation Ranger causes radioactive snow; Operation Buster-Jangle in autumn concurrent with first polio vaccine trial in Provo, Utah
–the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC is created; credited to Alexander Langmuir, nephew of G.E. scientist Irving Langmuir who practiced weather control
–Niels Bohr convenes a meeting to establish CERN
–Feb., Cancer cells taken from patient Henrietta Lacks (HeLa cells) revolutionize biology research, providing an “immortal” supply to the field of “tissue culture”; HeLa cells used for growing polioviruses
–”Prompted by [Margaret] Sanger, Gregory Pincus begins research on the use of hormones in contraception. In Mexico City, chemist Carl Djerassi creates a progesterone pill”,9171,1983970,00.html (‘displaced scholar’ Djerassi later moves to Stanford University and participates in the DENDRAL artificial intelligence project)
–the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons facility is constructed 16 miles from Denver Colorado
–Mar13, Israel demands 6.2 million DM from Germany
–Mar21, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage
–April, creation of the MOSSAD from its 1937 Paris predecessor, ‘Mossad le Aliyah Bet’
–Apr13,Knesset creates ‘Holocaust Day’ (Yom Hashoah)
–KOREAN WAR declared in June
–Aug-Sep, UFO sightings in Texas, called the “Lubbock Lights”
–Ludwik Gross discovers carcinogenic polyoma virus (SV40 monkey virus type)
–founding of The Nature Conservancy, reformed from the Ecologists Union
–Averill Harriman creates the Psychological Strategy Board, director Gordon Gray
–Senate hearings underway, determining that polio is caused by pesticides, Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey testify; pesticides give cover for radiation sickness
–Nov, first ground troops (Operation Desert Rock) witness A-bomb tests at NTS; Operation Buster-Jangle
–Chalk River, Ontario reactor has partial meltdown, Jimmy Carter helps with the clean-up
–Operation Ivy nuke tests in the Marshalls (first thermonuclear)
–Operation Tumbler-Snapper at the NTS
–Jonas Salk now thinks he has a successful polio vaccine (“fallout vaccine” with HeLa and SV40?)
–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission
–Britain joins the ‘nuclear’ nations with atmospheric tests in Australia
–June/July, intensive wave of UFO sightings worldwide, but especially in the US, includes a famous episode over Washington DC
–John D. Rockefeller III (elder of Nelson, Winthrop, and David) convenes the founding members of the Population Council Inc.
–July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
–Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay
–Typhoon Karen hits Korea and Japan
–Nov, Kamchatka Earthquake and tsunami, magnitude 9.0
–most cases of US polio ever on record, approx. 60,000 (diagnosis criteria begin changing, polio cases drop)
–Jan20, President Dwight D.Eisenhower trakes office
–Senator Joseph McCarthy chairs the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (under the Government Operations Committee of the US Senate)
–the [Charles E.]‘Wilson Memorandum’ advises secret human experimentation
–the ‘Project Sunshine’ PR campaign begins (1953-1957, to alleviate fear of fallout) for the Atomic Energy Commission under Chairman Lewis L. Strauss
–the “Atoms for Peace” initiatives take shape
–Mar05, Joseph Stalin is murdered; watch Juri Lina’s film In The Shadow of Hermes
–Mar., Operation Upshot-Knothole nuke test, NTS, 18,000 ground troops exposed
the Kruschev era begins in Soviet Union (1953-1964)
–Soviets begin microwaving the US Embassy in Moscow (1953-1976); successive ambassadors contract cancer/leukemia, staff exhibit Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome (RFSS); later, in 1966, The Moscow Signal results in a classified study called Project Pandora
–the Salk IPV polio vaccine field trials begin
–Nelson Rockefeller becomes acting chief of the new Dept of Health, Education and Welfare (the marginalized HEW Secretary: Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas)
–the poliovirus is photographed for the first time
–June 18, coup d’etat in Egypt; the monarchy of Egypt is deposed becomes a republic
–July 27, Ceasefire declared in Korea
–Aug.19; coup d’etat in Iran; elected government of Mosaddegh overthrown with CIA help (Operation Ajax); installation of the Shah Pahlavi
Between 1950 and 1953 a Uranium Boom was taking place in the American Southwest.
to be continued in Part III: Israel gets the bomb; more on Pash, Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower,  nuclear testing, Oppenheimer case, relations with Israel, etc.

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