Jennifer Lake's Blog

March 26, 2015

Atomic Agent Oswald

Linked from Lewis Strauss and JFK
“We must always remember Bertrand Russell’s profound unanswered question after he had received an advanced copy of the Warren Report. ‘If, as we are told, Oswald was the lone assassin, where is the issue of national security?’ Russell’s question…has never been answered.” –John Chuckman (‘Forty Years of Lies’ November 12, 2003)
This post is a proposition to the field:
   While there is no absolute proof of an “atomic agent Oswald”, decades of diligence in JFK assassination research has produced an abundance of evidence giving a high probability to such a case. It lacks only a voice and a statement, so I’m going to make that case here, as expansively as I can, incorporating “new knowledge” learned from radiation-caused polio and other sources of background that define a role for the atomic energy chief, Lewis Strauss, as well.
*                                                         usa-and-the-red-menace-8-638L.L.Strauss in upper left background



Here’s the deal.
(in no particular order)
Oswald worked for the FBI, having pay vouchers in his possession (which provoked a secret session of the Warren Commission) because the FBI was required by law of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act to provide security and policing to the newborn nuclear industry. In 1949, due to discoveries about missing atomic materials, the FBI entered into a tentative “dual agent” program with AEC Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss (exclusively) which failed on its face. In a series of declassified memos, dated 1949-53, it appears that Hoover delegated his authority to develop such a program to Strauss after LLS became AEC chairman in 1953. The fate or function of any dual FBI/AEC counterintelligence program is unknown but the need for it was clearly demonstrated. Atomic plant security harbors a ghastly record; Strauss was the official “atomic plant” director after resigning his Commissioner’s seat in 1950, concurrent with his interim job as personal banker to the Rockefeller Brothers. It is unthinkable to suppose non-existing counterintelligence  security for the industrial safety of atomic reactors and weapons. We should expect that measures were taken and nuclear allies assured, even as the Atomic Energy Commission prepared a drastic downsizing of its participation due to scheduled privatization. By 1960-62, the AEC was cutting many of its contractors loose, subject to the vagaries of commercial markets. Pending arms treaties with the Soviets hung in the balance.
J.Edgar Hoover expressed official concern for Oswald’s welfare (and the disposition of his passport) in Russia to the State Department in June of 1960 prompted by a letter to the FBI from his mother Marguerite, received earlier in May. Hoover may have been “discharging his duty” to atomic security in displaying this interest.
Oswald worked for the CIA, as sworn testimony suggests but does not describe, in preparing for his travel and stay in Russia which originated through his service with U-2 spy plane operations in 1957-58. The  CIA’s U-2 program functioned under the security umbrella of the Atomic Energy Commission, initiated while Adm. Strauss was AEC chair. Strauss had full U-2 clearance and was additionally an extraordinary sponsor and friend to Edwin Land (of Polaroid), the key designer of U-2 program development.
–Oswald indeed, especially in New Orleans, became closely involved with the flow of small arms and ammunition and there is speculative evidence that nuclear materials were moved by that flow. Key persons and agencies connected to the JFK assassination had direct and profitable activities in atomic industry. Even a reframing of the U.S. Public Health Service particle accelerator story given by Ed Haslam in Dr. Mary’s Monkey, has more ominous implications used to “recharge” or transform nuclear fuel in a spent or raw state.
–Accepting the atomic agent premise, Oswald was a “special” special agent, perhaps on a solitary mission for the “common task” enunciated after the Kennedy-Krushchev  talks to halt nuclear proliferation in anticipation of a long sought test-ban. Agent Oswald entered the USSR in October of 1959 for training, beyond the reach of the CIA, as the superpowers suspended atmospheric testing, with the consideration of a future treaty. Eisenhower described the suspension as a “moratorium on atomic weapons”.
–Creation of the false “Oswald” trail in New Orleans by the CIA began January 20, 1961, the day of Kennedy’s inauguration and two weeks before Oswald himself first petitioned to return to the U.S.
                                                                   CardOldITMNola New Orleans Trade Mart
Getting a Clue
In February of 1962, ten months after the Bay of Pigs invasion, a medical team of Americans led by Dr. Albert Sabin launched a mass vaccination campaign in Cuba using his OPV, oral polio vaccine, that Sabin had co-developed with the Soviets. Historically, Cuba recorded its first cases of polio among U.S. residents living at the Isla de Pinos in 1906-09,(a likely after-effect of popular X-ray treatments in those days). “The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years…  Between 1957 and 1961, the disease.. reached epidemic levels [during peak fallout from atomic tests!]… In 1962..using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign.”;jsessionid=F7B2770745445DAEA5B2E1EEB78586D1
   Polio in Cuba, and the presence of the vaccinators, prior to the Missile Crisis of October 1962 was the first inkling to this researcher that uranium products, other than fallout or Russian rockets, were moving around the island.  Inevitably,  pursuit of explanations for polio records, be it in Cuba, Canada, San Francisco or New Orleans leads to some unusual territory. Precisely such a polio pursuit concerning a major epidemic in Brooklyn New York back in 1916, led to the career origin of a young law student named John J. McCloy who was later appointed by LBJ to the Warren Commission. McCloy, at the time of Kennedy’s death, was a chief nuclear disarmament negotiator. Additionally, McCloy had another shadowy role as the chairman of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif.  Jonas Salk, president of his eponymous lab, announced in 1962 that cancer was going to be prevented by vaccines. It must have been a comforting litany to the many Manhattan Project scientists who worked for the Salk. One of the founding funders of the institute, Colorado oilman John King, failed to bribe Jim Garrison to drop the prosecution against Clay Shaw.
                 TrumanandMcCloy     JFKandMcCloy
McCloy, ‘Seven Sisters’ lawyer (all seven oil majors) Truman’s Asst.Secretary of War and Kennedy’s arms negotiator, was alleged to be present in Texas at the Murchison family ranch meeting on Nov.21, 1963
   Mid-way between the Cuban polio inoculations and the Missile Crisis, In June ’62, Lee H. Oswald made his homecoming after spending more than a year petitioning for his exit from the USSR. That same month of June, a Russian KGB officer named Yuri Nosenko made his first contact with the CIA in Switzerland. Nosenko, “since the age of twenty-two..had served in Soviet intelligence. In 1949 he joined Soviet naval intelligence… In 1953 he work for the State Security Agency, known.. by the initials KGB… From February to June 1962 he was attached to the Soviet disarmament delegation in Geneva as chief security officer. It was then that he first contacted an American diplomat and asked to be taken to see a CIA officer.” [p.5, Legend, by Edward J. Epstein]. Nosenko initially agreed to remain an ‘agent in place’ and carry on his normal KGB routines but after JFK’s assassination, he urgently pressed the CIA  to expedite his defection to the U.S.  He again slipped out of a Geneva disarmament conference in January of 1964 and told his handlers he had information about Lee Harvey Oswald; “Nosenko explained that..he was the KGB officer appointed to make a ‘complete investigation’ of the Oswald affair… He could therefore testify from his firsthand inspection of the complete files that the KGB had no connection to Oswald.” [p.11,ibid.] “At Langley, [Richard] Helms realized..[the]CIA could not afford to lose a potentially valuable witness to Oswald’s activities in the Soviet Union. He took the matter to John McCone, the Director of the CIA.” [pp13-14, ibid.] and previously Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission under Eisenhower. Lewis Strauss, the AEC predecessor chairman, claimed to have hand-picked McCone.
       JFK, Dulles, and McCone  jfkdullesmccone                         YuriNosenko Nosenko (was he affirming the Kennedy-Krushchev ‘common task’?)
McConewar profiteer John A. McCone, Bechtel-McCone, AEC, CIA

“McCone was an ardent Cold War warrior and in 1956 attacked the suggestion made by Adlai Stevenson that there should be a nuclear test ban. McCone, a strong supporter of Dwight Eisenhower, accused American scientists of being “taken in” by Soviet propaganda and of attempting to “create fear in the minds of the uninformed that radioactive fallout from H-bomb tests endangers life.”

In 1958 President Dwight Eisenhower rewarded McCone by appointing him Chairman of the Atomic Energy commission. After the Bay of Pigs disaster, President John F. Kennedy sacked Allen W. Dulles as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Under pressure from right-wingers in the intelligence community, Kennedy appointed McCone as the new director of the CIA.”


James Douglass wrote, “We have no evidence as to who in the military-industrial complex may have given the order to assassinate President Kennedy. That the order was carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency is obvious. The CIA’s fingerprints are all over the crime and the events leading up to it…  Investigative journalist Joseph Trento testified in a 1984 court deposition that, according to CIA sources, James Angleton was the supervisor of a CIA assassination unit in the 1950s. The ‘small assassination team’ was headed by Army colonel Boris Pash… Trento testified that his sources confirmed, ‘Pash’s assassination unit was assigned to Angleton’. ” [p142, JFK and the Unspeakable, by James Douglass, 2008]
     wikiPash Boris Pash  LBJandPashatParkland Pash with LBJ at Parkland Hospital
   By the time of the Kennedy assassination, Pash had already made his mark on history: “Lt. Col. Boris T. Pash at G-2 Army Intelligence in San Francisco [was] Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast… He had spent much of his career hunting communists… After America entered World War II, he assisted in the internment of Japanese-Americans [in a program authorized by Asst. Sec. of War John J. McCloy]...and then was assigned as the Manhattan Project’s chief counterintelligence officer.” [pp.190-191, American Prometheus, by Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, 2005]
   “Pash served from 1949 through 1952 as the CIA’s Chief of Program Branch 7 (PB/7), a special operations unit within the Office of Policy Coordination [OPC], the original CIA clandestine service. Pash’s boss, the Director of Operations Planning for OPC, told the Senate [Church Committee] investigators that Colonel Pash’s Program Branch 7 unit was responsible for assassinations and kidnapping as well as ‘special operations’. Pash denied..responsibility for assassinations… Former CIA officer E. Howard Hunt Jr. told the New York Times on December 26, 1975 that in the mid-fifties he had been informed by his superiors that Boris T. Pash was in charge of a.. unit responsible for the ‘assassination of suspected double agents and similar low-ranking officials’…
   “Despite the CIA’s claim that it had no records dealing with assassinations, the Senate committee staff investigators concluded that Pash’s unit was indeed assigned ‘responsibility for assassinations and kidnappings.’ It was documented, for example, that while working in the CIA’s Technical Services Division in the early 1960s, Pash was involved in the attempt to design poisoned cigars destined for Fidel Castro.” [p.254, ibid.]
   Pash also denied ever having worked for the CIA, maintaining that his regular employer, the U.S. Army,  loaned out his services. Over the course of 1953-54, Pash’s service was devoted to AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss in the cause of removing Robert Oppenheimer from any classified position of authority within the nation’s nuclear program. The Oppenheimer Case, which is the subject of American Prometheus by Bird and Sherwin, is also the title of a book by Philip Stern, the son of Edgar and Edith (Rosenwald) Stern of New Orleans, owners of NBC-affiliate WDSU TV and radio, and friends of Clay Shaw.
    AllenDulles     “Allen Dulles used to tell his sister that 1953 and 1954 were the good years at the CIA, when everything seemed to be going right and the Agency was his brother’s strong right arm in helping to reshape the world… For the first time, the CIA now had a budget running at over half a billion dollars, and there was no one outside the Agency Allen needed to tell how the money was spent...” [p.323, Dulles, by Leonard Mosley, 1978]  “...Never before or since has the CIA had more support from the State Department, or, because Secretary Dulles was so powerful, more freedom to infiltrate U.S…offices in foreign countries. [CIA] had complete freedom to undertake projects of enormous tactical or strategical significance with little or no oversight... [p.364, ibid.]
   “In 1955, Allen was able to extend the CIA’s kingdom to the stratosphere. [Literally, with the U-2 aerial reconnaissance program, p.365] …But the trouble with the Agency was that there was such a multiplicity of small activities going on at any given time that no one could keep account of them all, except, perhaps, the finance department, which had to pay for them –sometimes in weird and wonderful ways.” [p.370, Dulles, A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and Their Family Network, by Leonard Mosley, 1978, Dial Press]
   Garrison    Jim Garrison wrote: “Much later in 1978, James A. Wilcott, a former CIA finance officer, told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Lee Oswald had been recruited from the military by the CIA ‘with the express purpose of a double agent assignment in the USSR.* [footnoted:] Wilcott testified under oath that he had handled the funding for the project to which Oswald was assigned...” [p.49, On the Trail of the Assassins, 1988]
   James Douglass contributes: “Jim Wilcott worked in the finance branch of the Tokyo CIA Station from 1960 to 1964. During the same years [his wife] Elsie Wilcott was a secretary at the Tokyo Station... [Wilcott recounted]..’a man I knew and had worked with before showed up to take a disbursement and told me Lee Harvey Oswald was a CIA employee. I didn’t believe him until he told me the cryptonym under which Oswald had drawn funds when he returned from Russia to the U.S…. It was a cryptonym..that I was familiar with…  It was common knowledge in the Tokyo CIA Station that Oswald worked for the Agency.’ In an article based on what he learned at the Tokyo Station, Jim Wilcott wrote: “He had been trained at Atsugi Naval Air Station, a plush super secret cover base for Tokyo Station special operations… Oswald was recruited from the military for the express purpose of becoming a double agent assignment to the USSR… More than once I was told something like ‘so-and-so was working on the Oswald project back in the late ’50s.” [pp 146-147, JFK and the Unspeakable]
The image of Boris Pash and LBJ together in Dallas on 11-22-63 at the Parkland suggests the immediacy of an Oswald problem. The above link to Jim Fetzer’s Real Deal program features a description of what happened to the next famous patient brought to the hospital:
(minute 36:30)
   “LBJ, or an LBJ top aide..called Henry Wade in Dallas [to insist] ‘You have your man…just move forward’…
   “Charles Crenshaw, who was one of the trauma room physicians when JFK’s moribund body was brought in… he closed JFK’s eyelids… was responsible two days later to take care of Oswald…[during which] he was notified he had a phone call from the President of the United States… There was that all too familiar voice of Lyndon Johnson saying he wanted a deathbed confession from the assailant. Crenshaw explained to him that actually Oswald seemed to be doing better and he thought [Oswald] was not going to die. Lyndon told [Crenshaw] there’d be a man in a trench coat there waiting to take the confession… and when Crenshaw returned to the room there was a sinister-looking guy in a trench coat whom I believe was David Sanchez Morales –but [then] Oswald took a turn for the worse and died. There was no deathbed confession. But, it’s really a fascinating aspect revealing how much LBJ was personally involving himself in covering up the case.”
   This Real Deal episode, incidentally, concerns the Murchison ranch ‘party’ the night before JFK’s murder, attended by witness Madeleine Brown –LBJ’s mistress– who swore to the occurrence there of a secret high-level closed-door meeting at which J.Edgar Hoover, Richard Nixon, John McCloy, LBJ and others were present. The Murchison meeting is the presumed green light for the next-day assassination.
An additional Real Deal program recorded in April 2015 with Alan Salerian, discussing the altered Zapruder film, mentions that Oswald’s arrest report was filed by the Dallas police at 1:40 pm, charging him with the murders of Officer Tippet and President Kennedy, ten minutes before Oswald was actually arrested (minute 1:16). The same program offers the location of one of the sniper teams in the open window office of Dallas Uranium and Oil (DUO), a CIA front company in the Dal-Tex building where the shooter had “George [H.W.] Bush supervising him.” (minute 33)
   “Perhaps Dallas homicide had systematically altered evidence not just to nail Oswald… Perhaps it had behaved as it had intentionally, to protect the actual killers of both John Kennedy and J.D. Tippet. If that were true, it would mean we were dealing with something beyond incompetence, even beyond cover-up. It would mean that Dallas homicide– or key members of it– had at worst colluded in the assassination before it happened or at best actively ratified it afterwards.” –Jim Garrison, p203, On The Trail of The Assassins, 1988
AGENT OSWALD TIMELINE               MarineOswald
October 24, 1956: With his mother’s consent, at age seventeen LHO enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was sent to Camp Pendleton (San Diego/Oceanside, CA) for basic training.
March 18, 1957: LHO was assigned to Jacksonville, FL Naval Air Station for training in RADAR. He graduated in May and proceeded to Keesler AFB in Mississippi for aircraft control, finishing #7 in his class in June when next he was ordered to station in Atsugi Japan.
August 21, 1957: LHO boarded the USS Bexar in San Diego for a 21-day voyage. He served a 13 month tour in Japan.
November 2 1958: Oswald departed Japan for a two-week ride to San Francisco, where he received a new assignment at the El Toro Air base in Santa Ana, CA.
February 25, 1959: Oswald took his first Russian language test.
March 1959: LHO applied to the Albert Schweitzer College in Churwalden Switzerland for the 1960 spring term.
July 1959: filed for help with an early discharge to the Red Cross
August 17, 1959: filed for a ‘dependency discharge’ (to help his mother), approved September3
September 4: filed for a passport in Santa Ana (“to attend Albert Schweitzer College”), rec’d Sept.10
September 11: officially discharged, takes a bus to Fort Worth TX arrived 2am Sept.14
September 16: left TX for New Orleans, receives a passport stamp “Import-Export”
September 17: booked passage with Int’l Trade Mart company Travel Consultants Inc. for the freighter Marion Lykes, headed to La Havre France. Oswald self-described as a “shipping export agent”.
Sept.20– shipped out of New Orleans, arrived in France on October 8, 1959; Claim of spending one week in England, then on to Helsinki Finland; received a visa to enter USSR in 24 hours.
October 15, 1959: LHO left Helsinki by train, bound for Moscow, crossing the border at Vainikkala.
—timeline reference source: Legend, The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jay Edward Epstein—
 Import-Export; director of the NOLA Trade Mart  Shaw Clay L. Shaw
   ” In early January of 1960, Oswald was sent to Minsk –one of six Soviet cities to which defectors customarily were sent– and given a job as a metal worker [inspector] in a radar factory… he was given a number of privileges not available to the average Russian worker,  including a comfortable apartment and a relatively high salary.
   “In February 1961, after 15 months in the Soviet Union, Oswald applied at the American Embassy in Moscow to return to the United States.  The following month [March ’61] he met Marina Prusakova…the niece of a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet Union’s domestic intelligence service. In April, less than two months after they met, they were married.”– p.50, On The Trail of The Assassins
   ...”[That the] United States government..demonstrat[ed] almost paternal solicitude for Lee Oswald’s welfare even while he was in the Soviet Union comprised, to my mind, a steady uninterrupted pattern. And the preferential treatment did not end with the arrival of Lee and Marina and their young daughter in New York in June of 1962…
   “…Immediately upon his return to the U.S., Oswald..moved to Fort Worth, Texas. There he worked at the Leslie Welding Company until October 7, 1962, when George de Mohrenschildt and his wife came over from Dallas to spend the evening as guests of Lee and Marina at their modest apartment.” –p51, ibid., Garrison
De Mohrenschildt  George deMohrenschildt of the Dallas Petroleum Club
“The following day, October 8, Lee packed up and moved to Dallas, 30 miles away, where deMohrenschildt lived. Oswald wasted no time in seeking a new job at the Texas Employment Office in Dallas… [B]efore October 1962 was over, Oswald had obtained a job that, for a former defector to the Soviet Union, seemed quite unlikely. Jagger-Stovall-Chiles, under a contract with the Pentagon, was engaged in the production of charts and maps for military use. Writer Henry Hurt has observed that ‘part of the work appeared to be related to the top-secret U-2 missions, some of which were making flights over Cuba’. This job required an extremely high security classification. Lee Harvey Oswald not only was given the job within one week of his arrival in Dallas, but also had access to a variety of classified materials.
   …”Socially, despite his ‘defection’ and his ostensibly vocal allegience to communism, Oswald and his family were welcomed with open arms by the White Russian community of Dallas… Oswald’s most frequent associate in Dallas, I discovered, was George de Mohrenschildt… His father, Baron Sergius de Mohrenschildt, had been governor of the province of Minsk for the czar. The family had fled from the communists after the 1917 revolution. De Mohrenschildt spoke Russian, French, German, Spanish and Polish. In World War II he had worked for French intelligence… [and] possessed a doctorate in international commerce and a master’s degree in petroleum engineering and geology… Among his close friends, one of the more interesting was Jean de Menil, the president of the mammoth international Schlumberger Corporation, which had close ties with the Central Intelligence Agency. [footnote] The CIA and Schlumberger had a mutual interest in the O.A.S. [Secret Army Organization]..led by former French generals who had revolted against President Charles DeGaulle in 1961 when Algeria was in the process of winning its independence. The Agency had been a staunch, although secret, supporter of the French anti-Gaullist movement.” pp52-53, ibid.,Garrison
DeGaulle Author and professor Joan Mellen writes, “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962. [Guy] Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw Banister and ..PERMINDEX (Permanent Industrial Exhibition), based in Switzerland.” –p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005
Ringleader of the French OAS generals, Jacques Soustelle JacquesSoustelle former colonial governor of Algeria and French atomic energy minister
GuyBanister Ex-FBI New Orleans private detective Guy Banister
GarrisonSmallImage “Spring of 1963 arrived and Lee Oswald– as usual, without fanfare or any other preliminaries– left Dallas in late April for New Orleans. His wife and daughter arrived there shortly afterwards. By May 9 Oswald had obtained a job in New Orleans at the Reily Coffee Company, just on the other side of the post office building from Guy Banister’s office… Now I was interested in taking a closer look at how he found his way to employment at the Reily Coffee Company… Judging by [a] lengthy series of [Warren] Commission exhibits, he had sought employment at half the businesses in the city of New Orleans.” —pp56-57, On The Trail of The Assassins— “…[D.A. investigator] Frank agreed with me on the probability of Oswald’s impersonation in the job applications. What it amounted to, of course, was that Oswald had been destined from the outset to go to work at the Reily Coffee Company, close by Guy Banister’s office. All these applications by someone impersonating him were intended to obscure that.” –p59, ibid.
   “It had always puzzled me why Oswald had left Dallas in April 1963 to spend the summer in New Orleans, only to return to Dallas again in October. But given what I had learned, this began to make sense. Clearly, if Oswald was being set up as a communist scapegoat, his close association in Dallas with the anti-communist White Russians had to be severed. Likewise, a summer of ostentatiously handing out out pro-Castro leaflets in New Orleans reinforced the image of a crazed communist assassin. In the intelligence community, thereis a term for this kind of manipulated behavior designed to create a desired image: sheepdipping. It seemed to me that Oswald had been in New Orleans to be sheepdipped under the guidance of Guy Banister and that he had been sent back to Dallas when the mission was accomplished.
   “To see if I was on the right track, I studied more closely Oswald’s return to Dallas and his last two months before the assassination. On September 23, 1963, a pregnant Marina Oswald and her daughter left New Orleans. They were driven westward to Dallas, I learned, by Mrs. Ruth Paine. It was generally agreed that Lee Oswald left approximately a day later… [But it was not until] October 4, Lee returned to Dallas. He spoke of having been in Houston, looking for work. Ten days later Ruth Paine obtained an interview for him, and he got the job– at the Texas School Book Depository.
   For reasons that remain unclear, Oswald rented a series of small rooms in Dallas while his wife and daughter stayed at the Paine’s house in Irving. Although Lee kept a number of his personal possessions with him in Dallas, Mrs. Paine made her garage in Irving available to him for his other possessions.
   There was no way of guessing what Lee had in mind with this odd living arrangement, nor who suggested it. However, it was undeniable that this situation worked to the advantage of whoever was behind the assassination.” –pp63-63, ibid.
“In 1954 it was Russia, not the U.S., that was most concerned nuclear weapons would spread. ‘Since even peaceful nuclear activities could lead to the production of materials usable for bombs, the proposed stimulation of such activities throughout the world could actually lead to an intensification of the arms race,’ the Soviets wrote in a January 1954 letter to Washington…
   “… ‘The kind of catastrophic accident that Strauss and his successors believed could never actually happen have taken a significant toll.’ “
   1954 turned out to be a banner year for nuclear expansion following Eisenhower’s  December ’53 “Atoms For Peace” speech to the U.N. General Assembly in New York. U.S. atmospheric tests that year took place exclusively in the Pacific Proving Grounds, scheduled as Operation Castle beginning March 1, 1954 with test ‘Bravo’.–a test so unexpectedly radioactive from more-than-double its predicted megatonnage, that an outcry over the fallout came in from around the world. AEC chairman Strauss was a shipboard observer at Bikini Atoll for Bravo which was the first and only bomb test he ever personally attended.
Lookout Mountain studio film of Operation Castle:
Castle- Bravo test weighed in at 15 megatons from its predicted 7 Mt and contaminated 5,000 sq. miles, including inhabited islands that were not evacuated beforehand, although the same islands had been evacuated in every prior test. “Wind shift” was blamed however the monitors reported that the exact pattern of direction “was blowing at us for days”. The fate of the Marshallese is described here:
The military response to Castle-Bravo was to cancel two of its planned detonations, including the largest, and space the remaining tests farther apart, adding more than three weeks to the operation. The Salk polio vaccine field tests on American schoolchildren were also commensurately delayed.
Chairman Strauss returned to Washington at the end of March. filed his report about “wind shift”, and proceeded with his historic AEC tribunal against Robert Oppenheimer. Boris Pash and the FBI were indispensable Strauss allies throughout, and by May’s end Oppenheimer was banished, relegated to return to Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study under the authority of  Strauss.
August  of  1954 produced a renewal of the 1946 Atomic Energy Act, instituting a license framework for the private ownership of nuclear facilities and materials, nationally and internationally, at the discretion and approval of the Atomic Energy Commission –a curious challenge in light of the vapid attempt at a dual FBI/AEC agent program that dissolved in 1953. Or did it? An apparent gap in the FBI’s  record of memos spans more than ten years until September 30, 1964 when the last declassified memo signed by William C. Sullivan announces the final disposition of the files, sanitized and reclassified, to the Bureau’s general archive. Sullivan’s memo is dated just two days after dissemination of the published Warren Report.
     William C. Sullivan William_C._Sullivan_(FBI_agent) headed the Oswald investigation for the FBI and allowed his serious “doubt” about Oswald’s guilt to lodge in the journalistic record. Sullivan was “accidently shot” to death on 11-9-77 at his woodsy New Hampshire home, “mistaken for a deer” (while standing on his front porch, they say).
Sullivan had been scheduled to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Sullivan was one of six top FBI officials who died in a six month period in 1977. Others who were due to appear before the committee who died included Louis Nicholas, special assistant to J. Edgar Hoover and his liaison with the Warren Commission; Alan H. Belmont, special assistant to Hoover; James Cadigan, document expert with access to documents that related to death of John F. Kennedy; J. M. English, former head of FBI Forensic Sciences Laboratory where Oswald’s rifle and pistol were tested; Donald Kaylor, FBI fingerprint chemist who examined prints found at the assassination scene.”
The pseudonymic Torbitt File makes this claim:
The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five [Sullivan’s command] of the Federal Bureau of Investigation…[acting] dually with the Defense Intelligence Agency..under..their highly secret policy agency– the Defense Industrial Security Command [DISC][which] acts..on behalf of NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Information Agency, and the arms, equipment, ammunition, munitions and related..manufacturing corporations contracting with NASA, AEC, USIA and the Pentagon.
   ..The Defense Industrial Security Command had its beginnings when J.Edgar Hoover in the early 1930s organized the police force of the fledgling Tennessee Valley Authority at the request of David Lilienthal [then governor of TVA and by 1947, chairman of the AEC until 1950] …This force grew and Lilienthal took it forward to cover the Atomic Energy Commission, thus tying it into the Army Intelligence Service.
   “L.M. Bloomfield, a Montreal, CANADA lawyer bearing the reputation as a sex deviate, the direct supervisor of all contractual agents with J. Edgar Hoover’s Division Five, was the top co-ordinator for the network planning the execution. A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties.

The five groups under Permindex and their supervisors were:

1. The Czarist Russian, Eastern European and Middle East exile organization called SOLIDARISTS, headed by Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian Premier, and John DeMenil, Russian exile from Houston, Texas, a close friend and supporter of Lyndon Johnson for over thirty years. [deMohrenschildt’s friend and president of Schlumberger oil services]

2. A section of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES headed by H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.

3. A Cuban exile group called FREE CUBA COMMITTEE headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban President.

4. An organization of United States, Caribbean, and Havana, Cuba gamblers called the Syndicate headed by Clifford Jones, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Nevada and Democratic National Committeeman, and Bobby Baker of Washington, D.C. This group worked closely with a Mafia family headed by Joe Bonnano.

5. The SECURITY DIVISION of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headed by Wernher Von Braun, head of the German Nazi rocket program from 1932 through 1945. Headquarters for this group was the DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL SECURITY COMMAND at Muscle Shoals Redstone Arsenal in Alabama and on East Broad Street in Columbus, Ohio.

The Defense Industrial Security Command is the police and espionage agency for the U.S. munitions makers. DISC was organized by J. Edgar Hoover; William Sullivan, his chief assistant, is in direct command. We shall later examine the involvement of a large number of the DISC agents including Clay Shaw, Guy Bannister, David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby and others with Permindex’s Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of Montreal, Canada in charge.

As it must be, all of the preceding facts are established and documented by overwhelming evidence beyond a reasonable doubt on the following pages. Gordon Novel obtained the aid of the Columbus office in 1967 when Jim Garrison was attempting to get him back to Louisiana from Ohio. Personnel of the Defense Intelligence Agency were subject to assignment with the Defense Industrial Security Command.

* GarrisonSmallImage  Jim Garrison came across the likes of “CIA asset” Gordon Novel after learning about a “munitions raid” by the FBI back in August of 1963, shown to him as front-page New Orleans news items by investigator Frank Klein. Garrison wrote, “So, some ammunition had been found north of Lake Pontchartrain…There had been no announcement of any arrests. I pushed the news story off to the side. Later I would recall having almost tossed away a major lead…” (p36, On the Trail of the Assassins)
                                                                      GordonNovel Gordon Novel, who participated in a weapons transfer from a Schlumberger bunker two years before the FBI raid, was in the “[Guy] Banister apparatus, as [Jack] Martin described it, .. part of a supply line that ran along the Dallas-New Orleans-Miami corridor. These supplies consisted of arms and explosives for use against Castro’s Cuba. The security control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule. On the occasions when such explosives were held in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.” (p40, ibid.)
“A copy-righted story in the New Orleans States-Item, April 25, 1967, [claimed its] investigative team working parallel to the Garrison probe reported that a reliable source close to Banister said he had seen 50 to 100 boxes marked ‘Schlumberger’ in Banister’s office storeroom early in 1961 before the Bay of Pigs. The boxes contained rifle grenades, land mines, and unique ‘little missiles’. Banister explained that ‘the stuff would just be there overnight’… It was alright, assured Banister, ‘I have approval from somebody.’ 
   ….According to the States-Item article, Novel’s oft-repeated account was that the munitions bunker was a CIA staging point for war materiel destined for use in the impending Bay of Pigs invasion. [Novel] is quoted as saying that on the day the munitions were picked up, he was ‘called by his CIA contact and told to join a group which was ordered to transport munitions from the bunker to New Orleans.’ The key to the bunker was by his CIA contact. Novel reportedly said the others in the CIA group at the bunker were David Ferriw, Sergio Arcacha Smith…and several Cubans. The munitions…were dropped in Novel’s office, Ferrie’s home and Banister’s office storeroom.”
   “The [arms] cases…were said to be labeled either ‘Schlumberger’ or ‘Interarmco’, the company owned by Sam Cummings, the Philadelphia arms merchant who supplied the guns for many a revolution…
    [The account of Luis Rabel Nunes] “who replaced Sergio Arcacha Smith..[was that] Rabel supplied a laundry truck with which weapons were transported” when it wasn’t being used on behalf of the Catholic Church’s aid to refugees, which “had the backing of both Mayors– Morrison and Schiro, Dr. [Alton] Ochsner and FBI agent Warren DeBrueys. It wasn’t until years later that I learned they had sometimes used the truck to transfer weapons.
   …[Novel] informed the FBI: “Schlumberger Well Service had an arrangement with the CIA wherein it leased a bunker…for the CIA. Eventually the material would be shipped out of the United States in Schlumberger boxes marked ‘Machinery’…”
Cubans in the Congo
It appears that intoning “Bay of Pigs” or “anti-Castro” as an explanation for CIA paramilitary operations connected with the New Orleans Banister apparatus occurs with liturgical frequency, however at the timing of the earlier Schlumberger bunker “heist” by Novel and his compatriots, the CIA was farther afield assisting in the secession of Katanga from its mother state of the (former Belgian) Congo. Mineral rich Katanga had been the object of covetous colonialism for the whole of the 20th century. Lewis Strauss, the Warburgs, and Herbert Hoover had once spear-headed a plan to make Katanga the center of a “United States of Africa”, even as Edgar Sengier of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga was then in the process of arranging uranium yellowcake for delivery to the Manhattan Project.
   When the nationalist Congolese overcame their occupation rule winning independence for their country in June of 1960 and inaugurating Patrice Lumumba as the first prime minister of new Zaire, Allen Dulles issued an ‘urgent’ directive for his demise. CIA intervention included providing Katanga’s ‘leader’ Tshombe with an army of mercenaries:  Cuban exiles and other soldiers-of-fortune induced by “high pay” and other Agency perks. Tshombe was ultimately blamed for Lumumba’s murder on January 17, 1961, in the very last days of Eisenhower’s administration.
   New Orleans native Gordon Novel himself had a violent Neo-Nazi racist past, if the Congolese operations had any ideological personal meaning. He later expressed great admiration for his CIA cohorts as the “best people” and “real patriots”.
* PatriceLumumbaPatrice Lumumba, died by CIA-assisted assassination January 17, 1961
                                      DagH [1]Sweden’s UN Secretary General, then residing in NYC, died in a mysterious plane crash on September 18, 1961, on his way to negotiate a ceasefire on behalf of Katanga
Garrison described the Schlumberger ammunition retrieval : “The CIA, which was also supportive of the French OAS generals (Organisation Secrete Armee, in French!), had supplied Schlumberger with anti-personnel ammunition and in this operation at Houma [blimp air base], following the demise of the OAS, was simply getting its ammunition back…which was then divided equally between Ferrie’s apartment and Banister’s inner office until the time arrived for its transport to Miami.” (p40, On the Trail of the Assassins)
   But the French generals, based in Algeria and Spain, at this point were still far from their demise. “The most notorious OAS-sponsored effort was the attempted assassination of Charles de Gaulle in 1962.” (p136, A Farewell To Justice, 2005, by Joan Mellen), which continues, “Banister operative Tommy Baumler remarked that ‘those who killed John F. Kennedy were those who wanted to kill de Gaulle.’ He was referring to the CIA, Clay Shaw, Banister and…PERMINDEX…”
Unique Little Missiles
*nuclearfuel003-22  Reactor fuel pellets
Did they look like this?
   The surreptitious ammunition transfers from the Houma air base and beyond by the Banister outfit are the most compelling and under-described of pre-assassination events. They occurred over a long period from at least the spring of 1961, before the Bay of Pigs, until the FBI raid in the summer of 1963.  Despite the “major lead” provided to Jim Garrison’s investigation, an intentional effort to downplay or disregard the significance of this traffick was announced by Garrison in his October 1967 Playboy interview:
Playboy: “The New Orleans States-Item of June 14, 1967 quoted [Gordon] Novel as saying that if he were granted immunity from the assassination investigation, he would be willing to testify on a number of points, including ‘international fraud, mysterious intelligence activities from November 1959 to date [Oct.1967] in the Southern quadrant of the USA and certain islands off Florida, seditious treason, hot war games and cold munitions transfers, ten 1950-model Canadian surplus Vampire jet supporter aircraft and certain Cuban-Anglo-French sabotage affairs of early 1961.’ Why did you reject this offer?”
Garrison: “These are all intriguing… but that isn’t the subject of my investigation.”
(excerpted from Part 3)
   Earlier in the same interview, Garrison responded to the “who, how, and why” question concerning a conspiracy of assassins with this reply:
“On the operative level, you find anti-Castro Cuban exiles…[who] believed sincerely that Kennedy had sold them out to the Communists. On a higher, control level, you find a number of people of ultra right-wing persuasion –not simply conservative, mind you, but people who could be described as neo-Nazi… After Kennedy’s domestic moves toward racial integration and his attempts to forge a peaceful foreign policy, as exemplifies by his signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, they found [a] target.
   So both of these groups had a vital stake in changing U.S. foreign policy… The CIA was involved with both of these groups…
   There was, in fact, a triangulation of CIA-supported anti-Castro activity between Dallas –where Jack Ruby was involved in collecting guns and ammunition for the underground– and Miami and New Orleans, where most of the training was going on. But then, Kennedy, who had signed a secret agreement with Krushchev after the Missile Crisis pledging not to invade Cuba if Russia would soft-pedal Castro’s subversive activities in the Americas, began to crack down on CIA operations against Cuba. As a result, on July 31, 1963, the FBI raided the headquarters of the group of Cuban exiles and Minutemen training north of Lake Pontchartrain and confiscated all their guns and ammunition –despite the fact that the operation had the sanction of the CIA. This action may have sealed Kennedy’s fate.”
The FBI raid, which may have even depended on information provided by Oswald, could have sealed his fate too.  Approximately eight weeks later, at the end of September ’63, Oswald took the alleged trip to Mexico City where he was said to visit both the Cuban and Soviet embassies –key (but false) evidence against him for a role in an international communist conspiracy. Just exactly what Gordon Novel was offering in testimony, had a deal been made,  slipped away down a rabbit hole.
* DrMarysMonkeyMarySherman * judyth-vary-baker * Ferrie Mary, Vary and Ferrie
   An alternate story about the Schlumberger munitions cache moving through New Orleans suggests itself in a few particulars of Ed Haslam’s book, Dr. Mary’s Monkey [DMM], originally titled Mary, Ferrie, and the Monkey Virus. The featured center of activity in DMM is a high-energy particle accelerator hidden in the laboratory of the Public Health Service naval hospital. According to Haslam, the accelerator was used in developing a mutant virus for an urgent anti-cancer vaccine countermeasure against the SV40 monkey virus-contaminated mass polio vaccines. Haslam claims this secret medical do-gooding was assigned to the supervision of Dr.s Alton Ochsner and Mary Sherman with the outside assistance of Judyth Vary [Mrs.Baker], David Ferrie, and Lee H. Oswald. No evidence exists of Haslam’s anti-SV40-cancer program, but it’s a matter of record that Alton Ochsner supported the “community service” activities of the Banister-connected Cubans, which included the transfer, support, and resettlement of incoming refugees. Among these efforts was the use of a laundry truck known to have hauled off the munitions plunder more than once.
   Unfortunately, Dr. Mary’s Monkey does not prove that a particle accelerator was actually on the grounds of the New Orleans PHS in 1963. Nonetheless, as described, the machine in question bore the requisite assembly of industrial use equipment –not for medical purposes! Ed’s multi-story accelerator split the primary vertical beam on a reflective hub set below in a basement chamber, directing the fractioned energy horizontally into thick fireproof containers resembling kilns. Inside such containers any number of high-energy transformations are possible, such as altering the molecular configuration of metal, wood or rubber to create new ‘metamaterial’ products.
   It happens that in 1961, coincident with the munitions transfers, one of the foremost American physicists from the UCBerkeley Rad Lab, Dr. Luis Alvarez, was granted his patent for an accelerator of this type designed to reconstitute spent nuclear fuel. It is easy to imagine, and much more plausible in application, that the NOLA accelerator in Ed Haslam’s scheme was producing nuclear fuel with the appearance of ammunition.
Recall Jim Garrison’s words:  …”control was so careful that ammunition was kept far-flung in outlying areas. Dispersal was the rule…   in New Orleans only small amounts were kept at Banister’s office at any one time.”  If these munitions emitted a radioactive signature it would be wise to manage their storage in this way. On the Houma military base, which was guarded and active 24/7, perhaps it made no difference when the cache was protected. We are also to believe that the transfers were protected as a sanctioned trade under the watchful eyes of government operatives –why then would these munitions require dispersal and isolation? Were they variously labeled for purposes of special handling and destination routes? Was all the ‘cancer research’, including the disease cases of David Ferrie and Jack Ruby, more expressly intended for themselves as special handlers?
   Robert Oswald remarked on the physical changes in his brother Lee, returned from Russia at age 22, as having thinned wire-textured hair and a sallow complexion –very unlike the robustly youthful marine he had last seen in the fall of 1959. Signs of early aging, like LHO’s, are a common and predictable side-effect of radiation exposure. The black-and-white photo below on the right shows not just thinning hair but patches of scalp which can be confirmed in the video images of Oswald being taken through the Dallas PD hallway.
   *JudythVaryJudyth, Lee Oswald’s 1963 summer girlfriend, attests to the gunrunning she herself participated in helping to unload weapons shipped to NOLA’s waterfront in crates of bananas and furniture.
                                                             *OswaldArrest3  LHO newly turned 24yrs. OswaldArrest2
* LuisAlvarez Manhattan Project veteran Luis Alvarez lent his formidable authority as a physicist to the Warren Commission, affirming its conclusions.
Alvarez melon shooting experiment, ‘proving’ a jet effect and retrorecoil of the President’s head:
Alvarez Zapruder film analysis:
Film and audio analyses:
Zapruder observations:
*Ferrie David Ferrie, ‘suicided’ four days after the NOLA States-Item announced the Garrison probe on Feb.17, 1967, appeared to be the common denominator in assassination activity. A most interesting bit of disregarded evidence about Ferrie concerned the “Winnipeg Airport Incident”:
   Two and a half months after the assassinations of JFK and Oswald, a 35-year-old businessman named Richard Giesbrecht who was waiting to meet a client, overheard a conversation in the airport restaurant lounge between two men, one of whom was Ferrie –‘positively’ identified, however, only after his death became front page news four years later. At the time of the conversation, Giesbrecht took notes. The men were discussing Oswald, how much his wife knew and then, “Ferrie asked about paper or merchandise coming out of Nevada. Latin Accent said it was too risky and that a house or shop had been closed down at a place called Mercury…[but] a good shipment had reached Caracas from Newport…”
   Giesbrecht was likely to have been wrong in his ID of Ferrie –others with ‘Ferrie’ that day, including a third man who pursued Giesbrecht attempting to contact the airport’s RCMP office, have also eluded identification, but the nature of the conversation was provably real.
   Mercury, Nevada is a “closed town”, according to wikipedia –an artificial barracks-turned-town on the Atomic Energy Commission’s Nevada Proving Grounds. “The town started in 1950 at the beginning of operations of the Nevada Test Site as Base Camp Mercury… In the early 1960s the town population grew to over 10,000… In 1962, the Desert Rock Airstrip was added for the visit from President John F. Kennedy on December 8. The town flourished until 1992 when all but subcritical nuclear testing ended… The population shrank rapidly thereafter..[to] a skeleton crew of scientists and military…last..recorded about 500 people.”
 …post in progress…
…to be continued
Lots more to come in the weeks ahead…

January 20, 2015

JFK File: Signs of Traffick


March 13, 2013

Lewis Strauss and JFK, Part III

Part I:

Part II:

Israel Gets The Bomb

Israel was the first of the [‘pariahs’] to..develop a nuclear arsenal… Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David organic chemist..expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany he emigrated to Palestine where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] Bergmann, apparently, did not stay long in Palestine.

    “Bergmann’s father was one of the most eminent rabbis in Berlin and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann..then living in England…  In 1933..Weizmann arranged for young Bergmann to join him on the faculty of Manchester University..[where he] came to the attention of Frederick A. Lindemann, later [dubbed] Lord Cherwell, a German-born Oxford scientist… [The] Zionist movement in Palestine asked Weizmann in 1936 for a chemist to..produce high explosive for..[the] war against the Arabs and the British… Weizmann assigned the mission to Bergmann…” [p25, The Samson Option] Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: ‘He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it…'”[p26, ibid.]
   “..Hebrew University’s Israel Dostrovsky [came to] play a key role in Israel’s..atomic weapons. Born in Russia in 1918, his family emigrated to Palestine the next year. His studies in..chemistry took him to London [where he was] awarded..a doctorate in 1943. After spending the next five years in England, [Dostrovsky] returned to Palestine in 1948 where he founded the Department of Isotope Research at the Weizmann [renamed from Sieff]. At the same time..[being] a major in the IDF Science Corps, he established Hemed Gemel, a special branch of the corps..[that made]..its first projects..sending geologists into the Negev desert in search of uranium.” [p237, Spying on the Bomb]
   Bergmann used his ‘guest scholar’ status in England to make high-explosives for the Hagannah to use against the British — he left the UK in 1940 for the United States and reconnoitered in New York with his ‘old friends’. Herman Mark, ‘father of polymer science’ who worked closely with Bergmann and became the dean of Brooklyn Polytechnic, had “turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. ‘The whole gang came to America,’ said Mark. [p25, The Samson Option] “ ‘Bergmann was anxious..’ said Mark,’that there shouldn’t be too much talk [about Israel’s bomb]. It was super-secret –just like the Manhattan Project.’ There was at least one early occasion, however, when Bergmann couldn’t resist sharing what he knew. Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy New York businessman and ardent advocate of statehood for Israel, was one of Ben-Gurion’s most important and trusted allies in the United States. By 1947, Feinberg was playing a major –and highly discreet– role in fundraising and White House lobbying [Truman’s admin.] for Israel..[and] the Democratic Party. He would operate at the highest levels between Washington and Jerusalem for the next two decades… One night over dinner, added Feinberg,’Bergmann’s eyes lit up and he said, ‘There’s uranium in the desert’. There was no question about the message –that a path was now cleared for Israel to develop the atomic bomb. Feinberg was astonished at such indiscreet talk: ‘I shushed him up,’” [p27, The Samson Option, by Seymour Hersh]
   Dostrovsky “joined the Weizmann in 1948, shortly before its dedication. Immediately upon joining the staff of Weizmann, he was appointed director of the isotope research department, a position he held for 17 years…” Over the early course of those responsibilities, Dostrovsky also became “chairman of the desalination committee.”
Bergmann and the French not only got it done in the Negev..but they kept it secret.” [p23, The Samson Option] “No Frenchman had stronger emotional ties to Israel than Bertrand Goldschmidt, a nuclear chemist [who worked on the Manhattan Project]..and expert in the chemistry of plutonium and plutonium extraction.[p30]…His ties to Israel were heightened by marriage; his wife was a member of the eminent Rothschild banking family…  Goldschmidt and his wife had made the pilgrimage to Israel in the early 1950s and been taken by Bergmann for a memorable meeting with the Negev…[footnote:] ‘We had a long discussion about atomic energy,’ Goldschmidt recalls. ‘Ben-Gurion asked me how long would it take for nuclear desalination to make the Negev desert bloom? –a favorite Ben-Gurion question. I said fifteen years. He started scolding me..we could do it much faster.’” [p31, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh]
   Israeli collaboration with the French appears at the initiation of Francis Perrin: “Perrin was important… A socialist who fled [France] to England in 1940… he became friendly with Bergmann..and traveled to Tel Aviv in 1949. It was after that visit that some Israeli scientists were permitted..[in] Saclay..atomic research center near Versailles.”[p29, The Samson Option] Unmentioned by Hersh is that Francis Perrin was part of the small team attempting an atomic bomb in the Sahara in 1939 with the backing of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga. Perrin used his 1940 entree in England as a way station to the US where he resettled in New York with his family, including his father, Jean Baptiste Perrin, a once scientific rival of Pierre Curie. Some years after Curie’s death, Jean Perrin was supported with Rothschild funding to establish the Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the Sorbonne. Friendship with Bergmann was likely to have evolved in New York during the war.
>>>see Part II ‘comments’ for more about the death of Pierre Curie.
   Attaining nuclear weapons in either France or Israel was dependent on removing obstacles as in the US: “The French debate revolved around..Frederic Joliot-Curie [a noted French Communist]..who was opposed to a French role in NATO and any French link to nuclear weapons. In 1950, [Joliot] was the first to sign the Stockholm Appeal, a Soviet-backed petition [issued by the World Peace Council] calling for a ban on all nuclear weapons…  Joliot-Curie was dismissed after signing the Appeal..[and] replaced by Pierre Guillaumat [..French secret intelligence]..and Francis Perrin, [who was] the first to publish a formula for calculating the critical mass of uranium...  A critical decision..came in 1951 when..[Pierre] Guillaumat authorized..a natural uranium-fueled reactor capable of producing..about twenty-two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year… The decision to produce..plutonium would irrevocably propel France down the road to a nuclear bomb, as..the Israelis had to know.” [p29, The Samson Option]
And so it began –an isotope research program for use in water desalination and reclamation.
Kennedy was a third-term congressman in October 1951 when he left for a 7-week junket to Asia with a first stop in Paris “at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)..on October 3” to meet Eisenhower. From there, along with his brother Bobby, sister Pat, and Congressman Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., the party traveled on to Palestine. “The two brothers had never spent such an extended period together, and these weeks defined their relationship for the rest of their lives.” [p284, The Kennedy Men] “In Israel both Jack and Bobby kept extensive diaries, and there is scarcely any overlap in their accounts. Jack stood back from the..hatreds and emotions… As always with Jack, the omnipresent threat in the world lay in the Soviet empire… One evening in Jerusalem, [they] went to the modest home of Prime Minister..Ben-Gurion for dinner… [JFK] was an observer of men, and by the evidence of his diary, he did not impose himself on this evening as much as take the measure of those around him, including the American ambassador, Monnett Bain Davis, several other Israeli ministers, and..Roosevelt Jr… Like his mother, he was considered a friend of Israel. FDR’s namesake was the center of this evening, not Jack… ‘It was almost as if we weren’t there,’ Bobby recalled…  Roosevelt asked the inevitable question: Could there be a real peace between Arab and Jew? ‘It depended..on the peoples wishes,’ the prime minister said. ‘Present government [is] not concerned with peace’… Ambassador Davis boldly told Ben-Gurion that the Arab states were afraid of Israel. ‘How could Egypt with its large population be frightened,’ Ben-Gurion replied with rhetorical flourish. ‘We wouldn’t want to go back to Egypt again. We had enough the first time.” [p286, ibid.]
>>> 1952 –July, Egyptian coup d’etat/revolution overthrow of King Farouk and British colonial domination
   “In this part of the world,” wrote Kennedy biographer Leamer, “history was written with blood and vengeance, and a man who entered politics knew that he might die…   Four days after Jack and Bobby met with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan, he was assassinated. In his diary Jack noted that ‘assassinations have taken a heavy toll of leaders in Middle and Far East,’ and then made a list of some of the murders. Jack tallied seventeen assassinations in the past four years alone. From Mahatma Gandhi in India to Folke Bernadotte in Palestine, murders..changed history the way few laws or mandates ever could.” [p288, The Kennedy Men]
NOTE: Israel Dostrovsky achieved a succession of appointments in his government’s atomic weapons program including chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) followed by the vice-presidency of the Weizmann Institute under Albert Sabin, creator of the oral (OPV) polio vaccine. Sabin was president of the Weizmann Institute over the course of 1971-1972 when the biology programs there were exploring the uses of SV40 monkey virus as a transgenic (mutation) agent. Dostrovsky succeeded Sabin as Weizmann president in 1972. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists published Dostrovsky’s article describing his water program –an evidently perfect cover for the activities at Dimona to which the Israelis acknowledged (‘desalination’), finally, to the Kennedy administration. “Water For Israel”, which includes ‘cheap water’ from cloud seeding and the total capture of Palestine’s water supply, is an instructive read:
At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents, real and fancied. After a short time [RFK] transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him… He loved what he was doing…” Nevertheless, Robert Kennedy answered the call to “come up and take over” JFK’s campaign for the Senate. ” ‘We couldn’t win relying on the Democratic political machine,’ Robert said later,’so we had to build our own machine.‘ ” [p94, Robert Kennedy and His Times, Schlesinger]
   The Democrats, nationally, were taking the hit for not merely tolerating but employing communist subversives at high levels of  government: “Harry Dexter White [‘a Russian spy!’] assistant secretary of the Treasury under Roosevelt [Morganthau] had died in 1948 while the House Un-American Activities Committee was searching his past for evidence of espionage. According to [Atty. Gen. Herbert] Brownell both Democratic presidents had appointed White..despite warnings from the FBI.” [p149, No Sacrifice Too Great]
    “National politics and national security are always to some extent interrelated, but in the years of the Truman presidency the relationship became problematic. Trust leeched out of the political system, loyalties waned, betrayal became common. Communism..achieved astonishing influence not in its own right, much less on its own behalf, but as an agent for poisoning American politics.” –Daniel Patrick Moynihan,
Machinery of other sorts were rolling onto the battleground. Colonel Boris Pash, formerly “Chief of Counterintelligence for the Ninth Army Corps on the West Coast.. [who] spent much of his career hunting communists… considered the Soviet Union America’s mortal enemy.”[p190, American Prometheus] After his ALSOS Europe mission and following attachment to MacArthur in Tokyo, Pash’s next assignment came “In March 1949.. detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of Policy Coordination where he oversaw programs in West Germany for three years. Pash then ran special forces Austria from 1952-1953“…
   During this time, Pash organized a special operations unit for the CIA called PB7, said to be an assassination squad. Pash, years later before a congressional committee, denied it conducted assassinations.  Mr. Pash:It was not an assassination unit. In the first place..I was never an employee of the Agency. I was detailed from the Army for a normal tour of duty to the Agency..and then I was assigned and left for Austria in 1952 as Special Forces Unconventional Warfare Planning Officer. In 1954..[to] early ’56 I was in the Presidio of San Francisco as a deputy G-2 in charge of security..” Mr. Baron:“Let me ask you a particular question..brought to our attention by Artie Lazarus… He said that when he first joined you in PB7, you asked him to read the charter of PB7… [He] said it contained some specific language about PB7 being responsible for assassinations, kidnappings and other such functions as may be assigned by higher authority. Now do you recall that part of the charter of PB7?” Mr. Pash:I don’t recall that particular wording…It could have been there without my recalling it…” Mr. Baron: “..were you aware of any assassination plans or attempts?” Mr. Pash:No, I never heard that. There was a small incident..[with a] group of branch chiefs or something like that in Plans and Policy…a discussion with regard to denying the Soviets certain types of individuals…This woman gets out and says why don’t we murder them?…And that’s allMr. Baron: “But it would be your testimony never heard such a plan with such a request?” Mr. Pash: “..No, never….[In 1954] I said that the only time..assassination would be justified was if somebody could categorically state that if it was not done..the safety of the United States was at other words, if you don’t do it the United States is destroyed..and you have no other way to stop [it]..I think it’s all right…”
   Pash seemingly had good recall on when he thought assassination became “all right”. Throughout 1953 he was helping Lewis Strauss and J.Edgar Hoover construct a disloyalty case against Robert Oppenheimer, brought to an AEC tribunal in 1954. During the war, “On June 29,1943, ..Pash..wrote a memo to the Pentagon recommending that Oppenheimer be denied a security clearance and fired.” [p233, American Prometheus]. He agitated against Oppenheimer to such an extent that he was given an overseas assignment –AlSOS.
As usual, the Education Forum members have interesting notes about Pash: “Pash’s subordinate, Col. Willard White was married to LBJ’s sister Josefa for a number of years”….”Is that Pash [ marked ‘unknown man’ in the photo] standing next to LBJ at Parkland Hospital?”….”I found that Pash, postwar, maintained an office at Oak Ridge”….”There’s a Boris Pash/Sidney Gottlieb connection with the Health Alteration Committee”….etc.
    A further note on Pash to illustrate (and belabor) a previously mentioned point of using medical institutions to cover for weapons development occurred during ALSOS’s decisive 1944 push into the Nazis’ last holdouts. “The rumours.. [about a Nazi A-bomb] continued to circulate until November when the advancing Allied forces took Strasbourg. It was here that they believed a number of eminent physicists, including von Weizacker and Fleischmann, had been working on the bomb…Within hours, Pash and his ‘Strasbourg Task Force’ had located the university’s physics laboratory. It was in the wing of a local hospital and [the] physicists were found there posing as doctors.” [p109, Oppenheimer, Shatterer of Worlds, by Peter Goodchild]
   In the United States, they did not merely “pose” as doctors but practiced.
Strauss’s assistant William T. Golden prepared this memo about Sloan-Kettering in 1950: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc. Dr. Conant, Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrance [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital, in which his family has long been interested, and which has a relatively large board, including Lewis Strauss… Dr. [Cornelius “Dusty”] Rhoads is eager to obtain supporting grants… He pointed out that much of the work that is being directed toward concise research is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters… He told me that he has been invited to lunch by Fred Lawton, Director of the Bureau of the Budget on November 10…[and] thinks that Mrs. Lasker may have arranged it.”
   At some future point on this blog, I hope to write up my thought experiments on the Peaceful Uses of Cancer as a complementary enterprise to the Peaceful Uses of the Atom. In this early ’50s window of time, however, it constitutes future-pacing a problem which was then manisfesting as poliomyelitis.
   The Health Physics field chartered itself in 1947 with the tasks of ”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys… studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains..eaten and metabolized by higher forms… Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods… [concluding that] Large scale biological work is mandatory”
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes [polio] myelitis:  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed…. Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure… When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.”
A Radiation effects source document used by military planners describes damage: “The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage.. has been well documented… [S]peculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system… …hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation… vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS… ….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation… “It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…” .
Some the of materials in the above are cited in the National Security Archives, a project of George Washington University
Listed in are additional entries such as these:
–“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H.. Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904. Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
–“Muller, H.J.. Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science 66:84-87.##”
–“Stern, S.. Report of thirty-one cases of therapeutic abortion induced by roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
Note the years: 1904, 1927, 1928
Hmm….fallout vaccine, anyone?
Stacking the Commission
By the end of Strauss’s [first] term, the other commissioners, many members of the AEC staff, and most scientists regarded him as a tough, obstinate, and tenacious opponent of the free exchange they desired. For these people, Strauss was the symbol of narrow realism; he, on the other hand, had identified J. Robert Oppenheimer as a symbol of those who, whether disloyal or merely naive, did not support the fight against Communism with full enthusiasm.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss stood One-to-Four against his fellow commissioners in the fall of 1949. They were not willing to endorse building H-bombs which were already being touted in the press as 1,000 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The GAC (General Advisory Committee), nine-member body of scientists that counseled the AEC of which Oppenheimer was its de facto spokesman, were nearly unanimous against the Super. Strauss allies, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarez, and Edward Teller, flew in to Washington and launched a counteroffensive of intense lobbying. No one had yet been officially told about the  atomic spy-ring in Los Alamos. According to Moynihan’s essay on ‘Secrecy’, Truman was never told about the Venona radio decrypts.
   “On Sunday, November 7, as the Strausses relaxed in their suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Senator McMahon [on the Joint Congressional Committee for Atomic Energy] telephoned..[and] brought the welcome news that Commissioner Gordon Dean, whom McMahon had placed on the AEC, had been converted into an advocate of the super. Now the AEC was divided three to two… On November 23, when the debate over the superbomb was at its height, the White House announced that Chairman Lilienthal planned to resign… Washington gossip identified Strauss as a possible replacement for Lilienthal.” [pp118-119, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss, too, had already planned to resign. “‘I don’t want you to resign,’ [Truman told Strauss] …[but] did not press Strauss to remain [rather] asked who the new chairman should be; Strauss endorsed Gordon Dean, the first to join him in favor of the super…” [p125, ibid.] Like Lilienthal’s promotion out of the AEC, acquired with the help of Albert Lasker, Strauss himself arranged for Chairman Dean to join Lehman Brothers on his exit (in 1953).
“[W]hen the  time came to seek a replacement for his own seat on the AEC, Strauss remembered  the 45-year old Case president. While some of the Democratic Congressmen involved in the search preferred the appointment of AEC General Counsel Joseph A. Volpe Jr., Strauss used his connections in the White House and the Pentagon to secure Glennan’s appointment…”
   T. Keith Glennan, later, NASA’s first chief, was recruited by Strauss. [Glennan interview:]”Needell: Tell me about Strauss… He’s a rather strong character, I understandGlennan: “Strong and strange… [I was] asked if I would permit my name to be considered for a post as a Commissoner of the AEC. I said, “You must be crazy. I don’t know the first thing about an atom. I don’t know about a reactor. I don’t know anything about nuclear energy…  [AEC used the] building originally built for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It was the first one they were in, on Constitution Avenue, right next to the Federal Reserve Board… I got there in 1 October, 1950″…
   “Before Strauss left the AEC, he was offered a place on the Federal Reserve Board, which he turned down as too routine.” [p125, No Sacrifice Too Great] Brien McMahon arranged a post on the Atomic Plant Expansion panel and Laurance Rockefeller hired him to manage the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where he co-incorporated The Population Council. At the outbreak of the Korean War, a 3-billion-dollar appropriation was assigned to the AEC for development.
GLENNAN: “ was not a very collegial Commission at that time… I remember Tom Murray calling me names. Things of that kind… We searched for a man to replace [AEC General Manager] Carroll Wilson and finally came up with a Vice President of Esso [Exxon, or Standard Oil of New Jersey]– Marion Boyer– who worked out’s replacement… [The] general manager from then on took part in all of [the] executive sessions…  There was Sumner Pike and [Henry] Smythe and [Gordon] Dean and Tom MurrayEugene Zuckert replaced Sumner Pike…He came I think from the Air Force, Assistant Secretary to Symington over there…  We were concerned with increasing our ability to turn out the weapons grade materials… While I was there, we made the deal with South Africa to take the tailings from the gold cyaniding process, which ultimately provides a lot of uranium… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum.  NEEDELL: Did you meet regularly with people like Lawrence? GLENNAN: Yes. Lawrence saw to it that we did. He was an aggressive person… he came in and lobbied the Commission. He’d spend a lot of time alone with Gordon Dean… NEEDELL: You opposed the MTA. [Materials Testing Accelerator, heart of the Livermore Lab] GLENNAN: Yes, just on an engineering basis… The things we were short of were enrichment plants and raw materials and the rest of the fuel cycle. NEEDELL: Now, the MTA was going to be a production facility… you had to somehow meet the challenge of getting more production facilities. GLENNAN: Exactly… Teller wanted to do it and Lawrence wanted to do it. That was the argument…  I got along well with Ernest. With Teller.. not well. I found myself opposing him… and I finally said, “Balls, Edward–all you want is another chance to have some tests to improve the weapons… We got into arguments…  COLLINS: You indicated that one of your interests as a Commission member was somehow working out that government-industry relationship. GLENNAN:”..I finally reasoned that the people who were really doing the work were industry. The scientists had the General Advisory Committee…The public had the Congress, and industry got.. a lot of complaints. … If, as we all then believed, nuclear power was going to be useful and possible, they ought to be in on the ground floor with it… I proposed the Atomic Industrial Forum, for just this purpose, at a meeting of the Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, on 25 November, 1952. I proposed it in just the way I’ve been discussing it now, that industry really ought to get in with both feet and play a part in the development of a nuclear power industry, and not simply take what came out of the interests of scientists.
Atomic Industrial Forum: “The AIF was formally incorporated on April 10, 1953 in New York and marked the beginning of the commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. The first Executive Director of AIF was Charles Robbins… As a nonprofit trade association the AIF advocated the peaceful uses of atomic energy and increasing the role of the private sector in its development. Its first order of business was to advocate revising the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to allow and foster the commercial ownership of non weapons nuclear facilities, such as production of radioactive isotopes and nuclear power plants.”
“Mr. Robbins, who helped found the forum in the late 1940’s, was a former member of the national advertising staff of The New York Times and had been with Bozell & Jacobs, a New York advertising firm.”  [Bozell was a family affair; Leo Bozell Jr., Robbins nephew, married the sister of William F. Buckley];; “Robbins had been the managing editor of the Wall Street Journal and later the president of the Atomic Industrial Forum.”
William F. Buckley, “son..of a Texas oil millionaire..joined the Central Intelligence Agency [in 1951]” and became a writer and publisher. His second “book, coauthored with Bozell, was an unabashed attempt to defend a family friend: Joe McCarthy… In September 1960, Buckley, Douglas Caddy and Marvin Liebman established the far right group Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) [oppose] John F. Kennedy in the forthcoming presidential election.” (sumitted as an example of dot-connecting, typical of Lewis L. Strauss’s relationship hierarchy)
When Strauss, who like other retired commissioners was a consultant to the Joint Committee [the JCAE, with McMahon as chair] saw the report of the panel [General Advisory Committee]..chaired by Oppenheimer in December 1950, he concluded Oppenheimer was working against the United States.. [p131, No Sacrifice Too Great] Whether consciously or not, Oppenheimer was helping the Soviet Union… In the interest of national security, Strauss concluded, he must safeguard the AEC from Oppenheimer’s influence. Strauss started his campaign..[on] Fevruary 9, 1951…his purpose was clear: the AEC must get rid of Oppenheimer.” [132, ibid.]
Brien McMahon and Prescott Bush
James O’Brien McMahon, a Yale educated lawyer,  first came to Washington in 1933 as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General. He resigned Justice in 1939, but stayed in D.C. to practice law until persuaded by fellow Democrats to run for the Senate in 1944 from his home state of Connecticut. Known for his energy and eloquence, McMahon authored the compromise (to the May-Johnson) bill that granted civilian control over atomic weapons and power, adopted as the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. “[A] real fight began..when it was suggested that McMahon head the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. It was unheard of to allow a freshman senator to chair a Congressional Committee….   In 1952 Brien McMahon decided to run for President of the United Stateshis main platform was to insure world peace through fear of atomic weapons. The campaign was cut short however when it was discovered in June 1952 that McMahon was terminally ill with cancer. On July 27, 1952, despite that he had withdrawn his candidacy and despite his inablity to attend the Democratic National Convention the delegates from the state of Connecticut unanimously nominated McMahon as their choice for President of the United States. The following morning Brien McMahon fell into a coma and died…” at the age of 48.
Had he lived, McMahon would have been John F. Kennedy’s most formidable Democratic presidential challenger.
“Shortly after” Prescott Bushwon a special Senate election in 1952 (which was called to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Brien McMahon)  …Prescott Bush was not known as a conservative Republican in Washington.”; Bush had been a Greenwich, Connecticut resident since joining W.A.Harriman &Co. in 1926 where he was made the international director of Harriman-controlled U.S. Rubber –along with Philips Electronics, a sponsor of Frenchy Grombach’s Pond, secret intelligence. (see part II).
   In 1928, the Harriman’s bought out Dresser Industries and “installed an old friend, H. Neil Mallon, at the helm.” [p24, Family of Secrets, by Russ Baker] Two years after that, they merged with Brown Brothers. Prescott, “At Yale in 1916..had become close friends with his classmate Roland ‘Bunny’ Harriman…Both Harrimans, like Prescott Bush, were initiates of..Skull and Bones.” [p16, ibid.] ..”In 1950, Dresser was completing a corporate relocation [from Cleveland] to Dallas which..was rapidly becoming a center of the defense industry and its military-industrial-energy elite. Though a virtual unknown on his arrival, Neil Mallon quickly set about bringing the conservative titans of Dallas society together in a new local chapter of the nonprofit Council on World Affairs…a localized equivalent of the Rockefeller-backed Council on Foreign Relations…  Mallon’s Dallas Council..may have had some kind of sanction at the highest levels. [p29] Following Ike’s decisive victory..the administration was filled with Bush allies, including national security advisor Gordon Gray, a close friend of Prescott’s…” [p30, Family of Secrets] Prescott also pitched his first political campaign for the Senate in 1950 and lost, rejected by Connecticut voters. His appointment to McMahon’s office kept him from having to run again until 1956.
   The fact of Prescott Bush taking McMahon’s seat on the Joint Committee for Atomic Energy, whether or not he also took the power, is being/has been scrubbed off the record. According to Baker, “the extended Bush clan truly represented a kind of private-public business combine. For example, within months of Prescott being named to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, [George Herbert Walker Jr., Poppy’s uncle] formed a partnership to invest in commercial nuclear energy businesses.” [p33, Family of Secrets]
   Another of Poppy’s uncles, brother of G.H. and Dorothy Walker, Dr. John M. Walker, became the President of Sloan Kettering Institute in 1965 (to 1974). Ironically “Walker had a private practice [Greenwich, CT] until he was diagnosed with polio in 1950…he would eventually need a wheelchair.” The Walkers also lost a daughter to polio in 1955.
>>>The vast Harriman fortune, just as a reminder, resulted when “Jacob Schiff joined forces with Harriman to reorganize the Union Pacific” and takeover a number of other railroads.
>>>Kuhn Loeb & Co. partner Elisha Walker, if not a close relative of George Herbert Walker, was still in business with him: both Walkers were directors of American International Corp. (est.1915) along with Otto Kahn, Percy Rockefeller, Pierre duPont,; Elisha Walker was also a joint owner of Julius Kayser and Co., later merged (c.1943) and owned by Kennedy campaign fundraiser Abraham Feinberg. (see stock certificate; is that Eugene Meyer listed as the first of five owners?)
Elisha Walker was chairman of Bancamerica-Blair Corporation 1929-32 and Transamerica Corporation 1930-32 [founder Amadeo Giannini]; then a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Company 1933-50. (Elisha Walker, B.A. 1900. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pp 45-46.) Mrs. Walker was an activist at Memorial Hospital [Sloan Kettering], N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)”
Kennedy, in the meantime, was compelled to run the Massachusetts race against Eisenhower’s presidential campaign manager, the ‘very busy’ Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., winning by a 3% margin. “The Massachusetts representatives did tend to emphasize the plight of United Fruit…  the region ‘has made a specialty of Latin America’ and..’over 90% of New England’s foreign investment is in Latin America, a large part being..United Fruit Company… this investment was being threatened by the Communists…[and] Guatemala had developed into a ‘situation of great peril’… Thomas Dudley Cabot..had been..president [1948-49] of United Fruit and its registrar bank, the First National Bank of Boston…” [p117, The CIA in Guatemala, Richard H. Immerman]
>>>Thomas Dudley Cabot (1897-1995), CEO of Cabot Corporation 1922-1960 [chemicals, aerogels, drilling fluids]; worked for Truman’s State Department “in charge of a U.S. program arming allies throughout the world…In 1953, Cabot also served as a consultant on a special development mission in Egypt [coups in Egypt and Iran 1953]… Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.[was] also..a director of United Fruit.”
    With James Forrestal dead, Eisenhower’s Republican rival was Strauss’s old friend from “Hoover’s Relief” days, Robert A. Taft. “Strauss supported his friend Bob Taft..[whose] strong points were similar to Strauss’s…[except that Taft]..clung to an isolationism…more suited to the 1920s’..” [p136, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   As the 83rd Congress convened, Robert Taft led the Majority Republicans and Lyndon Johnson was elected to lead the Democrats. “In 1953, the convergence of unusual circumstances gave the Democrats the plurality of the Senate’s membership while the Senate Republicans maintained their majority party status.”– go figure.; Taft soon relinquished party leadership to California’s William Knowland.
 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was appointed by Eisenhower, on his third day in office, to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (held to Sep. 1960).
   “The day after the election, the Scripps-Howard newspapers interviewed McCarthy [R-Wis.] and were told that he planned ‘an entirely different role’ for himself..[p187, Senator Joe McCarthy, Richard Rovere] In what remained of the Truman years, McCarthy was nothing but an engine of denunciation… he denounced and accused and blamed and insulted and vilified and demeaned. He was a pure delight now..and the Republican organizations were in hot competition to have him come in with a load of documents on anyone who was giving them trouble.” [p179,ibid.] ..”They planned to take advantage of the atmosphere McCarthy had helped so greatly to create and at the same time to control McCarthy by directing his attention… I [Rovere] remember being told exactly this by Senator Taft early in January of 1953… Taft knew that McCarthy was dangerous..,” [p187, ibid.]..[but] felt he had engineered a brilliant coup by bottling McCarthy up in Government Operations, where he would spend his days studying reports…and by letting the furor over Communism expire under the deadening [mediocre] touch of Jenner and Velde. ‘We’ve got McCarthy where he can’t do ant harm,’ [Taft] said. He went on to say that..he himself had never thought that Communists represented half as serious a menace as the Left liberals and welfare-statists.” [p188, Senator Joe McCarthy]
   “Taft was a tall and large-framed man who posessed exceptional physical stamina and good health until April 1953. Family and colleagues were stunned when..a widespread and rapidly advancing cancer..claim[ed] his life by the end of July.”
   “Taft’s bottle for McCarthy had never been corked. McCarthy simply poured himself out.” [p190, Senator Joe McCarty]
   “On February 10, 1953, three weeks after Eisenhower entered office, AEC Chairman Dean submitted his resignation…shortly after Dean announced his resignation, John A. Wheeler, a physicist at Princeton [IAS], who was consultant to the AEC, lost a copy of a highly classified, extensively technical description of..thermonuclear weapons. Obviously, the AEC must tighten up security; who better than Strauss, with his reputation for protecting secrets, to do so. Senators Taft, Byrd, and Hickenlooper all urged Strauss to accept.” [p137, ibid.]
As soon as he took office, Eisenhower searched for some way to bring home the awful realities of the nuclear age to the American people… and in July, when he appointed Lewis Strauss to head the Atomic Energy Commission… on the day that Strauss was sworn in, Eisenhower took him into the Oval Office..and said: ‘Lewis, let us be certain about this; my chief concern and your first assignment is to find some new approach to the disarming of atomic energy… The world simply must not go on living in the fear of the terrible consequences of nuclear war.’…[In] August 1953, [Eisenhower] learned that the Russians had detonated their first hydrogen explosion…” [p111, Eisenhower and the Cold War, by Robert A. Divine]
>>>according to AEC liason Robert LeBaron, the Soviets detonated an H-bomb in 1950 or ’51, prior to the successful Teller-Ulam tests of 1951-52. Teller required the help of his Los Alamos assistant Frederick de Hoffman, later the founder of General Atomics (1957) and longtime president of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
Chairman of the AEC
Strauss brought a new style of management to the Atomic Energy Commission… he replaced the informal, rambling seminars of his predecessors Lilienthal and Dean with crisp, formal sessions designed to produce quick decisions rather than slowly evolving concensus. Forceful, determined, and impatient once he had made up his own mind, Strauss dragged the other commissioners along… Eisenhower’s defense policy rested on the deterrent power of the hydrogen bomb… aggression by threatening to strike the Soviet Union with overwhelming force… called ‘massive retaliation’ or the ‘New Look’…” [p144, No Sacrifice Too Great]…Strauss’s style of management [dictated that] At each meeting Strauss announced what he planned to do, then addressed each commissioner in turn for comments. In this atmosphere, none of them dared oppose Strauss…”  [p175, ibid.]
Whoever mastered a thermonuclear explosion employing a dry isotope of hydrogen [instead of the super-cooled liquid] would have the first deliverable [H]bomb.” [p145, ibid.]
   The return of LLS to the AEC chair was the fulfillment of a three-year campaign: by February of 1951 “he warned [Gordon] Dean that the thermonuclear program was not moving quickly enough. He accused Oppenheimer of ‘sabotaging the project’ and added that ‘something radical’ must be done…[he] did not suggest what, but his purpose was clear.” [p132, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   “The Greenhouse test [Marshall Islands, April and May 1951] proved the Teller-Ulam design would work, but considerable technical effort remained… Teller and Strauss hoped the AEC would establish a second laboratory [the Livermore, CA lab] to further work on fusion..[and] remove the hydrogen bomb from Los Alamos where they believed Oppenheimer exercised excessive influence… Among the many influential men who thought so were Strauss, Teller, AEC Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, GAC [advisory panel] member Willard F. Libby and Berkeley Dean Kenneth S. Pitzer. All but Strauss voiced their suspicion of the FBI..” [p133, ibid.]
   The October tests of 1952, Operation Ivy’s ‘Mike’ shot, “Three years plus a month after Strauss first called for a hydrogen bomb, [‘Mike’] transformed the atoll of Elugelab in the Eniwetok chain into a coral crater” by aerosolizing 100 million tons of soil and water. Biographer Pfau wrote, “the process obviously worked… By this time, only five [of nine] members of the GAC that had followed 1949 remained… his two closest..allies, Lee A. DuBridge and James Conant..stepped down… the other two veterans –Isidor I. Rabi and Oliver E. Buckley– backed away from Oppenheimer’s become at least lukewarm supporters of the fusion weapon.” [p134, ibid.]
>>>Buckley was the president (1940-1951) of Bell Laboratories. Isidor Rabi was later sent to Israel’s Dimona plant as a U.S. inspector.
    The significance of the Oppenheimer case, and the way in which Strauss handled it, is an indispensable display of method prior to the JFK assassination. Oppenheimer was proposing in essence the policy of flexible response eventually recommended to, and adopted by Kennedy.  “Strauss would use every resource he could mobilize to win the case.” [p160, No Sacrifice Too Great] and having an appropriate Commander-in-Chief on his side was required.
   “Taft’s opponent was General Dwight D. Eisenhower..[and] the contest was very close, but Eisenhower won..[helped] especially by a group from Texas that Taft was accused of stealing. The contested delegations helped put Eisenhower over the top…” [p136, ibid.]. It was also the refusal of the presidentially ambitious Earl Warren of California, who lost early in the convention polls, to cede his supporters to Robert Taft.
   Eisenhower assumed office, AEC Chairman Dean resigned, John Wheeler lost his H-bomb manual, and Strauss “quietly took control of atomic policy.” [p138, No Sacrifice Too Great] “On March 30, 1953, he presented a set of recommendations to the National Security Council.. [in] the context of the president’s desire to reduce the size of the federal budget [with] proposed savings of half a billion dollars in the atomic energy program by paring away nonessential spending… [He] pointed out that the stockpile of nuclear weapons..[had] potential for great benefit… [T]he fissionable material in the bombs could be converted into fuel for reactors. So, it was a good policy to continue the manufacture of weapons… Strauss recommended major reductions in spending in three areas: the cost of security, to be achieved by declassifying as much data as possible; the cost of weapons tests…and the cancellation of $200 million allocated for a reactor to aircraft carrier. The National Security Council and the president approved all of Strauss’s recommendations. By canceling the large ship reactor..he left [Adm. Hyman] Rickover angry.” [p149, ibid.]
   “Eisenhower nominated Strauss [to the AEC chair]..on June 24..and three days later the full Senate confirmed him without a ripple of dissent. On July 2, surrounded by family and friends in the president’s office, Strauss took the oath of office again. [p141] Strauss had marked the Bible on which he took the oath at a well-known passage… Micah 4:3,And He shall judge between many peoples and shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” [p142]
   “There was a poignant note to the ceremony: Bob Taft was making his last visit to the White House where he had lived as a boy and where he hoped to live as a man… Three separate medical examinations [at Walter Reed, NYU, and Sloan Kettering] confirmed..a fast growing cancer had reached its final stage, but he insisted on attending..limping painfully on crutches. Taft died within the month.” [pp143-144, No Sacrifice Too Great]
   Strauss wrote: “Only a few weeks earlier, I had sat with him at his home in Georgetown, where, behind closed doors..I brought him a final and terrible verdict from Dr. Cornelius Rhoads of Memorial Hospital in New York. It was the diagnosis that multiple metastases of a cancer would take his life… After a long silence, he asked if there was anything to be done… I told him..odds were very long against..his case.” [p335, Men and Decisions]
Had he lived, Robert Taft would have challenged Eisenhower’s second term.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer and Strauss claimed to have first met each other in the course of picking Japanese targets in mid- 1945.  About this same time, LLS replaced Lessing J. Rosenwald on the Board of Trustees of Princeton IAS, “and when Frank Aydelotte prepared to retire as director, Strauss headed the committee to select his replacement.” [p92, No Sacrifice Too Great] “At first, Strauss and Oppenheimer appeared to get along well..[p93]” but soon “fought over atomic policy, at first secretly and then openly beginning in the summer of 1947. One issue was atomic power. Whereas many people expected atomic energy to lead mankind into a golden age of cheap, plentiful electricity, Oppenheimer..sought to quell such unrealistic hopes…and warned that nuclear power would not provide ‘any considerable portion’ of the world’s electricity for [at least] twenty years.” [p99, ibid.]
On his return to the AEC, “Strauss attached only one condition to his acceptance, he told [Eisenhower]: Oppenheimer could not be ‘connected in any way’ with the AEC.” [p139, No Sacrifice Too Great] “In June of 1953 McCarthy was considering an attack on Oppenheimer. As soon as Strauss learned [of it] he wrote Senator Taft that it would be ‘ill-advised and impolitic’ for McCarthy to proceed. His reasons..were that ‘some of the so-called evidence will not stand up…and the present is not the time.’ FBI Director Hoover and Vice-President..Nixon also helped turn McCarthy away from Oppenheimer…” [p140, ibid.] …”While Strauss..looked for proof of Oppenheimer’s disloyalty, he sponsored an increase in Oppenheimer’s salary...[which] may have been designed to keep Oppenheimer from recognizing the depth of Strauss’s hostility toward him.” [p148, ibid.]
   Oppenheimer was less than right this time on the power issue –it took longer. Even though a commercial plant was opened in Shippingport, PA in 1955, the US taxpayers footed its operations for years while it served as a model for attracting private operators to nuclear power generation. The Shippingport operators sold the electricity and kept the earnings.
   On July 7, 1953, five days after his swearing-in, Strauss “acted quickly to cut off Oppenheimer’s access to the AEC’s secrets… [He] ordered the AEC Security Division to phase out the classified library that Oppenheimer maintained [at Princeton’s IAS] and replace it with a new facility under the commission’s direct charge..and control..” [p145, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss also wrote to the FBI and requested a reinvigoration of the atomic dual-agent program: memos from August indicate that “if the Director felt it advisable, Strauss..had certain programs in mind which would incidentally, if put into effect, require additional appropriation for the FBI.” Director Hoover politely responded to Strauss of the necessity for the AEC to get its own house in order. These were the last memos made available until 1964; the very last memo concerning the fate of the whole dual-agent correspondence.
William T. Golden
    Golden, who was “assistant to Admiral Strauss exclusivelyI was the only assistant; the other commisioners didn’t have assistants“, gave an oral history in 1989 [at age 80] on his recollections: [Question:] “Was Oppenheimer under a cloud yet in 1950?” [Golden:] “No, but yes. Oppenheimer had always been suspectBut Groves used Oppenheimer very effectively. They were a marvelous team…but at any rate, no charges had been the time…” [Question:] Oppenheimer was not in favor of a “new OSRD” [Strauss’s Office of Naval Research]…apparently..very much in favor of a strong grants program in the NSF [National Science Foundation].. [Golden:] Yes… [Question:] You submitted a memorandum to Robert Lovett [Brown Brothers Harriman] Deputy Secretary of Defense about the Research and Development Board…and you recommended George Merck as a new chairman of the RDB and the one to reorganize it… [Golden affirms:]..gradually the feeling has become one of increasing recognition of peaceful uses of atomic energy..and that atomic weapons should never be used again… [Question:] Right. Nuclear energy for electrical power… [Golden:] ..there had been..great enthusiasm for that, and especially for the breeder reactors… It was looked on as a wonderful development for society. And there was not much worry given to the..dangers, and how to avoid them. [Question:] Nuclear waste was not an issue? [Golden]..not a big issue…it was not regarded as the big problem that it has in fact become.”
   Early on, Golden had been a Wall Street securities analyst for ten years before induction into the Navy in 1941. He was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and given the rank of Lt. Commander, the same rank as Strauss — virtually shadowing Strauss on his way up the ladder. Golden was another, along with Robert Taft and Arthur Krock, to give Strauss first council on accepting Truman’s offer of AEC commissioner [in July 1946]. Golden remembered,”I couldn’t think of anything more exciting than the AEC.” He remained Strauss’s shadow with special assignments, returning with him to the AEC “part time”, he said, through 1958.
   There is at least one easy-to-find (lawsuit) record of Golden’s business dealings (1953-54) helpful to Abraham Feinberg and Israel: a stock sale that enabled Feinberg to fold his textile holdings into the larger company which he controlled, Julius Kayser & Co. The transfer brought more centralized control of a base of manufacturing plants in Greensboro, North Carolina; by happenstance a base for the Smith Richardson Foundation– connected to the American Security Council (see part II)– alleged to have trained private paramilitary for sensitive National Security ops . Golden and others in the sale “were directors of..Kayser” who then “resigned as directors” so that Feinberg and friends could be “elected as directors.”
Abraham Feinberg
   Feinberg and his associates were already well known and heavily documented by FBI counterintelligence as smugglers of arms and people. At least 70 people in Los Angeles were in the files.  “Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States… [and] more undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy… Ben-Gurion noted in his diary [in 1958] a conversation ‘he had with Abraham Feinberg’ raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among ‘benedictors’ in the United States… [Feinberg’s] close associate, David Wahl,..among other Feinberg associates, was a longtime undercover Soviet agent (beginning in the 1930s…)”
   Feinberg had initially sought his political influence through Robert Hannegan, FDR’s Commissioner of Internal Revenue, “responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelt’s running mate in 1944.” Hannegan by then was the Chairman of the Democratic National Committee.  Feinberg said, “I realized that it became important for me to know the people around Truman..[e.g.] David Niles… Through him I became friendly with Matt Connelly…  Eddie Jacobson..of the B’nai B’rith.. [who] had been a partner of Truman and a very close friend…  [Jews] around the country..understood that without Truman, Israel would have had very difficult even come into existence… He often said, ‘If not for my friend Abe, I couldn’t have..been elected.’; In 1960 Feinberg founded AIPAC and funded JFK: “I think [Truman] was a better statesman than Kennedy, although you can’t tell because Kennedy had no chance.
By 1953, the scientific team at the Weizmann Institute had developed the improved..mechanism for producing heavy water and a more efficient method for mining uranium. Both concepts were sold to the French..[which] led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research that was signed by the two nations…  Goldschmidt [the Rothschild family plutonium expert] was serving as director of chemistry for France’s Atomic Energy Commission… [p31, The Samson Option] Israeli scientists were the only foreigners allowed access throughout the secret French nuclear complex at Marcoule. Israelis were said to be able to roam ‘at will’...  [Goldschmidt explained:] ‘We weren’t really helping them [the Israelis]…We were just letting them know what we knew –without knowing where it would lead’… Bergmann had made the..point..’It’s very important to understand that by developing atomic energy energy for peaceful uses, you reach the nuclear option. There are no two atomic energies. [p.26, ibid.] …The intellectual spokesman for the French nuclear program..Pierre Gallois..[said it] came down to this: ‘When two nations are armed with nuclear weapons, even if they are unequally armed, the status quo is unavoidable.’ Gallois was taken very seriously by the Israelis.” [p.40, The Samson Option]
The U-2
Eisenhower came into the presidency in 1953 concerned about the lack of aerial intelligence..and ordered the CIA to do something about it. A Photographic Intelligence Division was promptly set up… Eisenhower’s next major step was to authorize a daring reconnaissance program –primarily targeted at the Soviet Union– and assign the development of [a] revolutionary airplane..jointly to the CIA and the Air Force..[to be] built under cover by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Burbank California, and known as the U-2.” [p.47, The Samson Option]
   When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada (Jan.1951), Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He [Land] knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…”  For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land’s Polaroid]
Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak, in which Strauss not only owned stock but matched to the inventors of Kodachrome, became a significant  collaborator in the U-2; the laboratory that Kuhn Loeb partners Strauss & Wiseman urged George Eastman to provide for Kodachrome development in 1922 may have been the actual premises of Kodak’s Hawkeye Works, the CIA’s photo analysis branch. A proprietary interest is clear. Kodak and Polaroid held each others’ stock.
   [From part I:] …”Kodak’s early commercial success was built on the production of x-ray film plates… In the early 1920s, the Hawkeye plant was making..the first 16mm movie camera.” Kodachrome would become Kodak’s stock commercial movie film. In time, Hawkeye produced classified aerial maps for the NRO and CIA (i.e.Project Bridgehead) and prepared the images of Soviet missiles in Cuba that were shown to JFK in October of 1962. The Zapruder film copy that came into the hands of Navy photo analysts on the weekend of JFK’s assassination is said to have been processed first by Kodak’s Hawkeye works.”
   “George Eastman [d.1932, by suicide] funded the creation of the Rochester University School of Medicine and Dentistry and its affiliated Strong Memorial Hospital under the courtship of Abraham Flexner: “at the time secretary of the Rockefeller General Education Board.” ” Flexner then founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study in 1930…and “[Rochester became the] headquarters of Manhattan Project human medical experiments with radionuclides [isotopes] and fluorine.” Among those experiments at Rochester were outdoor night-time hijinks by scientists spraying radioactive liquids around the school and medical campuses.
Fallout and Weather
   Albert Lasker died of stomach cancer in 1952, but his widow Mary carried on the couple’s special interests. This included sponsorhip of Israel’s cloud seeding program, evident in at least 3 boxes of Mary Lasker’s papers at Columbia showing multi-party correspondence from 1953 to 1958.
   A point about weather control from 1952 to 1955 is that many countries, eventually numbering around 50 or so, started cloud seeding operations:
   Due to the British program called ‘Cumulus’, “one of the worst flash floods ever to have occurred in Britain” devastated the town of Lynmouth on August 15, 1952. The discovery of a cloud seeding cause emerged from documents uncovered in a BBC investigation showing that Cumulus ran operations from 1949 to 1955 before it too [the program] disappeared. The UK government denied seeding clouds before 1955. ”The documents also talk of rainmaking having a potential ‘to explode an atomic weapon in a seeded storm system or cloud. This would produce a far wider area of radioactive contamination than in a normal atomic explosion.”
>>>The U.S. program was called ‘Cirrus’ and officially canceled in 1953 although records of ongoing work extend through 1957.
    Rockets and missiles, as they came available, were tools of the trade in cloud seeding– so imagine them carrying small nuclear warheads or clad explosives. Could they be distinguished from lightning and thunder inside a storm? How likely is it that no country ever tested this method of radiological warfare when it stands as a ‘white paper’ by the British? The U.S. and U.K. were staging joint atomic operations from 1952 onwards.
    My first conventional view of radioactive rain, measured widely in the U.S. in 1953, was that cloud seeding reduced detectable atmospheric radiation and hid the extent of  U.S. testing from other countries, though it’s certainly possible that large tests were actually masking localized weather war. Princeton IAS was running a cutting edge weather program during this time with the help of John von Neumann’s supercomputer; Strauss was the IAS chairman and Von Neumann later became an AEC commissioner. Ernest Lawrence, Strauss’s greatest ally for building the Super, was also the loudest proponent among scientists for radiological war.
U.S. cloud seeding technologies were evolved by high-explosive experts.
In June 1946..before Oppenheimer’s arrival at the Institute [IAS], Johnny von Neumann had begun to build a high-speed computer in the boiler room basement of Fuld Hall. Nothing so practical had ever existed [there, or] so expensive. The trustees initially gave von Neumann $100,000…And then, in a rare departure from Institute policy he was allowed to obtain additional funding from the Radio Corporation of America… Oppenheimer and von Neumann formally unveiled the Institute computer in June 1952. At the time it was the fastest electronic brain in the world…” [p376, American Prometheus]…”Von Neumann was unusual…And, like Edward Teller, he was rabidly anti-Soviet. One night at a party..discussion of the..Cold War..von Neumann said quite matter-of-factly that it was obvious: The United States should launch a preventive war and annihilate the Soviet Union… [Von Neumann]wrote to Lewis Strauss in 1951..’the USA-USSR conflict..will very probably lead to an armed ‘total’ collision and maximum rate of armament is therefore imperative.’ [p378, ibid.]
Oppenheimer’s Tribunal
By September of 1953, after the dual-agent FBI/AEC memos fizzle, Strauss initiated the FBI’s active surveillance of Oppenheimer–he was followed, bugged and wiretapped, and by December, the bugs extended to his home and lawyers’ offices. “Strauss elevated his scheme to end Oppenheimer’s influence… He told the AEC’s..counsel..that ‘if this case is lost, the atomic energy program..will fall into the hands of left-wingers… it will mean another Pearl Harbor… if Oppenheimer is cleared, then ‘anyone’ can be cleared…” [p.491, American Prometheus] “Strauss [then] turned his attention to selecting the judges. He needed three men…[and] settled on Gordon Gray to chair the board. Gray was..president of the University of North Carolina..whose family money came from the R.J.R. Tobacco Company…[he was also a close friend of Prescott Bush]… Strauss [next] selected..Thomas Morgan, chairman of the Sperry Corporation… For the third member, Strauss chose..Dr. Ward Evans, whose..qualifications his unblemished record of voting to deny clearances on previous AEC hearing boards… From Strauss’s point of view, they were the perfect empty vessels.” [p.492, ibid.]
   Before the proceedings against Oppenheimer were to begin in April, the AEC had scheduled a  major thermonuclear test series in the Marshall Islands –Operation Castle– six high-yield H-bombs tested with the intention of seeking “radsafe” levels of exposure.
At 6:45 on the morning of 1 March 1954, eight years after the testing in the Marshall Islands began, the US detonated a bomb codenamed ‘Bravo’ on the island of Bikini..equivalent to 17 megatons of TNT, 1,300 times the destructive force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima… That morning the wind was blowing in the direction of two inhabited atolls, Rongelap and Utrik, roughly 100 and 300 miles from Bikini. During previous tests Rongelap and Utrik had been evacuated. For some reason never yet divulged, there was no attempt to evacuate them before Bravo.” [p24, Day of Two Suns, by Jane Dibblin] “Bravo was an unecessarily dirty bomb– it delivered huge quantities of fallout… it detonated low off the ground and the fireball scooped up..Bikini’s coral reef…”[p.59, ibid.] “[D]octors on the ground didn’t even keep records… When the Rongelapese were taken to Kwajalein their urine samples were analyzed only as a pool sample instead of individually…The Atomic Energy Commission averaged the values of radionuclides found in land, fish, and fruits..thus concealing the expected effect individual…[p54]

   “Senior weather technician [for the US] who was on Rongerik [and also exposed] at the time of the Bravo test says someone must have known for days that the wind was blowing towards Rongelap. [He said]‘The wind had been blowing straight at us for days before the test… it was blowing straight at us after it. The wind never shifted.’ [p61, Day of Two Suns]
   “[A] magistrate on Rongelap..tells what happened… ‘The next day..we noticed the water turned to yellow. I warned the people not to drink from..water catchments, and told them to drink only [coconut milk]. The people began to get sick with vomiting, aches all over..and fatigue…’ [p25] It was two days before the Navy arrived to pick up the Rongelap islanders and US personnel– two days in which they breathed, slept and ate the fallout. [p26] ‘After two fingernails came off and my fingers bled. We all had burns..and our hair began to fall out’..[p27, ibid.]
   Strauss was there— Castle was the only test series he was known to attend. The next day, “March 2, 1954, [Oppenheimer lawyers] Garrison and Marks themselves appeared in Strauss’ office and confirmed that Oppenheimer was willing to accept [submitting his resignation]… Strauss, confident of victory, dismissed ‘out of the question’.” [p.496, American Prometheus]. According to Strauss’s own memoir, he was still in the Pacific: “On my return from Eniwetok on March 29, 1954, I reported to President Eisenhower on the Castle..series. The President had been greatly concerned over the reports of..fall-out..on the atolls of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Uterik and on a Japanese fishing vessel… The next morning..the President..asked me to tell the press substantially what I reported to him… The shot was fired, the wind failed to follow the predictions, shifting south..and the little islands..were in the path of the fall-out.” [pp410-411, Men and Decisions]
>>>Operation Castle lasted from March 1  to May 14: two shots in each of the three months (6 shots)
The Polio Shots
one shot in each of the three months (three shots)
Small-scale human testing of the new Salk “inactivated” polio vaccine (IPV) began in 1953, overlapping Dr. Hammon’s G.G. program in Iowa and Texas. Author Jane S. Smith wrote that “during the summer of 1953..the mass distribution of gamma globulin [G.G.] became a rehearsal for the polio vaccine field trials expected for the following year. [The NTS was running Operation Upshot-Knothole from March to June of 1953, all kiloton range]. The National Foundation [for Infantile Paralysis, NFIP, or ‘March of Dimes’] had developed valuable experience in mass purchasing and distribution, the public had been introduced to the idea that you cured polio by lining up for injections at schools or other public areas, and the administrators of the Public Health Service had realized that they had to step in or let [the NFIP] effect, a shadow network of health services.” [p.250, Patenting the Sun] “Tom Rivers..put it squarely; ‘The Public Health Service would eventually have to license the vaccine,’ he said, ‘and nobody in the Public Health Service knew anything about polio… we had an awful time teaching them about polio.’ ” [p.251, ibid.] “In November [1953], Basil O’Connor..announced that the trial would begin no later than the first week in February [1954]. By February they were hoping for early March.” [p.253] “…the journalistic blitz was on. The New York Times Magazine had featured Salk in January… Life..made the vaccine its cover story on February 22. Time featured..Salk surrounded by..crutches, leg braces and syringes on the cover of its March 29 issue… Better Homes and Gardens, victim of an early deadline..featured a story in its March though the trial had actually started in February, complete with fabricated quotations from children... [p255, ibid] …By this time, the start of the field trial had been postponed yet again, to April 26.” [p.258, Patenting the Sun] The vaccine trial, postponed even further, did not begin until late May. The Castle tests ended on May 14.
>>>Thomas Milton Rivers, “Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute” spent his entire adult life working for the Rockefellers. “Between 1922 and 1955, Rivers molded Rockefeller into the preeminent laboratory for research on viruses“. In 1945 he was assigned to oversee the Atomic Bomb Casulaty Commission. There is no indication that oversight of the ABCC (or its successor) was temporary: “studies..suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years.”  Rivers’ work for the Salk vaccine trial put him in close contact with the man who ran the program, Dr. Thomas Francis. Dr. Francis, who was Jonas Salk’s mentor and Rockefeller Hospital alumnus, was hired to reorganize the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after completion of the polio vaccine trials in April of 1955. The ABCC project became the “Lifespan Study” of Japan’s atomic survivors who lived past 1950 and had no leukemia (solid tumors only). Following that, Francis undertook “large population surveys” gathering health data from his base at the University of Michigan, just as the Health Physics mandate recommended. The Ford Foundation built him a “peaceful uses” nuclear reactor in 1957: “The reactor operated from September 1957 until July 3, 2003
So, the Salk polio vaccine trials were supposed to be timed for coordination with Operation Castle (March to May of 1954) –as the Provo G.G. trials coordinated with Nevada’s Buster-Jangle (Oct-Nov 1951)– but, perhaps the exceptionally dirty Bravo test caused the delay and put fear into the designers, since no amount of additional time was going to improve the vaccine.
   “What had made the bomb so dirty? The answer was discovered by K. Kimura, one of the Japanese scientists who analyzed the fallout on the Lucky Dragon’s deck. In this debris from the bomb he found a substantial amount of a rare isotope of uranium –uranium 237. It happened that Dr. Kimura himself was the original discoverer of this isotope; he had created it in the laboratory 14 years before [as].. a product of the bombardment of the common uranium isotope 238 by neutrons… The bomb must have had a thick blanket of uranium 238 surrounding its fission-fusion core; fast neutrons from the fusion reactions fissioned the U-238 blanket and thus multiplied the force of the bomb –and also the output of fission products. In short the weapon builders had found a way to use the neutrons that would otherwise have gone to waste: they had made a fission-fusion-fission bomb in which common uranium 238 was added to the fuel… One can immediately see a great gain in economy over the ‘primitive’ Hiroshima bomb. To produce a 20 megaton explosion with only the original fuel, uranium 235, would require 11,000 pounds..of this rare isotope, separated so laboriously from U-238, and cost about a hundred million dollars. Using U-238 as fuel, however, we can get our 20 megatons at the bargain-basement price of a quarter of a million dollars. (The same size of explosion with TNT would cost ten billion dollars!)
The Salk IPV trials, which took place across the U.S., Canada, and Helsinki Finland, dodged a major bullet by waiting. (The city of Helsinki still thinks of itself as the former “spy capital of the world”).  With less tweaking than was probably anticipated, the delayed trial data proved a success. Controversial as the subject must be, the radiation vaccine got the go-ahead and postponed its reckoning to the next year during 1955’s Operation Teapot –Nevada’s first full-scale thermonuclear series. In areas where fallout was intensified by weather, post-vaccine polio increased as much as 700% from the previous year –oops– blamed on faulty vaccine preparation.
Private Ownership of nuclear fuels and energy facilities was amended to the atomic charter in August of 1954: “the Commission may issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, import, or ex-port under the terms of an agreement for cooperation..” Strauss continued to exert expanded authority over this trade in his one-year pro-tem office as Secretary of Commerce (June 1958-June 1959)
Oasis in Israel
   Before 1954 was through, Strauss proposed his diplomatic agenda as the spokesman of Atoms-for-Peace: “he recommended a solution for the Arab-Israeli dilemma built around the use of atomic power to operate desalinization plants along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. All Countries in the Middle East could share the fresh water..[and] replace tension with amity. By this time, Strauss..supported the nation of Israel.” [p.223, No Sacrifice Too Great] Strauss and Eisenhower called it The Oasis Plan. Of course, Strauss always supported Israel– the Zionist v. non-Zionist debate among Jews in the U.S. was based primarily on U.S. immigration policy, a holdover from the WWI era when non-Zionists, like Jacob Schiff, sought restraint from incoming Russian Jews.  U.S. Zionists favored unrestricted immigration.  By WWII, and in Palestine particularly, the situation reversed; Zionists, like Weizmann, wanted tight immigration controls and non-Zionists, like Feinberg, wanted free entry.
The first Soviet two-stage hydrogen bomb was successfully tested in 1955… The first U-2 flights [1956] over the Soviet Union provided dramatic evidence that the Soviets were not nearly as advanced in conventional arms as the Pentagon assumed. There was no “bomber gap” or “missile gap”… The administration’s truth-teller continued to be the U-2, whose pilots, including Gary Francis Powers, later to be shot down, were usually assigned to overfly the Soviet Union. But there were other standing U-2 targets in sensitive areas…and that description fit the Middle East in 1958… Gary Powers and his colleagues, who had continued intermittently to overfly the Middle East, were now steadily back at work in the area. The CIA’s photo interpreters were suddenly seeing a lot of activity at an Israeli Air Force..range south of Beersheba…” [pp.50-51, The Samson Option]
   “The U-2 went operational from a secret base in West Germany on July 4, 1956… It was a spectacular asset… [p.48, ibid]… Among the inevitable by-products of the [nuclear] manufacturing process are radioactive gases which are vented into the atmosphere. The analysts of the early U-2 photography learned to look for..distinctive chimneys…” [p.52, The Samson Option] The U-2 planes also carried particle filters mounted in air scoops as earlier detection flights had done.  By the time Dimona started taking shape (1957-58), “the U-2 continued to overfly the Negev. Lundahl [chief of photo analysis] also relayed the findings on Dimona to Lewis L. Strauss..who [was]..cleared for U-2 intelligence.” [p.54, ibid.]
[apologetics from Seymour Hersh:]
Strauss certainly knew as much about Dimona as as anybody in the intelligence community… There is no evidence, however, that he raised questions about the Israeli weapons progam while in government; nor was he known to have ever discussed Dimona after leaving office. Strauss chose not to talk..because, as a Jew with deep feelings about the Holocaust, he approved of it… He was insistent on continued nuclear testing… At the same time, he championed Atoms for Peace..[on] the assumption, which turned out to be dreadfully wrong, ..that smaller nations once supplied with.. a nuclear power plant, would have no incentive or desire to develop nuclear weapons… Strauss’s activities on behalf of a Jewish homeland apparently were not known… At some point in his AEC career [believed to be the 1955 Geneva meeting on the Peaceful Uses of the Atom] Strauss met and befriended his Israeli counterpart, Ernst David Bergmann…Neither Strauss’s biographer nor his son Lewis..knew that the two had met [but].. in the fall of 1966, Strauss used his influence to get a visiting fellow at the..Institute for Advanced Study… rules were bent for Strauss. [The IAS’s new director at the time said] ‘It became clear that [Bergmann] and Strauss were close, and also clear that he was working on [the Israeli nuclear] weapons program.’ …Strauss..did not tell anyone..about Dimona. Fair or not, the issue of ‘dual loyalty’ –exemplified by Strauss’s actions– has been a very real concern…”
   Hersh’s writing career, as noted in the JFK Conspiracy Con, was underwritten by Julius Rosenwald’s grandson, Philip Stern, from a family centrally tied to the creation of Lee Harvey Oswald’s “legend” and secretly invested in nuclear technology.  It is the Sterns’s business partner, Zalman Shapiro, who appears as the object of Hersh’s exoneration in the The Samson Option, and yet it’s Strauss’s legend that gets the most fortification from Hersh. “Holocaust guilt”, or guilt of any kind, is a wash. Strauss exuded neo-Maccabean pride, built agencies in service to it, and regretted only that he could not do more– an expression easily twisted into holocaust guilt. Without a Holocaust there would have been no Bomb.
    The problem is not ‘dual loyalty’ but loyalty to the mental poison of duality and absolutism.  Hersh and others, continually hiding Strauss’s early medical background in Rothschild employ and his lifelong association to biological warfare, dissemble on the real nature of the game –the self-canceling schism of rival degeneracy. Very gnostic and very “Protocols”. The exceptionalism in it, and the place where Strauss assumed his power and profit, was in the middle of it all where the ends are bent to form an apex –the node of dialectical form: summit of a pyramid.
…to be continued: epilogue, story timeline and JFK assassination events…

February 3, 2012

JFK Conspiracy Con IV

If you’ve read your way here starting from the beginning to part four,  this writer wants to acknowledge a milestone in personal blogging –my first “part four”.  Subjects as large as this one have normally been shunted over to create websites all their own. Even the “polioforever” blog is overburdened by this story. And what a story! The nature of the evidence connecting JFK assassination “regulars” to nuclear history is so rich and deep that I can hardly decide what to write next.  So far, I’ve been angling for an adjustment in the quasi-conventional treatment of John Kennedy’s murder to propose that there are still Big Fish in the pool and maybe even a Man on Top– albeit long dead and floating belly-up. Spawn-after-its-kind, I suspect, are still murkily circulating nearby.
   The centerpiece of this scheme is being teased out of the crafty memoir of Admiral Lewis L. Strauss and the many omissions of his biographers including himself. Since no source that I know of has ever named him directly as a candidate for calling the hit on JFK, I surmise that the effort to “Hide L.L.” has been a raging success. By his own hand, his book is a testament to understated influence, subtle to all but the intrepid students of history. There are a few blatant exceptions in Men and Decisions demonstrating what Ed Haslam calls “the deep vein of power in this country” (ha! –Ed– he does have an Ad Man’s knack for turning a phrase) and those special points that Strauss makes are an ominous ‘correction’ to historical record. Strauss does indeed put the “con” of confidence back into the JFK conspiracy. Those corrective points evade the record still. But, it’s my belief that Strauss intended his memoir to be a message for the Kennedys about who really makes the decisions, and how, the very important how, which is a message to the rest of us.
   For as much as possible, until the seams burst, the Polio Story at  is carrying the details on L.L. Strauss. As a youthful Hoover Man and Kuhn Loeb banker, he was simultaneously the president of a polio hospital back in World War One (until 1925) –a hospital founded by Rothschilds– which established his early credentials in medicine and adds background to this rendition of the Conspiracy Con.
 Mary Lasker
Internet sources for the friendship between Strauss and the Laskers mark the beginning as an episode of matchmaking in which Lewis Strauss and Bill Donovan (OSS chief) conspired to make a new couple of Albert D. Lasker and Mary Woodward Reinhardt who married a year after they met. The Lasker family had been early benefactors to the Rockefellers American Society for the Control of Cancer (the ASCC, est.1911). Not long after their marriage, in 1945, the Laskers took over the ASCC and changed its name to the American Cancer Society, installing their own allies and scientists in top posts. Strauss was to be a Lifetime Trustee.  That year the Sloan Kettering Institute, under the auspices of Memorial Hospital in New York, was chartered with a mandate for cancer research and Strauss became a founding trustee of Sloan Kettering, too, joined by Manhattan Project chiefs like James B. Conant and Arthur Compton on its board. Predictably, Men and Decisions voids all mention of polio, cancer, or Sloan Kettering, but there is a remarkable event described in which Albert Lasker took part during 1939, around the time he met Mary. The reference is to a private diplomatic mission that Strauss performed on behalf of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) Executive to petition the British Government to create a new country in Africa to be “called the United States of Africa..[where] there would be a place for tens of millions [of refugees]..anxious to get away from the over-regulated, goose-stepping civilians of Russia, Germany and Italy.” Strauss relates that he “received certain assurances from Bernard Baruch, Henry Ittleson, Albert Lasker, Mr. [Lessing or William] Rosenwald and others..of considerable means..that if the British..could be persuaded to devote a..large area..for settlement by refugees from European countries..these men were willing to tithe their capital to assist it..” [pp113-114, Men and Decisions] The Lasker capital was largely accumulated by Albert’s  ownwership of the Lord & Thomas advertising agency (of Chicago) which grew fat on its promotion of cereal and cigarettes.
   After Albert’s death in 1952, Mary kindled a fast friendship with Lyndon Baines Johnson. Author Michael Beschloss described Mary as the “New York philanthropist who had a flirtatious relationship with LBJ…before campaign finance disclosure laws [were enacted]…[helping to] quietly finance the Johnson campaign..through Walter Jenkins.., LBJ’s liason to the FBI.”  Beschloss called Mary “the lavish Johnson donor” who told the new President Johnson, “There’s nothing we can’t do now..” [p57 footnote and p132, Reaching For Glory]
   Cereal and cigarettes, sure enough, also have a role to play in this amalgamated drama. There can’t be a Boomer anywhere in America who hasn’t heard of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes made by the “cereal king” Will Keith Kellogg. In 1930, Kellogg’s new foundation sponsored the construction of the Radiation Lab at Caltech that graciously gave quarter to Lewis Strauss and the ‘refugees’ Brasch and Szilard.
   It was nearly a century ago when young Florence Sheets (Mrs.Mahoney) enrolled in the Kellogg’s Battle Creek Normal School of Physical Education. She followed her graduation there with a journey to the lawless domain of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan and a job teaching dance at the local YWCA. Mahoney’s biographer, Judith Robinson, reports that she had a “girlhood study medicine, but she got side-tracked on ballet,” nevertheless joining “an organization which aimed to establish health centers across the continent.” [p10, Noble Conspirator, Florence S. Mahoney and the Rise of the National Institutes of Health] In time, Mrs. Florence Mahoney and Mrs. Mary Lasker became one of Washington’s most famous pair of friends. Together, they were the Health Lobby on Capitol Hill, a partnership that began evolving in the 1920s over a mutual interest in birth control and mental health.
   In 1942, when the newly formed Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation initiated their coup in the Cancer Society, Noble Conspirator describes how the “Lasker-Bobst cabal –who dubbed themselves ‘benevolent plotters’..were ‘united in one purpose’ revolutionize American medical education, research and health care… [The cabal] included people whose names would come to be well known: Doctor Alton Ochsner, the first physician to establish a link between cancer and smoking in 1954… and Anna Rosenberg Hoffman..[who] was an intimate friend of the Laskers.” [pp51-52, Noble Conspirator, Judith Robinson]
 Anna Lederer (Mrs.) Rosenberg, Asst. Sec.of Defense 1950-1953; “Rosenberg worked hard to bring about the effective implementation of the National Security Act… In 1962, the Rosenbergs divorced and then she married Paul G. Hoffman, the first administrator of the Marshall Plan and a top United Nations official.”

“[Nelson] Rockefeller had never forgotten the debt he owed to Anna Rosenberg…At the end of the war  [he told Bill Benton] ‘..everything I’ve amounted to here in Washington, everything I feel I’ve achieved..I owe to Anna Rosenberg.”
   Rosenberg’s specialty was the military use of Human Resources, but it was her unequaled talent to pick up the phone, call a President and get things done that endeared her to Rockefeller.   Rosenberg’s years at the Pentagon came just as nuclear expansionism instituted testing in Nevada and the DoD was required to relinquish its exclusive control over atomic technology.
 Alton Ochsner
Doctor Mary’s Monkey readers will recognize Dr. Ochsner as a leading character in Haslam’s book. In fact, the who-dun-it “case for a case” into Mary Sherman’s death that DMM purports to be is solved by Ed in audio supplements –Ochsner killed Sherman with a surgically precise stab to the heart. It was an act of mercy, he says, after Mary was flash-fried and partially vaporized in a high-voltage accident, but still alive! eek! Sherman’s unrecognizable remains were then sneaked back to her own apartment and set ablaze to coverup her involvement in the secret cancer vaccine project which was supposed to counteract the monkey virus contaminated polio shots. Okay? –now, this accident could have happened with the secret particle accelerator at the New Orleans Marine Hospital. And this is Ed’s story based on a legally “improper” autopsy report, allegedly on Mary Sherman, that turned up in the special collection files at the New Orleans Public Library around 1992. We’ll go back to Ed’s story soon because Dr. Alton Ochsner knew Lee Oswald and his girlfriend Judyth Vary (Mrs. Baker). They both worked for him, it appears, according to Judyth. Ochsner, Mary Sherman, and USNavy Commander Edward Haslam Sr. were orthopedic surgery colleagues at Tulane University, and a further bond (at least) between Ochsner and Sherman existed at the private Ochsner Clinic, a “hunting cancer center” in the mode of radium dealer Pregel and a shining enterprise in the style of the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota.
   Medical-use particle accelerators have a well known history. The general subject of pioneering work in the field can be found in the archives of the American Radium Society, especially in a 1974 presentation by Milford D. Schulz who left a document for posterity called “The Supervoltage Story.” Schulz kept his focus on the machines that marked the milestones for radiology but is quite clear that “these tools of Radiotherapy..were the spin-off of the tools of the nuclear physicist… [and] the number of radium induced gamma ray beam devices remained few..until 1929 [when] there were only 6 such devices in existence –one in Stockholm; one in Baltimore; one in Brussels; one in New York; and two in Paris…”
   For 1929, it sounds impressive and a good match on the itinerary of the traveling uranium dealers. Ernest Lawrence was still pounding around on his little cyclotrons. But it gets even better. As I said in Part One, all the particle accelerators had the capacity to make atomic bomb fuel. Schulz notes, “these devices were widely used in industry and defense. Production for [dedicated]medical purposes began in 1946 and by 1958 [we] counted 15 one megavolt and 9 two megavolt installations in such use. [1974] standards even these are..unecessarily large and..almost obsolete.” To get to the really impressive development of particle accelerators, one has to side-step the medical uses and follow the technology. In this realm, even as early as the ’40s, high-voltage acceleration was already reaching into the billions of particle volts and the machines in medical research then were most common at one-to-ten million volts (written MeV, for “million electron volts”) and topped at about 70 million. These were the so-called “low-energy” accelerators in “million volt” ranges and the best for both medical and atomic fuel purposes. Evidently, even before the first atomic bombs were built and exploded, the physicists were well beyond the applications of bombs and medicine.
   If the megavolt numbers of the “surge generator” project that Strauss, Brasch and Szilard were setting up at Caltech sound impressive, as if this was the ultimate in high-energy work, it’s because the range of energy was compatible to uses in bombs and medicine and these men were concerned with conforming their activities to the appearance of medical research.
The Office of Naval Research
Preparation for the end of World War II witnessed a flurry of high-level motion devoted to advancing the gains in science. Lewis Strauss wrote, “These days of grace in World War II had provided the time within which the Office of Scientific Research and Development, under Dr. [Vannevar] Bush and Dr. [James] Conant, performed so significantly… It was apparent that research other than the military would not languish for support after the war.  Aeronautical research would be sustained by..the aviation industry. Electronic research would prosper due to..the communication and entertainment industries..” [p145, Men and Decisions] And, as we know, medical research would flourish by way of the Laskers. But to keep a hefty wedge on the pie-chart for the military, Strauss engaged his fellows to lobby for the Office of Naval Research. The ONR was founded to “fill the breach” and inherit the mandate of the OSRD which was decommissioning for peacetime.
   The man selected as Chief Scientist of the ONR was a Russian emigre by the name of Emanuel Piore. The American Institute of Physics collected an oral history from Piore in 1977:  Among the very interesting things that Piore says about physics development in the U.S.  is his wartime role before the creation of ONR. His interviewer asks if the Bureau of Ships was the special weapons group. “No,” said Piore, “I moved from the Bureau of the Chief of Naval Operations. We were a small group..introducing new weapons to the fleet… We arranged for Navy support for the nuclear bombs… [and] We were the group that supervised the operation that killed Joe Kennedy.  The exercise was to load a B-24..with as much explosives as [it] could carry, point it at a target, control it from another plane and let the guys bail out from the big B-24. That thing exploded in the air someplace in France and Joe Kennedy was the pilot.” The interview moves right along: [Question]”How aware was the Navy Office..of the Manhattan Project?” [Piore]”The Navy was very well aware. Since I was in a specialized group and Los Alamos needed some planes,..I told the captain,..told him what it was for. He was shocked that I knew about it. I said, ‘Well, look, all my friends have gone there.’ …All these people are my friends, very close to me… Let me try to go back a little bit. During the war there was something called the Office of Research and Inventions…Run by Admiral Fuhrer..under the Navy… That was the main contact point between the Navy and Bush’s operation…. I had my contacts in Bush’s operation and I would let the admirals know what I was going to do, but they could never stop me or say ‘This is policy’. Now, towards the end of the war you had a few guys moving in there: Admiral Bowen, Captain Robert Conrad, and you had a very intelligent Secretary of the Navy by the name of James Forrestal. He had an aide by the name of Lewis Strauss –the same Lewis Strauss who was a Reserve Rear Admiral– and they had money. Money! First of all, he didn’t need very much money. They said, ‘Why don’t we start supporting universities?’…questions and answers do not provide the real flavor of those days… and all of us knew that the war was going to terminate with the Japanese.
   “..Vannevar Bush was determined to terminate the soon as the armistice with Germany had been signed…[So] this was the real motivation behind the Navy..with ONR…   ONR and the Atomic Energy Commission permitted the reinstitutionalization of graduate instruction and the renewal of research at universities… ONR and AEC provided new accelerators with ever increasing energy and detection equipment for nuclear physics and particle physics…for microwave spectroscopy and helium liquification for superconductivity and cryogenic research… Let me name a few of the laboratories that were established postwar… Nuclear Physics and Engineering at MIT, Electrical Engineering at Stanford and Harvard, ..Electronics at MIT, the Radiation Lab at Columbia, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and Scripps Oceanographic Institute received generous support… Thus..assured that the brightest, the most capable, most of the men under 40, returned… Then you’ve got to appreciate that those of us in ONR understood quite apart from physics that these large machines produce instruments that become very important to society…   [ONR] started to support radioastronomy before the country was ready…   now and then we’d get a review by some admirals who’d get nervous…[but] there was a rapport with high command of the Navy. The civilian head was appointed by the Secretary of the Navy. So you had an opportunity to go and see him anytime… I always kept the top admirals involved… I would drop in and sit down and have coffee with them. Never made an appointment… But there was a tremendous confidence. Now.. evaporated as these admirals and captains retired…  One had a lot of contacts. The whole government was small…. I had contacts with Strauss….”
   Piore technically left the ONR in 1955 when the Salk vaccine went public. He appears to have been involved with Avco Manufacturing Corp. between the ONR  and his joining with IBM in 1956 as its Director of Research, responsible for transitioning the company away from an emphasis on hardware and into state-of-the-art information systems.  He had something to say about LBJ: “When Kennedy became president, he gave the responsibility of NASA to his vice president, Johnson. Johnson offered me the job to be director of NASA. This was in the early days of Kennedy’s administration. I turned it down, and they were shocked… Rusk wanted me to go to the State Department. I said, ‘I’ll go if you give me an Assistant Secretaryship.’ He said, ‘Well, you’ll be reporting to me.’ I said, ‘That won’t help me to deal with the CIA.’ ” No further explanation was offered unless one accepts IBMs newfound “interest in the educational business” is related where Piore points out that “all the large companies were buying publishing houses. General Electric started something with Time-Life Inc…RCA bought something…  Xerox got something….” Publishing, broadcasting and general psychological warfare were the CIA’s authorized charter stock-and-trade.
*  Dr. Piore
Biographical information about Emanuel Piore can be found here;query=friedman;brand=default ; Piore’s New York Times obituary names him as “the first civilian to head the Office of Naval Research” where “he basically invented the mold of federal research in the United States by persuading the admirals of the Navy to give direct federal support to scientists..irrespective of the importance of that research to the Navy.”  Piore’s papers at the American Philosophical Society (amphilsoc) to some extent show his important contacts with Sloan Kettering, Benno C. Schmidt (of Freeport McMoRan), Tekhniyon Yisra’el, Tulane, Warren Weaver (of Rockefeller and Salk Institutes), beckoning for closer attention. Piore had no interest in catering to biologists, however he married a “health policy expert”
 As he states in his AIP oral history, the ONR “civilian head” was an appointment from the Secretary of the Navy and he remained close to the Secretaries. Near the end of his ONR years, one of Piore’s Secretaries was Robert B. Anderson of Texas (Sec. of Navy from Feb 1953-May 1954) who served Eisenhower’s cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury from 1957 to 1961, alongside L.L.Strauss as the unconfirmed Secretary of Commerce. Anderson ended his government service in disgrace, caught operating an illegal off-shore bank that “laundered large amounts of cash for drug traffickers”, says wikipedia.
Secretary Anderson and Lyndon Johnson did some business together in telecommunications that led to LBJ’s ownership of the major, and for a time only, TV and radio station in Austin –station KTBC, which launched its TV programming on November 27, 1952. The Johnsons sold off the television property in 1973 but kept the radio. The Secretary of the Navy that followed Anderson was Charles Thomas who served from May 1954 to April 1957  and strangely enough, Judyth Vary Baker declares that one of her important witnesses that can validate her relationship to Lee Oswald was an “anti-Castro Cuban with a thick German accent, who worked for Customs in Buffalo New York” and called himself Charles Thomas.
This stuff is stranger than fiction.
Judyth Vary Baker talks to Jim Fetzer, “Living in Exile II”  March 2010
Judyth was Ed Haslam’s Missing Link until CBS ’60 Minutes’ brought them together in 2000 as a result of Ed’s first version of Doctor Mary’s Monkey. Since her recording with Jim Fetzer in early 2010, Haslam and his publisher, Trine Day, have released Judyth’s story ‘Me and Lee’ about her love affair with Oswald. The book was developed by Haslam while Baker was “living in exile” overseas, afraid for her life –which is still the case. In a plot twist about Ed, occurring early sometime around 1972 as he was finishing college at Tulane, he says that he encountered an imposter ‘Judyth Vary Baker’ at a New Orleans house party –an event that set the stage for his subsequent decades of looking for her.
   In 2010, Judyth tells Fetzer that she and Oswald were involved in something other than ‘bioweapons’ which she knows to be gunrunning through the miles of New Orleans riverfront. Weapons, she says in other interviews, came packaged in crates of bananas and furniture from inbound Venezuelan ships. Traffick of all sorts is a colorful epic in the history of New Orleans but plays no actual part in Doctor Mary’s Monkey. Judyth’s memories and observations over the years, however, strongly suggest that arms traffick was the reason for Oswald’s surreptitious activity in ’63. Her own reason for being there was to work undercover for Dr. Alton Ochsner with the supervision of Dr. Mary Sherman, a project that was intended to create a cancerous biological weapon for the assassination of Fidel Castro. At one time, Baker was a brilliant biology student with an ambition to cure cancer –just the kind of young person that the Atomic Energy Commission was interested in nuturing along. She came to their attention as a Florida highschool kid with the highest-ranking IQ in the state, already a lab performer successfully able to induce cancer in mice. The SV40 cancer virus had no place in Judyth’s earlier recollections as a part of her work but it is part of the story now and right in the heart of Haslam’s DMM.
The Monkey Virus
In a previous article I speculated that the Simian Virus #40 (SV40) was used as a genetic “tag” in the Salk and Sabin vaccines to satisfy a requirement by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) for a way to track a large population for one hundred years. Polio vaccines were not the only SV40 carriers.
The ABCC was a designated field agency of the [National] Research Council [NRC], its activities supervised by a Committee on Atomic Casualties in the Division of Medical Sciences, headed by Thomas M. Rivers, bacteriologist and Director of the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute…   A survey of projected studies made a year later suggested a duration of the work of the ABCC on the order of one hundred years…  The Commission originally planned to determine the incidence of new diseases uniquely associated with radiation, altered incidence of known diseases, altered natural histories of particular diseases, and changes in physiological status without overt disease… [i.e.]possible acceleration in the aging process in the exposed.”  [pp490-493]
   The news about SV40 contamination in the mass polio vaccines was a breaking story in several city newpapers between 1961 and 1963. It was not surprising to learn that by 1963 there was already a “scientific opinion” about SV40 as not harmful to humans –a situation that only many years of experiments and testing with humans could provide.
   There is little documentation about SV40 experiments before 1963, mirrored by the same lack of materials about fission before Hahn and Strassman’s “discovery in Germany”. What is accessible about SV40 and the polyoma viruses to which it belongs date from the 1951 findings of Ludwig Gross, polyoma virus discoverer. Two early polyoma/SV40 researchers from Caltech, who were exalted scientists of radiobiology (Dulbecco and Vogt), took positions at the Salk Institute when it opened in 1962. Not by chance, in that year, Jonas Salk announced to the nation through the newswires that cancer could be prevented with vaccines.
But what does it all mean?
   Hopefully, I’ve written enough here to make sense of the proposition that the world in 1962 was being made “safe” for nuclear proliferation of the peaceful kind. Fallout awareness was a necessary condition to bring about arms limitations for the near term, but the will to cease testing among scientific and political circles did not exist. In order to help manifest a will and generate a popular outcry, the suppressed downside of fallout diseases would have to get some overdue publicity. But which fallout diseases to choose? To this day, it’s a virtually unknown concept that the mass polio vaccines were a response to mass fallout and that neurological polio-like illnesses are the kaleidoscopic products of combined radiation and chemical injury. Years of polio investigation have shown me there are worse things than cancer –so they chose cancer, of course. They owned it. Nuclear proliferation was already built-in. They created a vaccine to “channel” cancer and made cancer treatment worse than the progression of the disease so everyone would fear it. A near perfect scheme.
   The timing of Jonas Salk’s very public announcement in 1962, preceding the Cuban Missile Crisis, seems to me a poised “option” for the predictably volatile moments of the Nuclear Brink yet-to-come. Our president had need of considering the actual use of the weapons for which we dearly paid at a time when retaliation was the expected outcome. A cancer vaccine, and even the hope of one issued from the mouth of the greatest can-do medical hero of the age, was certainly an enabling “option” in  atomic showdown. So, there are two vaccines playing a role in the missiles of October.
   Darker propositions attend the purposes of the polio vaccines: They were not merely injecting “tags” for generational surveillance but performing genetic chemotherapy on entire populations, introducing new genetic information during radioactive immune suppression. The plot to assassinate Castro by injecting cancer cells and exposing him to multiple x-rays as a “treatment” in the chance the cancer would take, as Judyth Baker speaks of, is a recipe of the exact design. It was a well studied formula in the “upward causation” of the New Biology eugenics that came to experimental fruition in the 1950s.
Initially, researchers knew little or nothing about the health effects of the basic bomb components, uranium, plutonium, and polonium.  But, as a secret history written in 1946 stated, they knew the tale of the radium dial painters..”
   The mandate of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, as just one of the agencies developing programs in the new field of Health Physics, was spelled out in a 1947 report : …”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys”……”Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods”……”effects..on blood constituents and blood forming organs as well as on the nervous system”…”Recommendations for Future Research Policy”, section B “human Testing with Special Materials”…[to include] “plutonium, polonium and ‘special oils’.”   …”following is a..list of the substances on which studies of this type are necessary:
(1) Uranium and its compounds…oxides, nitrate, chlorides, bromide, tetra and hexafluoride, sodium and ammonium diurantes…
(2) chain of heavy metals : uranium x1 and x2, radium and polonium…”
   The accompanying challenge for Health Physics was obvious in developing their programs for controlled study conditions. Not only did they need to tag their experiments, but they needed the databases to log, sort, and track them. It should be a signal to us that the ONR’s cilivian head left his post in 1955 to bring an information giant like IBM up to speed. Genetic population tracking today is one of IBM’s great cooperative ventures –cooperating with you, if you will only send them your DNA .
   In a rather humorless and direct fashion, I suppose, the identifying marker in the SV40 gene-string is the “T antigen”, shortened to “Tag”. TragiComedy.
     Dr. Judah Folkman
In 1960, Judah Folkman got drafted “having deferred his service obligation for nine years –through college, medical school, an internship, and halfway through his residency…[he was then] summoned to an interview with the Office of Naval Personnel in Washington. There he learned that it wasn’t just that his number had come up; his conscription had a purpose… the government was specifically targeting draft-age doctors who had serious biomedical research experience, a very elite group…   It was the height of the cold war and a flood of money soon began to accompany the government’s new interest in physics, chemistry, biomedicine, rocketry, electronics and atmospheric science to support America’s quickly developing military and space programs… it was also the dawning of the nuclear submarine age…” [pp45-47, Dr. Folkman’s War, by Robert Cooke, 2001 Random House] …”[He] was noodling in a navy lab in Bethesda..trying to make cells grow under artificial conditions…when he’d first noticed a strange thing about tumors: They wouldn’t grow unless they first recruited their own blood vessels…[p3]…Folkman had descended from an extended clan of rabbis..[that] sent a branch to the United the late 1800s…[p7]…When Judah was nine, [his father] the rabbi spoke about the German campaign to erase the Jews from Europe, raising an interesting question about the meaning of Albert Einstein’s arrival in America as a refugee….’My father said, ‘Maybe [God] has a plan to move us all around in order to balance power… if Einstein comes here, atomic energy is developed here, not there.’” [p11] Einstein came in 1933. This comment was made to the child about 1941.
    Judah Folkman’s career as a famous cancer doctor is a tangent in this tale but Cooke’s biography is instructive to the whole, not least for flagging the point that the Jewish community was openly sharing its insights about atomic energy before the Manhattan Project even had a name. Folkman was adopted into the Lasker Syndicate through the person of Sidney Farber, the first to use chemotherapy on childhood leukemia. “By Farber’s time..the patients who didn’t die during treatment often wished that they had… No one was very pleased with chemotherapy.” [p114, Dr. Folkman’s War]
Mahoney and Lasker..considered themselves representatives of ‘citizens committees’ and in that role they brought allies and ‘citizen’ witnesses to testify before congressional committees… Albert Lasker himself had testified before a Senate committee in 1946 in favor of federal spending on cancer research. When a senator asked, ‘But whom do you represent, Mr. Lasker?,’ he replied, ‘Forty million sufferers.’ ” [pp96-97, Noble Conspirator, Judith Robinson] ..”Albert Lasker, in a sad irony, died of colon cancer. He first complained of stomach trouble in December 1949 and was extensively examined and x-rayed, but no evidence of cancer was found…. After rallying from several major operations, he died May 30, 1952.” [p57]
   “The President’s Commission on Health Needs of the Nation.. was set up in December 1951 [just after the Provo Utah gamma globulin trials during Operation Buster-Jangle] with the backing of Truman’s health adviser and Mahoney friend, Howard Rusk… ‘The commission was to consider the whole picture of health in the United States and make recommendations,’ Mahoney said. The result was a five-volume survey of healthcare in the nation..[that] emphasized opportunities not to be missed..” [p87]  “In 1951, government medical research expenditures amounted to $180 million…” [p90]
   …”With legislation permitting open-ended expansion of the NIH, many of Mahoney’s and Lasker’s dreams were fulfilled..[and they] were obvious candidates to among the first lay people to serve on the NIH advisory panels…. [Mary] Lasker served for eighteen years on Cancer and Heart Institute councils… Laskers sister, Alice Fordyce, also served on councils…” [p104] “What came to be known as the ‘Golden Era of NIH’ was well underway by the 1950s…” [p114] “By the mid-1950s the Mahoney-Lasker team had put together a stable of ‘citizen’ or ‘outside witnesses’..whom they regularly called on to testify before Congress… [Howard] Rusk, [Sidney] Farber and [Michael] DeBakey were regulars…” [p138]
   “By 1961 federal research spending had risen dramatically… a 150-fold increase since 1945…. [It] was growing so rapidly that in 1956 New York Times science editor..William Laurence, predicted that cancer, heart disease and polio would be conquered within a decade… ‘There was no..NIH precedent, nor comparable sequel, for the growth surge that ensued upon passage of the final..1957 appropriation… Within four years the NIH budget ballooned from $98.5 million to $400 million… A worldwide epidemic of the Asian Flu in 1958 furthered the cause of [funding]… And Sidney Farber brought news that the cure rate for cancer had risen from one in four to one in three people…” [pp180-182]
   “[F]ollowing the election of John F. Kennedy, Mahoney and Lasker expected sympathy… Indeed, Kennedy’s first budget request contained the largest increase for NIH ever proposed by a president…. But increasingly [NIH] advocates would be called on to justify their figures… [A]nti-poverty and civil-rights initiatives and an expanding war in Southeast Asia, were laying claim to larger chunks of the federal budget. Expenditures for medical research would be subject to growing scrutiny…” [p184] “Kennedy’s Secretary of HEW, Abraham Ribicoff, soon dropped a bombshell that startled the Mahoney-Lasker forces, who thought they were safe from the kinds of budget cuts they had fought [against]… He impounded $60 million of the $738 million that Congress already had voted for the NIH’s fiscal 1962 budget…” [p190] “In 1963, Congress, for the first time in decades, nevertheless reduced the president’s proposed research budget… More Members of Congress now were beginning to question the high NIH budget…  Questions began to be raised…  The whole pro-NIH operation had to walk on egg shells… The next round of appropriations..saw NIH’s funding reduced again, even below the president’s request. Kennedy..requested a review of the entire federal medical-research program. His role in history was soon to be tragically cut off, however.” [p194, Noble Conspirator]
Adele Edisen met Dr. Jose Rivera in April 1963 “while attending scientific meetings in Atlantic City, NJ…She was a Postdoctoral Fellow of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness [the NIH]…Rivera was an administrator in the same institute…  Rivera knew Oswald’s New Orleans phone number..before Oswald himself knew…  [Rivera] asked me to do a favor when I arrived home [to New Orleans]…call Lee Harvey Oswald…[and] ‘Tell him to kill the Chief’… We’re just playing a little joke on him.”…..
Part Five, probably the LAST with a summary (in progress)

December 22, 2011

JFK Conspiracy Con II

Part One of the JFK Conspiracy Con opens with a reference to the book Dr. Mary’s Monkey (DMM) by Ed Haslam as a starting point in my research on the JFK assassination. Haslam’s book, by his own account, is not about the assassination of JFK which he says is “incidental” to his theme –a theme I  call The Disease Continuum (the ‘DC’), inserted in the blog between JFK parts One and Two. I can’t say yet how many serial parts are needed to write out the JFK Conspiracy Con to a satisfying conclusion, but with certainty the DC belongs at the beginning. Ed and I both seem to have noticed that parallel activity in public medicine spirals around the JFK  story like the second spine of a DNA helix –not so “incidental” after all– but structurally essential in the telling.
    It’s the polio connection to Dr. Mary Sherman, and simultaneously to Ed’s own father in 1963 New Orleans, that brings a greater intrigue to author Haslam’s purposes. Several co-conspirators in the JFK assassination/coverup are firmly tied to the creation of the Salk Institute, a monumental reward to its namesake for the vaccine.
   Part One reintroduces two familiar characters in the plot to murder JFK; Nelson Rockefeller and Meyer Lansky, and mentions some less publicly known names; Lewis L. Strauss, Abe Feinberg, and Dewey D. Stone. Feinberg and Stone are known for getting the Jewish Vote to swing for Kennedy during his campaigns of 1952 (for the Senate) and the Presidency. 1952 is a very important year in this story– a true turning point in world history. The U.S. went “thermonuclear” with successful tests ( ultra-low temperature hydrogen fusion bombs with fission triggers), polio “peaked” with the highest case numbers on record, Israel started a secret bomb project, etc. etc., and the question that begs at these relationships over the next decade is asking if the composite assassination and disease picture is about nuclear trafficking to the benefit of Israel and Jewish world power. 
PART TWO, for you who endure the soap opera, is going to highlight the chronological elements that move things along in self-evident style.  I apologize to regular readers for the slow delivery, the daily paragraph or two, and the bloggy way I’m going about this business.
Uranium for the Manhattan Project
  Lewis Strauss wrote that “the origin of our supply of the potent element begins..and revolves about the granitic figure of an engineer and industrialist, Sir Edgar Sengier…[who] controlled a mine in the Congo which was the world’s richest producer of uranium ore…[where] the concentration..was uniquely high. Despite all the prospecting that has occurred within the past twenty years, no other deposit has ever rivaled the Shinkolobwe mine for richness.
…”We had both [Sengier and Strauss] been connected with Hoover’s Commission for Relief of Belgium in World War I, and our friendship dated from those days…In the field of atomic energy, a special relationship thus existed between the United States and Belgium, and the two governments have closely co-operated ever since.” [p317, Men and Decisions, by Lewis L. Strauss, 1962] “Belgium was our mainstay in the beginning. Canada and South Africa later became important suppliers.” [p318]
Edgar Sengier “arrived at the beginning of the European mining of Africa and over the next forty years he was to oversee Belgium’s large share in the world markets trading copper, cobalt, tin, diamonds and uranium. He came to manipulate and maneuver an enormous industrial empire of such complexity that very few ever came to know, let alone understand, how a deep uranium mine –called Shinkolobwe– in the heart of Africa could be the source of radium, a miracle cancer cure, and then become the piece of earth most wanted by the military for the nuclear armaments of World War II…  Sengier moved easily within the international business worlds of Brussels, Paris, London and New York and knew as soon as did the scientists around the world of the momentous scientific breakthrough… It was he who sent the uranium ore to a Staten Island warehouse. It was nearly two years before the Manhattan Project managers knew about that uranium ore and realised they needed it. M.Sengier spent the war years in New York City –and Saratoga Springs… He set up a branch of Union Miniere on Broad Street in Lower Manhattan –named African Minerals, to funnel uranium ore from the Belgian Congo through New York Harbor to Middlesex New Jersey and Port Hope Ontario on its way to a more pure existence in the bombs of America… The office of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Manhattan District was in Madison Square..about half way between Pregel’s office in the Rockefeller Center and Sengier’s near Wall Street –the three of them almost in a straight line… Sengier was the most critical supplier of all.”
   The account of how one thousand or so tons of “yellowcake” (uranium oxide) sat on a warehouse dock in New York Harbor, packed in drums for two years, and nobody noticed, should be a good story when more of it comes to light. What we know so far is that in 1939 “Sengier was visited by [French scientists] Joliot-Curie, [Francis] Perrin and Halban..who suggested to him that the Union Miniere should join with them in making an experimental bomb in the Sahara. Sengier accepted this idea in principle and agreed to furnish..material and to bear part of the cost, but in September 1939 the outbreak of war ended the project.” [p316, Men and Decisions]
   So here we have an atomic bomb project underway in 1939 by French communists before the war. Strauss had to be making a special point when he published this is in 1962.
Boris Pregel, radium/uranium dealer mentioned above in the non-Strauss quote (not italicized), left a few words about the French:  “..The centralization was at the Institute Curie… It was also a kind of scientific monopoly. They did the whole thing…  they were the most important… In fact, the Institute of the Curies had tremendous quantities of radium all along… That’s why later also, when Joliot-Curie and Halban and Kowarski wanted to discuss the..application of atomic energy, they were received very well… [A] lot of the most important work was done in France, because of the establishment of the Institute… The point is, it was only for medical purposes.”  The Curies Institute of Radium in Paris was established in 1919 while the city played host to the Peace Accords at Versailles and Lewis L. Strauss was invited by Mortimer Schiff (son of Jacob Schiff) to join the firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in New York. Schiff was in Paris “on a mission for the American Red Cross” and Strauss was there as a delegate with Herbert Hoover.
   Pregel says, “The whole thing has to begin at the beginning… [T]he discoveries..made by the Curies, at the end of the last century…[led to] some small industrial productions of radium, most of them laboratory type and not really industrial type. There were in France, sponsored by Rothschild, something which was extracted from the Madagascar ores… Most of [the ore] was in Czechoslovakia, of course… But the real development..came only when the Union Miniere stepped in.”
…”The Union Miniere understood very well that the development of their business depended largely on research and on therapeutic use of radium. At that time therapy was the main use… We [dealers] helped the creation of centers, medical centers throughout the world –hunting cancer centers– in which there was sometimes very large amounts of radium… [I]t’s still, in my opinion, the best of the radioactive substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes… it was a stepping stone to many other things..because it let the people see the isotopes of the different metals.”

    [wikipedia] “During World War II, Pregel was the agent for the Canadian Eldorado Mining & Refining Co. which supplied the Manhattan Project with nearly all the uranium mined in the North America.”
In 1942, the Canadian government authorized purchase of Eldorado [Mining and Refining Ltd] shares. “Shortly after nationalization, the Minister [of Munitions and Supplies] became aware of serious management problems at Eldorado. [An] inquiry took two years [from 1945-1947] and led to fraud charges against Marcel Pochon and Boris Pregel, in charge of sales abroad. The case was settled out of court…
…”Intensified prospecting efforts by Eldorado led to the discovery in 1946 of new pitchblende deposits near Athabasca… Beaverlodge mine, started in 1952, led to the birth of Uranium City… Government control…relaxed somewhat…
   “In 1949, Eldorado became the only agent in Canada authorized to buy uranium ore and uranium concentrate… In 1959 uranium was the principal mineral export of Canada, and fourth in line among natural resource exports… The period of prosperity ended in 1959, when the US government announced that it would not renew uranium purchase contracts beyond 1962.
“The world’s first colbalt-60 cancer-therapy machine was built by Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd… Canada is now home to the world’s largest medical isotope industry.”
                                                        Beaverlodge mine outflow
Union Miniere du Haut Katanga  (UMHK)  “was created on October 28, 1906 as a result of a merger [between] a company created by Leopold II and Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. (a British company…) to exploit the mineral wealth of Katanga. It was jointly owned by the Societe Generale de Belgique, Belgium’s largest holding company..and Tanganyika Concessions Ltd…  In 1922, the UMHK built its first refinery for uranium ore, and by 1926 had a virtual monopoly of the world uranium market”
>>>Leopold II was the first cousin of both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (a marriage of first cousins of the Saxe-Coburg line)
   The UMHK was not included in an article I wrote about early atomic development –at the time I didn’t know about the French project in the Sahara, which is a vital piece of information. Nonetheless, the guiding influences (“fathers of the bomb”) and key people (e.g. Herbert Hoover and Lewis Strauss) are here:
                                                               Saratoga Springs, NY
…”where America’s high society and the underworld mingled amidst the glamour of the racetrack and illegal casinos, like Piping Rock.. owned by mobsters Frank Costello, Joe Adonis and Meyer Lansky, who fronted for some of America’s socially privileged”…
Lansky owned at least two casinos in Saratoga Springs; The Piping Rock Inn (pictured below), burned in a 1954 arson fire, and the Arrowhead Inn, burned in 1969.
photo source
“Sidney Robinson of Copacabana says there was no gambling on Saratoga premises, does not know Costello,..disclaims acquaintance with Adonis, Lansky…”
In 1934 “Costello..was to accept Louisiana governor Huey Long’s proposal to put slot machines throughout Louisiana for 10% of the take. Frank Costello placed Kastel as the overseer of the Louisiana slot operation. Kastel had the assistance of..Carlos ‘Little Man’ Marcello [birth surname Minacore]…”
“By the end of 1947, Marcello had taken control of Louisiana’s gambling network… Marcello was also assigned a cut of the money skimmed from Las Vegas casinos in exchange for providing muscle in Florida real estate deals. By this time Marcello had been crowned as the Godfather of the Mafia in New Orleans… He was to hold this position for the next 30 years. On March 24, 1959, Marcello appeared before the Senate Committee investigating organized crime. Serving as chief counsel to the committee was Robert F. Kennedy; his brother, Senator John F. Kennedy, was a member of the committee..”

A look at the interior of Piping Rock Lake House, one of the many places people would go for illegal gambling back in the 1930s and 40s. (Courtesy of Saratoga Springs Historical Museum, George S. Bolster collection) / AL

“Meyer’s activities, sanctioned by the government as part of ‘Operation Underworld’ included a..mobilization of Jewish American mobsters against Nazi sympathizers…when the cruise ship Normandie caught fire and capsized at Pier 88 in Manhattan in early February 1942. The Normandie, the largest luxury liner in the world, [had been] seized by the U.S. after France fell to the Nazis. It was being retrofitted..when it was destroyed… The Navy understood that the mafia controlled the waterfront…”
…”U.S. Naval Intelligence approached Joe ‘Socks’ Lanza..who in turn deferred to Lucky Luciano… U.S. Attorney Frank Hogan approached Lansky as a go-between…”
“A meeting was arranged between Commander Charles Radcliffe Haffenden of the Third Naval District and Meyer Lansky at Longchamps restraurant… Domestic sabotage was a non-issue for the remainder of the war.”
…”Meyer was intensely proud of his service in World War II”…[He said] “I knew it was very necessary to watch the docks.”  “After World War II, Lansky set up real-estate firms and invested in Florida and Caribbean real estate…”
 “In 1947 and 1948, [Lansky] pressured Jewish and Italian mobsters to raise money for Israel. Lansky also used his contacts on the New York waterfront to expedite forbidden arms shipments to Israel…”
…”between 1947 to 1951 a campaign eventually led by..Senator Estes Kefauver, exposed more than two decades of illegalities… Lansky and his associates..found a hospitable climate in Batista’s Cuba and even more opportunity in the..legalized..gambling in Las Vegas… by 1952 all major investment in gambling enterprises had been transferred to other localities.”

Lansky and his compatriots Bugsy Siegel, Frank Costello, and Joe Adonis, were nutured by Arnold Rothstein during Prohibition: “The Reinfeld Syndicate -named after the Newark, New Jersey bootlegger and accused murderer Joseph Reinfeld -functioned as the middleman between the British liquor distilleries and the “Rum Rows” of Boston and New York. Its controlling shareholders were the four Bronfman brothers, Allan, Sam, Edgar, and Charles. The U.S. leg was handled by Reinfeld and Abner “Longie” Zwillman, later the boss of Atlantic City, and Rothstein’s gangs in New York…Under the auspices of Lansky and Torrio, Lucky Luciano succeeded in wiping out all recalcitrant godfathers…A special assassination bureau was set up by Meyer Lansky and Benjamin “Bugs” Siegel. The “Bugs and Meyer Gang” had been distinguished by the fact that they owed allegiance to no one (except maybe Arnold Rothstein); they had originally been used to protect Bronfman liquor shipments across the border against ‘freelance’ hijackers.” …”Arnold Rothstein, Yasha Katzenberg’s employer, was a product of the Rothschild ‘dry goods’ empire that included the Seligman, Wannamaker, and Gimbel families. During Prohibition, according to the Bronfman’s own testimony, Rothstein, Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano were the Bronfman’s main distributors…”  [ref. pp274-275 and 278, Dope Inc.]

“After World War II, Mr. Sam [Bronfman] established the National Conference of Israeli and Jewish Rehabilitation, using his considerable smuggling skills to run guns to the Haganah.”  [p281, Dope Inc]


A point of interest about the Bronfman’s smuggling operations with Al Capone takes place in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, the “little Chicago” of Prohibition. The most well known health lobbyist of all time, Florence Mahoney, got her start in Moose Jaw. Mahoney teamed up with Mary Lasker of the American Cancer Society to become the most formidable duo in D.C. health politics. Mary Lasker, in turn, was the wife of Albert D. Lasker who was introduced to her husband-to-be by Lewis Strauss and friends, Bill (Wild Bill) Donovan of the OSS and Max Epstein. Here’s a link about Moose Jaw, Mr. Sam and Al Capone

Arthur Schlesinger Jr. wrote:
“In March of 1948 Robert Kennedy received his A.B. degree [from Harvard]… The next step..was a trip abroad… Robert set forth on the Queen Mary on March 5 accompanied by a college friend”. He met with his father’s friend, Lord Beaverbrook, aboard for dinner at Joe Kennedy’s request. “Robert remarked that he was going to the Middle East. Beaverbrook said that the United States was a ‘subjugated nation to a Jewish minority’. As for Britain, it had become a ‘satellite to the United States’… After [the first] few days in London, Robert and his companion went on to Cairo…
   “He met a young Jew from Tel Aviv who gave him letters to leaders of Haganah, the Jewish defense organization… The RKO Radio Pictures representative in Cairo, to whom Joseph Kennedy had entrusted the boys, told them they should not go to so agitated a land… On March 26, Good Friday, they flew to Lydda airport and traveled to Tel Aviv by armored car, with Haganah escort… Remembering [he was on] assignment for the Boston Post, Robert talked to everyone he could find –to Haganah soldiers who held the British responsible for everything… He talked to members of the Irgun..that had recently dynamited a British train and the King David Hotel… He visited a kibbutz through the kindness of a Jew who, forty years before, had made speeches in Boston for [RFK’s grandfather] Honey Fitz… he talked to a former major in the Russian army who believed that the Russian[s]..’as a whole are more anti-Semitic than the Germans’… He summed up Jerusalem: ‘Firing is going on at all times… More and more horrible stories pouring in… Correspondents all very jumpy…’  [The two] went on to Lebanon…
   “[Kennedy] was considerably impressed by the Jews. ‘They are different from any Jews I have ever known or seen..’  The Boston Post ran four articles from its ‘Special Writer’ in the Middle East on June 3-6. The first bore a headline guaranteed to sell papers in Boston: BRITISH HATED BY BOTH SIDES… His second piece revealed his own commitment. The Jews in Palestine, he wrote, ‘have become an immensely proud and determined people. It is already a truly great modern example of the birth of a nation with the primary ingredients of dignity and self-respect’… [He] praised the Jews in Palestine as ‘hardy and tough’, their ‘spirit and determination’ created not only by their desire for a homeland but by ‘the remembrance of the brutal inhuman treatment the countries in Europe.’ He gave a lyrical account of his kibbutz visit… The Jews, he said, had ‘an undying spirit’ the Arabs could never have. ‘They will fight and they will fight with unparalleled courage.’
   “The third piece was sharply critical of British policy for its ‘bitterness towards the Jews’. As for the United States… We failed because we had been taken in by the British… The final piece dismissed the notion, then prevalent, that a Jewish state might go Communist. ‘That Communism could exist in Palestine,’ Robert Kennedy said, ‘is fantastically absurd. Communism thrives on static discontent… With the type of issues and people involved, that state of affairs is nonexistent. I am as certain of that as of my name.’ …If a Jewish state were formed, it might be the ‘only stabilizing factor’ in the Middle East. ‘The United States and Great Britain before too long a time might well be looking to a Jewish state to preserve a toehold in that part of the world… The United States, through the United Nations, must take the lead in bringing about peace in the Holy Land.’
   …”He did not evidently share his father’s view that the United States should stop minding other peoples’ business.” [pages 73-81, Robert Kennedy and His Times, by Arthur Schlesinger Jr., 1978]
   RFK moved on to law school at Charlottesville (Virginia): “He graduated in June 1951, fifty-sixth in a class of 124.” [p87]… “Congressman John F. Kennedy invited him and their sister Patricia to come along on a trip from Israel to Japan in early October. In Israel an old friend, Congressman Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., received all the attention..” [p91] Schlesinger wrote that “Seven weeks of arduous travel made them closer than ever before.”
   “At the end of 1951, Robert Kennedy began work for the Department of Justice. The Internal Security Division was engaged in investigations of Soviet agents…[In] a short time Kennedy transferred to the Criminal Division… The work absorbed him –so much so that when his older brother decided to run for the Senate in Massachusetts, Robert, Kenneth O’Donnell later said, was really ‘out of touch with Jack and unaware of Jack’s problems’… The campaign, O’Donnell thought, was headed toward ‘absolute catastrophic disaster’. [O’Donnell] pleaded with Robert Kennedy in New York to come up and take over…
   “Franklin D. Rossevelt Jr. campaigned [for JFK] in Jewish areas where John Kennedy, because of his father’s reputation, was supposed to be weak… Kennedy won by 70,000 [votes]. It was a triumph for Robert as well… Their intimacy grew in the senatorial campaign… ‘All this business about Jack and Bobby being blood brothers has been exaggerated,’ their sister Eunice said. ‘They had different tastes… They didn’t really become close until 1952, and it was politics that brought them together.’ ” [pages 90-96, Robert Kennedy and His Times]
“John Kennedy was the only Democrat running statewide in Massachusetts to have survived the Eisenhower sweep” –p99, Robert Kennedy and His Times
Joe McCarthy’s early political career pegged him as “a man of marked personality without known political principles”, according to Schlesinger, whose “crusade against Communists..[was] inadvertantly launched at Wheeling, West Virginia in February 1950.” [ref. p100, Robert Kennedy and His Times] This was literally days after Truman committed the U.S. to thermonuclear weapons, and then “The Korean War began four months after Wheeling.” Lewis Strauss, incidentally, was born near Wheeling, W.V. and though moving his base to Virginia, maintained a powerful ‘toehold’ himself over greater Virginia politics. After the election victories of 1952,  Joe Kennedy appealed to the up-and-coming McCarthy to hire Bobby.  McCarthy had been set up as the chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate’s Government Operations Committee. Lawyer Roy Cohn, “notable for anti-Communist zeal“, had already taken the top post. McCarthy “named young Kennedy an assistant counsel…[where he] undertook a more prosaic inquiry into the trade carried on by American allies with Communist China… Kennedy..pored over the Lloyds of London shipping index… In a couple of months they were able to demonstrate that, since the outbreak of the Korean War, 75 percent of all ships carrying goods to mainland China had sailed under western flags… The British role in the China trade appeared particularly reprehensible… Kennedy’s statistics also showed a large Greek role in the China trade.”
    …Robert’s job on McCarthy’s staff, published by the Boston Post, was “to work on ways to shut off strategic materials of war to countries in the Russian zone, including North Korea. He’ll continue to do so.”[pp101-103, Schlesinger]
   Korea was the ostensible incentive to re-activate the WWII Nevada Proving Grounds (renamed the Nevada Test Site, NTS) and bring atomic tests home to the desert on the premise that Pacific islands were precariously subject to hostile takeover. In a short time, the NTS proved out its strategic value as a ‘nuclear battlefield’ for imaginative tests of all kinds staged by all branches of the armed forces. The NTS initiated its first series in January of 1951: “All five [weapons] were fired in just eight days.”  They were the first of nine-hundred-eighty-something (or more) detonations in Nevada during the “atmospheric” period (1951-1963). The radioactive fallout value of these tests has been recently estimated to be worth 40,000 Hiroshima bombs –but fallout was still a distant commodity in 1951.
   It was McCarthy’s epic Red Scare over the course of 1953 and 1954 that grabbed attention and set the stage for the legendary brotherly teamwork of Jack and Bobby Kennedy.
   The health sector was hastily addressing its fallout problem. In the immediate aftermath of the first Nevada blasts, radioactive snow was scooped up and measured from Ann Arbor to Schenectady. Jonas Salk had been set-to-task at the University of Pittsburgh since 1948, but he wasn’t ready. A colleague in the vaccine effort who came to Pitt to participate in the larger project suggested that the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP, the March of Dimes) throw its financial weight behind a trial of gamma globulin, the antibody-containing blood factors that confer passive immunity.  The March of Dimes was about to sponsor an historical first in human medicine.
   Dr. William McDowell Hammon, who suggested the trial, had been a medical missionary in the Congo before normalizing his career and gaining renown as the dean of medicine at the Univ. of California Berkeley (overseer of Los Alamos). Gamma globulin (‘GG’) had already shown promise against polio as much as two decades earlier. Hammon moved his small contingent of helpers out to Provo Utah and staged the first-ever “double-blind” trial on people (children) during the next Nevada series (Operation Buster-Jangle), smack in the fallout tracks of the previous test. Provo’s trial was “inconclusive”, they said.  Buster-Jangle’s many swaths cut paths over northern Iowa and southern Texas– the ‘GG’ trials moved along to Sioux City IA and Houston the next year.
   The odd epidemiological turn-of-events in Hammon’s GG trials was the way the vaccinators followed after the exposure. The requirements of the double-blind protocols meant that half of the inoculated kids were receiving placebo –saline, as noted. Blood was regularly drawn from everybody for the term of the trial. Curiously, the Nevada Test Site operations between ’51 and ’53 involved slightly less than half the number of total GG vaccinees.  They were Army troops and support staff, near 25,000 men, made to stand ready on the desert floor to witness and experience the A-bombs close up. There are no available records mentioning the Army as giving GG to soldiers at the NTS but by the end of 1953 the GG trials were over anyway. It was expensive and was never intended to be a viable polio vaccine for the public. The NFIP told the press it was organizational “practice”.
    Jonas Salk finally told the NFIP that he was ready, and during 1954, while Salk’s IPV (inactivated poliovirus) was launched on a massive scale, vaccinating 1.8 million schoolchildren in a double-blind trial, the NTS went quiet. There were no atomic blasts in Nevada. Washington, on the other hand, was exploding all over the place. 20 million witnesses watched for thirty-five days as the Red Scare melted down on national television with Robert Kennedy’s help.
   Six months after RFK was hired by McCarthy in ’53, he resigned: “he completed the only solid report ever issued by the committee [and] got out…. ‘With the filing in the Senate of the Subcommittee report on Trade With the Soviet Bloc,’ Kennedy wrote McCarthy formally, ‘the task to which I have devoted my time since coming with the Subcommittee has been completed. I am submitting my resignation’…” [pp106-107, Schlesinger]. For a while, Robert joined the Hoover Commission as his father’s assistant until “the mid-term elections in 1954 produced a Democratic majority in the Senate. John McClellan became chairman of the Investigations Subcommittee, and Robert Kennedy [came back as] chief counsel…[p115]…His brother, though now a member of the Government Operations Committee, was not on the Investigations Subcommittee. [p120] …’Bobby Kennedy’s job was to write out pertinent questions for the Democratic senators to ask at the hearing…He fed his questions to Senator [‘Scoop’] Jackson, who used them to fire a barrage of ridicule..’ [Roy Cohn’s account, p113]  …Later [Kennedy] commented,’Cohn and Schine took [McCarthy] up the mountain and showed him all those wonderful things. He destroyed himself for that –for publicity..’ [p105]…[RFK] said that he thought the Investigations Subcommittee would gradually return to its old function –looking into waste, fraud, corruption and mismanagement in government.” [p116]  And so it did. As 1955 progressed “The committee dropped out of the headlines… These were good years for the young Kennedys. [pp117-118, Robert Kennedy and His Times, by Arthur Schlesinger Jr.]
PART III,  still to come…Texas oil, “Peak Oil” declared in 1956 to the benefit of nuclear proliferation, Lewis Strauss in the nexus of JFK assassination events, comparison of ‘legacy papers’ in the creation of books, Oswald in New Orleans, the Rosenwalds, Freeport Sulfur (Freeport McMoRan) and more.
Additional events:
1951 – Ludwik Gross discovers the polyoma  ‘tumor’ virus, related to SV40 monkey virus; the HeLa cancer cells are taken from patient Henrietta Lacks in February 1951 after the Nevada Test Site’s Operation Ranger and become the culture medium of polioviruses grown for the Salk and Sabin vaccines
Earl Warren’s appointment by Eisenhower as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during Warren’s third term as Governor of California
Christian A. Herter becomes the Governor of Massachusetts (later to become Undersecretary and Secretary of State, offering the ‘transition’ advice to Kennedy to press Israel for nuclear inspections)
–Death of 48-yr-old Senator Brien McMahon of Connecticut, Chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and his replacement by Prescott Bush, October-Nov 1952.” Prescott Bush was a most elusive, secretive Senator…  A little-known fact about Bush that unauthorized biographies don’t mention is his less-than-one-year assumption of McMahon’s seat on the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy committee (the JCAE), a committee so powerful and unbeholden that it was later ruled unconstitutional.
The Great Canadian Uranium Rush was on by 1952. The first commercial strike in 1930 in the Great Bear Lake region of the NWT (Saskatchewan) which launched the Canadian radium industry, turned an unprecendented tide of prospecting into the world’s biggest and best uranium finds. Gilbert LaBine, “Mr. Uranium”, discovered the Gunnar mine in July 1952, but “the best the Algoma (Lake Elliot) discoveries in 1953… By the end of August more than eight thousand claims had been staked..[with] repercussions clear around the globe… giving Canada..the raw material of atomic energy.”
1953 — President Eisenhower publicly articulated his plans to promote ATOMS FOR PEACE

November 6, 2011

JFK Conspiracy Con

It all started for me a couple years back with this crazy little book called Dr. Mary’s Monkey. Crazy because people who read it seem to lose control of their fragile higher faculties –the kind of people that George Dubya Bush suggested need special attention: “You can fool some of the people some of the time and some of the people all of the time and those are the ones we wanna concentrate on.” The author, Ed Haslam, must be taking this to heart. He wouldn’t like it if I told you “don’t buy this book!”. But it’s okay (he already doesn’t like me for poking around his territory) and really, the book’s a GAS. Slightly nauseating but trippy enough to upchuck a few wows. Ed says he spent fifteen years on his “research”. wow.
   And if you haven’t read Dr. Mary’s Monkey (or ‘DMM’ from here on) I’ve posted the basics at . Some of the comments from people who have read the book emphasize how important they think it is, feelings that are, I’m certain, genuine. DMM is about injecting people (everybody!) with cancer.
…and if that’s not enough to unnerve you, the people in New Orleans who knew about it also plotted to murder John Kennedy, or at least it looks that way. Lee Oswald –yup– Oswald was there, making injectable cancer in a secret lab at David Ferrie’s place, destined for Fidel Castro’s bloodstream and the end of Communist dictatorship in the Americas.  Dr. Mary Sherman was (allegedly) supervising Ferrie’s project until the end of her days which happened abruptly in July of 1964, the same day that the Warren Commission opened its New Orleans inquiry. Ed says Mary’s murder is his original contribution to the larger JFK thing, something he first wrote about in 1995 with a self-published book that sold a thousand copies. Then another thousand copies and after that Ed needed to be a regular guy again and focus on making a living. He was doing that rather successfully in commercial promotion (managing an ad campaign for Chrysler and such) until Oswald’s old girlfriend from 1963 turned herself in to CBS’s 60 Minutes in 1999.  Seems like she’d heard about Ed’s first book and the secret cancer lab and thought maybe she could own up to participating in the lab work. At last, huh?, relief and recognition. It must be alright now, Ed’s living. He says he was born to tell this story. Never argue about the fruition of one’s congenital burden.
So… you probably guess (from my tone) that I don’t like Ed. Actually, I love Ed. Later, I’ll tell you all the things I love about Ed –but for starters, it got me going on the JFK assassination. Ed provided a shortcut with DMM that slices through to the grander motivations of JFK’s murder by simply following up on things not said and contrasting them with his claims. And there was a lot of “Ed” besides the book to choose from –one of the especially endearing aspects being the verbal record. Audio excerpts are part of the review on the polioforever link above, so I’ll skip most of it here and get on with my alternative JFK/DMM scenario.
According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy was always concerned about distinguishing his administration’s inherited problems from those self-inflicted. Whoever followed Eisenhower was destined to be the unprecedented de facto nuclear brinksman. Some time after the Cuban Missile Crisis [Oct.1962] Kennedy said to the press, “I am haunted by the feeling that by 1970, unless we are successful [at negotiating a nuclear treaty], there may be ten nuclear powers instead of four, and by 1975, fifteen or twenty… I see the possibility in the 1970s of the President of the United States having to face a world in which fifteen or twenty or twenty-five nations may have these weapons. I regard that as the greatest possible danger…” [p477, President Kennedy, Profile of Power, R.Reeves]
   A year earlier, in September of ’61, after the Soviets had disregarded a voluntary moratorium and detonated the largest ground-based ‘atmospheric’ nuke ever designed “in meetings with scientists, he asked..about radioactive fallout. ‘Where would we be if testing had continued at the 1958 rate?’ he asked Dr. Charles Dunham, director of the Atomic Energy Commission’s Division of Biology and Medicine. ‘Civilized man would have been in trouble,’ Dunham said. ‘How does the radioactive fallout get to the earth?’ he asked his science advisor, Jerome Wiesner. ‘The clouds are washed out by rain,’ answered Wiesner. Kennedy looked out..into the garden. It was a rainy day and he asked: ‘You mean it’s in the rain out there?’ ‘Yes’ Wiesner said… Kennedy did not speak for a long time.” [pp226-227]…”Nevertheless, Kennedy had initiated and was presiding over one of the greatest military build-ups of all time… In 1961, he had explicitly challenged the Soviets into an escalating arms race, doubling the production of Polaris missile submarines…[and] signing off on one thousand new U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles, each one with a charge eighty times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped at Hiroshima..” [pp230-231] Domestically, Kennedy expected Civil Defense to prepare U.S. citizens for retaliation. “In letters to the governors of the fifty states, Kennedy wrote: ‘In simple terms, the goal is to reach for fallout protection for every American as rapidly as possible.” [p233] …”He thought that nuclear proliferation was the greatest single problem of the world in the 1960s…” [p311]
   “The United States had approximately five thousand deliverable nuclear weapons [c.1962]. U.S. intelligence estimated that the Soviets had three hundred deliverable weapons” [p375]…and Reeves’ footnote on page 376 states “As U.S. and Soviet records were released over the years…General Dimitri Volkogonov said the number of Soviet ICBMs aimed at the United States in late 1962 was actually only twenty…[and] Sergei Khrushchev, son of the late premier, also stated there were warheads on the island [of Cuba] during the 1962 crisis –a claim U.S. intelligence never could verify because aerial photography never clearly revealed storage bunkers.
   Does it raise an eyebrow on you to think that with Cuba’s history and intimacy with Americans as a Caribbean neighbor, all that U.S. intelligence had to go on were sketchy aerial photographs? Americans continued coming and going from Cuba after Castro’s coup, in fact, medical teams came several times during 1962 to administer polio vaccines, starting in February. The Cubans were getting medical help from the U.S. at the time to build up state-of-the-art infectious disease facilities. Ed Haslam’s followers might think that this is beginning to sound a bit familiar; government infectious disease labs, polio vaccines, particle accelerators and Mary Sherman’s connections to U Chicago and the Manhattan Project. The “self-evident” cause of polio and the dedicated theme of the polioforever blog is that the disease is a consequence of nuclear radiation. I passed the self-evident stage on those facts long before I read Dr. Mary’s Monkey. The professional medical characters in the book would have known it too, including Navy Commander Ed Haslam Sr. who ran the polio hospital in New Orleans.
NUCLEAR TRAFFICK –is that what Ed Haslam/DMM is trying to bury? And what about the Cuban Missile Crisis? Did the politicians on the Hill know that sending polio vaccines to Cuba might be a signal of a nuclear operation in progress? –or were they getting psyched, and by whom?
There are other reasons for a book like DMM to exist besides Haslam’s favorite –making an Oliver Stone-type Hollywood movie– and two of them ‘sing’ to me: 1) flushing out Oswald’s girl, Judyth Vary Baker, and bringing her existence under control and 2) perpetuating the medical frauds that support the disease continuum.
   Reality is that just about everything from the Cold War era that carries over to our time is obsolete. The big Strangelove bombs of yesteryear –gone.  Polio vaccines –unnecessary. In fact, polioviruses should have mutated out of existence. Today, the circulating polioviruses are all vaccine-derived with a possible exception of a new “wild” poliovirus on the border of Pakistan and China (to be explained). And even our ideas of the cancer-causing monkey virus (SV40) in the polio vaccines –obsolete! What we all need to know about Simian Virus 40 is that it functions as a DNA “switch” and cargo-carrier for foreign genes. Its known property as a potential off-switch for natural cellular tumor suppression is a problem of the past. The one question left to have answered is if the scientists who grew the polio vaccine viruses on monkey tissue before the distribution of Salk and Sabin vaccines knew of the transgenic value of SV40. Then, of course, one can ask if Kennedy knew about any of this….
Pellets in your pockets; CIA diverting plutonium to foreign countries– read more:
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION started as an unregulated business of medicine with X-ray machines and radium, from the  introduction of efficient x-rays in 1895 and the precipitation of radium by the Curies from 1898-1903. X-ray machines served as prototypes for the next generation technology of particle accelerators, widely introduced in the 1920s. Before the existence of nuclear reactors, particle accelerators were capable of transforming stable minerals into radioactive isotopes. A specialized design of particle accelerator created by Ernest Lawrence called the ‘cyclotron’ (developed 1928-1931), for example, was used to make the first plutonium, later to become the bomb-fuel of choice as warheads were miniturized and concentrated. Any large particle accelerator of sufficiently high voltage can make bomb fuel. Between 1947 and 1950, Lawrence engineered the building of a giant linear accelerator (called a linac) near San Francisco, in Livermore, dubbed the Materials Testing Accelerator (MTA) for the express purpose of making plutonium and the hydrogen isotope tritium for thermonuclear weapons, demonstrating the capability of particle accelerators. At the center of the action in Haslam’s story is a secretly-built particle accelerator that was hidden in a government-run Infectious Disease Laboratory near downtown New Orleans. The infectious disease lab ‘front’ is one that’s been used before –the Nazis hid their nuclear reactor project in a “Virus House” too– and not because it’s a disguise, but because it’s a natural fit and had been going on in hospital and research labs for decades.
The alternative JFK/DMM conspiracy theory accepts the premise of the of the New Orleans particle accelerator. Its existence satisfies a huge body of evidence related to the JFK assassination that would otherwise ramble homeless over the historical landscape, as it seems to have done these many long years. And appropriately crazy enough is that Ed Haslam offers no credible proof that the accelerator was even plausibly there. Ain’t it rich? Haslam trots out the anonymous witnesses, Misters “X”, “Y”, and “Z” (“X” didn’t know anything except what he heard as a rumor from “Y”, and “Z” didn’t know either Mr.”X” or Mr.”Y”). So the first thing a critic would say is, “Ed! That’s no proof of a particle accelerator in New Orleans!”. uh-huh. Exactly. No proof at all.
   But, the presence of a New Orleans accelerator is so predictable, logical, and perfectly patterned that an historian of America’s nuclear technology would demand to know why there wasn’t one if such were the case.  Hence, perhaps the secrecy, the real secrecy, that draws us into the mystery of 1963 New Orleans.
NELSON ROCKEFELLER was the man Kennedy expected to be running against in the 1964 presidential campaign. Privately, he was having Rockefeller and the family’s foundation investigated. It’s likely that the Kennedy men learned what Ernest Lawrence knew: “if it hadn’t been for the Rockefeller Foundation, there would have been no atomic bomb.” [p219, The Molecular Vision of Life, by Lily E. Kay]   They would have learned that the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) had an iron grip on polio research from its inception in 1901. They would have known all about Rockefeller’s role as the acting head of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1953 when the Salk vaccine field trials were authorized. Of course, they would have known about the Quantico sessions in 1955 when Rockefeller sponsored his ‘brain trust’ to design an offer on arms limitations that the Soviets would never accept, provoking an escalation that came to be called Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). Rockefeller was Special Chief of Psychological Operations then. At the same time, in the 1950s, “Rockefeller took it as his mission to breathe new life into the moribund Atoms for Peace initiative. In that regard, it certainly did not hurt that he had a long-standing relationship with [Lewis] Strauss, who as a Kuhn, Loeb partner, had been one of the Rockefeller brothers’ financial advisers..”
LEWIS STRAUSS, now there’s a man to watch. As a young neophyte (born 1896) he became Herbert Hoover’s assistant during World War I, operating as a liason for the U.S. Food Administration with the Joint Jewish Distribution Committee. In 1921, at age  25, he ran the busiest, and perhaps the only, polio hospital at that time in the country as its president –the Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD)–which had been founded by the New York Rothschild family and used the labs at the RIMR. Strauss resigned the hospital in 1925 and moved on to United States Navy intelligence work and a full partnership in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. The Navy later made him a Rear Admiral and Strauss made the Navy a new department, the Office of Naval Research. President Truman gave Strauss a job as commissioner on the charter Atomic Engergy Commission (AEC) in 1946 under the leadership of former Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) governor David Lilienthal. Strauss and Lilienthal had a restless power struggle in those early years of the AEC. Behind the scenes, a “Super”, thermonuclear hydrogen bomb, was on the table –there since the beginning of the Manhattan Project, which was the assumed responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission, which was the ongoing Manhattan Engineer District (MED) by another name.
   The two men, Chief Lilienthal and Commissioner Strauss, both resigned their AEC positions in 1950 over the authorization of the Super but for opposite reasons. Lilienthal moved on to global energy consulting and Strauss resumed a private life as the Rockefeller Brothers financier. The impeccable timing of Strauss’s resignation as a commissioner, in January of 1950 on the day that the Super was official, freed him for action on his other pursuits. He had been the Super’s most ardent champion aside from the physicists Ernest Lawrence and Edward Teller.  Interests that were ostensibly ‘life-long’ for Strauss were his devotion to Israel, Judaism and “curing cancer”. In 1945, before he was an AEC commissioner, Strauss got in on the ground-floor of a few other charter institutions as a lifetime trustee  –Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research and the (renamed) American Cancer Society.
   Some time in 1952, Eisenhower proffered Strauss a dream job; Chief of the Atomic Energy Commission. 1952 was the most significant year for the future of America’s nuclear weapons program. It was the year of committed thermonuclear tests in the South Pacific. It also happened to be the year of the greatest number of U.S. polio cases on record. Jonas Salk told his sponsors that he thought he finally had the ‘right’ formula for a polio vaccine, as it turned out, made from viruses grown on human cancer cells (HeLa cells) that were later proliferated in a slurry of monkey parts. Israel decided to start its nuclear program in ’52 and maybe Admiral Strauss was helping them “make the desert bloom”, as Ben Gurion would later say. A pet project of the new AEC chief was nuclear-powered water desalination and that had “Atoms for Peace” written all over it.
   Private citizen Strauss had arranged for nuclear technology transfers before: back in 1934, he got a business broker from Havana Cuba named Isbert Adam to set up a deal for a particle accelerator built by a relative of Adam’s named Arno Brasch. Brasch called his accelerator a ‘capacitron’, and by the looks of it, Brasch came over with the machine. Or maybe Brasch came after the machine but, as a researcher, it’s been very hard to get a good handle on how many physicists made it to the U.S.  in those years, 1933-1941.  For soon-to-be refugees, escaping Nazi persecution, it’s surprising how many of them moved around freely, crossing and recrossing the ocean, in and out of Germany and other places. There’s no particular public record (yet found) of where or how Strauss picked up his capacitron, but the man was very rich and had his own yacht or two. Word is, yachting was how Strauss liked to do his private business.

 “During the 1930s, business in the Cuban capital was run directly by mafiosi with Sicilian, Corsican, Jewish or U.S. origins… Without a doubt, the most important of all the mafiosi in Cuba was.. Meyer Lansky… Originally named Maier Suchowijansky… from the 1930s until the end of 1958, no significant political event or big business deal occurred in Cuba without his involvement…

   “Firstly, at the start of the 1930s, there was an accelerated penetration of the Cuban economy by financial groups controlled by the Rockefeller family (in its two branches, headed by John and William). The Rockefellers used a banking and commercial complex of great magnitude (Citibank, Chase National Bank, and the later Chase Manhattan) to reinforce imperial domination… Other groups included the Americanized German Schroeder Bank and the Sullivan & Cromwell financial complex, in which brothers John and Allen Dulles were prominent. All had sinister origins… Cuba had become one of the most important centers of international crime.” [quoting Enrique Cirules, here ]
THERMONUCLEAR WEAPONS, or H-bombs, and the arms race were a foregone conclusion, probably determined back in the 1920s. The fission bombs made for the original MED were just a stage, a stage in the development of a fission-triggered fusion process that scientists hoped to makeover into controllable “free energy”.  As far as anybody who knew anything about it was concerned, the Russians were technically way ahead. Only six people in the U.S. were in on the Top Secret knowledge that the Soviets had blown off a thermonuclear device in 1950. Robert LeBaron, the Pentagon liason with the AEC, told the authors of Energy and Conflict (1976) that he wasn’t sure if it was 1950 or 1951, but the polio statistics in Canada support the claim of 1950. Canadian polio statistics are not the only thing –the Western Shoshone who watch over the Nevada Test Site also say that thermonuclear fallout streamed over the northwest in 1950. They believe an accidental detonation off British Columbia was the cause. Whatever the cause or source, just a handful of people ever knew it; President Truman, Dean Acheson, Robert LeBaron and the rest go unnamed. It would be hard to believe that Lewis Strauss was not among them. Fallout detection was his professional specialty.
KENNEDY TOOK OFFICE knowing where the future nuclear trouble spots would be. On the cusp of his January ’61 inauguration an Eisenhower transition team answered a question “about atomic weapons in other countries. ‘Israel and India,’ [Christian] Herter replied. The Israelis had a nuclear reactor capable of producing ninety kilograms of weapons-quality plutonium by 1963. [Herter] advised Kennedy to demand inspection and control before there were atomic bombs in the Middle East.” [p32, President Kennedy, R.Reeves] But  Kennedy’s presidential inheritance was already a full plate and piling up fast. Eisenhower told him, “..’there is one point on which I would oppose you strongly– the seating of Communist China in the U.N. and bilateral recognition.’ That took care of that. Kennedy thought it was stupid not to have diplomatic relations with the Communist government in China. But relations with Eisenhower were a more compelling concern.” [p33] Eisenhower was a popular president and “the new President was determined never to cross his predecessor…[Eisenhower’s] public disapproval would be devastating.” [p33]
   “The CIA and America’s other intelligence agencies…knew little of what the Chinese were doing or had done in the atomic field. China was, former OSI chief Karl Weber recalled, ‘a real mystery…big, really foreign, hard to get a handle on.’…and by 1960 China was actively engaged, without Soviet assistance, in constructing its first generation of atomic facilities.” [p143, Spying On The Bomb, Jeffrey Richelson] “A June 1961 report produced for the Joint Chiefs of Staff concluded that Chinese ‘attainmment of a nuclear capability will have a marked impact on the security posture of the United States and the Free World, particularly in Asia.’ A few months later, George McGhee, the State Department’s director of policy planning..suggested to secretary of state Dean Rusk that one way to reduce the psychological impact of a Chinese bomb was to encourage, and perhaps even assist, India to develop a bomb. India’s atomic energy program, McGhee informed his boss, was sufficiently advanced so that within a few months it could produce enough fissionable material for an atomic device… McGhee’s scheme found uneven support at the State Department…” [pp144-145, Richelson]
   Without saying too much more about the spread of nuclear weapons, the India example should make it clear that by Kennedy’s time the nuclear paradigm had shifted, metamorphically turning (bad) global proliferation into (good) global politics. And at politics, Kennedy was an ace. Richard Reeves summed up JFK this way: “John Kennedy was considered a pretty cool fellow, the most detached and rational of politicians.” [p33, President Kennedy] From a lifetime of political preparedness, fourteen years in Congress and an ease that came with an insider’s position, Kennedy’s supporters and enemies alike knew him. He was reliably attached to projecting a public image of presidential strength and power equal to the prestige of the United States.
Cutting to the chase, ‘good’ proliferation was going to rebalance the world according to the rules of diplomacy. The bad kind, spectacularly demonstrated by the Cuban Missile Crisis, was a desperate invitation for formal prohibition (and very good politics). “Most Americans had forgotten, the most knowledgeable among them choosing to forget, that it was Khrushchev who had first proposed negotiations on a test ban, in February 1955. This was after the discovery that the fallout from an American test in March 1954– not the bomb but the radioactive debris carried in the atmosphere– had killed or maimed Japanese fishermen and islanders hundreds of miles from the test site…” [p121, President Kennedy] No one writing library books mentions that the prophylactic for fallout –the polio vaccine– was then in its final phase of predetermined evaluation, about to be publicly administered during Operation Teapot (Nevada Test Site, Feb-May 1955). For once, it looked like the Americans really were ahead with an antidote in hand, and for a while at least, vaccine diplomacy was the new face of  ‘good’ proliferation. After the calculated and failed arms negotiations of ’55, an olive branch went out to the Soviets to co-develop a polio vaccine with Albert Sabin.
Now this is where Dr. Mary’s Monkey and I seriously start parting company.
POLIO HISTORY GIVES AWAY THE NUCLEAR GAME, which is why there really isn’t any in DMM.  I’d compare the content of polio history in DMM to anchovies on a pizza– you can see it there and the whole thing tastes fishy but if you take it out and put it in a bowl there’s not enough to satisfy a kitty-cat. The complaint is pretty much the same: “You mean I paid extra for that?!”
Pizza, what a racket. But ya know, the kids love it and it’s great party food. And this is something I love about Ed.
DEEP BACKGROUND is what all JFK assassination researchers are looking for. Virtually every angle that looks reasonably or remotely related to the assassination scheme has been presented and explained. We oughtta be just about done with this, dontcha think? JFK and his brother crossed the wrong people –LBJ, the CFR, the Rockefellers, the Mob, etc. The Kennedys made a few verbotten power grabs, their unpopularity caught up with them and they had it coming. Right? Time to put this overly ripe and mature conspiracy to bed.
   But who would think that the Kennedys did EXACTLY what was expected of them? Who would guess that JFK’s murder was planned long before his presidency? Pre-Crime is such an abhorent idea to Americans that we still treat it like science fiction even though it’s the foundation of every conspiracy. What if we looked at JFK’s election-to-execution like a lab experiment and suppose the objectives of the experiment were perfectly met? Let’s say the Limited Test Ban treaty was the most desirable outcome and work down the list of lesser outcomes. We have to account for the trajectory of an unremarkable congressman advancing to an improbable candidate and then an unpopular president to satisfy the requisite unleashing of natural forces. We have to ensure the survival of the mechanism long enough to reach the goal and provide conditions that won’t self-destruct before the end of the demonstration. And at the end of the demonstration, we have to manage the lesser outcomes in case they turn disadvantageous to the objectives, possibly in perpetuity. Nuclear material is the only stuff I can think of that needs perpetual management. The ongoing secrecy of JFK’s death must be covering the kind of proliferation I barely named –traffick, the worst kind– as the illicit and organized movement of products and services.
REFRAMING THE EVENTS to fit a nuclear scheme turns the Assassination clock back to 1952. This follows an important sequence of events during 1951 meant to guarantee American hegemony. The problems of the United States achieving nuclear superiority were, and always were, physical survivability for U.S. citizens. Polio became a front-burner issue in 1951– the fallout vaccine, which didn’t yet exist, made a first run with gamma globulin (for passive immunity) in a predictable hot zone by the Great Salt Lake during the second Nevada Test Site series (called Buster-Jangle). Kennedy made his Senate bid, H-bombs attained a breakthrough, Israel started their weapons program, and even Mary Sherman made a move in 1952.
   Qualifiers for Kennedy’s preselection, to meet the requirements of our lab experiment, unfolded over the next years as if on cue.  He was a natural force.  JFK’s ascent displayed his potential as a teachable man and Old Joe had enough irons-in-the-fire to protect his family ambitions. When it came time to face-off with the Soviets, Kennedy looked like his own authority: Rockefeller men surrounded him, and yet he had an actionable conscience that signaled the Russians of his capacity for independence. They could work with this man.
   The Israelis, on the other hand, could not. Reeves (author of President Kennedy) notes their basic status on January 19, 1961 and never mentions Israel again but they were also beneficiaries in the 1955 round of Atoms for Peace, acquiring an American-made research reactor (Soreq) in the spirit of Nelson Rockefeller’s promotion that any nation wanting one should have it.  After the earlier Lavon Affair, it had to be the point of no return. Americans, as far as I know, did not openly help the Israeli nuclear program after Soreq. The legitimacy of Israel’s development then came from the French but by 1960 the relationship was fraught with uncertainty and delays. Jeffrey Richelson writes, “In 1960, after the departure of [France’s] pro-Israeli atomic energy minister Jacques Soustelle, French foreign minister Maurice Couve de Murville made three demands, conveyed via the Israeli ambassador. Israel was to publicly acknowledge the existence of the Negev [Dimona] project, declare that the reactor was to be used for peaceful purposes, and permit international inspections. Unless Israel complied, France would refuse to supply the natural uranium needed to fuel the reactor. Accepting the French demands, particularly for international inspections, would threaten the plan to produce fissile material for atomic bombs.”[p241, Spying On The Bomb]
   The Israelis were not waiting on the French any more than they historically waited on the British. Nuclear power was already theirs, an entitlement by virtue of its creation as reverentially Jewish. In the 1920s, Einstein publicly predicted their days of national struggle when statehood would bind them to playing by the rules. It was a warning to prepare. Insurance on Israel’s “right to exist” was, and always was, predicated on their mastery of traffick.
PRESERVING OUR IGNORANCE about radiation-caused polio has been an essential ingredient in keeping a fuller account of the JFK assassination at bay. Knowing it makes a few more chapters in the story just open up, like magic.  There’s no such thing as a fallout vaccine but there must have been immense pressure to sell this idea and smooth the atomic trade. A fallout vaccine, if it existed, would have to prevent cancer. There would have to be some cancer antigen in there, if it existed, huh?  Salk and Sabin had what any aspiring world power could want: a twofer –such a deal! Let’s play thermonuclear war!!
   And this is something I love about Ed. He’s working hard for our ignorance. He could have left out the references to polio and still fascinated his audience with Oswald and Mary and Ferrie. Judyth Vary Baker too, of course, the only living member of the all-dead cast. He might have had a problem though, getting interest out to the general public. So DMM is about cancer. It’s about AIDS. It’s about stacking as many riders on his horse as the traffick will allow. He says himself, “the JFK thing is kinda incidental to the book”.
Make no mistake. The polio vaccine in Cuba before the Missile Crisis was a psy-op pitching for prohibition to the benefit of traffickers, which does not exclude the possibility that weapons-grade bomb fuel was moving in the island. Obviously, there is a lot more story here.
Articles previously posted on the subject of DMM:
 Assassination By Cancer (premise of the book ’Dr. Mary’s Monkey’)
 Particle Accelerator 101 (questioning ‘Dr. Mary’s Monkey’)
 Dr. Mary’s Flunky
 Why Were Monkey Viruses in Polio Vaccines?
The medical science involved in this story is (and will be) carried on in The Disease Continuum
“Abraham Feinberg (1908-1998) is best known lobbying for the state of Israel and organizing Harry S Truman’s “whistle-stop” fundraising tour that saved his 1948 presidential campaign from certain ruin.  Feinberg’s obituary hints at a role trafficking arms to Jewish fighters in Palestine.  As founder of Americans for Haganah and Foundry Associates, Inc., Feinberg was deeply involved in the Haganah arms smuggling network in the United States.  More recently, authors such as Anver Cohen and Michael Karpin document in the book “Israel and the Bomb” and “The Bomb in the Basement” Feinberg’s role in undermining US nuclear nonproliferation policy.  On October 31, 1958 Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion noted in his diary a conversation “he had with Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy Jewish businessman and major Democratic fund-raiser” to raise funds for Israel’s nuclear weapons program among “benedictors” in the United States.  A few years later, President John F. Kennedy fought for biannual international inspections of Dimona and verifiable Israeli assurances that it was not a nuclear weapons production facility.  In 1960 Feinberg funded the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) as it mounted US disinformation campaigns about Israel’s nuclear weapons program.  JFK’s assassination in 1963 marked the gradual end of inspections and the US nonproliferation drive toward Israel.
1952 FBI memo on Feinberg
“Feinberg has been in contact with Colonel Ephraim Ben-Arazi, former Israeli Military Attaché to the United States; Theodore H. Kollek, Israeli Minister in Washington; Reuben Shiloah [founder of Mossad], personal advisor to the Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs; Nahum Bernstein, Secretary of Israel Speaks.  All of these individuals are known to have been active in the Israeli Intelligence Service… He [Feinberg] was in personal contact with Chaim Weizmann, first President of Israel, when Weizmann visited the United States in April 1949 and on other occasions.  Feinberg has been in personal contact with Ben-Gurion, Prime Minister of Israel, when he visited the United States.  These contacts with Israeli officials continue up to the present time.. “
“Dewey Stone smuggled arms to the Haganah, underwrote Israel’s cutting-edge Weizmann Institute and outfitted a ship to carry Holocaust survivors to Palestine. Yet this larger-than-life hero is virtually unknown by history… For decades, before May 14, 1948 and during those early years when the fledgling nation struggled to deflect attacks from all sides, this behinds-the-scenes hero – who made his fortune in fabrics coatings — helped to arm, strengthen and educate the Jewish forces with his own funds and with the untold millions he raised… So it’s not surprising he was a key player in the drama of the doomed voyage of the Exodus 1947. The Weston Trading Company, with Stone listed as sole stockholder, was a front used to ship supplies and refugees past American inspectors…The story of Exodus 1947 was soon news around the globe, garnering sympathy for the cause of a Jewish state. 
…In 1952, Stone also emerged as an early and vocal supporter of  young Congressional candidate, John F. Kennedy, who had a handicap when it came to the Jewish community. No one could forget the pro-Hitler comments his father Joseph P. Kennedy had made as ambassador to England during the war. But Stone believed the young Kennedy when he argued he shared none of his father’s Nazi sympathies, and contributed to JFK’s campaign, introducing him to Jewish voters and remaining close until Kennedy’s assassination in 1963.”
Stone and Feinberg were both Chairmen of the Board of the Weizmann Institute of Science; Stone its founding chairman from 1949 to 1971, followed by Feinberg from 1972 to 1976. The terms of both chairmen overlapped the Weizmann presidency by (polio scientist) Albert B. Sabin, 1970-1972. Extensive work on the SV40 monkey virus went on in Israel under Sabin’s term at the Weizmann. 
                                                        jfk 2
PART TWO looks at uranium for the Manhattan Project, the dealers Sengier and Pregel, Meyer Lansky in New York and Robert Kennedy’s 1948 role as a mouthpiece for Israel:

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