Jennifer Lake's Blog

October 28, 2013

School Days

Filed under: education,Eugenics,Rockefeller Science — jenniferlake @ 12:38 am
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“From the beginning, there was purpose behind forced schooling…forged out of what a highly centralized corporate economy and system of finance bent on internationalizing itself was thought to need… School was looked upon..as a branch of industry and a tool of governance…  By 1917, the major administrative jobs in American schooling were under control of a group referred to in the press of that day as ‘the Education Trust.’ The first meeting of this trust included representatives of Rockefeller, Carnegie, Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago, and the National Education Association. The chief end, wrote the British evolutionist Benjamin Kidd in 1918, was to ‘impose on the young the ideal of subordination.’

…”Arthur Calhoun’s 1919 Social History of the Family notified the nation’s academics what was happening. Calhoun declared that the fondest wish of utopian writers was coming true: The child was passing from its family ‘into the custody of community experts.’ He offered a significant forecast, that in time we could expect to see public education ‘designed to check the mating of the unfit.’

…”The 1920s were a boom period for forced schooling… William Kirkpatrick boasted in Education and the Social Crisis that the whole tradition of rearing the young was being made over by experts.”

   “Meanwhile, at the project offices of an important employer of experts, the Rockefeller Foundation, friends were hearing from president Max Mason that a comprehensive national program was underway to allow, in Mason’s words, ‘the control of human behavior.’ This dazzling ambition was announced on April 11, 1933. Schooling figured prominently in the design.

   “Rockefeller had been inspired by the work of Eastern European scientist Hermann Muller to invest heavily in genetics. Muller had used X-rays to override genetic law, inducing mutations in fruit flies. This seemed to open the door to the scientific control of life itself. Muller preached that planned breeding would bring mankind to paradise faster than God… Muller would win the Nobel Prize, reduce his proposal to a 1,500-word Geneticists’ Manifesto, and watch with satisfaction as 22 distinguished American and British biologists of the day signed it. The State must prepare to consciously guide human sexual selection, said Muller. School would have to separate worthwhile breeders from those slated for termination…”

   “Thirty-odd years later, between 1967 and 1974, teacher training in the US was covertly revamped through coordinated..key state education departments..which in time, impacted every school in America… The Behavioral Science Teacher Education Project identified the future as one ‘in which a small elite’ will control all important matters, one where participatory democracy will largely disappear. Children are made to see through school experiences that their classmates are so cruel and irresponsible, so inadequate..and so ignorant that they need to be controlled and regulated for society’s good. Under such a logical regime, school terror can only be regarded as good advertising…”

–John Taylor Gatto, “Some Lessons From The Underground History of American Education” [pp274-287, Everything You Know Is Wrong, 2002]

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   Using falling literacy statistics dating from 1840 and 1940, J.T. Gatto makes his point about the success of educational failure:   “…abundant data exist from states like Connecticut and Massachusetts to show that by 1840 the incidence of complex literacy in the United States was between 93 and 100 percent… According to the Connecticut census of 1840, only one citizen out of every 579 was illiterate… By 1940, the literacy figure for all states stood at 96 percent for whites [and] 80 percent for blacks… Six decades later..the National Adult Literacy Survey..say[s] 40 percent of blacks and 17 percent of whites can’t read at all. Put another way [since 1940], black illiteracy doubled and white illiteracy quadrupled… think of this: We spend three to four times as much real money on schooling as we did 60 years ago, but 60 years ago virtually everyone..could read…
   “If you have a hard time believing this…meet William Torrey Harris, US Commissioner of Education from 1889 to 1906… Harris standardized our schools and Germanized them… Listen as he speaks in 1906: “Ninety-nine [students] out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths, careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial education, which, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual… The great purpose of school can be realized better in dark, airless, ugly places… It is to master the physical self, to transcend the beauty of nature. School should develop the power to withdraw from the external world.’
…”Since Aristotle, thinkers have understood that work is the vital theater of self-knowledge. Schooling in concert with a controlled workplaceis the most effective way ever devised to foreclose the development of imagination… Hegel was sold to America in large measure by William Torrey Harris who made Hegelianism [the provoking of crises] his lifelong project, and forced schooling its principal instrument in its role as a peerless agent provocateur.
   “Harris was inspired by the notion that correctly managed mass schooling would result in a population so dependent on leaders that schism and revolution would be things of the past… The psychological tool was [is] alienation. The trick was to alienate children from themselves so they couldn’t turn inside for strength, to alienate them from their families, religions, cultures, etc. so no countervailing force could intervene…
   “Alexander Inglis, author of Principles of Secondary Education..wrote that the new schools were being expressly created to serve a command economy and command society, one in which the controlling coalition would be drawn from important institutional stakeholders in the future. According to Inglis, the first function of schooling is adjustive, establishing fixed habits of reaction to authority. This prepares the young to accept whatever management dictates when they are grown. Second is the diagnostic function. School determines each student’s ‘proper’ social role…to justify the next function, sorting. Individuals are to be trained only so far as their likely destination in the social machine, not one step beyond.

   “Conformity is the fourth function. Kids are to be made alike…so future behavior will be predictable, in service to market and political research. Next is the hygenic function…the health of the ‘race’… and last is the propaedutic function, a fancy word meaning that a small fraction of kids will slowly be trained to take over management of the system…
    “And there you have the formula: adjustment, diagnosis, sorting, conformity, racial hygiene, and continuity…”
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Gatto,JTGattoProgram(youtube)
“The Ultimate History Lesson”, 2011 interview
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                                                                                                          HermannMuller(wiki)
Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs… In 1914, Julian Huxley offered Muller a position at the recently founded William Marsh Rice Institute, now Rice University; he hurried to complete his Ph.D. degree and moved to Houston for the beginning of the 1915-1916 academic year…
…1926 marked the beginning of a series of major breakthroughs. Beginning in November, Muller carried out two experiments with varied doses of X-rays, the second of which used the crossing over suppressor stock (“ClB”) he had found in 1919. A clear, quantitative connection between radiation and lethal mutations quickly emerged. Muller’s discovery created a media sensation after he delivered a paper entitled “The Problem of Genetic Modification” at the Fifth International Congress of Genetics in Berlin; it would make him one of the better known public intellectuals of the early 20th century. By 1928, others had replicated his dramatic results, expanding them to other model organisms such as wasps and maize. In the following years, he began publicizing the likely dangers of radiation exposure in humans…
In September 1932, Muller moved to Berlin to work with the Russian expatriate geneticist Nikolay Timofeeff-Ressovsky, a trip intended as a limited sabbatical stretched into an eight-year, five-country journey. In Berlin, he met two physicists who would later be significant to the biology community: Niels Bohr and Max Delbrück…  In 1933, Muller ..moved..to Leningrad…  In the USSR, Muller supervised a large and productive lab, and organized work on medical genetics. Most of his work involved further explorations of genetics and radiation. There he completed his eugenics book, Out of the Night, the main ideas of which dated to 1910… ” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Joseph_Muller
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The ideas Muller laid out for the development of a practical eugenics program differed from those of the American Eugenics Society, particularly his emphasis on ‘positive eugenics’ and the importance of a classless society as a precursor to a eugenics program. ‘Positive eugenics’ was Muller’s theory which promoted the perpetuation of good genes rather than the removal of bad genes from society (‘negative eugenics’).” [Galtonian eugenics was of this 'positive' type] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory archives http://cshlarchives.blogspot.com/2007/12/e.html

October 24, 2012

Morgification

Morgification is something I’ve been thinking about for months. In part, as the involuntary and evil twin of Borgification, and in breadth as a process that derives “morg” from its original word-root as a condition of death. It only so happens that All Hallows Eve is on our doorstep and this haphazard piece turns out to be timely. The inspiration didn’t come from philosophy or religion, but from polymer science; specifically, the activities of the (defunct) Polaroid Corporation and the men who were dipping their probes into the mysteries of organic stereochemistry to make “interesting” plastics. And then there’s the overall driver which is a psychic hologram of scientific tyranny. Pardon my negativity but there’s a problem Houston! We’re losing the Race for Space –and I mean losing control of those engineered aliens ( the “race” for space).   So, I guess what I want to say is: get jiggy with it science guys or get morgued for a comeback as zombie pumpkins.

“Morg”, of course, is taken from Morgellon’s, a name on overdrive, standing in for the range of disorders manifesting as recurrent lesions, extruding fibers, films, crystals, technological objects and insects oozing and tearing out of people’s skin. Prognosis unknown. Morgellon’s suggests these are medical problems. Morgification, I’m suggesting, is conquest.

   No one can yet tell me if it’s killing people because so far what I’ve heard is that ‘morgs’ are killing themselves. I have too little to offer in the face of this tragedy, but recent exposure to advanced cases of morgification support a conviction that the issue needs to be, and must be, defined. It was Edwin (“call me Din”) Land, the founder and genius of Polaroid, who was fond of telling people that a problem defined opened the way to its solution.

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The following description and accompanying photos (in the link) fits some of the morg specimens I’ve seen: “In this work, we discovered that.. PVP could self-assemble to form a macroscopic matrix made of a branched hollow polymer nanofibers… The self-assembled fibrous PVP structure formed in the aqueous solution was a jellyfish-like three-dimensional aggregate with a centimeter scale… Based on the..analysis of the early stage during the formation of the jellyfish-like PVP aggregate, the aggregate formation process can be divided into two steps: formation and fusion of PVP microspheres into pearl-necklace-like chains and growth of hollow fibers from the chains… The branched fibers produced in this work may serve as new templates for the synthesis of fibers or tubes of other materials… We discovered that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) could self-assemble into branched hollow fibers in an aqueous solution after aging the PVP solution for about two weeks. Based on this finding, we demonstrated two approaches by which the self-assembly of PVP into branched hollow fibers could be exploited to template the formation of branched hollow inorganic fibers.” [i.e. silica and gold nanoparticles] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844465/

 PVP powder, sold widely as a food additive, binding and thickening agent for foods, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, medical devices and blood plasma substitute. Mixed with iodine it’s called povidone, able to make light-polarizing film — it could have been among the many thousands of polymer compounds prepared by Polaroid.

Edwin Land, c1947 

For much of its early existence, Polaroid functioned as a think tank more than a product-wielding corporation. In 1937, Polaroid was officially reorganized  “Under the enthusiastic sponsorship of Jimmy  [James A.] Warburg, [as] a group came together that included W. Averell Harriman, Lewis Strauss and Strauss’s partners at Kuhn Loeb, and several members of Schroder-Rockefeller… and clearly demonstrated what they were investing in by granting Land control of a voting trust of the stock… The board directors [were] Warburg, Harriman, Strauss…” [p55, Land's Polaroid]   Din Land had shown them miracles, including a 3-D movie, which they restaged multiple times for scientists, capitalists, and the press. For the 1939 “World of Tomorrow” Fair in New York, Chrysler presented a 3-D Polaroid film of a car self-assembling as the animated parts danced before the audience. Still, Polaroid had little to sell and fewer customers, but 1940, World War II, new premises near M.I.T. and a flow of contracts from the US Navy changed everything. Near the end of the war, Polaroid took on a team of crack chemists and set out to make the products that Edwin Land had dreamed of.

One of the chemists who signed on to Polaroid in 1943 was Elkan Rogers Blout, newly promoted out of Columbia University with a chemical PhD and accommodated as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. Blout managed to keep his parallel life going between Polaroid and Harvard –Polaroid gave him wealth and Harvard gave him prestige– until 1962 and the fruition of Polaroid’s great commercial one-trick-pony: the instant color camera. Blout “led the team of chemists that synthesized more than 5,000 compounds in search of the key ingredients of the Polaroid color process.” http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2006-releases/press12202006.html By leaving the lab at Polaroid, Blout was to have time to make his mark in medicine. Since 1950, he’d had private lab space at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, sponsored by the Children’s Cancer Research Foundation under Sidney Farber: “Elkan established a spectroscopy laboratory at Children’s..to study biophysics of peptides and proteins… Indicative of his stature in the field of biopolymers, Elkan was a founding editor of the journal Biopolymers…” http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/09/elkan-r-blout/  At the top of his Harvard career, Elkan Blout was the Dean of academics at the Harvard School of Public Health, treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences responsible for a five-fold increase in monetary holdings and lastly, in retirement after having won the highest national awards, senior science advisor to the FDA.  But, from his first days at Polaroid during WWII, Blout (who was 24 at the time) had joined in the ‘classified’ culture of military secrets. It may have taught him much about networking and discretion, as doubtlessly as hobnobbing with financiers did with money. Perhaps it suited him as it suited Edwin Land.

When the Korean War kicked into gear and nuclear tests moved to Nevada, Edwin Land joined another small group to study and recommend military development; they called themselves the Beacon Hill group and issued a highly classified report on ideas for aerial reconnaissance and atmospheric monitoring. Land’s fellow in these studies, James R. Killian (pres. of M.I.T), was later to pick him as chair for the special intelligence committee. In 1954, Land and Killian, together, went to Eisenhower with the plan for the U-2 spy plane. It was at Land’s urging and arrangement that Kelly Johnson of Lockheed was brought into the project, and potentially many other contributors as well. “He knew much of the country’s scientific establishment personally. He was a visiting lecturer at M.I.T. and would later persuade Killian to join Polaroid’s board… Land quickly assumed a leading role…  From the first flight on July 4, 1956, to the day Gary Powers was shot down on May 1, 1960, the U-2 changed the course of history… suddenly a hidden world was totally revealed. It quickly became apparent that the bomber gap and the missile gap [promoted as falling behind the Soviets] were misapprehensions… the Western powers had overestimated Soviet strength… Subsequent flights totally revised American and NATO thinking about Russian capabilities.” [pp111-112, Land's Polaroid]

The essential telling of U-2 surveillance and the involvement of Land is in the timing of its early flights a full year before the United States blew off the longest and dirtiest series of nuclear bombs over the heads of its citizens.  The Nevada tests known as Operation Plumbob in the summer and fall of 1957 initiated the period of peak atmospheric fallout that, according to epidemiological data, has never really abated due to the growth of nuclear industries, accidents, re-pollution and bioaccumulation. For some time now, even the public knows that the ‘testing’ excess was militarily unnecessary by any standard.  In the field of synthetic and biopolymers, however, fallout is magic.

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Got a minute?

All polymers are made of linked units called monomers.
A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature.  Starch, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars [polysaccharides], amino acids [polypeptides], and nuceic acids [polynucleotides]. The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the polymer’s primary structure. Many biopolymers spontaneously “fold” into characteristic shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the shapes of biopolymers.” http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Biopolymer
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“Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation…also known as 3D chemistry because the prefix “stereo-” means “three-dimensionality”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereochemistry
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The term ‘plastics’ includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Plastics typically have high molecular weight, meaning each molecule can have thousands of atoms bound together… Most plastics are based on the carbon atom. Silicones, which are based on the silicon atom, are an exception. The carbon atom can link to other atoms with up to four chemical bonds .. When we combine monomers, we generate polymers or plastics… The raw material formation may begin by separating the hydrocarbon chemicals from natural gas, petroleum, or coal into pure streams of chemicals. Some are then processed in a “cracking process.” Here, in the presence of a catalyst, raw materials molecules are converted into monomers such as ethylene (ethene) C2H4, propylene (propene) C3H6, and butene C4H8 and others….  Each monomer yields a plastic resin with specific properties and characteristics. Combinations of monomers produce copolymers with further property variations. So, within each polymer type, such as nylons, polyesters, polyethylenes, etc, manufacturers can custom make plastics that have specific features.” http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/How-Plastics-Are-Made
“A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure. Covalent [shared electron] bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinylpyrrolidone
“Most plastics are dielectrics or insulators…and resist the flow of a current… [but] Not all polymers behave the same when subjected to voltage and plastics can be classified as ‘polar’ or ‘nonpolar’…The polar plastics do not have a fully covalent bond and there is a slight imbalance in the electronic charge of the molecule… This ‘dipole’ will move in the presence of an electric field and attempt to line up with the electric field.” http://www.zeusinc.com/User/Files/Zeusinc/Documents/Zeus_Dielectric.pdf
Molecular self-assembly is mediated by weak, noncovalent bonds –notably hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds (electrostatic interactions), hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions and water-mediated hydrogen bonds. Although these bonds are relatively insignificant in isolation, when combined together as a whole, they govern the structural conformation of..macromolecules…” http://www.che.utexas.edu/research/biomat/PDFReprints/Fabrication%20of%20novel%20biomaterials%20through%20molecular%20SA.pdf
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Polymer fabrication techniques often use free radicals: Free radical polymerization is a method..by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks. Free radicals can be formed via a number of different mechanisms… The relatively nonspecific nature of free radical chemical interactions makes this one of the most versatile forms of polymerization available.. In 2001, 40 billion of the 110 billion pounds of polymers produced in the United States were produced by free radical polymerization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_radical_polymerization
High-energy ionizing radiation produces free radicals for chemically cross-linking polymers: “..[a] polymer may be crosslinked using..electron beam (or e-beam), gamma, or x-ray. Gamma irradiation is usually most economical at lower doses..and for large, high-density parts…Irradiation creates free radicals which will often chemically react in various ways… The free radicals can recombine forming the crosslinks. The degree of crosslinking depends upon the polymer and radiation dose… Another influence..is oxidation during irradiation. Furthermore, oxidation can continue after irradiation causing changes in properties with time… A competing process, called scissioning occurs when polymers are irradiated. In this case, the polymer chains are broken…” http://sterigenics.com/crosslinking/crosslinking.htm
Plasma polymerization: …”as early as the 1870s ‘polymers’ formed by this process were known, but these polymers were initially thought of as undesirable…It was not until the 1960s that the properties of these polymers where found to be useful… Glow discharge is a technique in polymerization which forms free electrons which gain energy from an electric field, and then lose energy through collisions with neutral molecules in the gas phase. This leads to many chemically reactive species, which then lead to a plasma polymerization reaction… These plasmas are formed by a direct current, alternating current or radio frequency generator.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_polymerization
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“This review describes recent developments in the emerging field of biomimetic polymeric biomaterials, which signal to cells via biologically active entities.  …The next topics are then the basic design rules for the creation of biomimetic materials. Here, the major emphasis is on polymers that are assembled in separate building blocks, meaning that the biologically active entity is attached to the polymer in a separate chemical reaction.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15296963
“Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach…by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte [red blood cell] membranes..for long-circulating [drug or gene] cargo delivery…”  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/06/17/1106634108.abstract
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“Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap)…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446438
“Conductive polymers are expected to play an important role in the emerging science of molecular computers…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_electronics
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Indeed… polymers are smart materials. If you knew nothing about plastics before reading this, I hope this random selection of quotes does a ‘Polaroid’–  gives you the picture in a minute.
   I have one last addition about the “pyrroles” :
“Polypyrroles are conducting polymers of the rigid-rod..family, all basically derivatives of polyacetylene. Polypyrrole was the first polyacetylene derivative to show high conductivity. In a series of papers in 1963, D.E.Weiss and coworkers reported high conductivity in iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole… In 2006, scientists from Brown University published work on a fast-charging and discharging battery chemistry based on polypyrroles. There are current studies into the medical applications… Polypyrrole..has been actively studied as a material for ‘artificial muscles’… Polypyrrole is used in the microwave fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, a new method that allows to obtain CNTs in a matter of seconds.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypyrrole
….now there’s a real Polaroid moment.
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In 1940, equal to Polaroid’s up-and-coming status as a think tank floating on Navy contracts, Edwin Land adopted Robert Burns Woodward as a special science advisor and chief “problem solver” to the company. Woodward was a Boston area native, PhD graduate of MIT, and soon to become the resident wizard of organic chemistry at Harvard. He was “considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century… During the..1940s, Woodward synthesized many complex..products including quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, lysergic acid, reserpine, chlorophyll, cephalosporin and colchicine. With these, Woodward opened up a new era of synthesis..in which he showed that natural products could be synthesized by careful applications of the principles of physical organic chemistry, and by meticulous plannng…  it was thought by some..that it would be impossible to create these substances in the lab… Woodward was a pioneer in showing how, with exhaustive and rational planning, one could conduct reactions that were stereoselective. Many..syntheses involved forcing a molecule into a certain configuration by installing rigid structural elements in it, [a] tactic that has become standard today.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._B._Woodward
   “In 1944, Land brought together two brilliant young chemists who had worked for Polaroid… Woodward..now twenty-seven..[and]..William E. Doering..[who] was twenty-six. Land provided them with a Polaroid laboratory and assistants, his own insistent energy and ideas, and a challenge to solve the classical problem… Synthetic quinine…” [p76, Land's Polaroid] It was through Woodward, who had also been serving the War Production Board, that Elkan Blout came to Polaroid too. Woodward was to stay in the family –in 1946 he divorced his first wife and married Eudoxia ‘Doxie’ Muller, one of Polaroid’s first hires, described as a “humorous, cynical, blonde sprite” who was recruited to learn science on-the-job. “Doxie had been assigned by Land to begin the first chemical experiments on his instant photography project, given the code name SX-70, under Land’s daily guidance.” [p9, ibid.]
   Woodward’s “new era” in chemistry was to bear his name. “In the early 1950s, Woodward, along with the British chemist Geoffrey Wilkinson then at Harvard, postulated a novel structure for ferrocene, a compound consisting of a combination of an organic molecule with iron. This marked the beginning of the field of transition metal organometallic chemistry…  In the early 1960s, Woodward began work on what was the most complex natural product synthesized to date– vitamin B12… The synthesis included almost a hundred steps…  This [work] convinced organic chemists that the synthesis of any complex substance was possible given enough time and planning.” [wiki, above]
   Blout wrote of his friend, “Theoretically, interesting molecules always intrigued Woodward… He concluded that electronic effects had to be at work…” http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/rwoodward
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Interesting…
“Recently the mixtures of collagen with synthetic polymers..are becoming more and more interesting for scientists and technologists… Since collagen alone does not show interesting enough mechanical properties, the idea to develop collagen based composite materials by adding a selected synthetic polymer is interesting. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is an interesting water-soluble synthetic… used for..plasmas (substitute of blood plasma), for hydrogel production by radiation methods and..hydrophilic gels…  Collagen and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)..are also well known for their interesting biological properties. The blending of collagen with PVP makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur.”  http://www.chalcogen.infim.ro/1793_%20Dumitrascu.pdf
“…surgically induced fibrocollagenous tunnels induces angiogenesis in ischemic rat hindlimb model… collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone plus heparin induced significant vascularization…” http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:14705073
“Vascular tube formation and angiogenesis induced by polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles” [abstract title] www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427411012513
   Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, was a term first coined in 1900 but made-over in 1960s medical literature as a feature of cancer by the effort of a Boston [Children's Hospital/Harvard] colleague, Moses Judah Folkman. Dr. “Folkman is widely known as a pioneer in the sudy of angiogenesis… Today [2008] there are more than 1,000 laboratories worldwide engaged in the study of angiogenesis, the field he founded.” In measurable practical value, however, Folkman may be better known for creating plasticized implants, including an early pacemaker: “While doing blood research for the Navy [Bethesda], Folkman had noticed that plastic tubing will gradually leak oil-based fluids… That led to a new drug-delivery system– implantable plastic capsules..[and] directly to the development of Norplant, the long-term contraceptive… Folkman gave the original patent..to the Population Council.”  http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2008/01/m-judah-folkman-biomedical-pioneer-dies-at-74
…”Judah Folkman has taken us enormously close to converting cancer into a manageable chronic disease…” http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles_various/Dr.Folkman.asp
   Without digressing here on the utility of cancer, this last comment fairly captures my perception of the goals of establishment medicine and brings up another haunting concept I’ve been thinking about as a result of this research: autoincarceration –for now, one to keep rolling. There are endless interesting citations about PVP.
   Polyvinylpyrrolidone was first made in a BASF laboratory, the company that advertizes “We don’t just create chemicals, we create chemistry” : “Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a genuine ‘multi-talent’ among BASF products because polyvinylpyrrolidones are good at (almost) everything… It all began around the end of 1938..in Ludwigshafen. Walter Reppe, the inventor of acetylene chemistry, used acetylene and pyrrolidone to produce a new monomer called vinylpyrrolidone… PVP started its career as a substitute for blood plasma in the Second World War. Known as Periston, it saved the lives of thousands of people… Half of the polyvinylpyrrolidones produced by BASF are destined for the pharmaceutical sector…  Today, BASF is the biggest producer of PVP in Europe –and an end to this success story is nowhere in sight.” http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/literature-document:/Brand+Luvitec-Brochure–PVP+and+more+Versatile+specialty+polymers+for+technical+applications-English.pdf
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                                                PVP
“When dry, it is a light flaky powder which readily absorbs up to 40% of its weight in atmospheric water. In solution it has excellent wetting properties and readily forms films…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinylpyrrolidone
[1953]“This work..may serve as a basis for later investigations..on the combining of PVP for certain physiologic products with which it comes into intimate contact when used as a plasma expander…” http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/1/5/396.full.pdf
“Pulsed electron beam irradiation at high repitition rate generates several carbon-centered free radicals along the polymeric chain simultaneously and enhances the intra-crosslinking radical reactions. Smaller nano-gel particles..were attained at higher pulse repitition rate (300 pulses per second)…the nano-gel structure was synthesized using relatively low dose-rate radiation…” http://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2007/preliminaryprogram/abstract_91187.htm
“The microemulsion was..subjected to either electron-beam or UV-radiation to induce free-radical crosslinking of PVP at low temperature… E-beams produced orderly grids and UV produced a tangled mess…” http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/py/c0py00161a/unauth#
“Recently studies have shown that infection can occur in the presence of neutralizing antibodies…if the virus is first subjected to polymer encapsulation… By substituting polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for PVA [polyvinyl alcohol], gene transfer increased seven-fold…” www.nature.com/gt/journal/v6/n9/full/3300978a.html
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Naturally existing pyrroles, incidently, come from tobacco, and as part of its intriguing history as the first confirmed isolation of  any virus (published 1892), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) turns out to “exhibit fascinating structural features… TMV-based materials have already shown great potential in nanoelectronics.” http://www.ee.sc.edu/research/NESL/NESL_pub_pdf/NanoLett_7_3729.pdf
–now, I can only speculate what kind of story Big Tobacco might have to contribute here. Tobacco keeps coming up in my radiation biology studies; as a source of desirable chemicals such as nicotinic acid and pyrrole, as a crop target of early “radium fertilizer” and as a factor in the cancer of Henrietta Lacks, whose tumor cells were designated the immortal HeLa line in 1951 (beginning of US domestic atomic fallout), then to become the most ubiquitous of laboratory creatures (i.e., the basis of polio vaccines) –and now this too, ready nanoelectronics.
   Americans should know from history that the burgeoning economy of the Atlantic colonies was built on the slave labor of tobacco plantations. By the 1700s, excluding J.J. Astor, great fortunes were in tobacco, exemplified by Pierre Lorillard: “Lorillard is the oldest tobacco company in the world.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Abraham_Lorillard; In 1968, Lorillard was acquired by Loews Corporation, controlled by the Tisch family. If you like, take the rabbit hole: http://smokershistory.com/Lorillar.htm; or jump in and follow the money http://www.smokershistory.com/MorganGT.html
*
BASF, creator of the chemistry, was the 1925 founding corporation of I.G. Farbenunder the leadership of Carl Bosch…all shares were exchanged for BASF shares prior to the merger. Rubber, fuels and coatings were added to the product range“. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BASF

In 1927, prior to the Wall Street Crash and the construction of Rockefeller Center,  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben formalized a joint partnnership that created the world’s largest chemical consortium. Howard Ambruster published a critical work in 1947 on the interwar history of the Standard-Farben venture: “Treason’s Peace, German Dyes and American Dupes”.  Ambruster wrote, “..it is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which..operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest and a world super-state directed by Farben.”  www.archive.org/stream/treasonspeaceger00ambrrich/…” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/

“Under the direction of Walter Reppe (1892 – 1969, chemist and member of the  Board of Executive Directors from 1952 to 1957), research begins in 1928 on the catalytic reactions of acetylene under pressure… Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius receive the Nobel Prize for the development of  high-pressure technology for ammonia synthesis and coal hydrogenation…Researchers in Ludwigshafen develop a groundbreaking new invention – magnetic  tape…  Ten years of intensive research into synthetic rubber culminate in success… A patent is filed in 1939 for one of the most interesting  derivatves of acetylene chemistry: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)… Times of war, 1940…The first 20 tons of caprolactam-based polyamide are produced in  Ludwigshafen. This opens up new ways of manufacturing fibers (nylon and Perlon)  and engineering plastics… ” http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/about-basf/history/1925-1944/index

“I.G. Farben had a holding company in the United States… Paul M. Warburg, first director of the Federal  Reserve Bank of New York and chairman of the Bank of Manhattan, was a Farben director and in Germany his brother Max Warburg was also a director of I.G,  Farben. H. A. Metz of I.G. Farben was also a director of the Warburg’s Bank of  Manhattan. Finally, Carl Bosch of American I.G. Farben was also a director of  Ford Motor Company A-G in Germany… Another elusive case of reported financing to Hitler is that of Fritz Thyssen, the German steel magnate…[whose]..personal banking operation was affiliated with W.A. Harriman interests in New York..” http://reformed-theology.org/html/books/wall_street/chapter_07.htm  “Virtually all members of the German Warburg family fled to the United States or Great Britain by 1938.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_family  “The I.G.Farben cartel was created by loans from Wall Street in what has been called the Dawes Plan. Carroll Quigley calls the Dawes Plan ‘largely a J.P. Morgan production.’ The J.P. Morgan Group set up the loan to I.G. Farben, which created Hitler… Do you see what happened? A Rothschild agent [Morgan & Co.] set up a cartel that was directly involved in the horrible persecution of the Jews. Still the family maintains the illusion of being totally supportive of their race. At first Germany had a significant disadvantage… The nation had a fuel shortage…[but] were able to fight WWII through the use of synthetic fuels that were created by the hydrogenation process (turning coal into gasoline)… Standard Oil..was able to complete the research, facilitating the war…” [from Bloodlines of the Illuminati, by Fritz Springmeier, http://www.whale.to/b/sp/rothschild.html]

While the processes for producing gaseous and liquid fuels by conventional techniques were being developed, exploratory experiments to investigate the rapid pyrolysis of coal to gaseous products were in progress… The results of these studies show that the rapid pyrolysis of coal produces a gaseous mixture of which acetylene is the principal hydrocarbon constituent…” http://web.anl.gov/PCS/acsfuel/preprint%20archive/Files/13_4_NEW%20YORK_09-69_0321.pdf

The US Government’s sample of PVP came to the military in 1943 as captured German medical supplies: “At the 28 July 1943 [Subcommittee on Blood Substitutes] Conference..a bottle of Periston [polyvinylpyrrolidone]..that had been captured in Tunisia..was exhibited and arrangements were made for various studies to be conducted on it… [T]oxicity experiments revealed gross pathologic changes in the spleen..described as the type to be expected in severe bone marrow damage… Autopsy also revealed changes in the liver that were apparently progressive…” http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/blood/chapter14.htm  Despite this, blood substitute science was unable to find suitable materials and Periston was bypassed because of adequate supplies of donated blood from the Red Cross program. The military dropped its inquiry at the end of the war, but in 1950 the Korean War revived their interest: “Periston was..[next] considered in the Subcommittee on Shock on 14 October 1950. Although it had been widely used in Germany during WWII and about half a million cases had since been followed up, not much was known… Apparently it caused no lasting damage to the tissues… At the 11 December..meeting..it was learned that the Schenley [Distillers] Corp. could then import 5,000 to 10,000 bottles of Periston a month from Germany and by July 1951 expected to import an intermediate form that could be processed further in the United States… A research project had been approved in principle… The Food and Drug Administration was prepared to clear Periston…” http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/blood/chapter20.htm [pp788-790] So Schenley Corp. became the government’s PVP contractor until late 1953 when Periston was dropped again in favor of another blood substitute called dextran –also provided by Schenley.

“Schenley had been owned by one Danny Weiskopf, formerly the right-hand man of Julius Kessler, the whiskey king of pre-Prohibition America. Weiskopf had sold out to Lew Rosenstiel..[who] managed to build up considerable stocks of ‘prescription whiskey’..[p95, The Bronfmans]… Before Repeal Rosenstiel had acquired..the important firm of Schenley with the help of..the totally respectable banking firm of Lehman Brothers… Rosenstiel was a true monster… He was a workaholic, needing only two hours of sleep, working seven days a week, impetuous.. a control freak who treated his employees like dirt, sacking them at a moment’s notice..[expecting] them to compromise themselves by talking in his absence, unaware that he had installed bugging devices in his offices… Rosenstiel was married four times and was bisexual…revealed from evidence given in a bitter divorce suit..by his fourth wife. If, as is possible, her evidence is true, it guarantees him a place in history as organizer of the parties at which J. Edgar Hoover could frolic in his favorite frocks, parties that featured boy prostitutes for the enjoyment of..guests like Roy Cohn. According to the fourth Mrs. Rosenstiel, at one party she attended Hoover ‘was wearing a fluffy black dress..with..lace stockings and high heels..makeup..and false eyelashes.’ Indeed it was the blackmail potential of the conversations recorded on the microphones Rosenstiel had thoughtfully installed throughout the house that allegedly explained Hoover’s refusal to pursue the Mafia. For it was at Lew’s place that Hoover met some of Rosenstiel’s business associates..like Frank Costello, Sam Giancana…Santo Trafficante..Angelo Bruno..and Meyer Lansky…” [p66, The Bronfmans, by Nicholas Faith] Sam Bronfman bought a 20% stake in Schenley. “Mr. Sam..–and above all Edgar– had been introduced to what would now be called ‘insider’ stock market dealings by the Loebs and the Gunzbergs… In France the Gunzberg connection with the Rothschilds enabled the Bronfmans to get in on the ground floor of..the innovative holiday group Club Mediterranee. In the United States the investments included a highly successful speculation into Polaroid..” [p175, ibid.]

*

This story, as you might surmise, has more places to go than tunneling nanotubes, and at some point I just have to leave-off and mention that the early medical research on PVP by the government was mixed at best. They sanctioned ‘emergency use’ of PVP blood substitute and called for more study. The only moderately favorable clinical trial done in 1950 was submitted by Dr. Robert M. Zollinger of Ohio State U, the beloved mentor of Judah Folkman who got him into Harvard Medial School. Polaroid eventually filed a number of PVP-containing patents, some of which appear near the end of Edwin Land’s life in 1983. “Paradoxically, a man who spent much of his life developing devices and systems for recording history didn’t leave much of his own. He didn’t keep a journal and his personal papers were destroyed upon death.” http://www.2think.org/land.shtml

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                                                                         NOTES

PVP in RESidence
Polyvinylpyrrolidone stores in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), currently called the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), “part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells..accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are..part of the MPS… The mononuclear phagocyte system is part of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity..[with] an important role in defense against microorganisms… [In] the liver, Kupffer cells store excess iron [coming] from the breakdown of red blood cells. In bone marrow and spleen, iron is stored in RES cells mostly as ferritin… The functions of the MPS..[are] formation of Red and White blood cells [RBCs and WBCs], destruction of old RBCs and WBCs, formation of antibody, formation of plasma proteins, formation of bile pigments [and] storage of iron.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticuloendothelial_system
“When administered in very large amounts or over long periods (either as a plasma replacement or as a dryg carrier) deposits identified as PVP have been found in RES cells of various organs and in the lung, kidney and intestines… For example, PVP storage was apparent in 28 of 29 autopsies of patients who received PVP..by intravenous injection over 2-81 days at total doses of 4 g[grams]. Microscopic examination revealed slight structural changes… Slight adverse effects to the function of lungs, kidneys, liver and intestines..have been described… Other reports have also noted..granulomatous or inflammatory reactions in association with PVP deposits in..the liver and lymph nodes… PVP deposits in a wide range of tissues..when examined up to 15 years later…”[noted here also at 20 years] http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2057958898-8907.html
*
Edwin Herbert Land, “As a member of PSAC [the President's Scientific Advisory Committee], Land co-authored a study that led to the establishment of the highly secretive National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), participated..and promoted the development of satellites..[and] also served on the special committee..that laid the foundations for the transformation of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into NASA…” http://cmu.edu/coldwar/mcelheny.html; EHL would certainly have been aware of the research objectives expressed by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 :

Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space…” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/04/13/cyborgology

September 19, 2012

The Moscow Signal

 photo 1959

The Moscow Signal was the name given by intelligence insiders to the low-power microwave beams claimed to have been broadcast into the US embassy for more than two decades, from 1953 until 1976. No members of the public were to hear of it until 1976, not even the staff of the US embassy in Moscow. Journalist Paul Brodeur, longtime writer for The New Yorker, recounted the events in his 1977 book The Zapping of America: “According to the first report of the affair, which appeared in the Los Angeles Times on February 7 [1976], Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel Jr had told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were using microwave beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and that such radiation could be harmful to their health…”[p95]

As it happens, the signal went undiscovered until 1962 when a security sweep for listening devices revealed the presence of an unusual pulsed series of microwaves. The Department of Defense had only recently terminated its Tri-Service Program, a microwave studies “health and safety” evaluation operated from 1957 to 1961, for reasons that Brodeur makes clear. What followed in the wake of the Moscow Signal discovery was a rapid withdrawal of related, defense-funded radio/radar research among independent non-military contractors. In 1966, the government classified its continuing effort as Project Pandora, a three year investigation that maintained complete official silence until the story of the Moscow Signal broke in the papers –most of Pandora’s experiments, it seems, have never been declassified.

   The focus of Brodeur’s whistleblowing in Zapping was the power density exposure, arbitrarily set and voluntarily adopted at the limit of ten-milliwatts per centimeter squared (10mW/cm2). The Russians, he states, set their upper limit 1,000 times lower, measured in microwatts. Even one milliwatt was a figure much too high for Russian workplace safety . During the mid-60s period of contentious debate among knowing Americans, a one-milliwatt (1mW/cm2) limit had been suggested by the deputy director of the Bureau of Radiological Health (Robert L. Elder) who then reversed himself to defend a five-milliwatt limit for industry. Not without irony, the Moscow Signal was said to be at four-milliwatts per square centimeter.
*
In Chapter 3 (The Cover-up Begins), Brodeur wrote,”By the late 1950s, virtually all the investigations into the biological effects of microwaves were being either conducted or financed by the Department of Defense, which had assigned the Air Force the responsibility of developing a program of coordinated research in the three [armed] branches…known as the Tri-Service Program…Therefore the task..was validating the ten-milliwatt level that had already been adopted..as a theoretically safe level of continuous whole-body exposure to microwaves…[p32]…As for nonthernal, or low-level, effects upon human beings..it was virtually ignored during the Tri-Service Program. On..occasion..it was treated as a joke…[p33] One was a study..at the Naval Medical Research Institute [that] reported..testicular damage resulting in temporary sterility..in test animals exposed to power densities of only five milliwatts per square centimeter. Another was an animal study by Russell L. Carpenter..whose findings not only suggested that pulsed microwaves, such as those used in radar, might have a nonthermal effect in producing cataracts, but also..that cataracts might occur through the cumulative effect of repeated exposures to low-level microwave[s].

   “By the time of the fourth and final Tri-Service conference which was held in New York in August 1960, it was apparent that the military-industrial complex had developed almost complete immunity to any information that might place the ten milliwatt level in question. By then, it was known that the power of microwave-radiating equipment, which had risen within the previous twenty years from average outputs of ten watts to almost a million watts, would soon be increased to meet the demands of the space age.”[p34]
   Wow –before World War II was over, the electrical output of radar zoomed from ten watts to a million. Then, along came the microwave ovens, source of the contentious and equally arbitrary 5mW/cm2 limit. One of Paul Brodeur’s driving points was that leakage from electronics –radar and broadcast anntennas to home appliances– was commonplace and in excess of the too-high recommedations anyway.
   “Over the next few years [after 1962]..it became apparent that the Russians had based their standard primariliy on the effects of low-level microwave radiation on the central nervous system, which they had observed in the course of many large-scale, long-term clinical investigations of workers… [It] turned out that the Russians had recognized unusual effects of radio-frequency energy on the human central nervous system as early as 1933 and had been studying the problem ever since. [p35]
*
…”Concerning the genetic effects of microwaves…[they were] first discovered [by an American] back in 1959 by Dr. John H. Heller and some associates..who observed gross chromosomal abnormalities in garlic root tips..irradiated with microwaves at power levels far below those necessary to produce heat. By 1963, Heller and his colleagues had demonstrated that low-power microwave radiation could produce in mammalian cells and insects mutations similar to those caused by gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays. Ironically, when the findings of Heller [et.al]..were published, they received more recognition in the Soviet Union than in the United States...[p90]
*
   “At first, it was believed [the embassy discovery]..had something to do with normal eavesdropping operations…[but it] was soon realized, however, that the Russians were using multiple frequencies and widely fluctuating microwave beams with irregular patterns which did not appear to be applicable to intelligence gathering… [The] motive for the Soviet microwave bombardment..became the subject of intense scrutiny by..intelligence agencies, including the CIA whose officials had become belatedly aware of the vast amount of research that the Russians had conducted..on human behavior…  In the autumn of 1965, the Institute for Defense Analyses..convened a special task force to assess the problem and..duplicate some of the Russian experiments… In addition, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)..set up a special laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where..rhesus monkeys were irradiated..at power densities..similar to the Moscow Signal. [p41]
   By May of 1976, as new rounds of disclosure made their way to print, “an Associated Press report by Barton Reppert quoted Richard S. Cesaro, who was in charge of Project Pandora, as conceding that some of the scientists connected with the study felt that low-intensity microwave radiation had produced signs of aberrant behavior in monkeys. [p101]…another Associated Press story by Reppert stated that recent tests..showed radiation levels in the Moscow embassy to be considerably higher than..earlier tests…and that an outside telephone line had actually been found to be carrying radiation directly into the office (and, presumably into the ear) of Ambassador Stoessel…[who]was ‘beside himself’ with this latest development…” [p103]
   “Two weeks later, the..indefatigable Reppert..revealed that over an eighteen-month period in 1967 and 1968 the State Department had conducted special tests to detect genetic damage in employees returning from Moscow, and..done so without notifying the employees about the purpose of the testing but had deliberately misled them into thinking..the tests were..for another reason… Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson, of the George Washington University Medical School..described the tests..as showing ‘funny results– lots of chromosome breaks.’ [p104]…[Dr. Thomas H. Gresinger]..recalled..[that] the technicians..had been instructed to take buccal smears from the Moscow employees as part of their routine homecoming physical examinations and to tell them that they were being checked for..bacteria. When I heard the words ‘buccal smears’, my ears picked up. Buccal smears are never used to culture bacteria; they’re a scraping taken from inside the mouth and they’re designed solely for the purpose of detecting chromosomal abnormalities.'”[p105]
*
   Fourteen documents from Project Pandora were released to Barton Reppert through a Freedom of Information request: “The remaining documents in the declassifeid Pandora file pertain mostly to meetings held in 1968 and 1969..[p118] ..”The April..meeting ended with the science advisory committee’s emphasizing ‘the need for information on humans in addition to the accelerated animal studies at Walter Reed.’ The committee urged ‘the Walter Reed facility to develop a human program…six to eight months and that they could be obtained from Ft. Dietrich [sic]… On May 12..the committee..met at the Institute of Defense Analysis to discuss just how to design and conduct the human studies. Among other things, they agreed that the strength of the signal used in the studies should be between four and five milliwatts per square centimeter…’[p119]…on June 18…the science advisory committee..reached the following conclusions about the human studies: ‘It was the concensus that the aim should be to duplicate or simulate the Moscow environment..over an eight-to-ten hour period’… Cesaro went on to tell the committee that there was evidence that low-level radiation could penetrate the central nervous system of monkeys..[and] who went on to say that the effects could be physiological, behavioral and genetic. As things turned out, the..clear direction for future research that was recommended..in the spring of 1969 soon became clouded with uncertainty. Indeed, during the next few months, a mysteriuos change of heart and mind seems to have taken place in..Project Pandora…[p120]
   …[H]uman studies..after all, threatened to produce some embarassing data. [p121]…Project Pandora came to a rather abrupt end on January 12, 1970 after a final meeting… As for the planned human experiments, the committee decided that ‘based on existing information, there is no evidence that any permanent deleterious effects are to be expected.‘” [p124]
*
   In amongst the noise of the 1977 newspaper accounts was the quietly circulated notice that “..sources within the [State] department admitted privately that excessive radiation was emanating from the telephone of former Ambassador Stoessel. It was caused by a high-frequency one-thousand watt radio transmitter located on the roof of the embassy above Stoessel’s office. When this transmitter was operating, it induced high-frequency signals in the tens of milliwatts in phone lines running to the Ambassador’s desk, as well as in phone lines..to other offices in the embassy’s political section. Another State Department source..[claimed] that the..transmitter was never turned on…” [pp125-126] The State Department, Brodeur says, had no authority over the embassy’s transmitter, nor could they know or reveal any details about the equipment. It was classified. And so, the Moscow Signal ends as a sort of cliffhanger with the spooky insinuation that the  Americans in Moscow were irradiated by their own. Brodeur wrote, “conveniently..all of the blame for the irradiation of the embassy upon the Russians. However, there are..reasons for supposing that [the reports] may not be trueWhatever the legal resolutions,..since the Pandora meetings, the government and the military have systematically suppressed information about the genetic effects of microwaves in human beings…” [p134]
*
NOTE: current “safe” exposure is set by W.H.O. at 1 mW/cm2 (one milliwatt per square centimeter)
*
                  H.P. Schwan             Boris Rajewsky
   The original 10 mW/cm2 was adopted in 1955 following the recommendation of Herman P. Schwan , a “Paper Clip” biophysicist who had also worked for Siemens and Telefunken, recruited by the Navy in 1945 from the occupied Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Frankfurt.
>>>”Frankfurt-am-Main was designated as headquarters for the United States Navy for the occupation of Germany” [ref. p120, www.history.navy.mil/library/online/constructfrancegermanyww2.htm
   Schwan’s NIH obituary (b.1915-d.2005): “..His letter to the U.S. Navy in 1953 propos[ed] a safe limit for human exposure to microwave energy of 100 W/m2 [100 Watts per square meter, or converted by the formula  1 W/m2=0.1mW/cm2 ---a recommendation of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter]
Here’s a piece of Herman Schwan’s story:
Schwan: …”In March 1944 we experienced..[a] series of bombings that essentially wiped out Frankfurt. The damage was very very heavy… Curiously enough my apartment house did not suffer. I rented near I.G.Farben administrative headquarters… It was completely preserved.”
Q: “You’re saying the Allied forces purposely avoided bombing that?
Schwan: “Yes. Absolutely. It was clear… [Later, in the US] An executive with DuPont and General Motors offered me [an] interpretation… I was dating a friend of his daughter,[so] he invited me to [his] estate and offered to help me. He also invited the president of Sperry Gyroscope..to get me a job with Sperry. He told me that I.G. Farben and DuPont were heavily intertwined… DuPont owned fifty-one percent of the stock of I.G.Farben, and vice versa. He said to me, ‘We never had any intention to ruin our own headquarters in Germany. That’s our stuff.’ ..So, I don’t know. Anyhow, I didn’t suffer much..[but] just two blocks away there was unbelievable damage.
>>>In 1945 to 1947, the I.G.Farben building was the Supreme Headquarters for Allies Europe: the Frankfurt I.G. Farben building “was the largest office building in Europe…housing the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG)…[and]was also the headquarters of the CIA in Germany.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IG_Farben_Building
Q: “Was it possible to continue doing research…?
Schwan: “Our work suffered [toward the end of the war. After the Allied invasion]..I stayed at the institute a while..it was occupied by American soldiers…[Director, Boris] Rajewsky was gone so I had to take care of the institute… I rapidly received active support from the [US] military government. That proved to be important later… I succeeded in getting protection for the institute…
Q: “How did things go after that?
Schwan: “The university started functioning a year later… Rajewsky returned. He used his influence to introduce me to..some important heads of some banks in Frankfurt. He appointed me acting Director..since he was a [Nazi] Party Member, he could not act as..Director until..cleared… During that time, I received many visits from..scientists and technicians..[who] were primarily American, but also some British… they were very concerned about what was going on [at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics]..since [it] was known for its..expertise in ionizing radiation fields…
Q: “It had been targeted because it was thought that it was a part of an atom bomb project?
Schwan: “Yes. I believe so… Rajewsky got major equipment installed. For example..a huge accelerator in a rather tall, new structure in Frankfurt….They [the Allies] must have noticed..and knew what expertise was there… Clearly that building was marked. It was hit and destroyed… I offered the Allies information about the high-frequency work, and the [submarine anti-radar material].
Q: “You wanted to cooperate fully?
Schwan: “Oh absolutely. Yes, I had been waiting for the Americans for a long time now… The anti-Nazis, of course, fully cooperated… As time advanced, other people came with biophysical backgrounds. For example, a lieutenant in the Navy, David Goldman..visited several times, and I talked with him. Some months later, perhaps as a consequence of those visits, I was offered the opportunity to come to [the US] under unusually favorable circumstances… so I accepted. That was in ’47. I came in late August..to the Naval Medical [Aeromedical] Equipment Laboratory in Philadelphia… Then to my surprise, several good things happened…The Navy informed me they would like me to work on some projects only part of the time..[and] I would have the privilege of..projects of my choice… I proposed to start a sweeping study of electric and acoustic properties of biological materials..[hoping] to extend the range of frequencies to much higher and much lower frequencies than ever used before… they promised me the opportunity to set up a long-range research program…. Well, I mentioned the Americans made me an offer with almost unbelievably favorable circumstances… As it turned out, I could practically write my own ticket…  The majority..who came over under the so-called ‘Paper Clip Program’ were military scientists…most were technically oriented. So, the more basic scientists like myself were in a minority… I was [technically] on leave from the University of Frankfurt as a faculty member from 1947 to 1955″
Schwan’s oral history http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Oral-History:Herman_Schwan_%281992%29
*
   The value of ‘gleaning’ from Schwan’s career work and recollections has a lot to offer in context; a couple of decades before WWII, another Goldman was facilitating high-energy pioneers –banker Henry Goldman, of Goldman Sachs, who was paying the physicist pair of friends, Max Born and Albert Einstein, out-of-pocket on his visits to Germany. Schwan was trained by Russians in Frankfurt– Boris Rajewsky having ultimately attained the directorship of the Biophysics Institute through a form of placement initiated by his communist friends, Alexander Janitsky and the Joliot-Curies in Paris. The Nazis imprisoned Rajewsky’s predecessor and promoted Rajewsky in his place –go figure– and Rajewsky then enfolded the institute into the Kaiser Wilhelm (KWG) network.
   By the time Schwan wrote his microwave dosage recommendations in 1953 for the US Navy, the government had coincidently sanctioned “secret human experimentation” through the Secretary of Defense, Charles E. Wilson [the 'Wilson Memorandum'], CEO of General Electric. Nelson Rockefeller had just become acting Secretary of Health [HEW], the weapons were going thermonuclear,  and it was in this milieu that the Moscow Signal ostensibly  began –unquestionably when it was most in the ideological interest of Americans to study biological effects.
   Schwan said for himself, “When I was first approached about biophysics, I thought that you couldn’t mix physics with biological material. As I became aware of what was happening in electrophysiology and the ionizing radiation field, my ideas changed. I began to believe that we were now at the threshold of more to come… I wanted to do physics of biological objects. This seemed revolutionary to me. In other words, I was not..motivated to study effects of x-rays… I was not interested..in questions raised by medical people or biologists. I wanted to look.. with a physicist’s eye…  Some of my early colleagues at the medical school at Pennsylvania claimed it to be heresy.”
*
It is well known that electromagnetic fields cause mechanical forces. If one applies an electrical field to a suspension of microscopic particles [i.e. metal colloids, metallorganic compounds, biological cell contents], these particles realign themselves along the direction of the field and form pearl-chain-like aggregates. These chains are mostly single stranded but they are frequently multistranded. This phenomenon has been investigated by a number of groups. Here we discuss the dependence of threshold field strength on particle size and frequency. Also, pulsed fields have been thought to be more effective than continuous fields of the same average power in evoking biological effects.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1435134/
   “Molecular rotation occurs in materials containing polar molecules having an electrical dipole moment, with the consequence that they will align themselves in an electromagnetic field. If the field is oscillating, as it is in an electromagnetic wave or in a rapidly-oscillating electric field, these molecules rotate continuously aligning with it. This is called dipole rotation. As the field alternates, the molecules reverse direction. Rotating molecules push, pull, and collide with other molecules…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dielectric_heating
   “Dielectrophoresis (or DEP) is a phenomenon in which a force is exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a non-uniform electric field… ”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dielectrophoresis; Dielectric materials are those which polarize in the presence of an electric field.
“…fields of a particular frequency can manipulate particles with great selectivity. This has allowed, for example, the separation of cells or the orientation and manipulation of nanoparticles…  Although the phenomenon we now call dielectrophoresis was described in passing as far back as the early 20th century, it was only subject to serious study, named and first understood by Herbert Pohl in the 1950s…   biological cells have dielectric properties…”
                                                      _________________________________________
                                                           ___________________________________
                                        Pandora
                                                 watts in a name?
*
                                                 “Now swift the days of manhood haste away
                                                 And misery’s pressure turns the temples gray
                                                 The woman’s hands an ample casket bear–she lifts the lid–
                                        she scatters ills in air” (Hesiod. 2nd century)
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 In Greek myth, Pandora was the “first woman”, made and sent by the gods to the brother of Prometheus, creator of mankind. Prometheus and his brothers were the Titans of legend, punished for rebelling and endowing humans with knowledge and technology. The infamous Box, held in safekeeping by Epimetheus, contained all the undesired and unused commodities available on earth –plague, pestilence, vanity, greed, etc.  It was Epimetheus’s beguiling and curious new companion who freed them from their jar, all except Hope which remained; the last undesirable left sequestered by the ancients.

   Appreciation for Promethean tales goes a long way in describing the interaction of modern titans and weapons systems, both physical and psychological. It was the Rockefellers, after all, who centered their first premier building project around “Radio City” and erected a golden Prometheus to rule over it.
                                                       
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   At the end of Pandora’s operational years, a symposium was held in Richmond VA at the Virginia Medical College, an institution largely owing its existence to Robert E. Lee’s chief surgeon, Simon Baruch, father of the financier Bernard Baruch.  The September 1969 meeting “marked a long overdue turning point in the general attitutde of American scientists” according to Paul Brodeur –the ‘turning point’ resulting in a general call for research and funding– but it was also an enduring demarcation of “battle lines”.  A notable quote in Zapping states, “At the Richmond symposium, Dr. [Lawrence] Sher objected strongly to the use of the term ‘flaccid paralysis’ to describe the limp and unmoving condition of rats that had been exposed to four and six-tenths [4.6] milliwatts per square centimeter” [p121] Lawrence Sher was a Project Pandora advisory member and ‘flaccid paralysis’ had already been assigned as a new designation for polio. (It’s still the same today ; associated with encephalitis, meningitis, West Nile, “a severe asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells and/or their axons” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5137a1.htm) Battle lines had everything to do with preserving tenuous victories. Not even Paul Brodeur ventured beyond the designated language.
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                                                          Egyptian auditorium, Richmond, built 1845
            Baruch Auditorium: “The building has been compared to the Temple of Horus at Edfu…  At Founders’ Day exercises held at the Egyptian Building, 5 December 1940, historian Dr. Wyndham Blanton commented to alumni and guests:”What old Nassau Hall is to Princeton, what the Wren Building is to William and Mary, what the Rotunda is to the University of Virginia, the Egyptian Building is to the Medical College of Virginia. It is a shrine, a sanctuary of tradition, the physical embodiment of our genius. It is a spiritual heritage.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_Building
Interior image of the wall sconces: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewbain/1524553564/
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…And so, the Richmond symposium can join the roster of services as another high mass in the temples of science, which symbolically precludes a military conquest.  http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/10/15/temples-of-science/ Incidently, Admiral Lewis Strauss (formerly of Kuhn Loeb &Co) and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission was a major fundraiser for the Medical College of Virginia, as well as a board trustee.
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   Had Paul Brodeur made the essential connection for his readers that flaccid paralysis was polioby another name, the public might have paid better attention to his arguments and learned that polio is a radiation disease. Possibly he didn’t know it himself, but the familiar and near-recent campaign of the Salk vaccine, funded by the March of Dimes, that had repurposed its mission to birth defects, was foreshadowing the shape of things to come.

   He wrote, “Anxiety about the genetic effects of microwaves first came out into the open in December 1971, when the Electromagnetic Radiation Management Advisory Council..warned that ‘the consequences of undervaluing or misjudging the biological effects..could become a critical problem for the public health, especially if genetic effects are involved.’” [p132] The Council “knew from data presented at the Richmond symposium of 1969 that microwave radiation had induced chromosomal abnormalities in kangaroo-rat cell cultures, and that the researchers who conducted these studies had found that ‘the types of chromosome aberrations observed..are the same as those induced by ionizing radiation in other organisms including humans.’ At least one of its members [Herbert Pollack] knew about the secret tests for genetic damge that the State Department had been running on its Moscow employees. As for the genetic problem, the official minutes of the Project Pandora meeting of April 21, 1969 are revealing. For one thing, they clearly show that..DARPA was aware of the implications of the five-year-old findings of Dr. [Abraham] Lilienfeld –that ’18 out of 25 mongoloid children had fathers who had been exposed to radar’…it is the following paragraph, from the minutes of the April 1969 meeting, which consitutes the ‘smoking gun’ of the State Department’s genetic cover-up: ‘Dr. Pollack reported the studies of Dr. Jacobson at George Washington University who has studied young women returning from [the] embassy in Moscow… [of]One hundred and forty blood samples..examined over a four-year period…Four of them reportedly showed serious chromosomal abnormalities.’ “ [p133]
   The women victims of the Moscow Signal were having their blood taken by Dr. Cecil Bryan Jacobson, a reproductive geneticist who later opened an infertility clinic in Vienna Virginia. Pandora’s Dr. Jacobson ascended to national infamy in 1992 when he was convicted of 52 charges of mail fraud, wire fraud and perjury, conducted through his business.
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                                                           Dr. Jacobson
Most people will remember Jacobson for claiming to have fathered 75 children among his clinical patients. “Blood work” was obviously not his specialty, and all we can really know about the Project is that it didn’t end in 1969.
   “Dr. Jacobson..used hormone injections to create symptoms resembling pregnancy. With many patients he pointed out an insignificant image on a sonogram and told the patient that it was the image of a fetus. When he finally had to tell the women they were not pregnant, he told them their babies were dead and that the fetuses would “resorb” back into the bodies. Then he could begin a new round of hormone injections and pregnancy tests… Dr. Jacobson had mailed fraudulent insurance claims and bills… Jacobson also had committed wire fraud by phoning his patients to schedule appointments for fraudulent treatments.” http://www.nytimes.com/1993/09/08/us/conviction-upheld-in-fertility-case.html; this while he “operated a fertility clinic in Vienna, Va., from 1976 to 1988” just as news of the Moscow Signal went public.
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Project Pandora, 1962-1966 source document from Johns Hopkins notes the use of 2.4 GHz (then standard for radar and current for microwave ovens and tag-reader devices) in irradiation experiments on rabbits. Other signal descriptions offer the range of frequencies beween 2 and 4 GHz and FM (modulated) dual signals. An historical note is added that “The term Project Bizarre is not a separate project but was a code name for a special access category within the Pandora Project.”   http://servv89pn0aj.sn.sourcedns.com/~gbpprorg/mil/cavity/Project_PANDORA.pdf

April 13, 2012

Cyborgology

                                                                    
“There are many actual cyborgs among us in society. Anyone with an artificial organ, limb or supplement (like a pacemaker), anyone reprogrammed to resist disease (immunized) or drugged to think/behave/feel better (psychopharmacology) is technically a cyborg… there is no consensus on what a cyborg is… Many see..Frankenstein’s creature as the first cyborg… ” –Chris Gray, p2, The Cyborg Handbook
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“A cyborg, short for “cybernetic organism”, is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space….  the term “Cybernetic organism” has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts…
   “The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II…
The term [cyborg] first appears in print [in 1960]..when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper;
A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one.” – Clynes and Kline, 1960 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetic_organism
Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline:
Altering  man’s bodily functions to meet the requirements of extraterrestrial environments  would be more logical than providing an earthly environment for him in space… This self-regulation must function without the benefit of consciousness in order to cooperate with  the body’s own autonomous homeostatic controls…
…While it is quite difficult to set upper limits to ‘natural’ human physiological and psychological  performance, we can take as minimal the capabilities demonstrated under control conditions such as yoga or hypnosis. The imagination is stretched by the  muscular control of which even the undergraduate at a Yoga College is capable,  and hypnosis per se may prove to have a definite place in space travel, although  there is much to be learned about the phenomena of disassociation,  generalization of instructions, and abdication of executive control.
      We are now working on a new  preparation which may greatly enhance hypnotizability, so that pharmacological  and hypnotic approaches may be symbiotically combined.
Wakefulness… The extension of normal functioning through the use of that group of drugs known  as psychic energizers, with adjunctive medication, for this purpose is a  present-day reality…
Radiation  Effects. One  subsystem of the Cyborg would involve a sensor to detect radiation levels and an  adaptation of the Rose osmotic pump which would automatically inject protective  pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses. Experiments at the AF School of Aviation  Medicine already indicate an increase in radiation resistance resulting from  combined administration of aminoethylisothioronium and cysteine to monkeys.
Metabolic..Controls. In the case of prolonged space flight…food — poses a  major problem. During a flight of a year Or longer… Hypothermia  (reduction of body temperature) would appear to be a desirable state in such  long voyages in order to reduce metabolism, and thus human “fuel” consumption… The use of.. hibernation (through pituitary control), alone or in  combination with pharmaceuticals, all seem to offer possibilities in attempting  to obtain and maintain such a state…
Enzyme  Systems. Under  conditions of lowered body temperature, certain enzyme systems would tend to  remain more active than others. The extent to which pharmaceutical or chemical  agents could influence this enzyme activity has not been systematically  investigated, but beyond question they will play an important role. Since  metabolism is subject to enzyme control, several intriguing possibilities exist.  For example, it may be possible through in vitro radiation to convert certain  organisms from aerobic to anaerobic states and, by studying changes in the  enzyme systems, to adapt them for eventual human use
Psychoses. Despite all the care exercised,  there remains a strong possibility that somewhere in the course of a long space  voyage a psychotic episode might occur, and this is one condition for which no  servomechanism can be completely designed at the present time. While an  emergency osmotic pump containing one of the high-potency phenothiazines  together with reserpine could be a part of the complete space man’s kit, the  frequent denial by an individual undergoing a psychotic episode that his thought  processes, emotions, or behavior are abnormal, might keep him from voluntarily  accepting medication. For this reason, if monitoring is adequate, provision  should be made for triggering administration of the medication remotely from  earth
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Current development in “remote medicine”:
May, 2012: [Nature magazine] “Researchers have remotely activated genes inside living animals, a proof of concept that could one day lead to medical procedures in which patients’ genes are triggered on demand.” http://www.nature.com/news/remote-controlled-genes-trigger-insulin-production-1.10585
“Some laboratory mice were given specially engineered insulin-producing genes. These genes were then remotely activated using radio waves. This could mean a whole new field of medical proceedures in which we turn genes on and off at will. This breakthrough is the work of geneticists at New York’s Rockefeller University… Admittedly..the researchers did first have to inject some nanoparticles onto the mice’s cells in order to affect their genes…
   “The radio waves are ideal for this sort of remote manipulation because they can pass through thick layers of tissue, and they can be easily focused…
Even better, the researchers have already developed a way to achieve similar, albeit weaker, results without having to inject nanoparticles at all. They have developed cells that can grow their own required nanoparticles… However, as Nature explains, this would still require growing tumors inside humans to actually get these cell cultures in place, which means the treatment isn’t yet ethically permissible in humans.”  http://io9.com/5908065/scientists-switch-mouses-genes-off-and-on-with-radio-waves?tag=genetics
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Manfred Clynes interviewed by cyborgologist Chris Hables Gray [published in The Cyborg Handbook, 1995]:
CHG: Why exactly did you guys decide to write about space travel?
MC: Nathan Kline was the director of this research facility there at the Rockland State Hospital and one day somebody asked him… Dr. Kline was interested in the application of drugs for the treatment of mental patients.
CHG: Yes, psychopharmacology
MC: Psychopharmacology. This man, I think Flaherty…
CHG: Yeah, he was with NASA.
MC:..invited him to write something for us at NASA. So, he talked to me and said, ‘Would you like to write something jointly with me? I will write about the drugs and you write about other physiologic systems.’ I said, ‘What do I know about this? I know nothing.’ Anyhow we agreed… And I coined this word cyborg…
CHG: I noticed you used the term participant evolution in that article.
MC: Yes. In other words man has now become conscious enough of the way he was built physiologically…that he could now supplement the homeostasis with which he evolved… So as to supplement it by his own imagination and through his own creativity…to simply allow him to make use of his faculties…
…I have to criticize a little what seems to be a great lack of appreciation of molecular biology among cyborg studies. The great things that are happening today in the scientific world are advances in molecular biology along with computers. Those are the two regions of our scientific world that are growing very rapidly, and compared to them psychology is dead in the water completely.
   It is already known that the emotional world of men is fashioned through molecules like neuropeptides… These peptides have receptors scattered throughout the brain..[and] it is known that the emotional world can be affected now by designer molecules. That’s where the computers and molecular biology will intermarry… computer-designed molecules..that will naturally work inside the brain and will be able to change the emotional aspects.
…They continually are making gene products, some are turned off, some are turned on…So that by controlling and knowing how to control the natural products, and turning the genes on and off, we will have tremendous power to change the emotional world of man.
…Evolution is more than survival of the fittest. And participant evolution can…probably improve the qualities of life more effectively..than by just waiting for the less fit to become extinct.” [pp46-53]
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Cyborg Ethics
C.H. Gray poses the question, “Could there be a cyborg ethics? Yes, we think so. And not just one. Several systems are implicitly elaborated in the pages [of The Cyborg Handbook]… David Channel has elaborated what he calls a ‘bionic’ ethic: ‘A bionic ethic must take into consideration both the mechanical and the organic aspects of the cybernetic ecology in order to maintain the system’s integrity, stability, diversity and purposefulness. Neither the mechanical nor the organic can be allowed to bring about the extinction of the other.’ (The Vital Machine, p154).” [p12]
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For the Human Materials Industry generated by “patient care”, the ethic is described:

When it appears that a patient will become brain-dead, a change in medical routines occurs. Care of the patient as a whole being becomes care of biological materials contained within and the technological components that convert them into useable products. There are two parts to the process; the maintenance of the body as incubator and storage container for the human materials, and the preservation and conversion of the specific materials themselves. It is important to note that this process can begin long before the patient is declared legally dead…
   “Once the brain ceases to function…the body is no longer a self-regulating system… Cyborg mechanics must replace brain functions…
   “Recognizing the considerable market potential of the human materials industry, pharmaceutical and medical supply companies have developed new products and entire new industries… The goals of these new products are to preserve tissue integrity before being removed, and to make the materials more ‘immunologically silent’ to prevent problems later when they are replaced inside another body. In essence, the human materials are being structurally, chemically and functionally transformed to make them more universal. In this way, they become not only substitutable mechanical parts, but more like off-the-shelf reagents, available for use in a variety of end-users.” [p208]
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This is possible in a late-capitalist age in which commodification has reached into hithertofore unimaginable realms of life. However it meant that ideas about the boundaries of the body as well as boundaries between human and nonhuman had to change… new social interventions were required. The first and most important was a new definition of ‘death’. The cessation of brain functions..is now accepted as the legal and medical category ‘death’…Brain death allows the suspension of time, which in turn allows cultural and bodily processes to be fragmented and reconfigured. Significantly, it allows the process to be staged by biomedical ‘managers’ and experts… this medical-legal construction left us with an even more ambiguous entity; the ‘living cadaver’. In attempting to reduce ambiguity, it is necessary to deconstruct the subject (the person), and reconstruct an object (the production unit)… Throughout the process, cultural meanings must be stripped from the person. Identity must be erased… While these processes can be called social technologies, the core technologies used..are chemical and mechanical. Through these, the physical body is reprogrammed and retooled for new uses…” [p206]
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While it may be true that many of us are living in cyborg societies, we have to remember that those are also plural societies… Future cyborg studies will hopefully attend to cultural beliefs and practices, and the ways in which they are transformed and transforming. Studying cyborgs and their social relations means not only learning where and how bodies exist in relation to machines, but also what types of bodies they are, and where they are situated. As Stone (1994) has pointed out, bodies and communities constitute each other. [p215]
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                                                      TechnoCalypse: The Transhumanists
                               (part one) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri9CFs6x-MQ&feature=relmfu
                               (part two) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WpZz3R7vrM&feature=relmfu
                               (part three) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRILun-zvQI&feature=relmfu
                               (part four) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAFVQCTeF_A&feature=relmfu
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                                                        Walker Lake Dome Project
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The Walker Lake Dome Project, built by Universal Yoyodyne and announced on March 30, 2012, intends to enclose the town of Westwood, California, in the volcanic northeast region of the state. http://sheildgeometry.com/specifications.html;  “Interestingly, Westwood had a very large indoor shopping mall as far back as the 1930s, as well as a large theater, skating rink and club for the mill workers. The town was sold in 1944 to the Fruit Growers Supply Company, today known as part of Sunkist… The [2010] Census reported that 1,647 people (100% of the population) lived in households..and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westwood,_California

“The company plans on using the town as a proving ground for technology that might one day enclose major U.S. cities, especially those prone to weather related disasters…” http://www.susanvillestuff.com/2012/04/anaheim-company-announces-plans-for-westwood-dome/

Sunkist Growers, Inc  “is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, and one of California’s largest land-owners.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunkist_Growers; “[Albert D.] Lasker is largely responsible for America’s infatuation with orange juice. Lord & Thomas acquired the Sunkist Growers, Incorporated account in 1908, when Lasker was 28…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_D._Lasker  Formerly timberland harvested for Sunkist packing boxes, the Westwood area and other lumber centers are now managed forests: http://www.foresthistory.org/Publications/FHT/FHTSpringFall2006/FHT_2006_Citrus.pdf

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Cyborg publications: http://www.brown.edu/Departments/MCM/amm/archive/cyborgArch.html

March 21, 2012

THRIVE or Threat

This is a “notebook” post on content and background of the film THRIVE, released on 11-11-11 to the internet.
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The LANGUAGE of THRIVE
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                                              Executive producer and screen host Foster Gamble
                                               
Did the Universe labor for nearly fourteen billion years only to bring forth a species that would end up as an enemy to Life itself, and to its own home? I don’t think so… I’ve spent nearly a lifetime trying to figure out what happened… driven by the misery I saw and by my fear for our survival
Is it even possible for humans to thrive? If so, why aren’t we?”
I believe this Code holds a key to a new source of clean, sustainable Energy that could completely revolutionize the way all people live.”
I have realized WE are not a mistake. WE are simply mistaken.”
“..all that is about to change
After a lifetime quest, I’ve come to believe that this pattern actually holds the key to a world that works for everyone
This vision was what originally got me into science, trying to figure out how the Universe works…”
Considering the enduring wonders of Creation throughout the Universe and how unsustainable so many of our human systems are, I figured that learning how…would actually be quite useful.”
The Torus is like the breath of the Universe.. at every scale of existence… I spent decades researching… I became so excited by the potential of the toroidal energy form… Our collected research convinced me that the Torus and the Vector Equilibrium are primary patterns..to creating the Universe…”
“Given that so much of the suffering in our world is the result of lack of access to Energy, I realized that Free, unlimited clean energy would be one of the greatest breakthroughs in history.”
Throughout the long introduction to Thrive, Gamble uses Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) techniques called lost performatives and presuppositions: “Lost performatives are when someone is talking about a personal belief, but presents it as though it was a universal truth. We then accept it as true without questioning it as we would if we heard it as someone’s personal opinion.” http://nlp-mentor.com/metamodeldistortions/lost-performatives
“A presupposition is an innocent sounding statement that can only be understood  if certain facts or ideas are accepted as being true.” http://ezinearticles.com/?3-Powerful-Hypnotic-Language-Patterns-That-Instantly-Hypnotize&id=5322987
THRIVE, in fact, is loaded with hypnotic speech patterns:
Cause and Effect patterns, embedded commands, presuppositions, syntactic ambiguity and lost performatives.
“In hypnotic language there are mixed messages that you can use to communicate on  multiple levels. The reason why you want to do that is because you still want to  entertain and distract the conscious mind, so that you’re free to work with the  subconscious mind… Then there are anticipation builders. Do you want to motivate and drive people  to take a certain kind of action?… There’s a lot more to hypnotic language patterns than what I can cover in this short  article. There are embedded commands, hypnotic words, nested loops, action  accelerators, and a lot more.” http://ezinearticles.com/?Hypnotic-Language-Patterns&id=2833192
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Enter the ETs. The first 45 minutes of THRIVE are actually devoted to ‘proving’ the existence of extraterrestrials.
    In the words of Dr. Steven Greer, founder of CSETI, They have mastered the Laws of the Universe..to be able to transfer through Space-Time in Real Time, through the vastnesses of interstellar space.” (The image provided is that of a UFO, captioned “UFO..measures 2-3 miles wide”.) Greer continues, “We have over 4,000 cases where these objects have landed on terra firma, left physical evidence– we have over 3,500 pilot cases; we have hundreds of cases..where these objects can track on normal radar going tens of thousands of miles per hour or dematerializing and reappearing in another point in the sky.”
   Astronaut Edgar Mitchell says, “Yes, there’s been ET visitation, there have been crashed craft, there have been material and bodies recovered.”  A US Army ET Retrieval officer says, “We have CONTACT with aliens, not originating from some foreign country but some other solar system and I have been a party to that.” The audience then hears of how one observer witnessed an encounter between a UFO and a nuclear missile: “Now remember this thing was flying several thousand miles an hour, so this thing fires a beam of light at the warhead –hits it, and then this thing flies up…fires another beam of light; goes around [to the side], fires another beam of light; down like this..fires another beam…flies out the way it came in and the warhead tumbles out of space. The feeling at the time was that it must have been extraterrestrial.”
   Next the audience is swept along into the (literal) field of evidence with a sequence of aerial crop circle footage. Gamble’s narration informs us that “More than 5,000 of these patterns have appeared in over 30 countries. Most of them in England.” We are asked to decide if hoaxers with “ropes and boards” could have made them, then shown “One of the most amazing designs [which] is not a circle but a rectangle that seems to be a direct response to a message sent out into space [in 1974]. The message was a radio signal depicting our planet’s location..and Earth’s people…  Twenty-seven years later in 2001, this [rectagular] crop design appeared…[that] matches the format of the NASA signal and describes a different solar system…nonhuman DNA, and a microwave antenna they apparently use…   NASA continues to deny extraterrestrial contact of any kind.”  But Foster Gamble wants THRIVE watchers to know that, “regardless of whoever created them and wherever they’re from, there must be an important purpose to these designs. They’re SO coherent!” He tells us, “I believe that they’re giving us a model for accessing energy in a clean, safe, and limitless way and a new means of propulsion. What more important message could there be to get to us. And especially now..as we’re beginning to extend our careless reach beyond our planet.”
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Foster: “So here we are, a relatively immature species struggling with possible self-destruction. If aligning with the Torus does hold the key to a new form of clean, safe energy access, imagine the implications. This could be the most important breakthrough of our times. So who wouldn’t want an energy source that’s freely available? That turned out to be a key question…”
…”One of the scientists we were going to interview for this film was Dr. Eugene Mallove… Dr. Mallove was mysteriously beaten to death in 2004…
Kimberly: ..”So much of the pain on the planet has to do with the lack of access to energy… If there is a fundamental pattern, which makes sense to me…and we can align with that pattern to create new technologies that will solve these problems, then it’s worth it for me to open my mind to these socially taboo subjects.”
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Follow the Money with the Gambles: “energy corporations…[are] committing huge resources to undermine energy alternatives… They have enough money and influence to suppress anything that might threaten their monopoly.” Foster says, “As I followed the money, I began to see this same pattern of control in every area of our lives and I always saw the same families in charge… I’ve come to an inescapable and profoundly disturbing conclusion: I believe that an elite group of people and the corporations they run have gained control of not just our energy, food supply, education, and healthcare, but virtually over every aspect of our lives.”   He explains,“They call it a Corporatocracy.”
   Viewers get a lesson in Fractional Reserve Banking from Foster Gamble and David Icke. Then the bombshells start to fall. Everybody who watched THRIVE with me forgets this by the end: Icke–“No matter where you go in the world, the money is controlled by the banking system. They decide if people eat or they don’t eat...”
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   Foster Gamble–“My research led me to believe that the same people who created the Federal Reserve; the Rothschilds, the Rockefellers and the Morgans, still control it…  I kept running across compelling evidence and credible experts saying that the secret agenda of the banking elite is nothing less than total global domination… what would they need to accomplish it?… I started making a list. First and foremost, they’d have to control money, and they do… Controlling money allows them to run everything else. They’d need to control energy, and they do. They already control Big Agriculture and World Trade. They’re buying up water supplies worldwide. They’ve got Health in their pocket and they’re trying to suppress natural alternatives. Mainly they’d have to control what information we get and how we’d react to it… For complete domination, dissent has to be controlled. They’d need to take away our rights, spy on ordinary citizens and track every aspect of our lives.” –the screen image goes down the list, check, check, check!– “I knew that a powerful elite had almost everything set up to rule the world and I had the frightening realization that Big Brother is not coming –he’s HERE NOW! We are already in the Matrix…  I believe we’re heading toward a totalitarian World Authority –actually a military dictatorship run by a tiny elite who have all the power and make all the rules. If they succeed, there’ll be nowhere to run and nowhere to hide. Think about it.
Their grand strategy for Global Dominance is already being implemented; they’re carving up the world into Superstates that transcend national boundaries so that we are easier for them to manage. They have already established the European Union and the African Union. Politicians from the United States, Canada and Mexico, under the title of the Security and Prosperity Partnership, have been working on the northern part of what could arguably be called plans for an American Union. This has been going on for years without citizen or congressional consent. A Pacific Union is already in process. This is the organizational chart for global tyranny, the structure for complete control [shows structure]. Here are two of the most powerful men in Europe talking about moving to a single World Government:
 [Jean-Claude Trichet speaking]: ‘It’s extremely important that We, in this new ownership of global governance, have particularly on both sides of the Atlantic the implementation of the same rules in the same fashion.
[EU president Herman Van Rompuy speaking]: ‘2009 is also the first year of global governance with the establishment of the G20 in the middle of the financial crisis.’
   Foster Gamble comes back with, “Like many people, I thought a conspiracy for global domination could not really work because basically people are just not that competent… Still, I wondered how something that is so big and corrupt can be kept secret.”
David Icke: “It’s a simple structure, and if it wasn’t simple it wouldn’t work. It can be likened to a compartmentalized pyramid…” The narration continues: “This kind of compartmentalization explains how the Manhattan Project..was kept secret despite having a hundred and thirty thousand people working on it.”    Kimberly Gamble adds, “Even though we’ve been systematically distracted and repressed, people have come up with innovative and ingenious solutions to a huge number of problems that we face. It’s not our fault that we didn’t recognize how organized and intentional this scheme is…”
   Foster Gamble: “In this New World Order of theirs, a tiny number of people would exercise total control over the lives of everyone through a system of intrusive surveillance, violent suppression of dissent and debt-slavery. Imagine tiny islands of opulence surrounded by a sea of misery..[THRIVE shows real images so you don't have to imagine anything] …I’ve come to believe that their endgame is truly ominous and they will stop at nothing to continue implementing their plan… America represents the major hurdle to consolidation of global power.  If they can succeed at bringing down this country, I believe the international elite intend to transfer the power and productivity of Americans to their One World dictatorship… They’ve got us so in debt we can never repay it; they’re collapsing the dollar…”
   David Icke: “[They] want to change society in a way that you know that if you do it openly..you’re gonna get an adverse reaction. So you don’t do it openly. You play ‘Problem, Reaction, Solution’. Stage One, you create a problem… You tell the people your version of A)Who Did It, and B) Why… [The] mainstream media is a public relations office for the official version of events… Stage Two..is the reaction of outrage… Stage Three..openly offer the solutions to the problem they have themselves created.”
   Foster Gamble: “The idea of using tragedy, manufactured or simply utilized, was deeply significant in my finally understanding how far these people will go to achieve their goals.”
                                                
   Foster Gamble: ” Most of what is needed for a Police State is actually already in place. Right now in America, any of us can be imprisoned without warning or due cause, and we can be kidnapped, tortured or assassinated legally if the government decides that what we are doing is a threat to their plan. All they have to do is name us as a suspect in their so-called War on Terror. We’re being watched more and more. In 2010 there were 30 million surveillance cameras recording us in the U.S. alone… Every phonecall and email we send is collected and archived and can be inspected at any time. Our..licenses and passports have computer chips implanted in them to track our every move. And now hospital patients are getting these same chips implanted under their skin. In fact, it was Proctor and Gamble who developed these chips initially for tracking their products. It’s always offered as a way to help, but even an assistant director of [CIA] has admitted it’s an entry point for…control.
   “These would-be controllers, through the U.S. Space Command have outlined a plan called Full Spectrum Dominance;  sophisticated satellite surveillance as well as Directed Energy and laser weapons which are already developed have the ability to target dissenters anywhere on Earth. I believe they’re also trying to ensure they can deal effectively with any resistance. FEMA containment camps and railroad cars with shackles have been recently constructed or refurbished all over the United States…
   “There’s one more brutal realization of the Global Domination Agenda that I need to share. This was a horrible one for me to grasp, but without it, this inquiry would be dangerously incomplete… I came across convincing evidence that their plan actually includes the elimination of the majority of the world’s population.  As sick as it sounds, it makes sense… Every time I thought, “They wouldn’t do that!”,  I discovered I was wrong.
Sterilization is one of the many insidious ways this covert plan is implemented… In 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Homeland Security funded a proposed project to aerial spray over 7 million people in urban areas of northern California. After citizens organized against the plan, officials were forced to reveal that the spray included multiple toxins that can cause disease and disrupt the reproductive cycle… The U.S. government has been caught over 30 times covertly experimenting with toxic chemicals on its own citizens…  Right now, global human fertility is plunging. I’m convinced this is no accident. For me, being willing to consider and research a direct depopulation agenda was critical to my getting the whole picture… This is what depopulation looks like today: [screen image, top to bottom] Toxic food and water, HAARP, pesticides, toxic vaccines, Chemtrails, War, GMO foods, irradiation, [and] man-made pandemics… 
I’m convinced I’m not overstating the case… I see this..as nothing less than the struggle for the soul of humanity… Are we humans what the elite would have us believe –stupid, greedy creatures who, if left to our own devices, would devolve into violence and chaos, and so for our own good must be ruled over by a self-appointed elite?”
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THE SOLUTIONS
Foster Gamble continues: “It may seem that the controlling elite has all the cards but we have many advantages of our own. First, let’s talk numbers
   The second important advantage..is that all the power centers that the elite control require our participation…
Let’s take a look at the strategic antidotes to their economic domination… 
…I’ve been profoundly influenced by the work of Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises…
…I envision three overlapping Stages of the Solutions process. In Stage One we bring as much integrity as possible to our current systems…
…The TORUS provides a template for a society based on integrity…
If we respond with violence to the Domination agenda…it would only continue the old “us-versus-them” paradigm and provide an excuse for even more Police-State measures. I believe that it’s essential..that we take the path of nonaggression…
I’ve come to recognize that our primary compass is our own inner guidance…the voice that naturally knows and offers wise direction.”
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[Thrive guest interview] DEEPAK CHOPRA: ..”we have to start telling a different story to ourselves. We have to start engaging in a different story with others– it’s a collective story that manifests as the world.”
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[Thrive guest interview] BARBARA MARX HUBBARD: “If we had the vision and a worldview that says our crisis is a Birth…you could turn this desperate world into a renaissance of human creativity and Love.”
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Kimberly Gamble : “Imagine a million of us acting in Unison…imagine even more…
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Foster Gamble: “Let me be clear. This is definitely not a Jewish Agenda. It’s been documented that central bankers even funded both sides of World War II… I don’t believe wealth is their End Goal.”
                                                   
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Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain.” – Napoleon Bonaparte, 1815

                                        Watch the ‘House of Rothschild’ http://wideeyecinema.com/?p=12139; “The Rothschilds govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice. They stretch their hand with equal ease from Petersburg to Vienna.. to Paris.. to London.. to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true King of Judah… the Messiah so long looked for… He holds the keys of peace or war…” [minute 22:22, written in 1835]  “Religion is no longer able to guarantee the governments that the people will remain peaceful. The Rothschild system of loans can perform the task much better… It possesses the moral force or power religion has lost. It can act as a surrogate for religion. Indeed it is a new religion… Strangely enough it is once again the Jews who invented this new religion.” –Heinrich Heine, The Baths of Lucca, 1830 [minute 26]

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The cofounders of neurolinguistics:
John T. Grinder; fellowship at Rockefeller University; PhD from the Univ. of California SanDiego (UCSD); professor of linguistics at Univ. of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Grinder
Richard Bandler; Grinder’s student at UCSC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Bandler
“NLP is a transformational technology. It is an outstanding technique to control and model a human mind and to put it in the fullest potential use… On the basis of their study of 3 chief therapists- Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls and Milton Erickson, Richard and John came out with.. NLP…  It exemplifies the greatest discovery of the 20th Century which is that ‘Change of the self is possible’.” http://www.powerhypnosis.com.au/tag/john-grinder/
   Together, Grinder and Bandler published two volumes of The Structure of Magic, which analyzes “the langauge skills of the world’s most talented psychotherapists”   http://ebookee.org/The-Structure-Of-Magic-Volumes-1-And-2_140983.html#kL8Iko45v88E4hbC.99
Richard Bandler’s website advertises “The effectiveness of my Strategic Mind Messaging™ sessions increases  significantly when combined with the augmented light and sound technology..” http://richardbandler.com/
And, while THRIVE is tripping the light fantastic…
 some of its guests object to the use of their interviews:
“So—what’s Paul Hawken doing in this movie? I emailed him to find out. He replied he was just as surprised as I was to find out he’s in the film… ‘I did that interview many years prior under false pretenses,’ Hawken replied. ‘I had no idea I was being interviewed for such a movie.‘    …Elisabet Sahtouris said that when she was interviewed for the film, she understood it was to be a very different kind of movie, and is ‘dismayed’..‘I deplore the context in which it was used’… It appears that Hawken and Sahtouris aren’t the only people who regret having appeared in Thrive. In a scathing interview on the Huffington Post, Georgia Kelly of the Praxis Peace Center reports that she has heard from several of other interviewees, none of whom had any idea they were helping to make a libertarian propaganda film.http://www.santacruz.com/news/2012/03/13/the_right_libertarian_agenda_at_the_heart_of_thrive
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THRIVE Liberty Section: “Today, involuntary governance is all that exists…  the most important word to guide us to a sustainable civilization – VOLUNTARY …”Liberty thinking is often misunderstood as Utopian – meaning a wishful vision of a world filled with only good, well-intended people where everything just works out. Actually this approach is very practical. It recognizes that there are dangerous people with skewed psyches and destructive intent in any society, so we need to make sure they are not empowered…  With endless local Private security firms in a free society, there would still be well-armed and effective protection forces that could band together..”
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THRIVE Art Solution: “The arts attract more visitors, residents, and businesses, which brings more money into the community… In Stage 2, we would work to limit government control and support the arts on our own….The key in this stage is to not suppress the arts in any way. People should be able to express themselves freely.”
>>> Need an Art opinion? Read Lasha Darkmoon http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/authors/Darkmoon-ArtI.html
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THRIVE Economic Solution: …” we propose temporarily shifting Federal Reserve powers to Congress. Although we do not support more government power in the long run, it seems necessary to restore economic functions to the government”…”In Stage 3 coercive government is dissolved and private voluntary enterprise – including justice, insurance and security –  competes for..potential customers… Establish a truly Free Market: We have never experienced a truly free market without government intervention… …”In Stage 3, state courts would no longer be necessary. To take their place, researcher and host of Freedomain Radio, Stefan Molyneux suggests using Dispute Resolution Organizations (DROs). Each person would have a DRO, similar to an insurance company, to insure their daily activities…”
>>>Need an Economic opinion? Read The Shock Doctrine  http://www.naomiklein.org/shock-doctrine; Learn about the relationship between Congress and the Federal Reserve and the effect of Ron Paul’s ‘Audit the Fed’ Campaign http://realitybloger.wordpress.com/2012/06/23/the-incontrovertible-conundrum-of-dr-ron-paul/
Ludwig von Mises was a co-founder of the Mont Pelerin Society in Switzerland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mont_Pelerin_Society; one of its famous students being Milton Friedman of U.Chicago. Friedman helped design and implement witholding tax under Henry Morganthau’s Treasury http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman. On page 14 of The Shock Doctrine, Naomi Klein writes, “In the attempt to relate the history..that has culminated in the radical privatization of war and disaster, one problem recurs: the ideology is a shape-shifter, forever changing its name and switching identities. Friedman called himself a ‘liberal’, but his U.S. followers..tended to identify as ‘conservatives’, ‘classical economists’, ‘free marketers’, and later as believers in ‘Reaganomics’ or ‘laissez-faire’. In most of the world, their orthodoxy is known as ‘neoliberalism’, but..often..simply ‘globalization’.”
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THRIVE Environment Solution: .” …One of the more compelling and new ideas is the “Sky Trust” proposed by Peter Barnes of the Tomales Bay Institute in California. The Sky Trust would make all citizens equitable owners of the air. Annual auctions would then be held to issue permits for available “dump space.” This model is based on the Alaska Permanent Fund, which gives residents of Alaska yearly dividends from state oil income…   Labeling of food- such as GMO’s proposed in Stage 2 (limiting government) – would no longer be mandatory or enforced by government. Rather, people would be forced to compete in the free market, and private “eco-labeling” alternatives would draw customers to the obvious, better alternative. In fact, GMO’s would likely be obsolete because their vendors would be continually sued for violating others and would become unable to purchase insurance...”                    
                                                               
Libertarian propaganda? “The initial impetus for compiling these articles by Praxis Peace Institute was the widespread but private showings of the documentary film,Thrive. Through discussions of the content in the film and the written material on the Thrive website, we realized that many people viewing the film would not readily perceive the libertarian political agenda behind the film… For example, government regulation could have prevented the runaway libertarian agenda that was pushed by Alan Greenspan and his Ayn Randian cohorts…most of the actual solutions he proposes are strictly libertarian. …The website’s “Liberty” page (in the “Solutions” section) is a real shocker. Peppered with quotes from Ayn Rand, Ron Paul and Stefan Molyneux, the page even includes an attack on democracy. The reactionary program sold as a ‘vision’ on the Thrive website is nothing short of a dark fantasy that would catapult us back to the 19th century with ‘voluntary’ types of social regulation; i.e., no taxes, no labor laws, no child labor laws, no environmental regulations, no Social Security, no Medicare, no public education, no civil rights, and no government programs for the people.” http://www.praxispeace.org/pdf/DL_020612.pdf
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The Libertarian Party was founded in 1971 out of a small group of disaffected Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) supporters, many of whom labeled themselves “Young Republicans” unhappy with Nixon, who later endorsed the Reagan-Bush ticket. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barry_Goldwater; “It was widely acknowledged that Lew [Wasserman] and Jules Stein helped create Ronald Reagan.” –p2, The Last Mogul, 1998 by Dennis McDougal. Stein and Wasserman ran the global media empire known as MCA, the Music Corporation of America, sold to the Bronfmans in 1995. As an MCA contract player, Reagan’s moneymaking career got a shot in the arm as spokesman and TV host for General Electric. http://www.moldea.com/MCA.html.
MCA’s lawyer, Cyrus Vance, became Secretary of the Army under JFK just as RFK’s Justice Dept was attempting an anti-trust suit (but that off-topic subject has to wait for another day) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_Vance. Suffice it to say that Libertarianism in the U.S. has the requisite marks of a military-industrial spin-off.
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Old Rothschild- and Rockefeller hands controlled the Libertarian-Communist dialectic:
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PROTOCOL No.2: “It is indispensible for our purpose that..war will thus be brought on to the economic ground…
PROTOCOL No.4: “..shocks delivered to economic life..have already created disenchanted, cold and heartless communities. Such communities will foster a strong aversion towards the higher political and towards religion. Their only guide is gain, that is Gold, which they will then erect into a veritable cult…”
PROTOCOL No.6: “At the same time we must intensively patronize trade and industry, but first and foremost, speculation..to provide a counterpoise to industry… What we want is that industry should drain off from the land both labor and capital and by means of speculation transfer into our hands all the money of the world… To complete the ruin of industry..we shall bring to the assistance of speculation the luxury which we have developed… that greedy demand for luxury which is swallowing up everything…”
PROTOCOL No.8: “We shall surround our government with a whole world of economists. That is the reason why economic sciences form the principal subject of the teaching…”
PROTOCOL No.10: “When we have accomplished our coup d’etat, we shall say…’Everything has gone terribly badly..’ …It is indispensible to trouble in all countries the people’s relations with their governments so as to utterly exhaust humanity with dissension…”
PROTOCOL No.11: “It is this which has served as the basis for our organization of Secret Masonry which is not known to..these ‘goy’ cattle…
PROTOCOL No.13: “The part played by the liberals, utopian dreamers, will be finally played out when our government is acknowledged. Till such time…we shall continue to direct their minds to all sorts of vain conceptions of fantastic theories, new and apparently progressive…”
PROTOCOL No.15: “Under our influence the execution of the laws..has been reduced to a minimum. The prestige of the law has been exploded…”
PROTOCOL No.16: “Classicism..we shall replace with the study of the program of the future… The system of bridling thought is already at work in the so-called system of teaching by Object Lessons.”
PROTOCOL No.18: “When it becomes necessary for us to strengthen the strict measures of secret defense..we shall arrange a simulation of disorders or some manifestation of discontents finding expression through the co-operation of good speakers. Round these speakers will assemble all who are sympathetic to his utterances..”
PROTOCOL No.20: “..we shall touch upon the financial program.., the crowning and the decisive point of our plans… the sum total of our actions is settled by the question of figures… They will put an end to those abuses to which we owe our mastery over [them]..but which cannot be allowed in our kingdom.”
PROTOCOL No.22: “We shall contrive to prove that we are benefactors who have restored to the rent and mangled earth the True Good and also freedom of the person..”
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 “The Harvard Economic Research Project (1948-) was an extension of World War II Operations Research. Its purpose was to discover the science of controlling an economy: at first the American economy, and then the world economy… [It] was discovered that an economy obeyed the same laws as electricity and that.. know-how developed for the electronic field could be directly applied in the study of economics… [It] follows that only..language translation and concept definition needed to be written for economics. The remainder could be gotten from standard works on mathematics and electronics…  [A]lternatives to war as economic inductors or economic flywheels are an open-ended social welfare program, or an enormous (but fruitful) open-ended Space Program…” http://www.feastofhateandfear.com/archives/quietwars.html
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“[T]he filmmakers jump the tracks of rationality… [Thrive] plays the conspiracy card. And not just any conspiracy, but the granddaddy of them all: that a handful of families control the world and plan to enslave humanity… (As the torus symbol dominates Thrive’s first section, the pyramid dominates the second.) And at the top of this alleged pyramid of evil: the Rothschilds. Not everyone watching this film will know that this argument has been around, and been discredited, for decades. Apparently the desire to find someone to blame for all the world’s problems spans generations. And the Rothschilds make a pretty good target. Are the Rothschilds very, very rich? Undoubtedly. Are the members of this family doing the work of Mother Teresa or the Dalai Lama? Mostly not. Are they all-powerful puppet-masters who secretly rule the world? Are they descended from a race of snake-people? Do they eat children? Um…no, no and no.” http://www.santacruz.com/news/2012/03/13/the_right_libertarian_agenda_at_the_heart_of_thrive
 
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“My dear brothers, never forget, when you hear the progress of enlightenment vaunted, that the devil’s best trick is to persuade you that he doesn’t exist!” – Baudelaire, 1864

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If Santa Cruzians want to battle over what to make of Thrive, right there on the Gambles’ home turf, the rest of us might step aside and take a lesson. There’s not a New Age enclave in America that isn’t feeling some pain by now. A Progressive commentator at Praxis writes, “So we and many others (including some interviewed in this film) are wondering out loud, What the bleep is actually going on?”

I’ll toss in the pitch for MIND CONTROL on the grounds that no legitimate political party seeking public endorsement would commit something to print as contemptible as the last sentence on the THRIVE Environment Solution: “Labeling of food- such as GMO’s proposed in Stage 2 (limiting government) – would no longer be mandatory or enforced by government. Rather, people would be forced to compete… In fact, GMO’s would likely be obsolete because their vendors would be continually sued for violating others and would become unable to purchase insurance...”  Nobody at Praxis seems to have noticed that some of the Thrive Solutions website pages are void of content (i.e. Science, Spirituality) so this veil gets pretty thin exposing THRIVE as a strawman for progressivism (gradualism) in the Dialectic.

Crop circles, UFOs, and alien abductions, as subjects with a long and murky past in hardcore mind control, suggests going soft doesn’t change anything –it’s still hardcore. So what are the makers of Thrive trying to prove? Is this a “mass-action social experiment”?

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1991 was a big year in crop cirles that led to the creation of an investigative expedition called Project Argus: “Briefly stated, the project’s goal was to learn if some crop circles exhibited physical effects which would be difficult..to generate by casual human activity… thanks largely to the dedicated work of Marshall Dudley and Dr.W.C. Levengood… Project Argus was a joint effort initiated mainly by two organizations, the North American Circle (NAC) and the Centre for Crop Circle Studies (CCCS)… significant contributions were made in particular by the Robert Bigelow Holding Corporation, the Fund for UFO Research and MUFON… the project formally began its fieldwork in England on July 9, 1992.” http://www.skeptictank.org/files/skeptic/circlesa.htm
   “Argus was headquartered..near the small village of Alton Barnes [Wiltshire, UK], the approximate ‘heart’ of crop circle country. From..[there] you could see one of the Valley of Pewsey’s several white horses carved in the chalk hillsides… Both Stonehenge and Avebury were but a few miles away.” http://www.scribd.com/SAB78/d/21420450-Mufon-UFO-Journal
J. Marshall Dudley –Project Argus nuclear equipment specialist, formerly with Tennelec, Oak Ridge TN (founded by Edward Fairstein):
…”I had done some radioactive analysis  [in 1991]on a number of samples from crop circles  and found that in one circle a number of inexplicable radioisotopes were present  that are not naturally occurring and had a relatively short half life. In a paper that I coauthored with Michael Chorost I  proposed that the isotopes had been created by bombardment with high energy  deuterium (heavy hydrogen) particles. Such a source of particles is not known to  exist in nature…”
   Dudley’s deception is to present a summary deemed “inexplicable”. The isotopes he measured are commercially traded substances, created with particle accelerators. Three in particular are commonly used as biological tracers: bismuth-205, yttrium-88 and vanadium-48, listed here http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4818&page=59 . Short-lived isotopes are just what the doctors order.
   Aside from common medical-use tracers are isotopes common to laboratories. All but one of Dudley’s isotope findings can be found on this “quantity regulation” labeling list: http://apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=246-221-300.  The last, not listed on this Washington state document, is tellurium-119m, which may not have had significant applications in industry at the time or may have restricted uses as an “energetic material”.
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Robert Bigelow, Las Vegas real estate mogul, was called the “Cosmic Landlord” by Forbes. Bigelow produces inflatable space stations for lease. “The U.S. space business had estimated revenue of $40.9 billion in 2010, according to the Aerospace Industries Association…’In ten years time the revenues will be more than double…’ Wealthy entrpreneurs are scrambling for position. Elon Musk, cofounder of PayPal, is developing new rockets and reusable spacecraft at his company SpaceX… ‘Space is not just in the realm of government anymore,’ says Peter Diamandis.” http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2011/0627/features-robert-bigelow-aerospace-real-estate-cosmic-landlord.html
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            Laurance Rockefeller
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Eight months after Project Argus took up residence in Wiltshire, in March of 1993, Laurance Rockefeller’s lawyer began producing documents for the Rockefeller Disclosure Initiative. http://www.paradigmresearchgroup.org/Rockefeller%20Documents/Rockefeller_Initiative_Documents.htm
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In the summer of 1993, a group of CSETI advisors and military  consultants met to discuss how to best develop a reliable point of contact (POC)  to the US government.
Steven Greer:”After beginning the CSETI Project Starlight UFO/ETI disclosure effort in the summer of 1993, I was invited to a meeting at Mr. Laurance Rockefeller’s JY Ranch near Jackson Hole WY, where I met Mrs Marie (Bootsie) Galbraith. I shared with Ms. Galbraith and the others gathered there our plans regarding collecting the Best Available Evidence regarding UFOs and our plans to  provide briefings for world leaders and the public on the subject… Mrs. Galbraith indicated a keen interest in assisting with this effort.  Subsequently I provided to her, to Mr. Rockefeller and to the BSW Foundation  a full complement of our plans, strategy and an outline of the BAE, ..’Best  Available Evidence’, the concept and strategy for its use, etc.
…”Subsequently, BSW and Mrs. Galbraith hired Don Berliner and Antonio Huneus [sic] to work on writing the BAE, although Berliner was the primary paid  writer/researcher.    In the fall of 1995, some 2 years after first providing the concept, title,  strategy etc to Mrs. Galbraith et al, she mailed me a NON-COPYRIGHTED Best  Available Evidence document to be used for briefing leaders as stated above… By September of 1993 this plan was in action, and with the assistance of  a senior official at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a meeting was set up at  Wright-Patterson Air Force Base with the top-secret Foreign Aerospace Science  and Technology Center located there… http://www.greatdreams.com/ufos/cseti.htm
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Infighting among the champions of Disclosure, however, appears to have separated the field. Some of the documentation was removed and privatized. Steven Greer took his arguments public in interviews with Hustler magazine and Art Bell (who is incidently a celebrity Libertarian, as is Flynt, dontcha know)… And so it goes backgrounding the low-hanging fruit behind THRIVE, Disclosure and ETs… Greer said, “It’s about your pocketbook, not about little green men.”
   Greer claims there are dozens of alien bodies and crash material at “an underground facility near Fort Huachuca in Arizona.” Aliens or not, Fort Huachuca’s an interesting place. In 1954, the US Army turned it into the Electronic Proving Ground.
(According to “ufowatchdog”, Greer “has always been bonkers.” http://www.ufowatchdog.com/hall_of_shame.htm )
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   One of the Libertarians’ leading lights, Harry Browne (1933-2006) put in Army time at Fort Huachuca in the mid-50s after a tour in the Marshall Islands monitoring the controversial H-bomb tests that unexpectedly spewed massive amounts of radioactive fallout. In 1996, and again in 2000, Browne was the Libertarian pick for President: “Harry Browne is best known as the author of Harry Browne’s Special Reports, an  investment newsletter published since 1974.” http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/candidates/velection/browne.shtml; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Browne
Browne did not appear on the 2000 Arizona ballot, however, as the Arizona Libertarian Party instead chose to run L. Neil Smith, whose candidacy was a protest against that of Browne.Science fiction author Smith, whose works “include the trilogy of Lando Calrissian novels”, as in STAR WARS, created the Libertarian Futurist Society’s Prometheus Award.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Neil_Smith
Prometheus Award winners: http://www.lfs.org/awards.htm
   The most decorated Prometheus winner, Victor Koman, runs a publishing house called KoPubCo, “publishing division of the Triplanetary Corporation” and promotes a philosophy defined by Samuel E. Konkin known as AGORISM. Konkin had another term for it too: anarcho-capitalism. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Konkin
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Agora (defined): the marketplace in ancient Greece, or in Hebrew, a coin.
One can plunge into the labyrinth of Libertarian agorism by following the marketeers at Agora Inc., many of whom emulate Harry Browne by marketing investment newsletters http://webindexnet.wordpress.com (some nasty stuff in there)
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Another doubly-decorated Prometheus winner is Vernor Vinge.  At a NASA symposium in 1993, Vinge announced that “within 30 years, we will have the technological means to create super-human intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended.” http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2048138,00.html
   Vinge did not appear in THRIVE, but his colleague Barbara Marx Hubbard did, and so did several others of theirs who share in the ideas of “conscious evolution” — Marx Hubbard’s organization, Foundation for Conscious Evolution, has members in the production of THRIVE.
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Real UFOs, distinctively terrestrial in origin, are getting grassroots disclosure :  Luke Fortune’s website goes for the nutshell promoting his work on “100 years of UFO patents” featuring people like Prof. John Searl and patent holder Henry W. Wallace. www.ufohowto.com  Here Searl explains his “levity disc” and free energy generator http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQqkHA6LWYA&list=PL17552DE797FBF3C6&index=2&feature=plpp_video
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                                                      Searl levity disc
The Day Before ‘Roswell’
Albuquerque Journal, Sunday morning July 6, 1947:
The magic words ‘atomic energy’ were offered tonight [Sat.July 5] as the explanation of the baffling ‘flying saucers’ which have been sighted in increasing numbers by hundreds of persons in 32 states, but mainly in the western United States for the past week. A noted scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena said flatly the objects skimming throughout the skies are the results of Government experiments in ‘transmutation of atomic energy’… officials of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington said it had no experiments involving ‘flying saucers’ under way and one of them added, ‘All we know is what we read in the papers’…Two Chicago astronomers said the discs are probably ‘man-made and radio-controlled’… Support for the Pasadena scientist’s statements came from several quarters. It appeared that the discs were definitely ‘man-made’ and not ‘space ships’ from another planet… And from Los Angeles came word that the idea of airborne ‘saucers’ is not new. Leo Bentz, once noted builder of racing autos, said he witnessed a demonstration of a saucer-like flying model back in 1928… Bentz said the inventor..was a Frenchman, George de Bay, who has since dropped out of sight…” http://www.abqjournal.com/roswell/rjpage1.htm
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So, what is Conscious Evolution?
Decades of debate and collaboration by psycho-spiritual think tanks have been asking the same question:
William Irwin Thompson: “In 1975..[we held] one of our Lindisfarne Conferences on “Conscious Evolution and the Evolution of Consciousness”. This conference developed into a hockey face-off between the Confucian mandarinism of Jonas Salk and the ecological Taoism of Gregory Bateson… When I invited Jonas, I specifically asked him not to give the same speech on ‘Epoch A and Epoch B’ that he gave at a conference we were attending in Washington D.C., and I would have everybody read his book, The Survival of the Wisest… But Jonas gave his stump speech, so I was annoyed..that we could not take it to a higher intellectual level.” [Roger Revelle, the director of Scripps Research Institute who was called upon to help direct the founding of the Salk Institute, said Jonas Salk was "not too bright". Marx Hubbard and Jonas Salk cofounded an organization together called 'Epoch B', the coming age of problem-solving in line with a shared concept of "metabiology", the manipulation and application of biological resources for human use]
   Nevertheless, writes Thompson, “After the intellectual excitement of the summer conference of 1975…a new kind of group soul was being embodied of those who expressed the spirit of what I called the new planetary culture [and] I decided to create the Lindisfarne Fellowship..[for] those around the world whose works served to help us in articulating and effecting the shift from one world civilization to another… Later..I would call the political implications of this new culture the Green Politique.
   “In 1977 I had raised..money from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund –a grant of $15,000 a year for three years– to support a scholar-in-residence program for our new facility in Manhattan, and Gregory [Bateson] was my first choice… We had acquired an abandoned Episcopal church..[where] rent was only a dollar a year for ninety-nine years… To extend our discussions into physics, technology, and culture, we decided to invite physicist David Finkelstein and the inventor Arthur Young… [in biology] Francisco Varela..[became our] second scholar-in-residence… What emerged in this imaginative landscape of Lindisfarne was a new relationship between epistemology and ecology in Gregory’s critique of “conscious purpose” and John Todd’s “Living Machines.” …we all could feel that we were in the presence of something new, not simply a new idea or theory, but a new world view. When the critique of Computationalism in the “Embodied” cognitive science of Francisco Varela was added to this world view in 1977, and then the Gaia evolutionary theory of James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in 1981, it began to be obvious to all of us that a more human science was showing its face at Lindisfarne and that just such a science was as critical to the process of planetization as any esoteric philosophy of the past…
   And so, as the unconscious Gaia “is now the dark, polluted, global ecology in which we all dwell”, the Conscious Evolution as it is more recently described will reverse these trends and, with our help and applied ‘intelligence’, the planet will ‘awaken’ to itself and become vastly more intelligent. Or something like it. www.wildriverreview.com/Memoir/With-Gregory-Batesons-Mind/William-Irwin-Thompson
   Manfred Clynes, who coined the term ‘cyborg’, used a similar phrase called ‘participant evolution’ which seems to describe a more personalized sense of ‘conscious evolution’. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2012/04/13/cyborgology/
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The idea of Conscious Evolution, then, impels application on the order of the Universe:
   Marx Hubbard’s essay, quoting James N. Gardner and his theory of the “Biocosm”: “The universe we inhabit is in the process of becoming pervaded with increasingly intelligent life –but not necessarily human, or even human-successor life… Our purpose is to transform it from a collection of atoms to a vast transcendent mind…
   “The universe is coming to life, purposely and in accordance with a finely-tuned cosmic Code that is the precise functional equivalent of DNA in the terrestrial biosphere. The universe is..in the process of self-assembly and self-animation, endowed with the capacity to…transmit heritable traits –the same cosmic Code…” Marx writes, “Gardner’s thesis implies ‘the emergence of trans-human intelligence as a necessary condition precedent to the task of cosmological engineering..’ In this meme, we are a vital link in this cosmic purpose. However, we are just a brief link. As Steven J. Dick of NASA says: ‘Biologically-based technological civilization is a fleeting phenomenon limited to a few thousand years, and exists in the universe in the proportion of one thousand to one billion, so that only one in a million civilizations are biological.” http://www.barbaramarxhubbard.com/site/files/Evolutionary_Synthesis_BMH_2.21.pdf
Barbara Marx and husband Earl Hubbard were co-founders of the 1970 Committee for the Future (CFF): “They proposed establishing a lunar colony…as a great utopian experiment…  The CFF’s charter clearly voiced..utopian ideals: “Earth-bound history has ended. Universal history has begun…We, the Committee for the Future, believe that a long-range goal for Mankind should be to seek and settle new worlds…” http://blog.nasm.si.edu/2010/03/24/barbara-marx-hubbard-and-the-origins-of-the-pro-space-movement-in-the-1970s/
>>>Earl Hubbard was the brother of L. Ron Hubbard of Scientology fame. For more on Marx Hubbard and Jonas Salk, who co-created an orgnization called ‘Epoch B’, see comment  #10.
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This is, like the blanks in the THRIVE Solutions pages, void of Science and Spirituality.
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“The evolution of technology development is often confused with science in the public mind.” –Ralph E. Gomory, former president of IBM and protege of Emanuel Ruben Piore, chief of the Office of Naval Research. The human implications of the technological side of the Trans-human agenda is somewhat addressed here: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/04/07/borgification/
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The DNA-like code referred to by Gardner above is related to plasma physics, and called THE KEY in part two of Thunderbolts of the Gods http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZZKP_yiscQ&feature=relmfu; Interestingly enough, the world’s first plasma/fusion energy project is called the Joint European Torus (JET) Project, built in the UK in 1977, achieving ‘plasma’ status in 1983 and generating fusion energy in 1991. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_European_Torus; “A tokamak is a device using a magnetic field to confine a plasma in the shape of a torus.  Achieving a stable plasma equilibrium requires magnetic field lines that move around the torus in a helical shape. Such a helical field can be generated by adding a toroidal field… The word tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word токамакhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokamak
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THE CODE of Thrive
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Foster Gamble (THRIVE): “I figured that learning how the Universe creates and sustains life would actually be quite useful. Each of these little packets of wholeness that Einstein discovered, called a quantum, is made out of its surroundings but is distinct within it, like a whirlpool in water. These packets are always the same pattern no matter what size and they are surprisingly relevant to issues as seemingly disconnected as wars in the Middle East, the global financial collapse and how to achieve justice for everyone. We’re about to explore how.
   Mathematicians call this pattern the TORUS. The energy in a torus flows in through one end, circulates around the center, exits out the other side. It’s balanced, self-regulating and always whole. I was officially introduced to the torus by scientist and inventor Arthur Young.”
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The TORUS is a model of wireless dipole radiation, view here http://www.antenna-theory.com/basics/radPattern.html; “The 3-dimensional radiation pattern in free space is a fat doughnut with the  dipole piercing its central hole.” http://ycars.org/EFRA/Module%20C/AntDip.htm
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   Arthur M. Young ( interview with Arthur Bloch): “..I didn’t tell you how spiritual Light is, did I?…I had to relearn physics and in relearning physics, I found that everything hangs on the photon. The photon is this unit of action that cannot be subdivided –you don’t have one-and-a-half actions–..it’s one thing or nothing…that’s what Planck discovered about light, that it comes in whole units, or quanta, and these quanta are very universal in their function. Everything that happens between these particles that we talk about (billiard balls..or what have you)..is in the form of photons, or Light. It’s not just communication of one atom to another, or one molecule to another –it’s the creation of particles themselves…
   So to sum it up, the photon has a very primary role. Now, why is  it spiritual –It’s spiritual because it has none of the properties that matter possesses. It doesn’t have mass; it doesn’t have charge; it doesn’t have position; it doesn’t have time. It’s outside of Time –clocks stop at the speed of light. It has no position because you couldn’t possibly locate it.  I think the most interesting thing of all about the photon is that only one person can see it…photons that one of you sees is not the same as another one sees. Only one person is seeing each photon because when you see a photon you annihilate it…[and] because they [the photons] don’t exist anymore, they’re a complete uncertainty. You couldn’t predict them. So, here’s the unpredictable and the immaterial and it’s in place Number One and is also responsible for the creation of matter and all the interchanges between matter…”
Practical applications with photons: “A maser is a device similar to a laser, which amplifies light energy by stimulating photons. The maser, rather than amplifying light energy, amplifies the lower frequency, longer wavelength microwaves and radio frequency emissions.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_radiation
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   Young devised a “Theory of Process” which you can learn about here:
Comparing the Theory of Process and  Theosophy Critical parts of Arthur Young’s theory of Process, as  described in the Reflexive Universe and The Geometry of Meaning, were derived  from the Theosophical tradition. Institute founder Arthur Young will discuss  where his ideas converge and where they differ from those of Besant, Leadbeater,  Blavatsky et al.” http://sound.photosynthesis.com/Arthur_Young.html;”The fundamentally satanic nature of Blavatsky’s ‘spirituality’ is indicated by many of her own statements, such as: ‘Stand in awe of him, and sin not, speak his name with trembling.   It is Satan who is the god of our planet and the only god…. When the Church therefore, curses Satan, it curses the cosmic reflection of God.’ …Most people will find it difficult to understand, but Luciferians and Talmudic/Kabbalist Jews (often the same people) have an entirely different worldview from the rest of us.  Christian Marion Knox explains: ‘..The core religion of their belief system comes from the Cabala, a book containing mysticism, and written by a sect of the Pharisees who went into Babylon after the destruction of Jerusalem.   As a matter of fact, the holy language of the Illuminati is Hebrew…The idea was to get together 13 powerful families or bloodlines; with the Rothschilds being the most influential, to rule the world. ‘ “  –Eric Karlstrom http://www.911nwo.com/NWReligion%20Part%203.html

Kabbalah worship: The Meru Foundation is a Young-supported and inspired group that applies the Theory of Process to the Kabbalah: “The Hebrew letters are said to connect our inner wisdom with our outer knowledge… it should be no surprise that the model human hand designed by Meru Foundation,  whose two-dimensional outlines look like the Hebrew letters, is actually a  clearly defined section of a torus!” http://www.arthuryoung.com/meru.html; http://www.meru.org/

“Anodos Foundation was created in memory of Arthur M. Young in  November, 1995…[because] scientists and philosophers alike have recognized that technological advances  have propelled society beyond its capacity to comprehend and be responsible for  ‘progress’. ” http://www.arthuryoung.com/anodos.html; Anodos (Greek, “odos” means “the way”; together with prefix “an”, it means to ascend or progress upward)” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anodos

Arthur Young is the inventor of the Bell Helicopter and step-father of Michael  Paine, who worked at Bell Helicopter’s Texas plant and at whose home Lee Oswald  stayed on the night before the assassination. Oswald’s wife Marina lived at the Irving, Texas home with Michael Paine’s wife  Ruth, who visited Arthur Young and his wife, Michael’s mother, in the summer of  1963…  After visiting with Young and Michael’s mother at their  farm near Philadelphia, Ruth Paine drove to New Orleans, picked up Marina and  the alleged assassination rifle, and drove them to Irving, while Oswald went to  Mexico City. The rifle was then stored in the Paine’s garage until the day of  the assassination.If the assassination of President Kennedy was the result of a covert  operation, rather than the act of a deranged loner, then the intelligence  networks that operated in conjunction with Bell Helicopter’s military arm may  have played a role in the murder…  Michael Paine’s mother, Ruth Forbes Paine Young — who was the more important  player and has the significant associations with the CIA officials connected  with the assassination. Ruth Forbes is a close personal friend of former OSS operative Mary Bancroft,  who was Allen Dulles’ wartime mistress. Ruth Forbes also helped organize Cord  Meyer’s World Federalists and the International Peace Academy (IPA) at the UN,  both pivotal organizations involved in the U.S.-Russian-Cuban nexus that  developed around the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis and the  assassination… Arthur Young and Ruth Forbes Paine Young are two of the most significant, yet  least known players in the assassination drama, a point that I hope to rectify  at this COPA conference.” –William Kelly  http://spot.acorn.net/jfkplace/09/fp.back_issues/13th_Issue/copa_paines.html

Kelly interviewed Arthur Young the year before his death, c1994, and wrote, “While I was talking to Young, we were interrupted by his wife, Mrs. Ruth Forbes Paine Young…  Arthur Young had explained earlier that she was in the beginning stages of [Alzheimer's]… She sat down with us for awhile, and while I wanted her to talk about her good friend Mary Bancroft, Allen Dulles’ WWII OSS mistress, instead I asked her about her work with the World Federalists. Founded by Cord Meyer, Jr., a USMC veteran who later became a top deputy to Alan Dulles at the CIA, the World Federalists were an early attempt to support the United Nations and work towards the establishment of a world government. In its fledgling years, Ruth Forbes Paine Young held a number of charity balls to raise money for the organization, and helped it get established…  Arthur Young said that one of his wife’s most significant achievements was the establishment of the International Peace Academy (IPA) at the United Nations, which she did with the assistance of Gen. Rickie [sic], of the Indian Army…http://jfkcountercoup.blogspot.com/2009/12/arthur-young-with-model-helicopter.html; Barbara Marx Hubbard is also a leading World Federalist. As William Dean Ross wrote in 2000, “Go to websites of Barb Marx Hubbard and find the relationship between  her and The Future World Society and the World Federalist  Association that are plastered all over the “Age of Cataclysm.” She was the  founder of one and the co-founder of the other and sat as president on both.  While you are there, look at her comrades: Norman Cousins, Buckminster  Fuller, Marilyn Fergusen, Timothy Leary and Lt. Col. Jim Channon. Read their books. These people are for  putting a “chip” in you so we can have a very peaceful controlled world.” http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_nwo17.htm

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ALIGNING with the TORUS
                   
 Motion Picture Association of America 
    
The content of THRIVE, by extension, is being explored in additional posts:

October 15, 2011

Temples of Science

I can hardly think of a subject that needs and deserves an extraordinary essay as much as this one. In all my reading of late, no concept taps at the essence of occult development more than the idea of “scientific inquiry” transforming men into gods. And no time  seems more dangerously prophetic in attempting to fulfill that transition than the present.  But alas, this is not that essay and I am not that writer.  True to form, though, I can still take steps toward better elucidation.  The upside of all the reading and research going into my “books” is a swimming collection of quotes. I’m a quote junkie now. C’mon share the pain.

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“If the conquests useful for humanity touch your heart, if you are overwhelmed before the astonishing results of electric telegraphy, of the daguerrotype, of anesthesia, and of other wonderful discoveries, if you are jealous of the part your country may claim in the spreading of these marvelous things, take an interest I beg you, in those sacred places to which we give the expressive name of laboratories. Demand that they be multiplied and ornamented, for these are the temples of the future.” –Louis Pasteur (ref. Pierre Curie, p70, by Marie Curie, 1923)

 “Science Angel” in the crypt of Institut Pasteur

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“..early in May 1912 Weizmann wrote to Judah Leon Magnes, outlining a new scheme. Weizmann had just read in the press that Mr. Nathan Straus, a German-born philanthropist now residing in New York, had established in Hadera (Palestine) a health station under the direction of Dr. Wilhelm Bruenn… Weizmann suggested the following: Why not combine the various projects into one big institute, ‘something like a small Pasteur Institute…Such an institute could fulfill two functions: a teaching institute and a research institute, and could develop into the nucleus of the great Jewish research centers of the future.’ …In short, such a project would consolidate all the small scientific enterprises in Palestine… Moreover, Baron Edmond de Rothschild was moving closer to Zionism…’but it is up to us to steer him in this direction’ [he wrote]… the baron was indeed prepared to cooperate with the Zionist movement…  Weizmann did not waste a minute…[H]e called on Leopold Landau, a gynecologist in Berlin..[and] relative of Paul Erhlich, one of Germany’s most eminent scientists… Weizmann met Erhlich in the latter’s laboratory on March 10, 1913..[and] won over an important new ally… Weizmann [then] returned to Manchester full of energy. His friends on the Continent and in England promised their full support and he felt that his moment had come. ‘The movement has begun to smack of gunpowder,’ he wrote [to his wife] Vera, ..’I feel that I don’t belong to Manchester at all. Everything here is temporary and alien… To my way of thinking, this is the one slogan that can evoke a response just now –the Hebrew University. Die Zionsuniversitat auf dem Berge Zion! The Third Temple!’ ” –(Weizmann biographer) Jehudah Reinharz, Chaim Weizmann, The Making of a Zionist Leader, pp 375-378

>>>Rothschild did not support a university at this time, but endorsed a research institute “like the Pasteur..or Rockefeller institutes”; Nathan Straus was a subject in an article I wrote in 2008 called The Ruination of Milk http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/TheRuinationofMilk.html

  Weizmann Institute

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“Emerson said that an institution is the lengthened shadow of one man, and the [Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research] did reflect Simon Flexner… Flexner made Rockefeller sharp, edgy, cold… The room most feared in the institute was Flexner’s office. He could be brutal there, and several prominent scientists were afraid of him… He sought attention for the institute from the press and credit from the scientific community. His own work created controversy… The result was a publicity machine. Highly respected investigators mocked the institute for, said one who himself spent time there, ‘frequent ballyhoo of unimportant stuff as the work of genius’… Flexner..wanted the institute to become a living thing… It was a place of excitement, of near holiness… Flexner, [Peyton] Rous said, made the institute ‘an organism, not an establishment.’ ” –(historical writer) John Barry, The Great Influenza, pp 75-78

“Science would be the magic wand waved over any project… In 1917, when advising his father to pump another fifty million dollars into the RIMR, Junior explained his preference for medicine: ‘This is a field in which there can be no controversy, so that I think the possibility of criticism as regards the use of the fund or its potential dangers would be almost nothing. There is no limit to the development of medical work.’ ” –(John D. Rockefeller biographer) Ron Chernow, Titan, p568

 Rockefeller Institute

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“Our society, in which reigns an eager desire for riches and luxury, does not understand the value of science. It does not realize that science is a most precious part of its moral patrimony… Neither public powers nor private generosity actually accord to science and to scientists the support and the subsidies indispensable to fully effective work.” –Marie Curie, 1923

The oral history of radium/uranium dealer Boris Pregel, Manhattan Project supplier : “..The centralization was at the Institute Curie… It was also a kind of scientific monopoly. They did the whole thing…  they were the most important… In fact, the Institute of the Curies had tremendous quantities of radium all along… That’s why later also, when Joliot-Curie and Halban and Kowarski wanted to discuss the..application of atomic energy, they were received very well… [A] lot of the most important work was done in France, because of the establishment of the Institute”  http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4833.html

 Radium Institute, Paris

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“The society of experts which I am imagining will embrace all eminent men of science… It will possess the sole up-to-date armaments and will be the repository of all new secrets in the art of war. There will therefore be no more war since resistence by the unscientific will be doomed to obvious failure. The society of experts will control propaganda and education. It will teach loyalty to the world government and make nationalism high treason. The government… will instill submissiveness into the great bulk of the population… It is possible that it may invent ingenious ways of concealing its own power, leaving the forms of democracy intact and allowing the plutocrats to imagine that they are cleverly controlling these forms. Gradually, however, as the plutocrats become stupid through laziness, they will lose their wealth; it will pass more and more into public ownership and be controlled by the government of experts. Thus whatever the outward forms may be, all real power will come to be concentrated in the hands of those who understand the art of scientific manipulation.” –Bertrand Russell, The Scientific Outlook, 1931

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“The Public Health Law posits…that government has both the power and the duty to regulate private behavior in order to promote public health. The constitutional source of this authority is the police power which encompasses both directly coercive interventions and policies such as taxes and subsidies that shape behavior by altering the costs of certain choices.” –New England Journal of Medicine, 2003

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“Judaism is not a creed: the Jewish God is simply a negation of superstition… It is also an attempt to base the moral law on fear,… regrettable…  Yet it seems to me that the strong moral tradition of the Jewish nation has to a large extent shaken itself free from this fear… Judaism is thus no transcendental religion… It seems to me, therefore, doubtful whether it can be called a religion in the accepted sense of the word, particularly as no ‘faith’ but the sanctification of life in a supra-personal sense is demanded of the Jew… [T]he Jewish tradition also contains something else …a sort of intoxicated joy and amazement at the beauty and grandeur of this world… This joy is the feeling from which true scientific research draws its spiritual sustenance… To tack this feeling to the idea of God seems mere childish absurdity… In its pure form, it is nowhere to be found, not even in Judaism where the pure doctrine is obscured by much worship of the letter. Yet Judaism seems to me one of its purest and most vigorous manifestations.  This applies particularly to the fundamental principle of the sanctification of life.”….. “The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice and the desire for personal independence –these are the features of the Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it… we shall continue not merely to survive as the oldest of living peoples, but by creative work to bring forth fruits which contribute.. as heretofore… We must be conscious of our alien race and draw the logical conclusions from it…” –Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, p184-186, 1934

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“Just as some people live by the sword, we shall live by science” –Chaim Weizmann, 1948

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“[Jonas] Salk dreamed of organizing his own Institute for Experimental Medicine, and in May of 1957, he drew up what he called its “Magna Carta”. He gave it the loftiest of goals, not merely to cure disease but to address ‘the problems of humanity that are the most important of the day’…he imagined an alliance of like-minded colleagues who valued ‘the freedom, integrity, and independence of the individual’ at a scale that preserved ‘flexibility and freedom’ and rewarded ‘boldness and courage’. Unlike traditional research insitutes, this one would include humanists as well as scientists…Its senior members would be fellows for life, a self-governing body..with ‘unencumbered time for contemplation and for action’… Following the Rockefeller Institute’s example, Salk would build his institute…’A shot in the light’ Salk called it.”…”In December 1959, Salk and architect Louis Kahn began a unique partnership to design such a facility… The buildings soon gained international fame for their dramatic and innovative design…“the modern equivalent of a temple of Zeus beside the Aegean”…Deliberately elitist, the Salk Institute would free its half dozen or so fellows from grant-writing, teaching, and administrative distractions. As masters of their own laboratories, the fellows could set independent research agendas. Salk, directly inspired by the cloister of St. Francis of Assisi and by its carceri (cells), provided the fellows with individual studies, places for reflection connected to, and yet buffered from, the bustle of laboratory life.”  –quotes referenced at www.polioforever.wordpress.com/salk-institute

 Salk Institute

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[On the creation of the Investigation of Human Ecology, a cover program for the CIA's MKUltra]  “I am frightened about this one. If the scientists do what they have laid out for themselves, men will become manageable ants.” –Adolf Berle, personal diary, 1950s

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“We have had the bomb on our minds since 1945. It was first our weaponry and then our diplomacy, and now it’s our economy. How can we suppose that something so monstrously powerful would not, after forty years, compose our identity? The great golem we have made against our enemies is our culture, our bomb culture –its logic, its faith, its vision.” –historian E.L. Doctorow, 1980s (ref.  preface, American Prometheus, Bird and Sherwin)

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“I feel that at least several hundred scientists trained in the biomedical aspect of atomic energy –myself included– are candidates for Nuremburg-type trials for crimes against humanity for our gross negligence and irresponsibility. Now that we know the hazard of low-dose radiation, the crime is not experimentation –it’s murder.” –Dr. John Gofman, 1979; read more about fallout http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/FalloutInYourGenes.html; www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/

June 25, 2011

Shiga-boom Shiga-boom

Shiga toxin-producing (Stx) O104:H4 killer E.coli strain:
Blame Japan
“A private biotechnology company used their DNA scanning algorithms to determine that E.coli O104 has genomic signatures specific [to]..previously found..strains of the 1996 outbreak in Sakai City, Japan… 103 pieces among the nearly one million genome fragments of the E.coli O104 are also present in phages of enterohemorrhagic E.coli isolated in 1996 in Japan… Orion Integrated Biosciences Inc. has developed this capability to scan unknown DNA fragments and point to their most likely source. The company is funded by the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security and the National Institutes of Health to apply this technology for biodefense purposes.” http://www.orionbiosciences.com/news/ORION-PR-June-05-11.pdf
…back in 1996…
“The Japanese..learned the hard way, 15 years ago, when that health-conscious society was gripped by what may be history’s worst outbreak of E.coli O157:H7. The epidemic sickened thousands, most of them children, and killed at least 12. It also showed critical weaknesses in Japan’s public health system –problems that the government spent years trying to correct. Up to that time, E.coli O157:H7 was virtually unknown in Japan… That all changed in mid-July when health officials in Sakai City, a major port city with a population near a million, received reports… Within a week, thousands were ill, hundreds hospitalized, some with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), requiring kidney dialysis. And some were dying… Meanwhile, the epidemic seemed to be expanding… It was terrible timing. A few years earlier, Japan’s booming economy collapsed. Then, in 1995, an earthquake flattened the city of Kobe, not far from Sakai City. A few months later, terrorists [Aum Shinrikyo 'yoga' cult] released deadly sarin gas… Eventually the outbreak sickened at least 9,441 people…” http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/01/sprouts-and-historys-worst-outbreak/ A study paper published in 2002 reports the number of infection cases as 17,877: http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/3478
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But there’s always more to the story. Food Safety News missed reporting on the more unique features of Japan’s 1996 outbreak, which was documented as 22 separate outbreaks between May and October (there were a total of 7 E.coli outbreaks in the previous five years): “In July..a large outbreak of exclusively Stx-1 producingE.coli 0118:H2 occurred in a junior highschool in Komatsu city. This appears to be the first report in the world of clinical infection caused by this organism… 241 [students and staff] were symptomatic… Although Stx-producing E.coli was not isolated from the samples of food and water, it was isolated from a dipper… No subjects developed infection at 11 other schools that had served the same..foods… the source of the primary infection was not identified..” One month after that another type of E.coli, O26:H11, that also anomalously produced only the Stx-1 variant of shiga-toxin (again a world’s first), caused a small outbreak. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/1/e2.full
Evidently, something very unusual was going on.
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Stx1 is now a promising treatment for breast cancer: [2009] “The high specificity and apoptosis-inducing properties of verotoxin-1 indicates that the toxin potentially may be used for treatment of  Gb3-expressing breast cancer….Gb3 expression was detected in the vascular endothelial cells of..tumor specimens…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650710/ >>>Gb3 is the glycolipid cell-surface receptor for Stx.
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    What does not seem to have been recorded in the huge wave of Japan’s pathogenic E.coli that year was the presence of O104 E.coli.  The earliest mention of an outbreak of an O104 strain anywhere that turns up in the literature happened in Montana:  “During February-March 1994…Eleven confirmed and seven suspected case-patients were identified..” with a “rare serotype E.coli O104:H21 that produced Shiga-like toxin II” (Stx2-like, or SLTII) http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm4427.pdf
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News from June 23 put the E.coli toll in Germany at 3,533; 39 deaths, 810 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and 2, 684 less acute cases. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/23/news/la-heb-ecoli-strain-pathogen-20110623; a same day report notes 5 confirmed cases in the U.S. of a “matching strain” and one suspected case resulting in death. The five were recent visitors to Germany: http://www.ecoliblog.com/e-coli-outbreaks/german-e-coli-outbreak-linked-to-massachusetts-michigan-wisconsin-north-carolina-and-arizona/ [updated June 30 to over 4,200 cases, 50 deaths, 898 HUS]
Something in the air?
“There seems to be little or no published work on the inhalation toxicity of Shiga toxin. However, there are often indirect effects on the lungs when the toxin is taken in as a food contaminant.” http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Verotox.html; “E.coli can grow in the air, using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor..” http://www.ecoliblog.com/e-coli-watch/what-is-e-coli-1/
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 “Ricin and Shiga toxin share a unique mode of action, causing irreversible damage to host ribosomal RNA. Our understanding of how these bioterror agents cause tissue damage is incomplete… the mechanism(s) by which these signal transduction pathways are stimulated will be assessed using Shiga toxin mutants and isolated Shiga toxin subunits.” [grant award to Tufts Medical Center by U.S. Dept of HHS] http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_description.cfm?projectnumber=5R01AI059509-04
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   Food and water are always the assumed vectors for E.coli contamination but if lung ‘effects’ from ingestion of the more toxic (HUS-causing) particle, Stx2, are indistinguishable from inhaled Shiga toxin then the Lords of the Air could whip up another perfect storm and blame it on ‘behavior’. The data on Stx (shiga-toxin) inhalation is currently similar to, and perhaps less than, the knowledge-ceiling of anthrax before the post 9-11 attack, given that no aerosol attack of Stx2 has ever happened before. At least no registered terror groups have ever launched a shiga toxin attack, but in case they do…well, the establishment looks almost prepared. Real time experience with countermeasures afforded by this new opportunity should be a good lesson, after all, the outbreak is erupting under the watchful eye of major defense contractors.
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The new O104 strain is “not new” according to the CDC and “There is no reason to think that this strain was modified intentionally… The combination of Shiga toxin and enteroaggregative features has been seen before; 1) in E.coli O104 identified in Europe and Asia in the last decade, and 2) in a different strain of E.coli that caused a small outbreak in Europe in the 1990s. While this combination is uncommon, it is not new.” http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/ecoli_o157h7/index.html#difference
   How new does new have to be? Toxic E.coli is new and became a reportable pathogen in 1982. Speculation about its emergence suggests it may have appeared in the 1950s. Looking at the volume of studies and papers on toxic E.coli generated at Harvard, for example, proves just how new the science is. There is nothing before 1997 and presumably no public funding either. Students and staff just don’t work on ‘unimportant’ diseases. http://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/profiles/profile/concept/Escherichia+coli+O157
To wit : [2001] “Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) such as E.coli O157:H7 are important emerging pathogens in the United States… The genes encoding these potent toxins are present on viral particles known as bacteriophages… treating them with certain antibiotics leads to an increase in toxin expression. The antibiotics also lead to increased movement of the viruses…” http://www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/192539.html; that’s called a bacterial “SOS” response, and a warning not to self-medicate with antibiotics –read the Colloidal Silver post too;  natural garlic ‘allicin’ has shown to be effective against shiga toxin bacteria.
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Current CDC estimates for Stx-producing E.coli infections in the U.S. stand at 186,000 cases annually http://www.marlerblog.com/lawyer-oped/non-o157-e-coli-in-beef—how-does-fsis-justify-it/; up from approx. 110,000 annually a decade ago.
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Where did  Shiga toxin come from?
   It was first isolated from an E.coli-like bacterium in 1896 Japan, and named Shigella for its discoverer, Kiyoshi Shiga. Four types of Shigella bacteria, all causes of dysentery (Shigellosis), have been characterized: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, the most complex of which is Shigella flexneri, isolated by Simon Flexner c.1900 in the Philippines. Among the four types, S.flexneri toxin induced neurological damage and most often led to kidney failure and death. Flexner soon became the founding director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) in New York. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/
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The shiga toxin that is spreading in E.coli nowadays is carried by the lambda** phage, a viral particle and the most particularly interesting-to-science component of E.coli bacteria that has opened the secrets of genetic transference. Lambda phage was discovered by Esther Zimmer Lederberg, the wife of Joshua Lederberg, in 1950. http://www.estherlederberg.com/LambdaP.html
**”Lambda..is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet…related to..the Cyrillic letter ‘El’..  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambda
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 …”If the devil were to work overtime in a plot to confound scientists in their quest for a causative agent to a serious disease of unknown origin, it is doubtful whether he could have come up with anything better than the phage…”
 Head I        Head II
Joshua Lederberg, a Rockefeller University president and National Science administrator, is cited in this blog as the editor of a collected genetics publication about mutation: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/08/11/mutation/ ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Lederberg  In 1946, Joshua Lederberg codiscovered bacterial conjugation, the process credited to transferring Shiga toxins to E.coli.  He was also the principal coordinator of the first “artificial intelligence” project applied to chemobiology – the mid-60s DENDRAL super-computer at Stanford which set the groundwork for current Nano-Cogno-Bio-Information systems that plot “beyond conception” formulas for artificial life creation. Lederberg styled himself as an exobiologist. http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/BB/Views/Exhibit/narrative/ai.html
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“From 1979 to the present, Lederberg has been a Trustee of the Sackler Medical School at Tel-Aviv University, and, since 1990, has been a Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University. In 1994, he headed the Defense Department Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, “which concludes that there is insufficient epidemiological evidence for a coherent Gulf War
Syndrome.” http://www.smokershistory.com/Lederber.htm
“..as chairman of the..Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects.. Lederberg was also on the board of directors of the American Type Culture Collection, or ATCC…[that] made 70 government-approved shipments of anthrax..to Iraqi scientists..” http://chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/pol/lederber.html
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Bacteriophage lambda has been used as a host vector for [the] generation of genomic..libraries for quite some time; ..generated primarily because of the phage particles’ ability to efficiency infect bacteria in vitro [lab dish]. Some research workers prefer to use the original lambda as a vector while others..like to propagate the gene fragments in a cosmid vector.” http://www.biocompare.com/Articles/ProductReview/867/Packagene-Lambda-DNA-Packaging-System-From-Promega.html
   The link below is a patent that promises a lambda vector system that can deliver recombinant DNA into the mitochondria of mammalian cells http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7741112.html; the lambda “taxi” can be virtually stripped of its own genetic material and used to import any select package of genes to almost any cell of choice, including genes that code for specific “receptors” to a range of viruses. These techniques offer the treatment paradigm of “virotherapy”, where viruses deliver genetic ‘correction’ to targeted cells.
    For a long time, antibiotics served as “tracers” in recombination studies by inducing resistance in the objects of study which could thrive and be isolated from cultures that were otherwise poisoned by an antibiotic– thus, not only do cellular entities accumulate antibiotic resistance as a type of mutation, but so do their interchangeable parts,  compounding their antibiotic-resistance profiles. For example, a citation from a Finnish study covering infections reported 1990 to 2000 notes E.coli “sensitivity to 12 antimicrobial agents.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC88246 .  State-of-the-art recombination genetics is readily taking up “marker” protein genes like the green fluorescent protein (gfp) from jellyfish, ostensibly as a safer alternative and infinitely fascinating as another paradigm in transgenetics. Still, antibiotics are very useful genetic expression ‘promoters’ and continue to be used in bioengineering.
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The toxin-making parts of lambda-bearing genomes have all been isolated and described but scientists have yet to realize the fullness of biochemical conditions that cause the toxin genes to turn on and ‘express’. They do know that “the bacteriophage life cycle is the dominant, if not the only, important factor involved in stx2 expression.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC95105   Why would (some) scientists want to turn on the deadly shiga toxin-producing mechanism of the genes? There are reasons far beyond the call of medicine. Genetic engineers have very sophisticated needs in their search for knowledge and limited technologies and resources with which to explore them. I imagine there’s nothing quite as effective as handing a major public health threat over to a technically advanced society in order to get some help. The shiga toxin components of genes have enormously useful properties in the genetics industry.
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   Here’s a thought about weaponeering: “The [Stx] protein is robust, stable, relatively easy to manufacture and has been the subject of intense research over many years…This [body of] information..may also be used to develop novel variants of greater effectiveness. The protein does not act through the skin, and effective protection can probably be obtained with a gas mask with activated charcoal filters.” http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Verotox.html
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                                                                     CHANGE AGENTS
E.coli research has been a long-standing field of study. ..”The bacterium Escherichia coli is truly the workhorse of biology. Originally isolated in 1922 from a diphtheria patient, the strain of E.coli [completely and recently] sequenced  was used in 1945 in the discovery of spontaneous gene transfer. The strain, known as K-12, was universally adopted for fundamental work in biochemistry, genetics and physiology…E.coli is not the first bacterial genome to be sequenced, but with more than 4.6 million bases, it is the largest and possibly most important… The K-12 strain of E.coli is not pathogenic but closely related strains are toxic.” http://accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA11/ecoli997.php .  Mentioned earlier in “Transgenic Round-up”, recombinant DNA techniques were perfected by the 1970s with E.coli. See the work of Paul Berg and Maxine Singer.
   In the last decade E.coli research has opened a biotechnology platform for wholly new ‘life’ creations with artificial amino acids:
[2001] “Expanding the Genetic Code of Escherichia coli” [from the Scripps Research Institute laboratory of Peter Schultz and Salk Institute fellow Lei Wang] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/292/5516/498.abstract
“..We have evolved [a bioactive agent]..that makes possible the in vivo incorporation of [an artificial synthetic amino acid] into proteins in Escherichia coli… This unnatural amino acid was incorporated with high translational efficiency and fidelity.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pmc/articles/PMC123203/
“Augmenting proteins with unnatural amino acids could make existing proteins more potent in their actions, or even endow them with entirely new properties that might be useful for industry or medicine. Dr. Schultz’s [E.coli] bacteria, for example, look and act entirely like normal creatures until they are placed in contact with a certain sort of poison. Then, because they are producing an unnatural protein, they survive while all the others die.” http://www.economist.com/node/987697?story_id=987697
“..multiple unnatural amino acids can be added to the genetic code of a single modified organism.”  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/05/040512040149.htm
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   Raising the ‘possibilities of meaning’ in E.coli outbreaks occurring after 2004, when the ‘new amino’ insertion techniques became a commodious reality, deserve special attention. Two considerations come to mind; that the E.coli are stealthily vectoring artificial genes and the shiga toxin subunits are installing genetic controls: one vector with multi-use potential. It will take months and years for published study material on the current outbreak strain to make it into the public sphere, even then, the likelihood that new amino acids are factored into standard tests is slim-to-none. For the time being, only the upper echelon labs will have the capacity to identify the rogue material. General researchers fully understand that mutant strains present unknowns which can remain unknown or evade definition for years. If such a probability exists at present, it’s a secret experiment that will bear fruit for its instigators who have in their labs a description of ideal-sounding binary bioweapons. The close structural relationship and gene-swapping properties of E.coli and related “homologous” phage is a biological SureThing, spreading naturally wherever it is
introduced (albeit slowly unless unnaturally assisted).  Stx-producing enterohemorrhagic E.coli (STEC) is also a sure thing– sure to drive victims to seek emergency medical care. There’s going to be lots of samples, lots of DNA, and probable new toxic mutants.
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“Physicians know not to prescribe antibiotics for O157 infections because the sudden killing of the bacteria can release HUS[hemolytic uremic syndrome]-inducing and potentially deadly amounts of Shiga toxin… that fact could have created one major problem in the early development of the [May 2011] outbreak: It is likely that German hospitals were only screening the first enterohemorrhagic E.coli symptoms for O157 and not O104, which no one would have suspected… ‘In this case, [said Jorge Giron], because it wasn’t O157, the physicians might have thought it was okay to give antibiotics, not knowing that O104 would produce the Shiga toxin… This potential misunderstanding over antibiotics might at least partially explain the high rate of HUS among the ill’ ” http://www.lavidalocavore.org/diary/4763/o104h4-may-change-how-we-deal-with-e-coli >>It might because somehow the unprecedented rate of HUS needs explaining. Previous toxic E.coli outbreaks have produced a rate of HUS around 3-6%, now trending upwards to 10%.  But just as likely to happen only moreso among skilled physicians who know they don’t have O157 on their hands is to give no antibiotics and allow the normally self-limiting infection to run its course– this is especially plausible with adult patients who subsequently made up the majority cases of HUS.  The 1996 Komatsu Japan Stx1 school outbreak (non-O157), linked above, is an example of infected patients receiving no antibiotics (approx. half) and resolving their infections equally well and sometimes better. Mr. Giron’s suggestion just doesn’t fly. The more I look at the German “Egyptian sprout” outbreak, the stranger it gets in comparison to other documented outbreaks. I’m considering the cofactor with radioactive fallout based on past anthrax episodes as an opportune moment-in-time, so I’ve set up a link with microbe-hunting results and I’m adding in the accumulating news.
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Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a severe, life-threatening complication of an E.coli..infection that was first described in 1955… The Shiga toxin triggers a complex cascade of changes in the blood..and there is disruption of the inherent clot-breaking mechanisms… About ten percent of individuals with [toxic] E.coli..infections (mostly young children) goes on to develop Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.” http://www.marlerblog.com/legal-cases/three-suffering-kidney-failure-hus-from-alabama-e-coli-poisoning/; “The principle organ affected in STEC-mediated HUS is the kidney… The severity of renal injury varies in degree from urinary abnormalities such as hematuria and proteinuria to acute renal failure… The second most important organ affected in the disease is the brain… more serious cerebral complications, including seizures, cortical blindness, and thrombotic strokes, occur in 5 to 10% of patients… A similar percentage of patients may develop life-threatening cardiopulmonary sequelae, including adult [acute] respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS], congestive heart failure and myocarditis. The occurrance of neurological and cardiovascular complications is associated with more severe STEC-induced HUS and a higher risk of mortality during the acute illness. Other organs that are frequently involved in STEC-induced HUS are the endocrine and exocrine pancreas, liver, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It is evident that STEC-induced HUS is a systemic illness potentially affecting every organ throughout the body.http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/17/4/926
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“…the outbreak originating in Germany shows 87% of those hit by the disease were women over the age of 20… the German outbreak..displayed ‘several intriguing microbiological characteristics’ and ‘several novel epidemiological and clinical features’..[that] ‘differed remarkably’ from previously described STEC/VTEC infections… Among the ‘completely unexpected’ features was the development of severe neurological symptoms in half of patients within 3 to 10 days of being admitted to hospital..” http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/kfojidqlsney/rss2/
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                                                No treatment for humans — vaccines for cows
More information about Shiga toxin E. coli, Alexion* Pharmaceuticals Inc. (et.al.) and the bioweapon potential of Stx is here  http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/e-coli/ (page in progress) and keep this in mind:
“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution. In the case of fighting infectious diseases, GE animal-made antibodies can be produced from animals that have had the human antibody genes transferred to them. These animals can then be vaccinated against human diseases and antibodies can be collected from their blood and used for treating diseases in humans. For example, antibodies can treat infections that are resistant to antibiotics.” http://www.bio.org/foodag/animals/GE_An_Pharm_0908.pdf
“On March 13, 2009, the USDA granted a conditional license for a new tool in the battle against foodborne illness –a vaccine for cows to prevent infection with E.coli bacteria… Cattle themselves do not experience illness from the bacteria. ” http://www.dmaonline.org/CE/food_protection/2009_05.shtml
>>>cattle immunity to STEC  no longer seems to be true –another significant round of ‘firsts’ in 1996 involves cattle infections.
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   Alexion Antibody Technologies was invited to give Congress a very exclusive pitch for Project BioShield funds in 2003, before approval of the program, and now the German health authorities have approved of Alexion running clinical drug trials on the latest E.coli victims. Alexion is giving away an ultra-expensive drug in exchange for access to patients.
*The nuclear power company UniStar bought Alexion Pharmaceuticals’ property in 2007; http://maryland.realestaterama.com/2007/12/19/unistar-properties-defies-slow-real-estate-market-with-purchase-of-311-million-bioscience-facility-ID041.html; does the relationship get cozier? “Arch Chemicals” also shares the site. There must be some advantage in having “the world’s largest owner and operator of nuclear energy facilities” as a landlord. http://unistarnuclear.com/; UniStar was taken over in 2010 by Electricite de France (EdF). “Both EdF and Areva are backed by the French state.” http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/C_EdF_takes_control_of_Unistar_2710101.html
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[Feb 2011] Alexion Chairman Max Link sold 47,367 shares, valued at $95 per share… “he retains 92,898 shares… Dr. Link has been the company chairman since December 2002..[and was] formerly CEO of Corange, the parent company of Boehringer Mannheim Therapeutics..[also] formerly the Chairman and CEO of Sandoz Pharma, Ltd.”…”Ann M. Veneman was appointed to Alexion’s Board..previously she served as Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)”..[from 2005-2010, after resigning her GWBush appointment as Secretary of Agriculture]
http://newyork.citybizlist.com/18/2011/2/25/Chairman-Max-Link-Sells-4.5M-in-Alexion-Shares–cbl.aspx;
Dr. Max Link also became Chairman of Protein Design Labs Inc.[Fremont,CA] in 2004, when the developer of antibody drugs accrued major revenues from products like Avastin (licensed to Roche subsidiary Genentech): “Avastin is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody..of mouse origin..produced in a Chinese hamster ovary..” approved in 2004 for colorectal cancer treatment. http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Benjamin-Yang/2009/06/17/drug-profile-avastin
 “Ms. Veneman’s training and experience as a corporate lawyer for agribusiness do not qualify her for the substantial task of leading the agency most responsible for the rights of children worldwide. There is no evidence in her tenure as U.S. secretary of agriculture, secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, or deputy undersecretary for international affairs of the USDA of her interest in the world’s children or their health and well-being.” http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Ann_Veneman
   In addition to Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Veneman joined the Board of Nestle, the world’s largest food and beverage producer: “Veneman took the post despite pleas from nutrition advocates who urged her not to lend her imprimatur to the company’s marketing of breast milk substitutes” http://www.newsok.com/ex-unicef-head-joins-nestle-board-despite-protests/article/feed/250068?custom_click=pod_headline_europe; the best preventive to Stx-producing E.coli in children is, naturally, breast milk. In Europe and the U.S., 1971 marked an all-time-low in breast-feeding when only 1% of new mothers chose to persist in natural feeding past their ‘hospital stay’. The successful War on Milk rages on…
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                                                                Deadlier Threshold for Stx
Researchers recently learned that Stx genes multiply exponentially faster than their E.coli hosts:
 [2007] “Demonstration of the ability of [ Stx phage] to form multiple lysogens has two potentially serious impacts. First, multiple integrated prophages will drive the evolution of bacterial pathogens as novel Stx-phages emerge following intracellular mutation/recombination events. Second, multiple copies of the Stx gene may lead to an increase in toxin production and consequently increased virulence…. there is considerable scope for Stx integration directed by as yet uncharacterized factors… Clearly, the occurence of multiple lysogens in a single host [cell] is likely to enhance the evolution and dissemination of bacteriophage-encoded genes throughout bacterial populations, with particular applied relevance for Stx-phages responsible for increasing the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli hosts.”  http://mic.sgmjournals.org/content/153/12/4098.full
SHIGA-BOOM!
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March 9, 2011

The Culture of Organs

                     

Watch this presentation by Dr. Anthony Atala on growing and printing organs, with an “inkjet” that uses cells!http://www.ted.com/talks/anthony_atala_printing_a_human_kidney.html?utm_source=newsletter_weekly_2011-03-08&utm_campaign=newsletter_weekly&utm_medium=email

Midway through the delivery onstage, the doctor appears to remove a newly made kidney from solution but “Reports in the media that Dr. Anthony Atala printed a real kidney at the TED conference in Long Beach, Calif., are completely inaccurate. At the conference, Dr. Atala used a new type of technology to print a kidney-shaped mold and explained how one day – many years from now – the technology might be used to print actual organs.” http://www.wfubmc.edu/Research/WFIRM/Media-Reports-on-Kidney-Printing-Inaccurate.htm

The “printed” kidney got Dr. Atala’s audience to its feet, forgetting for the moment perhaps, the already amazing “biomaterials” able to provide structural scaffolding for new cells to grow on. He called them “smart biomaterials” in the first minutes of this show. Take away the Big Finish and Atala’s applications are in substance what the “Cheeseburger In Paradise” article is expressing. This is lab-grown meat with a twist, or I should say, a pulse.
http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/10/18/cheeseburger-in-paradise/
In a reality of Virtual Organs, can Virtual Humans be far behind?
 Curiously Dr. Atala invokes the name of Alexis Carrel, author of The Culture of Organs along with co-author Charles A. Lindbergh who befriended Carrel in 1929 :
“In 1929, the interests of two prominent people intersected. Charles Lindberg’s sister-in-law, Elizabeth Morrow, was left with severe disease of the heart valves after acute rheumatic fever. Lindberg asked her doctor why her heart could not be repaired by surgery. When told that the heart could not be stopped long enough for surgeons to work on it, Lindberg questioned why a mechanical pump could not be used for circulating the blood while the heart was stopped. A physician friend introduced him to Carrel. Lindberg asked to become a volunteer assistant in Carrel’s laboratory and work on the perfusion pump. By 1935, the pump was able to keep the thyroid gland of a cat alive for eighteen days. Cells of that gland were then successfully transferred to tissue culture. Time magazine’s cover of July 1, 1935 pictured Carrel and Lindberg with their ‘mechanical heart’.” http://www.chilit.org/WARREN1.HTM
Alexis Carrel is best known for his career (1906-1939) at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research where he gained a reputation as a philosopher-mystic, operating in his darkened experimental surgery lab in long black robes, isolated from the normal interaction of his scientific fellows. The same year that Time put him on the cover, Carrel published Man, The Unknown.
Carrel wrote, “The natural fate of all civilizations is to rise and to decline–and to vanish into dust. Our civilization may perhaps escape the common fate, because it has at its disposal the unlimited resources of science. But science deals exclusively with the forces of intelligence. And intelligence never urges men to action. Only fear, enthusiasm, self-sacrifice, hatred, and love can infuse with life the products of our mind. The youth of Germany and Italy, for example, are driven by faith to sacrifice themselves for an ideal–even if that ideal is false. Perhaps the democracies will also engender men burning with the passion to create. Perhaps, in Europe and in America, there are such men, still young, poor, and unknown. But enthusiasm and faith, if not united to the knowledge of the whole reality, will remain sterile. The Russian revolutionists had the will and the strength to build up a new civilization. They failed because they relied upon the incomplete vision of Karl Marx, instead of a truly scientific concept of man. The renovation of modern society demands, besides a profound spiritual urge, the knowledge of man in his wholeness.” [p1]
  …”None of the dogmas of modern science are immutable. Gigantic factories, office buildings rising to the sky, inhuman cities, industrial morals, faith in mass production, are not indispensable to civilization. Other modes of existence and of thought are possible. Culture without comfort, beauty without luxury, machines without enslaving factories, science without the worship of matter, would restore to man his intelligence, his moral sense, his virility,and lead him to the summit of his development.” [p299]
…”We must be freed from the universe created by scientists with their marvelous intelligence. We stand in awe before the great expanse of the material world, but it is too narrow for mankind… We know that we have a wider expanse that transcends the physical.”
   Alexis Carrel left a legacy that defies casual perusal –he appears in Man, The Unknown to be indoctrinated with the “negative eugenics” of his time, however, as a (very late) latecomer. Three decades earlier, while Cold Spring Harbor’s Eugenics Record Office was launching its family survey program from New York, Carrel, as an inexperienced MD in France,  was witnessing an unexplainable healing at the springs of Lourdes that changed his life. His new enthusiasm for the human soul and life-of-the-spirit soon excluded him from a medical career in his home country. He packed up for Montreal on the invitation of Canadian missionaries and carried on with building a brilliant reputation as a surgeon that led him to Chicago, the Rockefellers’ RIMR, and the winning of a Nobel Prize in 1912. He was different than his colleagues. His wife worked beside him as a surgical assistant. He spoke against war even though he dutifully served. Lindbergh was so impressed with Carrel that he bought a summer house in France so the two couples could spend long vacations together but it is unclear whether or not their camaraderie lasted beyond a summer or two. Lindbergh did not spend the “rest of his life” working with Carrel at the Rockefeller as Atala suggests.
   RIMR’s director, Simon Flexner, personally lobbied Carrel to join the staff (in 1906), but when Flexner retired in 1936, it seems Carrel was no longer welcome. By 1939, his lab was taken away and disassembled. The Carrels departed for France and became caught in wartime circumstances. Alexis Carrel, himself, made at least one more sojourn to New York on wartime medical business in the interests of the Rockefellers and thereafter “collaborated” with the Vichy government for a position leading the Institute for the Study of Human Problems. In 1944, Carrel died of heart failure. It is said that days later the press “mistakenly” reported that Carrel was a Nazi collaborator, an item of information that is prominently mentioned in his biographical sketches today, but referencing only his notable eugenical remarks. Some have even called him the “Father of the Gas Chambers” for penning an endorsement of euthanasia, though he was far from originating the idea. Edwin Black, author of War Against the Weak, would not have missed the opportunity to nail Carrel, as a payrolled Rockefeller employee, if it were true. Black’s treatise is devoted to the American origin of “negative eugenics” .
    So, it’s a curiosity that Dr. Atala should cite Carrel’s The Culture of Organs as his inspiration given the man’s controversial background and the Nazi taint that haunts both his and Lindbergh’s personal history There was so much more to him. A newspaper article from 1935 printed this: “Dr. Anton Julius Carlson, in whose laboratory fame first came to Dr. Alexis Carrel, scoffed today at his former associate’s new theory that [proposes]… [k]eeping a man in suspended animation.. so he can come back to life in the future century of his choice… The Chicago physiologist was even more critical of the Rockefeller Institute scientist’s declaration that ‘we know positively that clairvoyances are capable of perceiving past and future events’ and ‘it is far from being unreasonable to believe that some part of human personality may escape death.’http://www.lindberghkidnappinghoax.com/carrel.html
 “Lindbergh’s work with Carrel was interrupted on March 1, 1932,when his 2-year-old son, Charles, Jr, was kidnapped, and hisdead body was found 10 weeks later in a shallow grave. It took21/2 years for a suspect to be apprehended; Bruno Richard Hauptmannwas arrested on September 19, 1934, and was later was put ontrial. Because of Lindbergh’s celebrity, the events surroundingthe kidnapping, murder, and trial received enormous attentionfrom the press; it was billed as the trial of the century. Hauptmannwas convicted and executed. The United States Congress passeda law in response to the kidnapping, which made kidnapping acrossstate lines a federal crime for the first time. Both Charlesand Anne Lindbergh were intensely private people; therefore,to escape public attention they boarded a ship for Europe in1935, and they remained there until 1939 when they were forcedhome by the start of the war in Europe. Certain eventsduring that time placed Lindbergh on a downward spiral of publiccondemnation, parallel to a similar fall by his colleague, AlexisCarrelWhen the war began, the Lindberghs returnedto America, and in 1941, Lindbergh became a major spokesmanfor the “America First Committee,” an isolationist organizationopposed to the entry of the United States into the war in Europe.The once great man endured widespread condemnation within hisown country… 
    After the liberation of France in 1944,[Carrel] was relieved of all duties related to his institute and wasplaced under surveillance. An investigation began to evaluatethe extent of his collaboration with the Nazis and the Vichygovernment, but no conclusions were reached. Unremitting attacksby the press left Carrel deeply saddened, embittered, and depressed.He was a broken man when he died on November 5, 1944…http://ats.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/80/6/2415 
America First Comittee
“Founded in 1940 to fight against U.S. participation in World War II, the AFC initially enjoyed the backing of Henry Ford and the historian Charles A. Beard… the committee was especially active in Chicago. After Charles Lindbergh, an AFC leader, made what was widely considered an anti-Semitic speech in September 1941, the organization began to decline…
   “Peaking at 800,000 members, it was likely the largest anti-war organization in American history… Nothing did more to escalate the tensions than the speech [Lindbergh] delivered to a rally in Des Moines Iowa on September 11,1941. In that speech he identified the forces pulling America into the war as the British, the Roosvelt administration, and the Jews… During its existence it was seen by some on the left, especially Communists, as a Nazi front..” http://www.answers.com/topic/america-first-committee
Once war was declared, however, Lindbergh served the U.S. heroically as a civilian, flying over 32 (or 50) missions for the armed services. http://www.charleslindbergh.com/history/b24.asp . The America First Committee’s beginnings are retrospectively claimed to have a shadowy founding by Lessing J. Rosenwald, the son of Sears Roebuck & Co. magnate Julius Rosenwald. Lessing Rosenwald became a division chieftain of the War Production Board and Sears’ president, Robert Wood, took the leadership of the AFC.
   Maybe it’s glamour, mystique, and the larger-than-life auras of Carrel and Lindbergh that prompts Dr. Atala to cite them as his inspiration. They did not fundamentally contribute to the science for his work but they did provide Big Ideas. The nuts and bolts of virtual organs relies on the intrepid progress made in the culture of cells.

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Eastman-Kodak has “longterm plans to sell inkjet printers” http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Eastman_Kodak_Co._%28Kodak%29 , although no statement is made about medical use. Kodak has long participated in medical ‘establishment’ business, from x-ray plates, radiation badges, cigarette filters, vitamins and pharmaceuticals.
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The Culture of Cells
‘For the previous sixty years, from the time when cell culture technology began, in the late 1890s or 1900s,’ [Leonard] Hayflick explained, ‘it was believed virtually from day one that all cells put into culture were inherently immortal..’ …Alexis Carrel, a prominent doctor at the Rockefeller Institute, had mesmerized all of biology early in the century with the claim that cells grown in a culture dish would live forever. The French-born Carrel, who received a Nobel Prize in 1912 ..had in that same year placed a smidgen of heart muscle from a chick in a dish, replenished it almost daily with nutrients, and purportedly kept the cells growing and dividing right up to his death in 1944. It wasn’t just Carrel’s results but the theatrics surrounding his technique that created almost a cult of invincibility about the experiments. He insisted that the walls of a cell culture lab had to be painted black, and while performing their manipulations, his technicians donned long black gowns and hoods…[p25] ..everyone assumed that normal cells, whether isolated from chickens or humans, were immortal. Carrel’s mistake, science historian Jan Witkowski suggests, was that in replenishing the cell cultures with nutrients collected from freshly killed chicken embryos, he and his colleagues may inadvertently have supplied fresh new cells to the culture each time they fed them. In other words, they had merely created the illusion of immortality through sloppy laboratory technique. The gerontologist Steven Austad puts it more strongly: ‘It is now clear that the errors and incompetence were Carrel’s own, although a more charitable interpretation is that in his case it was the laboratory assistants who were incompetent or that they spiked the dishes occasionally with fresh cells because they were just too afraid to tell him that the cultures had died.’ .” [p26, Merchants of Immortality, 2003, by Stephen S. Hall]
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*
More from the Merchants of Immortality:
“One day during medical school in Texas, Michael West stared down at an unusual tumor in his dissection pan. The tumor is known as a teratoma or, when malignant, a teratocarcinoma. It is a rare form of cancer that typically develops in a cell of the reproductive organs, appearing adjacent to either an ovary or a testicle, and it is arguably the most bizarre amalgam of run-amok tissue that can occur in human beings. It behaves something like a cancerous embryo, capable of forming any of the body’s two hundred or so tissues, but without any of the embryo’s exquisitely honed biochemical checks and balances that herd cells toward normal development… West was fascinated by the teratoma in his dissection tray that day. ‘I opened it up, and..here’s an incisor and a molar,’ he said… ‘Beautiful pristine teeth. And the first thing I thought is, Can we make that happen in a dish? People need those cells… but what cells form these tissues, and how does it work?…I looked in textbooks and there was hardly anything on it. And I just stumbled across some stuff on mouse embryonic stem cells, which pointed out that if you put a mouse embryonic stem cell in perfect conditions, it’ll form a teratoma. And all of a sudden, it all made sense –that of course these are very primitive cells gone awry… And I thought, if we could just culture human embryonic stem cells, we could potentially make teeth and lots of other things..” [pp92-93]
“About that same time, a researcher at the University of California at San Francisco named Gail Martin isolated a version of the [mouse embryonic stem] cells. But there were intriguing early hints about this same class of regenerative cells in cancers known as embryonal carcinomas during the 1970s and, in a broader sense, in the purely observational annals of nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century medicine. Mark Pittenger, a researcher at Osiris Therapeutics in Baltimore, points out references to “wandering cells” in old medical journals, regenerative cells that appeared to gravitate to wounds and facilitate healing. Some of the first clues, Pittenger notes, were observed by battlefield surgeons… Julius Cohnheim, a famous nineteenth-century German pathologist, was among the first to assert that ‘wandering cells’ seemed to play a role in tissue regeneration….
…What exactly is a stem cell? That is a more controversial question to answer now than it was just a few years ago, following a host of preliminary but intriguing reports suggesting that brain stem cells can form blood, and blood stem cells can form neurons. This degree of developmental versatility has forced scientists to rethink the definition of the term…” [p94]
“In 1995, Alta Charo, a law professor at the University of Wisconsin, received a call out of the blue from a stranger who happened to be a colleague on the university’s science faculty. Jamie Thomson introduced himself… ‘He said he had been working on primates and was considering moving on to human work..” [p158] He applied to the university’s institutional review board, or IRB, shortly after publishing a paper in 1995 reporting the isolation of embryonic stem cells from monkeys…  Thomson..didn’t pave his route with press releases. He declined even to describe his lab’s creation of monkey stem cells at meetings until the experiments were published in August 1995 (although he shared the news with several like-minded researchers, including Roger Pedersen). And he rebuffed potential collaborators like Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, of the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, who approached Thomson’s lab immediately after the 1995 paper.
   But Itskovitz-Eldor was persistent, and he felt a special affinity for the University of Wisconsin. In 1985 he had traveled to Madison to learn micromanipulation techniques from Neal First, an animal scientist..who had been a pioneer in cattle cloning; Itskovitz-Eldor returned to Haifa and was among the first in the world to apply the technology to assisted reproductive medicine for humans. Twelve years later, in 1997, Itskovitz-Eldor organized a scientific meeting in Israel in honor of First and invited Jamie Thomson to speak. It provided another opportunity to lobby Thomson about a possible collaboration. The two scientists spent a couple of days together traveling around Israel, and Thomson finally agreed to work with Itskovitz-Eldor. It was a fateful decision. As a result, the Wisconsin group was able to work with both domestic and overseas sources of human embryonic material… As it turned out, the Israeli embryos generated more stem cell lines than the Wisconsin embryos –an outcome not without legal and scientific ramifications…[p159] For the Wisconsin group, the key to the entire set of experiments may not have had anything to do with the embryos per se but rather with the elixir in which the embryos grew. The Thomson lab received embryos at the cleavage stage, a very early phase of development that is reached a few days after fertilization. As this clutch of identical embryonic cells continues to divide, the primordial clump slowly doubles in roughly geometric progression: next 16 cells, then 32 cells, and so on. About 5 days after fertilization, the embryo contains 200 to 250 cells. At this point, a very primitive segregation of fate begins to unfold, and the first faint architecture begins to emerge in the form of the blastocyst, with about 30 embryonic stem cells. For a fleeting embryonic moment, each of these cells is endowed with a pluripotent genetic cargo: the biological capacity to become any cell type in the organism. That was the goal– to capture those fleeting, changeable cells.” [p161].
    “In May 1998 the NIH held a symposium on embryonic stem cells in Madison [Wisconsin]. Unbeknownst to government officials –indeed, to almost everyone– human ES cells had already been isolated. ‘At that time,’ recalled Itskovitz-Eldor, who had traveled to Madison for the meeting, ‘we never mentioned that there were human ES cells actually growing a few blocks from where the meeting was held.’ [p162] As the Wisconsin researchers began to explore the properties of these unusual cellular dynamos, the stem cell story, perhaps fittingly, converged with the telomere story. Unlike normal human cells, of the sort first grown in a test tube by Leonard Hayflick [at the Wistar Institute, www.polioforever.wordpress.com/hilary-koprowski/ ], embryonic stem cells expressed high levels of telomerase; in other words, these cells had managed to switch on the gene that tells the cell how to make telomerase, and the presence of this normally rare and suppressed enzyme effectively immortalized embryonic stem cells… they seemed never to hit the Hayflick Limit. They are, in a very real sense, immortal, until they receive a signal to specialize… Thomson and his colleagues acknowledged that the ability to produce a ‘potentially limitless source’ of neurons and cardiac cells, for example, had widespread implications for transplantation therapy.” [p163]
“In the summer of 1998, a young South American scientist named Jose Cibelli worked at Advanced Cell Technology [ACT] where [Michael] West had agreed to serve as president. He was due to arrive in Worcester full-time in October, but several months earlier Cibelli was dispatched to Haifa with the express intent of trying to clone human embryonic stem cells –in the same lab as one of [Jamie] Thomson’s collaborators…Itskovitz-Eldor…[p165]
“In the spring of 1998, exiled from Geron and divorced from the stem cell race he had personally organized, Michael West was wandering the world like an entreprenurial nomad, searching for a way to become a player again… West traveled to Scotland specifically to ask [Ian] Wilmut ['main architect of Dolly, the cloned sheep'] based at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, if he would like to collaborate in an effort to create human stem cells through cloning. [p166]  West continued to talk to anyone who would listen… He became infatuated with ‘nuclear transfer’, or cloning, as a way to obtain stem cells…
   “On the day West met with the Avian Farms delegation.. several [ACT] scientists dropped in to give brief seminars on their work. One of them was Jose Cibelli… He had done graduate studies at the University of Massachusetts in the laboratory of James Robl, one of ACT’s founders and eventually joined the company. As Cibelli spoke, West’s jaw dropped because the Argentine scientist described experiments he had done in Robl’s lab in which he had created a hybrid embryo, albeit short-lived, through the union of a cow egg and an adult human cell.
   “When Cibelli showed a slide of the cow-human embryo, West couldn’t believe his eyes… ‘I mean, he showed me human embryos that had made by cloning. And I had no idea– no one in the world had any idea that it’d been done… and I thought, ‘..this is exactly what I want to be doing..’  …What West probably didn’t know is that the 1994 embryo panel specifically mentioned interspecies cloning as one of those Rubicons of experimentation that should not be crossed.” [p167]
   “James Robl had stepped in to stop Cibelli’s original line of research at U Mass, but West has always given his scientific colleagues very free rein. West joined ACT as president in the fall of 1998 and immediately instructed Cibelli to get the cow-human work going again. West decided.. that he needed to disclose the company’s intention to pursue this line of experimentation, given the burgeoning controversy surrounding cloning and embryo research (he did not feel similarly compelled to mention Cibelli’s efforts in Israel just a few months earlier). And as he has often done, he went shopping for a friendly media outlet to retail his story. [p168]  ‘I was intrigued,’ admitted Alta Charo, who was at the time a member of the Clinton bioethics panel. ‘If it were the case that you could take an enucleated cow egg ad a human cell, and create an entity that functioned like a human embryo..so that you could get the stem cells, and then it decompensated later on, you would have evaded the problems of human embryo research because you would not have destroyed a viable human embryo.’ ” [p171]
  
Advanced Cell never set out, of course, to create cow-human embryos… The company first set out to clone barnyard animals, especially cows. Robl wanted.. bovine embryonic stem cells for a simple biological reason: ..[to] pluck these cells out of an embryo, genetically modify them (insert, for example, the gene for a pharmacologically desirable human protein like albumin) and reinsert them into another cow embryo to create..a pharmaceutical factory on hoofs… All of a sudden, Robl’s group had stumbled upon the very techniques.. mentioned as a theoretical route to the creation of human embryos: ‘somatic cell nuclear transfer’, or cloning… Here was a way..to get fetal animal cells for clinical use; the initial interest was the creation and harvest of dopaminergic neurons, the kind of brain cells that steadily disappear in Parkinson’s disease. [p215] Around that time, a..veterinarian from Argentina..arrived in Robl’s lab to pursue a master’s degree. Jose Cibelli..[came] to Amherst in January 1994. [p216]
    ‘We were talking about cells and organ transplants.. and saying ‘Wouldn’t it be great if there were a source of human tissue for transplants? That’s sort of where it started.’ The three scientists –Cibelli, Stice, and Golueke– knew they couldn’t obtain human [ES] cells because of the federal ban on funds for research… But they bandied about the idea of an audacious..experiment: Why not fuse the contents of an adult human cell with a cow egg? …It’s not clear whether anyone..was aware that the precedent had already been set by Philippe Collas’s similar experiments with rabbit eggs in 1990, although Collas [said] ‘Jose knew perfectly well what had gone on…[p217] His first attempt at human cloning began with..some large cells from the inside of his cheeks. Known as epithelial mucosal cells, these provided the adult cells he would use for nuclear transfer. Using the same techniques honed by years of cattle cloning, he vacuumed out the DNA from the cow eggs and then, using a tiny needle, inserted his own cheek cells, one per egg. ‘And after that, if you don’t do anything, the egg’s going to sit there and it’s just going to ..die after a few days,’ Cibelli explained. ‘It’s waiting for the sperm. So what you do is, you fool the egg..that it is fertilized.’ This bit of biochemical chicanery is achieved by dousing the cow egg with a chemical that makes it behave as though it has been impregnated by sperm… ‘He did a bunch of them,’ Robl remembered, ‘..but [it's] very difficult to get a blastocyst.’ [p218]. When all was said and done, Cibelli had managed to create several short-term cow-human embryos… The biologists never characterized the cells in their hybrid embryo, and never even bothered to submit a scientific paper reportng it… no one can say with any biological certainty what exactly Jose Cibelli had created in the union of his cheek cell and a cow egg…” [p219] But it was also clear, even then, that cow-human embryos were less than ideal as a source of human stem cells. The best source, obviously, would be an intact human embryo…[T]he world would learn in good time, human oocytes were indeed under consideration at ACT. [p224]
*
“Ali Hemmati Brivanlou..on the seventh floor of a building at Rockefeller University..the morning of November 10, 2000..[p174]..had already made arrangements with Zev Rosenwaks, director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility at New York Weill Cornell, to collaborate. ‘He has already given me eight embryos’…[p176] In the summer of 2000, he had reached a tentative..arrangement with Zev Rosenwaks, an Israeli-born expert in reproductive medicine, who had agreed to supply Brivanlou’s lab with surplus human embryos left over from in vitro fertilization..at Weill Cornell’s IVF center..[p177] In purely pragmatic terms, the earliest moments of human development held the key to tissue regeneration and cellular repair… ‘As you know,’ Brivanlou said that day, ‘nobody can stop scientists from doing the experiments they want to do. Nobody.’ [p178]
*
1998 Report: Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts http://www.utoronto.ca/mcmm-escells/thomson.pdf
*
“[Michael] West was pilloried for announcing that ACT was conducting the experiments, but in fact a number of leaders in he field..end[ed] up pursuing variations on the same general theme: create a ‘thing’ that couldn’t techncally be called a human embryo but could be used to harvest immunologically compatible stem cells… Other researchers, in England and Israel and Singapore, where the political constraints on research were not driven by the same religious concerns, were trying to create embryos in IVF clinics… [p172]
   “They never saw it as a way to create copies of animals, or humans for that matter. Rather, they saw it as an immensely powerful biological tool… Following his studies in England, [Douglas] Melton returned to Harvard..[and] began to catalogue the proteins that control the development of organs, especially in the nervous system. They learned that certain of these growth factors, or ‘morphogens’, could basically generate nearly any cellular fate depending on their concentration… [Brivanlou] was astonished to find that when you blocked activin, virtuallyall the cells in [an]..embryo became brain cells…[pp181-182]
   “[I]n the late 1990s, work at the Salk Institute, in the laboratory of Fred Gage,..another of StemCell’s cofounders,..electrified the field of neuroscience when they reported the existence of adult neural progenitor cells in the mammalian brain. Gage deliberately shies away from the term stem cell to describe these adult cells, because he’s still not sure what they are. But they can be recovered from the brain tissue of rats, for example, and possess the capacity to differentiate into either of the two main neural cells, neurons and glial cells… [p238] Gage’s group has shown that neural progenitor cells, when transplanted into an adult nervous system, migrate to the zone in the brain where new neurological cells are formed, and will also migrate to areas of injury…’Not only are new cells born, but they undergo synaptogenesis,’ Gage said..meaning they form the connections, or synapses, that link nerve cells.” [p239]
*
…and finally, a last composition of excerpts from Merchants of Immortality:
“Bone marrow transplants, first attempted in the early 1960s, achieved a routine success by the 1970s..because patients received..hematopoietic (or blood-forming) stem cells. These are progenitor cells of the blood system and possess the ability to differentiate..into all the cells of a healthy and whole blood system… [T]his spongy matrix of tissue, encased in a sanctuary of bone, is..recognized as the body’s safe-deposit box..for some of the body’s most precious regenerative jewels –namely, cells that can differentiate into many other tissues. In fact, adult stem cells from the marrow have actually been a proven..respectable feature of medicine for about four decades. It’s just that..no one referred to them as stem cells.[p229].  The existence of that marvelously prolific ['mother'] cell was first proposed in the early 1960s and grew out of medical experiments related to nuclear warfare and radiation exposure. Two Canadian researchers, J.E. Till and E.A. McCulloch, ..subjected mice to lethal doses of radiation that destroyed the rodents’ entire blood-making apparatus in the marrow; then they infused small amounts of blood..sufficient to rebuild the animals’ entire blood and immunological systems. [p230] According to [Bob] Deans, these mesenchymal [marrow] stem cells are conspicuously denuded of typical immunological markings…meaning that they can evade a basic form of scrutiny by immune sentinels known as T cells; they also lack a marker known as B-7 which..revs up an immune response. Deans added that these stem cells may even secrete a factor that actively inhibits a normal immune response…’The cells seem to be totally immunoprivileged and we are currently doing a study where we are injecting cells from one animal into another with no immunosuppression, and we are seeing no rejection.’ The cells, in other words, seem to deploy a biological stealth technology to remain immunologically invisible. This…could open the door to the use of universal donor cells…’It changes the whole ball game in terms of commercialization,’ said Brad Martin. When this immunological invisibility was first observed, Osiris scientists were stunned. ‘In the last year, this all came to light, and we are all just amazed,’ said Martin in May 2001.” [p234].
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Info on Dr. Atala
Video (8min) on regenerating organs and tissue; “it’s the future today” http://dotsub.com/view/8d948fb7-9c22-4a4f-a8ea-896c02a8f57f
Dr. Atala’s bioengineered “neo-organs” http://mediligence.com/blog/2006/04/10/bioengineered-bladders/
[2009] “Lab grown penis helps rabbits mate…like rabbits” http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/11/09/us-penis-artificial-idUKTRE5A85L220091109
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Xenotransplantation:

“Biotechnology now allows us to genetically engineer animals so that they produce proteins that are human pharmaceuticals. For certain drugs that are difficult to produce using existing methods or are needed in large quantities, production in GE animals offers the most efficient and practical solution… Other applications include making animal organs compatible with humans, a technology known as xenotransplantation. Research is being conducted to produce transplant organs in pigs that may be a source of organs for humans.” http://www.bio.org/foodag/animals/GE_An_Pharm_0908.pdf

November 8, 2010

Atomic Power, No Contest

An undying historical controversy is being erected around the confabulous “Race for the Bomb” between the American and Nazi powers of World War II, proving that the weavers of civilization are not done with this story and may never be, in fact, for its life-altering import. It’s not enough that we were sufficiently hoaxed at the time. The continuing aim is to support the enduring sacred cows of racial hatred and human aggression; qualities that root deeply in the circumstances of September 11. We must become true believers in our own nihilistic blindness. The future depends on it, otherwise we would not submit to be changed and made fit for a Golden Age of peace and plenty. When the teachings of the future recall the lessons of the past, they will stand on the record.
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                                                                       For the record:
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James B.Conant, Harvard president and Manhattan Project executive, wrote: [from the biography, James B. Conant, by James Hershberg, pp163-164]
We must consider..what the time schedule of the enemy may be. It is quite possible that the Germans are a year ahead of us, or perhaps have even eighteen months head start… To my mind, it is this fear that the Germans may be near the goal which is the prime reason for an all out effort now on this gamble
[biographer Hershberg] “Conant’s apprehensions reflected his awareness of both the prewar prowess of German physics and a steady stream of ambiguous yet alarming intelligence –circumstantial evidence, snippets of conversations with scientists in Europe who maintained contacts in Germany, worst-case analysis and extrapolation– indicating that  German atomic project might be on the verge of success. Six months earlier, in May [of 1942], he had guessed that the Germans were at most a year ahead. But then, over the summer, for example, prodded by Leo Szilard and other physicists at Chicago, Arthur Compton in great distress had passed [Vannevar] Bush and Conant allegedly “reliable” information that German physicists had successfully achieved a self-sustaining chain reaction, and warned of an imminent threat of a German atomic weapon, either a method for spreading radioactive fission products “in lethal quantities” or a bomb ready for use on Allied targets “in 1943, a year before our bombs are planned to be ready”. Compton urged Bush to step up “sabotage, air, and commando raids” to disrupt the German project, and to step up the pace of U.S. efforts. Cables shot back and forth between Washington and London, with Conant and the British atomic leaders trading rumors about the extent of German progress and showing special concern about the activities of Werner Heisenberg, the renowned physicist said to be heading nuclear efforts at the Kaiser Wilhelm institutes in Berlin-Dahlem.
But in fact, the warnings of a German lead were false, often the product of garbled second- and third-hand conversations embellished by fear: German physicists had indeed been conducting research for the Nazi regime on atomic energy, reporting their results to Albert Speer and other top civilian and military officials, but by the spring of 1942 authorities concluded that the possible military uses were too distant to suit immediate war priorities, and relegated atomic research to a backwater behind other secret weapons projects. Although the motives behind the German physicists’ assessments and ultimate failure remain disputed…by December 1942 the Nazi government had already turned away from a crash program to develop nuclear weapons and the race that so obsessed Conant was essentilly uncontested. Much later, after the war, Conant claimed that he was “never convinced that the Germans were anywhere near getting a bomb”, and spoke rather scornfully of “ghosts that were being seen by some of my scientific friends.”
But that was after-the-fact wisdom: he too, resorted to the argument that the Germans might get the bomb first in order to pressure recalcitrant contractors or scientists, and as he summarized his estimate of the situation to [Leslie] Groves, and then to Bush for transmission to Roosevelt, he certainly seemed to take the fear seriously.”
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The Bomb story is usually told against the backdrop of WWII, portrayed as a flukish convergence of ripe scientific knowledge and the dire necessity of acting in a time of great moral danger ; an ingenious response to an accident of fate. But looking at its creators, the scientists who provided the “stream of ..intelligence” to the statesmen, proves a different sort of “inevitability”. We’re reminded today that “science is not the highest value in society”* but for a brief time in history it was, and spectacularly so.
    Niels Bohr, Leo Szilard, and Albert Einstein emerged from the center of this whirlwind as the proper ‘fathers’ of the Bomb who committed themselves to its production more than a decade before its ‘invention’ and use. Szilard even appears to have been willing to stage his own Manhattan Project failing the support of state-sponsorship, enlisting the fundraising acumen of Chaim Weizmann at the University of Manchester in 1936 for his “chain reaction committee”. State sponsorship, however, was a foregone conclusion. Bohr was to say that making the atom bomb would take turning a whole country into a factory. The United States was prepared, only the majority of its citizens and leaders were grossly unaware. The design of key elements of infrastructure essential to the project were tabled in the late 1920s and by 1933 the whole of the machinery began to turn for a nuclear future.
                                                          Niels Bohr
                               Fathers of the Bomb http://pathtoliberty.co/fatherbomb.html
Niels Bohr was a scion of international Jewish bankers who was recognized as the founder of modern physics. An institute was founded for him at the University of Copenhagen c. 1920 by the patronage of the Carlsberg (brewery) and Rockefeller Foundations which became a great crossroads for physical science and philosophy.  In 1922, Bohr won the Nobel Prize and began a life’s mission to forge an “open” world.
   Bohr was nearly the sole source for the infamous “race for the bomb” intelligence and  privy to special knowledge about Werner Heisenberg and most all the scientists in the field.  During the war, Bohr traveled as a self-directed diplomat for the sharing of nuclear technology with the USSR and used his stature and persuasion to plan the international regulation of atomic weapons and energy.
   Bohr traveled back to the US in 1943 to join the Manhattan Project: “The official Los Alamos history reads, ‘..He came at the right moment… the innumerable small problems which confronted the physicists had led them [away] from fundamental problems of the bomb. Study of the fission process had been neglected, obstructing reliable predictions of important phenomena… Bohr’s interest gave rise to new activities.. which cleared up many questions left unanswered before.’ ” [p237, The Deadly Element, by Lennard Bickel, 1979]
                                                             Leo Szilard
Szilard (a.k.a Spitz or Szoldos) was born into an upperclass family of Jewish freemasons living in Hungary. In 1919, he went to study in Berlin and met Albert Einstein for the first time. Szilard and Einstein met again in 1921 Prague, where the two began a long and often “unusual” working relationship. There are no specific public documents to clarify whether Szilard and Einstein achieved a nuclear chain reaction in the 1920s, but there is the appearance of careful omissions and strong probabilities.
   Szilard was drafted in 1933 to administer the international rescuers ‘placement’ of scientists through the auspices of the British Academic Assistance Committee, which enabled approx. 2,000 academics to relocate before the war. In 1938, he came to the U.S. and took an assignment with the ‘reactor’ group that began at Columbia University and moved to Chicago’s “Metallurgical Lab”. The Met Lab became a center of foment for scientific control of the Manhattan Project. Szilard was known to have authored the “Einstein letters” which urged FDR to make the Bomb.
In the post-war, Szilard turned to molecular biology and politics. During the 50s, he helped to shape the Salk Institute and joined its fellowship until his death in 1964.
                                             Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein is dubiously considered the 20th century’s greatest mind. A remarkable feature of his personality was his native instinct to slavishly endow Thought as the highest value in life. In this respect, Einstein was distinctively anti-social, lacking a personal value for ‘socialization’. This required him to deal with social issues as problems of necessity; subjects which seem to have held deep fascination for him.
Embraced within the academic community of Jews and Zionists as he matured, Einstein became an official emissary for the World Zionist Organization, adopting and refining the Jewish value system as his own social outlook. In the arena of worldly politics for which he became a reluctant but high-profile spokesman, Einstein’s fidelity to Zionism remaind steadfast. He accurately discerned the pitfalls of geopolitical statehood for the Jews and maintained his famous ‘internationalism’ as a designated pacifist.
   For the record, Einstein’s contradictory role in world events has been papered over with ambiguity. He identified himself as belonging to a special class within his Jewish ‘nation’ (Zionist) but publicly opposed Israeli statehood on the grounds of the degenerative proscriptions of maintaining a recognizable country which he intuited as anathema and counter-productive to Jewish spirituality, his highest social value. In this manner, Einstein was fundamentally distanced from the Zionist objective to provide and protect a Jewish homeland.
                                                    
It’s imperative for us to appreciate and define the methods of  “distancing” as evidence of pre-planning.
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In his 1991 book, The Samson Option, Seymour Hersh relates a very understated event concerning a recommendation from Albert Einstein to Chaim Weizmann, made while Einstein was teaching at Princeton (A.E. was in residence at the Institute of Advanced Study as of October 1933). Weizmann was looking for a director to run the Daniel Sieff Institute near Tel Aviv which was formally founded in 1934. Einstein recommended Ernst David Bergmann, future father of the Israeli bomb. At that time, writes Hersh, “Bergmann..didn’t get the job for reasons not known.” [footnote, p25]. The text describing Bergmann, however, suggests the reasons pertained to Bergmann’s presence on the faculty at Manchester University,  doing secret defense work for the British while double-timing them making explosives for the Hagannah beginning in 1936. The Zionists, within the decade, launched an “underground war” against the British and Arabs [i.e. bombing the King David Hotel]. Bergmann could hardly have advertized his real loyalties to the Hagannah as a guest “refugee” in England, arranged by Chaim Weizmann. Hersh reports, “Bergmann left England shortly after Germany invaded Poland in the fall of 1939. Weizmann had intervened once again and found him a job with old friends who owned a chemistry laboratory in Philadelphia. It didn’t work out, and another old friend from Germany, Herman Mark, came to his rescue: “He had no space. So we invited him to come to Brooklyn.” Mark had been driven out of Europe in 1938 and ended up doing research for a Canadian paper company in Ontario. By 1940 he was running a laboratory at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; two years later he became dean of faculty and turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. “The whole gang came to America” said Mark, who, when interviewed for [the Samson Option] was the sole survivor of that period.
With the defeat of Hitler, there was one final migration for Bergmann: to Palestine… Bergmann was Weizmann’s first choice to become director of the institute… Without Bergmann, insisted Herman Mark, there would have been no Israeli bomb: “He was in charge of every kind of nuclear activity in Israel. He was the man who completely understood it [nuclear fission], and then explained it to other people” [said Mark, continuing]..”We were both of the same opinion –that eventually Israel has to be in full cognizance and knowledge of what happens in nuclear physics. Look, a new type of chemical reaction was discovered at Los Alamos. Whether it’s desalination, a power plant, or a bomb makes no difference –it’s still fission.”[pp23-26]
   Neither Seymour Hersh nor his source,  Herman Mark, unsettle the official version of the Bomb’s beginnings. Statements more directly to the point of early development have been uttered by the scientists themselves, such as Edward Teller’s remark from his “Memoirs” about his work with Enrico Fermi in 1932. Teller alludes to the fact that Fermi’s failure to produce chain reaction was due to Fermi’s equations: Fermi “suspected…that he had opened the door to the transuranic elements…He had the right theory but the wrong experimental information. Had he guessed the right result, the hunt for chain reactions would have started sooner.”  http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/FathersoftheBombPartIIIEnricoFermi.html
Teller edged closely to forbidden disclosures in his autobiography. In particular, he recounted his days as the director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he baldly claims to have authorized secret weapons work in contramand to a nuclear moratorium under the administration of John F. Kennedy. During this same time period, Herman Mark’s son, Hans Mark , was working with Teller at LLNL.
The Samson Option provides a footnote:
[p23] “Herman Mark was ninety-five years old when interviewed in 1990 at his son’s home in Austin, Texas. Hans Mark, then chancellor of the University of Texas, was himself no stranger to the world of intelligence and nuclear weapons. As Air Force secretary, he also wore what is known in the government as a “black hat”: he was the head of the executive committee, or Ex-com, of the National Reconnaisance Office (NRO), a most-secret unit that is responsible for the development, procurement, and targeting of America’s intelligence satellites. As a nuclear physicist, Hans Mark had worked for twelve years beginning in 1955 for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California, one of America’s main nuclear weapons facilities. For four of those years he served as a division leader in experimental physics.”
Herman Mark is the “father of polymer science”, and was a longtime employee of I.G.Farben.
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Before World War I, the I.G. Farben consortium was known to Americans as the “Big Six”, known for its chemical trade in coal-tar (aniline) derivatives. Howard Ambruster, author of “Treason’s Peace: German Dyes and American Dupes” insisted that Farben “is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which.. operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest– and a world super-state directed by Farben.”
   I.G. Farben and Rockefeller’s Standard Oil struck a major business deal in 1925 to share the proceeds of a new oil hydrogenation process, a deal that was formalized in 1927. Ambruster added, “The list of American corporations involved in the Farben pattern reads like a roster of big business, high finance, and bi-partisan politics in the United States.” He wrote, “..it was apparent that better methods must be devised to disguise the American fronts to which titles to new patents and processes might be safely transferred.”
   Farben was consolidated in 1926 by the Warburgs, and the German chemical business which had been fractured during WWI, regained its American affiliates as a multiplex of drug, dye, and chemical entities:
When World War II began, Farben was not in such complete control of the coal-tar dye industry in the U.S. as its predecessors had been in 1914, but in 1939 Farben’s American drug and dyetstuff affiliates were much more powerful than those ‘Big Six’ agents who had so effectively prevented the establishment of our munitions industry prior to the first World War”…”Farben had crept back through side doors and cellar windows and seized a good half”…”The Oil Industry came next on Farben’s agenda.. [where]new developments..promised to be among the most important munitions of the next war..”
The Standard-Farben/Rockefeller-Warburg conglomerate created by the 1927 alliance became the most powerful industrial cartel in world history. In keeping with Rockefeller policy to establish a concensus-forming “hegemonic bloc”, the uppermost strata of policymakers were energetically aligning the combined purposes of the greater organization, succinctly described in my previous post [Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science] as the global control of biological destiny.
   The most telling forecast of this epic merger echoes from the person of Colonel Edward Mandell House, who reputedly said to Woodrow Wilson in 1913:
Very soon, every American will be required to register [his] biological property in a national system designed to keep track of the people… By such methodology, we can compel people to submit to our agenda… Every American will be forced to register or suffer being able to work and earn a living. They will be our chattel and we will hold the security interest over them forever by operation of the law merchant… They will be stripped of their rights and given a commercial value… and they will be none the wiser, for not one man in a million could ever figure our plans.” [note here that for the next two decades Eugenics was at its zenith, openly advocated until public awareness and disfavor altered the practices]
   The Rockefeller-Warburg merger then in effect, in 1913, brought about the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank. The Rockefeller Foundation received its Congressional charter in the same year. The 1913 Rockefeller charter is perhaps the strongest signal from history that ‘private sector’ fascist forces were henceforth in charge of America’s civil affairs. Significant institutional partnerships evolved with the U.S. government in the fields of medicine, public health, education and finance and all of these bore enormous “military interest” prior to WWI, the Great War. These were the ‘legal’ channels of operation, however, there were wholly illicit operations underway that depended upon the RF’s international scope of cooperation and the ‘legal’ premises of other nations.
                                                   
Albert Einstein, in an interview to the Niewe Rotterdamsche Courant, July 1921 [sourced from pp3-6 of Einstein's compilation "Ideas and Opinions", Crown Publishers, NY]:
“My First Impressions of the USA –
..What first strikes the visitor with amazement is the superiority of this country in matters of technology and organization… Everything is designed to save human labor. Labor is expensive, because the country is sparsely populated in comparison with its natural resources. The high price of labor was the stimulus which evoked the marvelous development of technical devices and methods of work. The opposite extreme is illustrated by over-populated China or India, where the low price of labor has stood in the way of the development of machinery. Europe is halfway between the two. Once the machine is sufficiently highly developed it becomes cheaper in the end than the cheapest labor. Let the Fascists in Europe.. take heed of this. However, the anxious care with which the United States keep out foreign goods by means of prohibitive tariffs certainly contrasts oddly with the general picture… it is not absolutely certain that every question admits of  rational answer.
…The American lives even more for his goals, for the future, than the European. Life for him is always becoming, never being. In this respect he is even further removed from the Russian and the Asiatic than the European is… [albeit] he is less of an individualist than the European –that is, from the psychological, not the economic, point of view.
More emphasis is laid on the “we” than the “I”… there is much more uniformity both in outlook on life and in moral and esthetic ideas among Americans than among Europeans. This fact is chiefly responsible for America’s economic superiority over Europe. Cooperation and the division of labor develop more easily and with less friction..whether in the factory or the university or in private charity. This social sense may be partly due to the English tradition.
In apparent contradiction to this stands the fact that the activities of the State are relatively restricted as compared with those in Europe. The European is surprised to find the telegraph, the telephone, the railways, and the schools predominantly in private hands. The more social attitude of the individual, which I mentioned just now, makes this possible here. Another consequence of this attitude is that the extremely unequal distribution of property leads to no intolerable hardships. The social conscience of the well-to-do is much more highly developed… public opinion, that all-powerful force, imperiously demands it…[h]ence the most important cultural functions can be left to private enterprise and the part played by government in this country is, comparatively, a very restricted one.
The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the Prohibition law. For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced. It is an open secret that the dangerous increase in crime in this country is closely connected with this.
There is also another way in which Prohibition, in my opinion, undermines the authority of the government. The public house is a place which gives people the opportunity to exchange views and ideas on public affairs. As far as I can see, such an opportunity is lacking in this country, the result being that the Press, which is mostly controlled by vested interests, has an excessive influence on public opinion.”
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No period in U.S. history appears as socially subversive as Prohibition –in the west, massive fortunes were newly created, ‘old’ colonial trade routes reopened, alcoholism increased dramatically and a staggering criminal counterculture was legitimized. The story of the  immigrant Canadian Bronfman family is a case-in-point, shedding light on a multitude of  “English traditions” that were serviced in those years. On the face of it, the Rockefellers were staunchly allied to the Temperance unions. The U.S. Treasury Dept. became an overtly armed faction of the government while administering, at the same time, the U.S. Public Health Service. More about Prohibition will be linked here, but it suffices to note that Prohibition engendered unprecedented policing by the State,  militarizing civilian infrastructure under deeply polarized conditions which seeded practices of corruption and noncompliance throughout the country, even in small towns and farming regions where ‘alcohol’ was needed for truck and tractor fuel.
Across the Atlantic, WWI’s ruined European economies set a course to rebuild on the new scientific technologies enabled by chemistry and physics. Many of the same pipelines and methods developed by bootleggers for intercontinental transport were exploited for the transfer of technology, making strange bedfellows and enduring relationships among ‘legitimate’ public figures and the underworld.
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“The Infancy of Particle Accelerators” was a post-WWI phenomenon in Europe led by electrical engineers such as Norway’s Rolf Wideroe who left his testimony about a variety of high-energy experiments going on in the early 1920s. Wideroe remarked on “ray transformers” in Berlin and his encounters in Germany with Leo Szilard and other scientists who struggled in the climate of extreme monetary inflation; “while one U.S.-dollar had been equivalent of 192 marks in January 1922, by the end of 1923 it was about 4,200,000 marks!” http://www-library.desy.de/elbooks/wideroe/WiE-CONT.htm
Scientists and technical students in Germany hung out the ‘for sale’ sign, desperate for sponsorship by industry and eager to accept any form of back-channel funding. Professor Max Born and his friend Einstein, for example, became the out-of-pocket beneficiaries of the American banker Henry Goldman, though this arrangement and many others were quiet assurances that their projects were well protected. The atmosphere, however, forecast that it was up to the world’s monied interests to ‘save science’, as the British founders of the 1933 rescue organization, the AAC, would later say.
   Particle accelerators, which were x-ray machines in principle, allowed experimental physics to advance quickly in the realm of high-energy research. Ernest O. Lawrence, who based his “cyclotron” invention on the previous work of Wideroe, was set up at the University of California Berkeley in 1928 with grants from the Rockefeller-controlled American Chemical Society with the express task of making radiopharmaceuticals. By design, Americans were counted upon to innovate and industrialize the processes of nuclear development. The situation demanded that avenues of exchange be opened for training young scientists and bringing nuclear technology into the United States, all the while quashing homegrown advances. Ironically, Ernest Lawrence did not receive an elite physicist’s education but instead was indoctrinated through the Bohemian Club.
   The Rockefeller Foundation established its International Education Board in 1928 to provide scholarships for the particular purpose of nuclear-chemical training. Abraham Flexner, Rockefeller’s career director of education, frankly recounted in his paper legacy that the Foundation was buying its own science and that the IEB was “not an education board”. Flexner himself personally arranged funds for “Nazi” eugenicists (Emil Aberhalden and Heinrich Poll) and physicists, such as Max Born.
   Born was a teacher of teachers in Gottingen, Einstein’s close lifelong friend, and the supervisor of  ‘atomic spy’ Klaus Fuchs in Scotland. Flexner’s role in preparing the U.S. to become a bomb factory was in the founding of Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study and the organization of medical facilities that contributed basic experimental research to the Manhattan Project. Medical reseach was Rockefeller’s strong suit, highly organized in the decade before WWI.
   The most critical preparation for the United States to build the Bomb was the cooperative effort with government to provide the electricity to power the huge facilities like DuPont’s Hanford plutonium plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee’s gaseous diffusion operation, and the desert laboratories and testing grounds. Once these plans were secure, the destiny of America unfolded on schedule.
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Canadian Niagra Power Company — principal owners Rothschild, Morgan, and Astor– supplier to Toronto Electric Light Co.was turned over for refurbishment and nationalization in 1927-28.
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Hoover Dam: proposed by Herbert Hoover, as the new Sec. of Commerce,  in 1921. “Hoover Dam legislation..occupied the attention of Congress from 1922-28″ [from the papers of William C. Mullendore]. The charter passed in 1928 and dam construction began in 1931.
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Grand Coulee Dam: Columbia River, Washington. Grand Coulee is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world. Operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, construction began in 1933.
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Tennessee Valley Authority: chartered in May of 1933, overseen by a board of governors. TVA governor David Lilienthal became the first chief of the Atomic Energy Commission.
“Less than three months after its creation in 1933, TVA began construction of its multipurpose dam system. High dams were built on tributary rivers… Low dams were built on the Tennessee and Clinch Rivers… In the early 1940’s a massive construction effort was undertaken to build 10 hydroelectric dams to provide electricity needed for the war effort. Electricity was needed to make aluminum for warplanes and by the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge.” http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/kw26ek/Kathryn%20Jackson%20Lecture%20Notes%20April%2011.pdf
“The largest Tennessee ‘eminant domain’ takeover..was the TVA Reclamation Project, which ended up acquiring more than a million acres [1.3 million]…50,000 folks were displaced…the entire TVA..Project totaled nearly 70 dams.” http://nashville.about.com/od/governmentpolitics/a/tntvaemindomain.htm
“..the first dam TVA built..is named for Senator George Norris of Nebraska, author of the legislation that created TVA.. The town of Norris..was sold to private owners in 1948 ” http://www.tva.gov/sites/norris.htm

TVA’s power director, Julius A. Krug, advanced during WWII to become the chairman of the War Production Board. http://www.etsu.edu/cass/Archives/Collections/afindaid/a233.html ; and TVA’s influential Governor, David Lilienthal, became the first chief of the Atomic Energy Commission.
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Herbert Hoover, London-based mining engineer and executive, represented the concerted interests of the Rothschilds and Rockefellers in politics. His famed mining career began in the goldfields of western Australia (‘Sons of Gwalia’ gold mine) in 1897 where he also co-founded the Zinc Corporation (Rio-Tinto-Zinc Ltd) in 1905: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/hoover-herbert-clark-6729
     Hoover’s career in government began during WWI with an appointment as chief of the Belgian Relief Commission, known as the “food regulator of the world”, Hoover’s role expanded to head the (later) U.S. Food Administration. His close associate on this project was the young Kuhn, Loeb & Co. banker Lewis L. Strauss who simultaneously directed a Rothschild hospital in New York (as of 1917 to 1925), later received an officer’s commission in Naval intelligence (rising to Rear Admiral by WWII, helped create the Office of Naval Research) and also became chief of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1953-58 after a stint as personal Rockefeller family financier. http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
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Hoover was the first ‘scientist’ president of the U.S., serving 1929 to 1933.
Hoover’s official positions in the U.S. Government: http://www.hoover.archives.gov/info/awards.html
In 1931 Bertrand Russell published a statement that “civilization cannot afford to leave administrative control in the hands of those who have no firsthand knowledge of science… Scientific workers must accept responsibility for the control of the forces which have been released by their work. Without their help, efficient administration and a high degree of statesmanship are virtually impossible… In the international sphere [scientific] advisory committees of experts have since the war [WWI] exerted a remarkable influence even when devoid of all legislative authority… the scientific expert can already exert an effective influence when normal administrative effort has failed… [W]elcome signs..now recognized by scientific workers themselves.
…The society of experts which I am imagining will embrace all eminent men of science… It will possess the sole up-to-date armaments, and will be the repository of all new secrets in the art of war. There will therefore be no more war…” [The Scientific Outlook; chapter, The Society of Experts]
“The Hoover Myth, the picture of the great engineer…was built up by one of the most skillful propaganda machines in the history of American politics”…”[L]ittle of the man himself was known. Long periods of his life were utterly blank…His business career and operations were carefully guarded and elaborately obscured.” …”his course on government regulations of utilities has been..devious…concerning the need for control of public utilities..”
In the London business world “Hoover [had] the favorable attention of the Rothschilds who made him director of their firm Rio Tinto. Chairman was Lord Milner, who founded the Round Tables which later became the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) and its subsidiary, the Council on Foreign Relations.”
   “In 1916, the promoters of WWI were dismayed when Germany insisted she could not continue in the war because of shortages of food and money”… Warburgs arranged money transfers but “food presented a more difficult problem. It was finally decided to ship it directly to Belgium as ‘relief for the starving Belgians’. The supplies could then be shipped over Rothschild railway lines into Germany. As director for this ‘relief’ operation, the Rothschilds chose Herbert Hoover. His partner in the Belgian Relief Commission was Emile Francqui, chosen by Baron Lambert, head of the Belgian Rothschild family.”
                                                     
Writer Nicholas Faith, author of The Bronfmans [2006], includes a footnote on page 123:
The Bronfmans’ only encounter with a Nazi had been in the early 1930s when they met von Ribbentrop, later Hitler’s foreign minister but then selling champagne..on behalf of his father-in-law. According to Saidye [Samuel Bronfman's wife] their host assured them that when Adolf Hitler came to power they would find that his attacks on the Jews were meant purely for show and would not be carried out in practice.”
Nicholas Faith apparently, included this significant footnote –the only mention of a Nazi anything in the relevant time period, from the 1930s-50s– based on his confidence that readers would supply an orthodox historical context. Huge by implication, however, the subject is avoided to an extent that seems phobic in light of this information. Other Jewish history sources add less overtly to a body of statements that indicate a decade or more of foreknowledge to an impending ‘genocide':  the Jewish American Hall of Fame, for example, notes that Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, “in 1933, at age 73,..embarked on a major new project rescuing Jewish children from the oncoming Holocaust.”[emphasis added]  www.amuseum.org/jah/virtour/page14.html
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There is no delicate way to say that without a Holocaust there would have been no race for the Bomb, both of which can now be seen as filled with fictions;  they were necessary counterweights to bring the Bomb into existence. The undoing of one threatens the undoing of the other. I consider it an exceptional intrigue that the  “discredited”  British historian David Irving has been poised as an authority on both subjects!
Irving’s confirmation of the race for an atomic bomb is evident on his website, praising the book “The Virus House” which was drawn primarily on personal interviews and secret papers supplied by atomic physicist Samuel Goudsmit who co-led the USA’s “ALSOS” mission to capture and quarantine Germany’s nuclear scientists at the end of WWII. Irving writes: “My publisher..was eager to publish what I had already assembled.. but I convinced him to let me follow my hunch, that the bulk of the 1943-1945 ALSOS investigation were in the archives of the Atomic Energy Commission at Oak Ridge Tennessee… [my] suppositions proved correct. I stayed for several days as Goudsmit’s guest at Brookhaven Physics Laboratory on Long Island..”. Goudsmit had supplied many of these official documents and he had changed his story a number of times over the years which goes unmentioned by Irving. Originally, Goudsmit held that the Germans were nowhere close to constructing a bomb –a claim that he later reported was made under “pressure”.
Once again, in a familiar pattern of promoting disinformation, Irving’s scholarship supporting the German atomic bomb project  appears like the preplacement of a “taint” on his work, and suggests he may be colluding to bring out “Holocaust denial” in a way that is ultimately desirable to the world’s controllers who wish to purvey the dangerous rising of Neo-nazism. Irving’s theses seem additionally like an advertisement of priorities; the Bomb Race stays intact, and the Jewish Holocaust (much too ingrained to ‘downgrade’ )  is demonstrated by Irving’s example as unlawful to “revise”. Looks like a win-win for guess who? Is David Irving a dupe or a collaborator?
 There is much more to say about the role of Samuel Goudsmit.
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…”The story of the bomb begins at the turn of the century. Up through the mid-1920s, physical chemists came to know that both nuclear fusion and a nuclear-fission chain-reaction were possible. It started with chemist Dmitri Mendeleyov’s development of his Periodic Law, continued with the related discoveries of the Curies and their student, the Russian scientific genius Vladimir Vernadsky, the discoveries of Chicago’s William Draper Harkins and of Britain’s Ernest Rutherford…
   “Harkins replicated crucial evidence of stellar thermonuclear fusion in a Wilson chamber in 1915. Rutherford also assembled data (which he was later pressured to suppress) which bore on the matter of fission. During the period 1925-27, Vernadsky established the radiology laboratory in Russia and proposed a mission of developing nuclear fission as a principal source of industrial power… the feasibility of a nuclear-fission chain-reaction was well-known in relevant circles prior to 1938.
   “Nonetheless, the participants in the Solvay Conferences maintained a curious, hysterical denial…”http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/larbomb.htm
The Solvay conferences were founded in 1911 Belgium to foster the collaboration of physical-chemists.  http://www.enotes.com/topic/Solvay_Conference
Max Planck, Walther Nernst, Frederick Lindemann (Lord Cherwell) and Ernest Solvay established the first meet at the Hotel Metropole in Brussels.
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In more contemporary terms, Seymour Hersh described the ‘denial’ phenomenon simply in his indictment of the US government for aiding and abetting the nuclear proliferation that gave Israel the Bomb: “It was as if the White House believed there really were two atoms, one of which was peaceful.” [p132, The Samson Option].
   This ultimate dichotomy of political expression in nuclear issues is the root of “crazymaking” which deprives us all of a sane world to live in, and we are forced to act out the neurotic schisms of those who reached ahead to claim ‘star power’ for themselves. But the desire is an ancient one, cultivated and perpetuated in the Mystery schools that accompany the destiny of Knowing. The Solvay conferences and special institutes replaced the Mysteries.
    In the western “duality” traditions, nurtured since medieval times, we can literally see the parallel of symbolism between “splitting the atom” and splitting humanity carved in full relief on the facade of Notre Dame de Paris. There in the center of the front face, in the Portal of the Last Judgement, are the two figures “Justice” and the “Devil” –blindfolded Justice holds out the scale from which the earth dangles and the Devil beside her lays his hand upon the scale, controlling the balance of the world. The two figures bisect a row of ‘humanity'; the Justice half bowed in the reading of books and the Devil’s half bound in chains held by demons. In this image, then, Justice appears to deliver her half to the control of the demon force, the force of the world. It’s as if they believed there really were two gods, one of which was peaceful. hmm…. Don’t the carvings in Notre Dame sound like the quote above by Wilson’s advisor, Col.E.M. House: “…They will be our chattel and we will hold the security interest over them forever by operation of the law merchant“. ??
As Einstein said, “it is not absolutely certain that every question admits of rational answer” but it was certain that the power unleashed by atomic weapons would force the creation of world government:
…”resistence by the unscientific will be doomed to obvious failure. The society of experts will control propaganda and education. It will teach loyalty to the world government and make nationalism high treason… It is possible that it may invent ingenious ways of concealing its own power, leaving the forms of democracy intact… whatever the outward forms may be. all real power will come to be concentrated in the hands of those who understand the art of scientific manipulation.” [B. Russell, The Scientific Outlook, 1931]
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Captain Archibald H.M. Ramsay wrote, in The Nameless War:
If the new-found knowledge of Hitler’s anxiety to preserve the British Empire has come as a surprise recently to many people in [Britain], it must surely have come as a real shock to them to learn that President Roosevelt, on the other hand, was its inveterate enemy; that he was not only a pro-communist of Jewish origin, but that before he brought America into the war he made it clear that he wished to break up the British Empire…
   Mr. Churchill, the self-styled ‘constant architect of the Jews’ future’ now found himself playing second fiddle to an even more trusted architect…  Karl Marx had denounced the Empire long ago, and in the year 1941, it was only foolish opponents of Judaism and Marxism, like Herr Hitler, who were anxious to stand by that Empire because they recognized it as a bulwark of Christian civilisation.
  …I was fully aware that among the agencies both here [in Britain] and abroad which had been actively engaged in promoting bad feeling between Great Britain and Germany, organised Jewry, for obvious reasons, had played a leading part. I knew the U.S.A. to be the headquarters of Jewry, and therefore the real, though not apparent, centre of their activities.
  …the question arises: whom, and which interests did President Roosevelt not betray. To this query I can only see one answer, namely, those people and their interests who planned from the start the use of United States arsenals and Forces to prosecute a war which would annihilate a Europe which had freed itself from Jewish gold and revolutionary control: people who planned to dissolve the British Empire to this end; and to enable the Soviets to ‘bestride Europe like a colossus’ in other words, International Jewry.”
British patriot and parliamentarian Ramsay, who documented the infiltration of Jewish hegemony into the English hierarchy from the time of Cromwell, was arrested and held at Brixton Prison from 1940 to 1944.
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Not by chance, the synchronized ascendancy of FDR and Hitler (1933-1945) brought us into the Nuclear Age following the “Miracle Year” of 1932 in physics.  Both leaders embarked on massive “recovery” campaigns of industry and socialization, and likewise  later appear sequestered from the essential progress in physics. In 1936, FDR was assured by Albert Einstein that atomic weapons were “probably impossible” or at least, many decades distant. In three years time (1939), the urgent “letter from Einstein”, penned by Leo Szilard and delivered by Alexander Sachs, insistently pressured for making the Bomb. To this end, the British dispatched a stream of facilitators, scientists and spokesmen who represented the MAUD committee that had proven the feasibility of the weapons. Inappropriate ‘aliens’ under the British flag worked on the project from Canada. It was another chance-less move in the “saving of science” orchestrated by the British.
    The most influential of the 1933 rescue organizations, the U.K.’s  Academic Assistance Council, was founded by the two physicists, Ernest Rutherford and Leo Szilard, and a London School of Economics governor, Lord Beveridge. Szilard, who obtained his AAC position shortly after the Reichstag fire, was brought into London by Frederick Lindemann (the later Lord Cherwell who established the Claredon physics lab at Oxford) and economist Ludwig von Mises. In conjunction with well-endowed relocation organizations and innumerable exigent rescue operations, competent bomb-makers were fanned out to the receiving industrial nations. In the U.S., not merely technical experts, but a “fully articulated” Jewish culture was imported by the exodus –chemists, biologists, engineers, social and political scientists, doctors, lawyers, artists and musicians– forewarned for the arrival of a “million Jews”. The relocation of tens of thousands of academics at this time appears irrefutable, yet no cohesive accounting has been documented. True to the words of Bertrand Russell, America now had its “society of experts”.
   Not by chance, Harvard’s most influential Zionist, Felix Frankfurter, spent the 1933-34 academic year at Oxford as a visiting professor –he was able to visit Palestine and Egypt several times as well. Frankfurter kept an active ‘friendship’ going with Niels Bohr, even during the Manhattan Project years when the chiefs of the project were aware that Frankfurter was getting inside information, yet they failed to either sequester Bohr or bring Frankfurter to account (for spying, many believe), who by then was a Supreme Court Justice (appt in January 1939) http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~law00106
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BOHR and HEISENBERG
What the wartime establishment knew about the race for the bomb came almost exclusively from the word of Niels Bohr as he joined the Manhattan Project along with his son Aage in 1943. Bohr had previously spread the news in January of 1939 that chain-reaction had been accomplished, embarking on a US lecture tour that included Harvard and Columbia Universities before returning to Copenhagen. Bohr’s “closest colleague”, Werner Heisenberg, was also in the US in June/July of 1939 visiting Samuel Goudsmit at the University of Michigan who reputedly tried to influence Heisenberg to stay.
[from "Popularization and People (1911-1962)" by Niels Bohr and Finn Aaserud]
Bohr’s relationship with Heisenberg was special, both personally and scientifically. This comes to expression in particular in Bohr’s New Years greeting to his younger colleague towards the end of 1928: ‘Rarely have I felt myself in more sincere harmony with any other human being, and I still rejoice when I think back on our walks and discussions“. [p116]
   As the memoir explains, Heisenberg was Bohr’s assistant in Copenhagen in the mid-1920s after the departure of Bohr’s longtime helper Hendrik Kramers: “Heisenberg took over his positions..”. Kramers later became the Chairman of the Science Committee for the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission.
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TELLER and HEISENBERG
[from Edward Teller's Memoirs, 2001]
I do not believe –and there is no evidence that suggests it– that Heisenberg actively pursued research on an atomic bomb [p230] …It is inconceivable to me that Heisenberg would ever have pursued such a purpose. He loved his country, but he hated the Nazis… In 1936, Heisenberg was even attacked in an official Nazi publication as being ‘a white Jew’ and ‘Jewish in character…
   Yet, Heisenberg, still in disfavor and therefore at great personal risk, in 1942 tried to save the parents of Samuel Goudsmit (a Dutch colleague) from deportation to the concentration camps. In 1944, Heisenberg again bravely intervened when the Nazis were about to dismantle Niels Bohr’s Institute and ship the instruments to Germany. Carl Friedrich [von Weizacker], who was very close to Heisenberg, once told me that ‘Heisenberg died without regrets’. To me, that statement makes it clear that Heisenberg never worked for the Nazis in the real sense.
   This story is a different account from the one that Niels Bohr, Heisenberg’s mentor and closest colleague, carried to Los Alamos in 1943. Bohr claimed that Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen after Denmark had been occupied by the Nazis. Bohr said that Heisenberg had told him that he was working on the bomb for Hitler and considered that a good thing to do. Bohr never moderated or modified his statement.
   Most scientists at Los Alamos and elsewhere in the Western world accepted Bohr’s simple story without question. But I was deeply troubled by it…  I could not imagine that… why, when Heisenberg knew that he himself was under suspicion and that Bohr was in open opposition to the Nazis, did he go to confide in his old friend and mentor? [p232]
   Bohr’s influence in the postwar world did not stop with the damage to Heisenberg’s reputation. Bohr loved paradoxes… Before the end of the war, Bohr had succeeded in telling both Roosevelt and Churchill his ideas about the path the development of nuclear energy should take: ‘Nuclear energy has made war impossible. Work on nuclear energy must be conducted on an international basis and we should begin by sharing all of our knowledge with the Soviets.’ ” [p233]
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GOUDSMIT and HEISENBERG
A 1953 article in The New Yorker described Heisenberg as an “old friend” to Samuel Goudsmit. Linus Pauling was also a good friend, and all of these men were beneficiaries of Rockefeller funding. [see "Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science" for more about Pauling and Caltech]. www.newyorker.com/archive/1953/11/07/1953_11_07_047_TNY_CARDS_000240392
 Goudsmit’s turnabout regarding Heisenberg’s role in the German bomb race came after Heisenberg’s death. By that time, Goudsmit had attained the most prestigious positions that a physicist in the US could achieve: he was science chairman of the Brookhaven National Lab and editor-in-chief of the American Physical Society’s journal. The crux of Goudsmit’s revisions suggested that he harbored a personal resentment of Heisenberg for failing to “save” his parents from the Holocaust, but genealogical records indicate that his mother, at least, Marianne Gompers Goudsmit, died in 1939.
   Samuel Abraham Goudsmit received his doctorate in Holland at the University of Leiden in 1927 and within months took a professorship in the USA at the University of Michigan. According to one of his closest graduate students and colleagues, Robert F. Bacher, “Goudsmit had an extraordinary knowledge of what went on… he knew every physicist in the world… [P]eople who were there [at U Michigan] from 1927 to ’30 included Niels Bohr, Paul Ehrenfest, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer.. and many others.” www.oralhistories.library.caltech.edu/93/01/OH_Bacher_R.pdf Of these times in academe, Bacher said “everything was changing like mad in physics. In fact, physics in the United States, one could say, went from being sort of third [rate] through being second [rate] to being as good as anyplace over a period of about ten or fifteen years. By the mid-thirties, the physics in the United States was very good.”[oral history, page 10]
   Heisenberg “was a frequent visitor at the Ann Arbor, Michigan summer schools on theoretical physics. During the last of these [June-Aug, 1939] his colleagues in the United States [and Goudsmit in particular] attempted to convince Heisenberg to remain in the U.S. but he refused. Soon after Heisenberg returned to Germany, Hitler unleashed his forces into Poland, touching off World War II.” http://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/p10.htm
The physicists who gathered in Michigan all seemed to know what was in the offing. A note about their last days together before the outbreak of war is included in the well-aired ‘debate’ between Jeremy Bernstein and Thomas Powers who have a standing argument about how much Heisenberg and his cohorts knew about atomic weaponry:
An amusing story related by Powers:
… In a letter written to me a few years back the Italian physicist Ugo Fano described a party at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, home of Samuel Goudsmit, scientific director of the Alsos mission, in late August 1939. There two Nobel Prize–winning physicists, Werner Heisenberg, soon to return to Germany, and Enrico Fermi, a refugee from Mussolini’s Italy, were both honored guests. “At that party,” Fano writes, “[Edoardo] Amaldi drew me aside to point out its humor: ‘See Fermi, see Heisenberg, sitting in that corner. Everyone in this room expects a big war and the two of them to lead fission work on opposite sides, but nobody says!'” (Letter of September 18, 1993) Within a month Heisenberg had in effect been drafted to do theoretical work on bomb physics and he soon wrote two papers which were the basis of further German research during the war.” http://infoproc.blogspot.com/2009/08/heisenberg-uncertainty.html
   Physicist Edoardo Amaldi, on Fermi’s Italian team until they split up in 1938, said “Goudsmit used to come to Rome almost every year. Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck were both great friends of Fermi”. http://www.aip.org/history/ohlist/4485.html .
   NYU physicist Benjamin Bederson wrote that “at some point during the war [Goudsmit] was placed in charge of the [M.I.T.] Radiation Laboratory document room; that turned into a very important assignment… The “RLE reports” became a primary source for the huge amount of technical information acquired during the war that proved invaluable to American physics..after the war. Towards the end of the war, his career took an unusual and dramatic turn when he was made scientific chief of Alsos… The Alsos mission was to learn of Nazi scientific accomplishments..and, most importantly, of the Nazi progress towards developing nuclear weapons.
   “In fact, Werner Heisenberg actually stayed in Goudsmit’s house on occasion and they had become good personal friends. Thus the choice of Sam for [the Alsos] assignment was a wise one, although he himself claimed not to know how or why he had been selected.” www.prl.aps.org/edannounce/PhysRevLett.101.010002
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Moe Berg and Alsos
   “By the fall of 1944..intelligence [was]..reasonably confident that Heisenberg was in Hechingen. On December 8, there was word from Bern that Heisenberg was going to give a lecture in Zurich, one in a series arranged by Paul Scherrer. As a result, Morris Berg arrived at the ETH lecture hall on December 18 carrying a gun. His assignment was to listen carefully to Heisenberg..and if he became convinced that the Germans were close to an atomic bomb, Berg was to shoot him while he was still in the auditorium. [p50]. The idea of depriving Heisenberg of his life or liberty was not new. In 1942 refugee scientists Hans Bethe and VictorWeisskopf had proposed kidnapping him, but [Leslie] Groves and [Robert] Furman did not [look] for the right man for the job until 1944… Bringing a gun into a lecture hall and shooting someone was considerably easier. And so, Berg sat..and listened as Heisenberg lectured on..S-matrix theory… Berg’s gun stayed in his pocket.Soon Berg had a second chance… But Hesienberg’s comments [at a dinner party] that the war was lost gave Berg..less of a motive to kill him, even if he had the means and a golden opportunity.” [p51, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey T. Richelson]
polioforever>>> Richelson details the Alsos report from France, recieved a month prior, that Joliet-Curie told them the occupying German scientists who used his lab had no knowledge of making an atomic weapon.
   “Alsos had conclusive proof that the feared German program was actually, in Goudsmit’s words, ‘small-time stuff’. The program clearly had not moved beyond preliminary research, had not produced a chain eaction, and had not discovered an effective means of enriching uranium.” [p59]…[Ten] captured scientists were moved to an estate in the English countryside, Farm Hall, and…microphones would record the astonishment, even disbelief, of Heisenberg and others when they first learned in early August [1945] that the United States and Britain had succeeded in..build[ing] an atomic bomb.”[p61, Spying on the Bomb] http://polioforever.wordpress.com/nelson-a-rockefeller/
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“There is a little anecdote about Dr. Sam Goudsmit that I would like to tell. As the war was winding down in Europe, the scientists here decided that they would like to know what, if anything, was going on in Germany in th microwave area. They knew, if anything at all was going on, that Heisenberg would have to be involved. This mission, I believe, was under the aegis of the OSRD. They, plus the military, set out to find Heisenberg. They finally found him in a little laboratory tucked away somewhere out of the way. Dr. Goudsmit was to meet with him. Their friendship dated back to Sam’s early days in Germany. As Sam told the story, the military went in ahead of him. Sam thought the military was looking at him a little suspiciously, and he found out why when he got to Heisenberg. There on Heisenberg’s desk was a picture of Heisenberg and Sam with their arms linked.”
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Oral-History:Catherine_Scott#Transcriptions_and_Documents
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FLUORIDE
The pretentions of the scientists, however,  do not hide the activity of early preparations or camouflage the scope of their participation.  In the book “Spying On The Bomb”, author Jeffrey T. Richelson includes a footnote on page 34 taken from a memo concerning detection of the enemy’s atomic activity by monitoring industrial fluoride use. Met Lab physicist Philip Morrison wrote in his memo that “the fundamental special material in the whole process, besides the metal, is probably fluorine. Even metal production depends on fluorine at one step, and almost all separation methods known require the use of uranium hexafluoride”. Memo dated March 16, 1944.
   There is little print given to fluoride history prior to WWII. Even Christopher Bryson’s new classic on the subject,”The Fluoride Deception”, neglects the interwar years but fluorine chemistry registered national interest in the mid-1920s when fluoridation experiments began being widely carried out:
In 1895, Andrew W. Mellon founded ALCOA, and in 1913, created the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research at the University of Pittsburgh, to protect company interests from fluorine emission and other lawsuits. In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, with the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) under his control.”
[in 1902, the USPHS was created from the Marine Hospital Service]
…” Funded by Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont in 1930, the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati was organized under the direction of Dr. Robert Kehoe. Kehoe’s laboratory was set up for contract research on chemical hazards in the fluoride industry and for protection against litigation and government restrictions.  …As medical director of the Ethyl Corporation, consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Division of Occupational Medicine of the USPHS, Dr. Kehoe was committed to the suppression of industrial fluoride dangers. By 1931, most of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities were devoted to the study of fluorides.”
The U.S. Public Health Service, which operates only military hospitals, was greatly expanded in 1930 on a wave of new construction. Andrew Mellon fulfilled his oversight of the Treasury in 1932 (physics ‘miracle year’).  Much later, in the postwar , the Mellon-endowed University of Pittsburgh hosted another key operation in the atomic program– the production of Salk polio vaccine.
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Nuel Pharr Davis (Lawrence and Oppenheimer) wrote in 1968, “By 1949 bomb development at Los Alamos had reached a stage that is still classified and perhaps in some aspects still truly secret.” The Russians tested their first nuke in August of ’49, something not predicted to happen for many years more. Davis, describing the Congressmen who received the details of the USSR’s bomb in secret meetings, added “the news if true confirmed what they had known all along: Security should have been given tighter control over scientists.” [p294]

November 3, 2010

Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science

During the 1930s a new biology came into being that by the late 1950s was to endow scientists with unprecendented power over life. These three decades culminated in…the cognitive foundations for genetic engineering. Scientists could now[by the '50s] manipulate genes on the most fundamental level and attempt to control the course of biological and social evolution; they laid claim to “the secret of life”. …As has been well documented, the Rockefeller Foundation served as the principal patron of molecular biology from the 1930s to the 1950s; Caltech [was] a primary site for implementing the Foundation’s project“…
 
>>These are the opening words in a book by Dr. Lily E. Kay called “The Molecular Vision of Life ; Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology“, published in 1993 by Oxford University Press. Lily Kay’s book, her first of only two, is scarce and expensive. A used hardcover will cost you $300. Kay passed away in 2000 at age 53 and I wonder if her book is now appreciating like a piece of art. One suspects she was a consummate insider participating in the abstraction of scientific history. She wrote that the Rockefeller-created field of molecular biology was the incarnation of redirected eugenics which was “animated by a potent conjunction of Protestant values and technocratic visions” [p10] making clear that its purpose was “to control biological destiny” [p17]. To prove her point naming giants in the field with Protestant bona fides, still with great subtlety, however, like a code running through the text, Lily Kay coaxes a truer sense of ‘values’ from her subject than she perhaps intended. Her Protestants are tainted, weak, ‘old school’ and “not religious” (a “not religious” Protestant is no Protestant at all) and these leading personalities were beholden to their advisors and collaborators. Much in the way that Kay wrote “Scientists could now manipulate genes…they laid claim to ‘the secret of life'”, it was the scientists who were Lily Kay’s heroes. They were the creators and they made it all possible by devotedly navigating their special ideas through the turbulence of rough political times. The Molecular Vision’s retrospective abruptly ends for its readers in 1955, the year that polio vaccine set a precedent in public medicine.  
You may guess that the social and biological destiny of mankind was at hand.
 
 
They intended to create a new science of life [p6]…The new biology not only reflected the particular bias of its principal architects –physicist Max Mason and mathematician Warren Weaver– but the more general bias of a technocratic elite who had dominated American culture during the 1920s…
Conceived during the late 1920s, the new agenda was articulated in terms of the contemporary technocratic discourse of human engineering… the new biology (originally named “psychobiology”) was erected on the bedrock of the physical sciences in order to rigorously explain and eventually control the fundamental mechanisms governing human behavior”[p8]
 
A concerted physicochemical attack on the gene was initiated at the moment in history when it became unacceptable to advocate social control based on crude eugenic principles…
Time was seldom a deterrent for the visionaries of the Rockefeller Foundation..[which] had been the main force behind the development of the social sciences in America..[p9]
Programmatic statements, reports, and memoranda from the various Rockefeller divisions attest that on social and ideological levels there was no fundamental separation of purpose between the heads of corporations and the leadership of the Foundation.” [p10]
>> The Rockefeller method of building a science establishment depended upon creating a “hegemonic bloc” in the period between 1913, when the RF received a Congressional charter, and 1933, when the program goals were “fully articulated”. Despite what Kay called “echoes of minor dissent” [p28], we are told that “these voices of dissent..did not represent the majority of academic scientists who kept knocking on the foundations’ gates… The efforts of this group came to fruition after World War I“.  I’ve posted a sketch of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) at www.polioforever.wordpress.com/rockefeller-institute/  . “Fruition” entailed the significant marriage of the RIMR to the U.S. military, accomplished during the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919 when the epidemiologic investigation centered in New York City. The RIMR, under the leadership of Simon Flexner,  earned its stripes as a flagship institution in the 1916 polio epidemic which spread widely across the states claiming 27,000 victims. One third of them, 9,000 cases, were reported in NYC. At that time, and for the next several decades, Simon Flexner and the RIMR were the principal researchers of polio. Polio is only superficially addressed in “The Molecular Vision”, appearing briefly as another pressing dilemna by mid-century, but in the wider context of Rockefeller science, it stands out like a red thread on a blue field. Its causes are acute radiation and chemical poisoning.
Look to the link for a list of RIMR staff presidents. See if you can find a Protestant. This was Rockefeller’s primary pool of “advisors and collaborators”. 
 
A cursory glance at Caltech during the 1930-1950s reveals that the Institute nutured some of the most important ‘founding fathers’ of American molecular biology [a]ll supported by the Rockefeller Foundation [p12]… Caltech, of course, was not the sole center for the new biology… A survey of the Foundation’s annual reports from 1930 to 1955 reveals that the Foundation supported molecular biology projects in scores of elite institutions but invested the largest sums in six… In accord with its long-standing policy of supporting the strong –“making the peaks higher”– the University of Chicago, Caltech, Stanford, Columbia, Harvard, and the University of Wisconsin most consistently received grants [p13]…
…the Foundation’s support of Chicago equaled that of Caltech [p14]… Chicago’s genetics [research] had a strong focus on populations..[with biology] under the leadership of Paul Weiss…[and] by the late 1920s, Caltech formed the hub of America’s scientific establishment” [p15]
 
“[T]he Rockefeller Foundation’s “Science of Man” agenda.. linked the particular forms of social control sought by that agenda with the specific kinds of control supplied by the new biology… Greatly influenced by Jacques Loeb’s project, which had adopted the engineering standpoint toward the control of life, the Rockefeller Foundation officers and their scientific advisors sought to develop a mechanistic biology as the central element of a new science of man whose goal was social engineering… The life sciences aimed to map the pathways in the molecular labyrinth of the human soma and psyche in order to control biological destiny.” [p17]
Not all branches of science were equally relevant to the pressing problem of social control, however. During the 1920s, under the leadership of Wickliffe Rose, the [RF] International Educational Board directed its resources to the physical sciences –grants for the rehabilitation of European research centers and travel fellowships for chemists, physicists, and mathematicians. Guided in part by Frederick Soddy’s fear of premature use of nuclear fission, [Raymond] Fosdick [future RF president] prophesied doom if the physical sciences proceeded unchecked and the savage was left unrestrained.
…Fosdick’s judgement that overinvestment in the physical sciences merely accelerated the pace of runaway technology and that underinvestment in the human sciences amplified the atavistic social response became the guiding principle in the Foundation’s singular commitment to support the human sciences durng the 1930s.” [p33]
 
>>Was the “fear of premature use of nuclear fission” a problem in the late1920s? Kay is suggestively framing around a hole in history. What else could be as imperative and demanding a driver for a “pressing problem of social control”? Is this a veiled way of discerning early and secretive achievements in nuclear power? It’s rarely brought to our attention that perceived boons to medicine like X-rays were also the first nuclear weapons, “biological” in application and essence.  The achievement of fission led to radiopharmaceuticals in the late 1920s, but did it also lead to controllable “chain reaction”? No new technology was required for this advance. Edward Teller wrote in his Memoirs that Enrico Fermi could have produced chain reaction in 1932, when Teller worked with him, if his theoretical equations had only been right.
 >>It was unequivocally in the name of medicine that nuclear proliferation erupted across the developing world.
 
Fosdick did not underestimate the opposing forces, however…He had no “illusions as to the speed or ease with which mankind can alter its way of life. There is no royal road to the millenium, no short cut to the Promised Land.” [p36]
>>Raymond Fosdick and his brother Harry Emerson Fosdick both represent what Lily Kay called the “Calvinist ethos”. These brothers were descriptive of “extreme evangelism”. Harry Fosdick was hired by John D. Rockefeller Jr. as the pastor of  the Riverside Church, founded by Rockefellers in Morningside Heights, NY, and opened in October 1930. Publicist Ivy Lee was hired to create a direct mailer promoting “The New Knowledge and the Christian Faith”. Ecumenism and Zionismwere central to the doctrine of the Rockefeller religion.
 
>>The conservative funding policies of the RF for New Biology were couched in terms of ‘stimulus'; money that kept programs afloat while their administrators sought ‘matching funds’ (an idea credited to Julius Rosenwald) and local business support. In the case of Caltech, Lily Kay recounts how the strategic witholding of RF funds prompted an energetic campaign among CIT leadership to creatively solicit support from a wide community of philanthropists and agribusiness. Caltech’s survival required the cooperative financial input of California agribusinesses seeking industry advantages but as Kay points out on page 214, “Caltech’s biology was never intended to play a service role to California’s agribusiness.” The PR spin was delivered in future terms as promises of medical advance for “the welfare of mankind throughout the world” [p219] and the solving of the “problems of medicine“. In the post-WWII era the problems were polio and cancer. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis became a generous benefactor to the immunochemistry project at Caltech.
 
“Gone was the rhetoric of biological improvements of the race… Gone also was Caltech’s connection to the old eugenics. With the death of E.S. Gosney in 1942, the trustees of the Human Betterment Foundation (including Millikan and a few Caltech trustees) agreed that the Foundation’s interests would be best served by transferring its activities to Caltech. In October 1943 an agreement was drawn up dissolving the Human Betterment Foundation as such and turning over its assets to the Institute. The Institute, in turn, agreed to use these resources “and the proceeds thereof to establish the Gosney Research Fund, the income from which will be devoted in perpetuity to the promotion of research into the biological bases of human qualities…”. Linguistically watered down from its eugenic potency, the Gosney Fund would support postdoctoral fellowships in “those branches of biological science basic to our understanding of human welfare.” The New York Times too refurbished its prose. The announcement emphasized the medical connection: “$700,000 to Trace Polio and Cancer –Rockefeller Grant is Made for California Institute Research in Molecular Biology”. [pp238-239]
 
In May 1946, physicist Lee DuBridge, protege of former RF president Max Mason, took the presidency of Caltech:
 “DuBridge had built up the ‘Rad Lab’ [at M.I.T.] into the largest single-purpose scientific research plan in history, larger even than the atomic bomb project.” [p235]
 “The Berkeley cyclotron project, financed by the Rockefeller Foundation, was diverted during the war years from its putative medical applications to the production of fissionable material… However, they [the RF] would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence who unwittingly boasted that “if it hadn’t been for the RF, there would have been no atomic bomb.” [p219]
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The Molecular Vision of Life is an insightful book for demonstrating the modus operandi of RF funding policies; conservative, witholding, nurturing, and rewardingly lavish when pleasing, what Lily Kay describes as “mixed”. Like a sociologist interpreting the mechanisms and benefits of Tough Love, Kay points to the collective negotiating endeavors of the scientists to earn their allowances from strict and demanding parents. There was, unspokenly, no reason to expect they would not be bankrolled in the end. Her exemplary choice of Linus Pauling (a flambuoyantly grandiose, nonreligious Protestant) who was harnessed and quartered at Caltech, is emblematic of not only the Rockefeller Foundation style of grooming, but is telling on herself as a visible process of concensus shaping in the creation of history, what I’d prefer to call “distory” for its characteristic distortion and negligence. Kay, no doubt, was keen to master a facility for presentation and reap lavish rewards herself. Interesting, isn’t it, that a daughter of Polish concentration camp survivors who migrated to Israel and then to the United States would posthumously attain the iconic status of the greatest science historian of her generation with so little to show for it? Somebody at the Wikipedia made this up: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lily_E._Kay 
Her statements are powerful, however; the methods sound genuine. Perhaps she was balancing on a razor’s edge. I know nothing about her or the cancer that caused her death, except that she seemed eager and pleased by the spotlight, so much like the Protestants in her book. 
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According to Charles E. Carlson who is exposing the roots of Christian Zionism, the Oxford University Press created a New York office expressly for selling bibles, in particular the Scofield Bible which was issued c. 1908.
“The North American branch was established in 1896 at 91 Fifth Avenue in New York City to facilitate the sale of Oxford Bibles in the United States. Subsequently, it took over marketing of all books of its parent from Macmillan. This office grew in sales between 1928 and 1936, eventually becoming one of the leading University Presses in the United States. It is focused on scholarly and reference books, Bibles, and college and medical textbooks. In the 1990s, this office moved from 200 Madison Avenue (a building it shared with Putnam Publishing) to 198 Madison Avenue, which was the former B. Altman Company headquarters.”
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Caltech, or C.I.T., was founded in 1891 as “Throop Polytechnic University”. Pasadena’s Mount Wilson Observatory, est. 1904, was enfolded by its founder George Ellery Hale (U. Chicago) who joined the Board of Trustees. In 1921, the school was renamed the California Institute of Technology. The biology department was organized under the direction of Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1928. That same year, an endowment by Daniel Guggenheim established the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory (or GALCIT) which contracted Hungarian Theodore von Karman as its director. Caltech and von Karman went on to create the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which came under co-management with NASA.
The focus of scientific research at the Institute under Millikan during the 1930s ranged from Drosophila genetics and the biochemistry of vitamins in biology, to the theory of turbulence and airplane wing design in aeronautics; from cancer therapy with radiation and the radioactivity of the light elements in nuclear physics, to soil erosion and the transmission of water from the Colorado River to Los Angeles in engineering; from the application of quantum mechanics to molecular structure in chemistry, to the introduction of the magnitude scale in seismology. An educational institution in name only during the war, Caltech had a war arsenal that included rockets, proximity fuses, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and $80 million in federal funds for war-related research and development.” http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/articles/goodstein/

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Creation of the Atom Bomb in the mid-20th century followed a forecast made in 1875 when  the Englishman Samuel Tolver Preston, scientist and theologian, published the equation that later became the foundation of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (1905). Many researchers speculate that Einstein was a fraud for laying (or accepting) a personal claim on the hard work and genius of his predecessors and peers which included his first wife. His complicity in military research has been veiled to support his public stance as a pacifist. Einstein’s zionism is downplayed by his mainstream biographers but there is no evidence that he was not idealogically complete and commited to the World Zionist cause. In 1921, Einstein made his first trip to the United States with Chaim Weizmann, president of the WZO, to promote the Jewish interests in Palestine and the building of Hebrew University. A legacy of that visit was the formation of a zionist “Physicians Committee” in New York.

   Einstein established a special relationship with Caltech between 1931 and 1933, prior to his permanent U.S. residency in Princeton, New Jersey, at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS). The IAS was founded by Abraham Flexner and funded by the Bambergers in 1930. Co-incident with IAS’s founding was the construction of Rockefeller Center in NYC. The small town of Princeton was also home to Rockefeller’s Department of Animal Pathology (DAP). DAP infamously developed a human-swine bacterial mutant in 1937, intentionally infecting a herd at one of its experimental (open air) farms that may be the first genuine occurrance of “swine flu” involving human genes.

   Abraham Flexner was the younger brother of Simon Flexner, longtime director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research(RIMR) in Manhattan and also Bernard Flexner who was well known as a leading American Zionist. Abraham Flexner presided over Rockefeller’s General Education Board and helped to co-found premier American medical colleges, such as the University of Rochester (essential to the Manhattan Project) and Vanderbilt medical schools.  He is widely known as the creator of the “Flexner Report” in 1910,  a medical school survey that was used to establish accreditation requirements thereafter. Abraham Flexner counted RF trustees Julius Rosenwald and son Lessing J. Rosenwald among his few lifelong associates, as is commonly found between the “associates”  in the Rockefeller/Carnegie foundation network. Julius Rosenwald specifically reserved a grant-making endowment in 1933 for “cultural” Jewish refugee academics who relocated to the U.S. when the 1933 headlines read “Jews Declare War on Germany”. The Rosenwald Fund was disseminated by the “Emergency Committee In Aid of Displaced Jewish Scholars”. Bernard Flexner was a top officer in this prominent organization, however, it was only one among hundreds of “rescue” operations, notable for its selectivity. A larger relocation effort was launched by the British Academic Assistance Council which was sponsored by governors of the London School of Economics, aided by physicist Leo Szilard (Einstein’s friend) and Churchill’s war counselor, Lord Cherwell, the physicist Frederick Lindemann (founder of Clarendon Lab, Oxford). For new readers, this is a taste of Rockefeller’s web-like infrastructure. The cooperation, hegemony, and concensus platform of the RF was in itself a compartment of a larger global network.

Albert Einstein, incidentally, makes a first appearance in Seymour Hersh’s The Samson Option in a footnote on page 25: “According to Shimon Peres, Weizmann approached Albert Einstein, then teaching at Princeton, and asked him to recommend one of his students to run the [Daniel Sieff] institute. Einstein instead suggested [Ernst] Bergmann, who didn’t get the job [at that time] for reasons not known.” On the following page Hersh writes, from an interview with Herman Mark, “Without Bergmann..there would have been no Israeli bomb:…He was the man who completely understood it [nuclear fission]“. Hersh further adds, on page 44, “Herman Mark explained years later why Ben-Gurion had picked the right man: ‘Bergman was one of the few scientists who saw the lamp and knew how to make a light bulb’…in 1979, Shimon Peres eulogized Bergmann..as one of the seven founders of the State of Israel.” It may have gone unnoticed by The Samson Option readers that Hersh introduced Bergmann’s connection to Einstein buried in a footnote. Einstein, who originally “picked the right man”, surely, knew well of Bergmann’s capacity to build a nuclear arsenal for Israel. Between 1934 and 1936, Einstein’s “patent” partner, Leo Szilard, submitted a nuclear reactor design to the British Admiralty, requiring controlled fission and an earlier-than-advertized apprehension of nuclear power. The significant hole in history that is being skirted by all sources cited here, is that “nuclear options” were secretly tabled many years before the public was allowed to know, obtaining the announcements in the heat of WWII and the “race for the bomb” in which Einstein played a tremendously influential role.

Warren Weaver, who is named above as an ‘architect’ of the RF molecular biology program, became the Chairman of the Salk Institute after his retirement from active service as an RF division president. Popular books that trace the history of Jonas Salk never fail to remark upon the “anti-Semitism” of the Rockefeller Institute (RIMR) where Salk aspired to work in research after his MD residency at Mount Sinai Hospital. Salk was rejected (we can say “distanced”) for better “grooming” but was nevertheless taken well in hand. Salk’s mentor, Thomas Francis Jr., was personally close to the Rockefeller family. Together, Francis and Salk developed flu vaccine for the military under the auspices of the Army Epidemiological Board (AEB or AFEB) during WWII. The war-time AEB was dominated by Rockefeller alumni.

 It was Rockefeller that came to Salk, by appearances, in the late 1950s, providing the bedrock of Salk Institute staff and oversight. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/salk-institute/   

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Rockefeller Foundation officers and trustees, 1913-1930 http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Timeline/Rockefeller_Trustees.html
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Lily Kay’s first printed words, under Acknowledgements read, “My interest in molecular biology, the science and its history, go back a decade and a half, to my days at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. This inspiring intellectual and physical space..initiated a search for answers beyond the scope of the laboratory. …A Smithsonian Fellowship contributed to this project… A grant from the National Science Foundation has aided the writing, and an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship provided an exposure to the wealth of manuscript sources..at the American Philosophical Society Library… I am indebted to the Rockefeller Archive Center for their research grants...”
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From 1991 through 2001, much of what was learned about the use of anthrax as a bioweapon was investigated by Salk Institute fellows. 

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One does not need to be a scientist to intuitively understand the potential of  “upward causation”; the molecular equivalent of the “butterfly effect” which posits that even the minutest ‘force’ of a change-agent can be magnified as it transmits a local effect “upward” into a greater sphere of complexity and force. Upward causation in biology is still not well understood according to Kay who wrote, “..the question of how much we can learn about life by examining its building blocks has not been resolved. Mechanisms of upward causation have been remarkably effective for a finite range of biological phenomena but have not effectively explained some of the primary characteristics of life.” [p17]. From the pen of a true-believer, Kay is telling us that Science must be allowed to progress. Kay’s patrons had narrowed their Vision in the past, choosing from the “multiplicity of biological realities..that could have been singled out and promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation during the 1930s.”  But this does not square with the multiplicity of Rockefeller realities. The primary characteristics of life were never to be found in petri dishes or between the sheets of one-inch-square glass. “Theoretical biology” was not to be indulged in on the Rockefeller dime.

On this, at least, the message is discernibly clear: “..a molecular vision of life…is embedded in the matrix that linked the particular forms of social control sought by that agenda with the specific kinds of control supplied by the new biology.”

For more on how the Rockefeller Foundation implemented its “fully articulated” program and staffed its institutions in 1933, and onward, read http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/07/30/the-displaced-scholars/

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